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WHAT IS CANCER NURSING? o Is caring and assisting individuals in the prevention and the early detection of cancer. TERMINOLOGIES IN CANCER NURSING: o Cancer- A disease of the cell in which the normal mechanisms of the control growth and proliferation have been altered. It is invasive, spreading directly to surrounding tissues as well as to new sites in the body. Also called malignant neoplasm. o Benign neoplasm- A harmless growth that does not spread or invade other tissues. o Neoplasia- Abnormal cellular changes and growth of new tissues. o Hyperplasia- Increase in cellular number. o Hypertrophy- Increase in cell size. o Metaplasia- Replacement on one adult cell type by a different adult cell type. o Dysplasia- Changes in cell size, shape and organization. o Anaplasia- Reverse cellular development to a more primitive or embryonic cell type. o Metastases- Spread of cancer cells to distant parts of the body to set up a new tumor. o Oncology- The medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis, treatment and study of cancer. o Adenocarcinoma- Cancer that arises from glandular tissues. o Carcinoma- Cancer that is composed of epithelial cells; develops in tissues covering or lining organs of the body such as skin, uterus, or breast. o Sarcoma- A cancer of supporting connective tissues such as cartilage, bones, muscles, or fats. o Carcinogens- Factors associated with cancer causation. CAUSES OF CANCER: o Viruses Prolonged or frequent viral infections may cause breakdown of the immune system or overwhelm the immune system. Examples: HPV (cervical cancer), Epstein - Barr virus (lymphoma), Hep B&C (hepatocellular cancer), Helicobacter pylori (gastric cancer). o Chemical carcinogens Causing cell mutation or alteration in cell enzymes and proteins causing altered cell replication. Examples: Industrial compounds (PVC, fertilizers, dyes etc.), Drugs (Tobacco-tar nicotine, alcohol and cytotoxic drugs), Hormones (Estrogen, DES), Food and Preservatives
o Physical agents Radiation (x-rays) o Hormones Estrogen replacement therapy. o Unexplained sudden weight loss. changes on cell structure occurs. o Obvious change in wart or mole. Talc. TYPES OF CANCER ACCORDING TO NAMES AND ORIGIN: MANIFESTATIONS OF CANCER TREATMENT MODALITIES OF CANCER INCLUDING THE LATEST TECHNOLOGY: NURSING RESPONSIBILITIES: . o Genetics When oncogene is exposed to carcinogens. o A sore that does not heal. o Nagging cough or hoarseness of voice. o Unusual bleeding or discharge. o Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing. malignant tumor develops. artificial sweeteners. WARNING SIGNS OF CANCER o Change in bowel habits. nitrosamines) and aflatoxins. (Nitrites. o Unexplained anemia o Thickening or lump in the breast or elsewhere.