The Vulgate Chapters and Numbered Verses in the Hebrew Bible Author(s): G. F.

Moore Source: Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 12, No. 1 (1893), pp. 73-78 Published by: The Society of Biblical Literature Stable URL: . Accessed: 25/08/2013 00:08
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Ueber versckiedene Eintheilungen der heiligen Schrift. and second. 1892.but in the prefacehe calls himselfIsaac Nathan. F. also Schmid.167.' 1 Probably by Stephen Langton.134. it was necessary that the beginning of each chapter should be indicated by its number in the margin of the Hebrew Bible. ? i4. Mordechai Nathan.4 For convenience of reference. R. See Buxtorf.1523. ANDOVER. in the Concordances This content downloaded from 64.See Leusden.Prefaceto Backur (1518). Prefaceto his editionof the Concordance.' It was employed in the concordances of the Vulgate which gave Rabbi Isaac Nathan (about 1440) the idea of the first Hebrew concordance.92 on Sun. THE division into chapters which is now universally adopted was 2 On the title page of the firstedition of his Concordance. of this methodof citationsee EliasLevita. by the number of the Massoretic verse in the chapter. 7ahrhundert. however. first. Prolegomena. PROFESSOR G. first made in the Latin Bible in the thirteenth century. by the number of the Vulgate chapter. precisely as we do. 164-166. In his concordance he cites. insbesondere iiber die Capitel-Eintheilung Stephan Langton's im XIII. and the whole number of Massoretic verses in each chapter. Onthe Dissert. 73 The Vulgate Chapters and Numbered Verses in the Hebrew Bible. he appended a table giving the Hebrew words corresponding to the beginning of each chapter of the Vulgate. Venice. MASS.3 To make possible the application of this system to the Hebrew Bible. Nathan's Philologus apparatus.. ~1 Z~ Z' The followingis his own accountof his procedure: DW 8 W1•W 6For somedeviations in Athias's edition of chapters division fromthe accepted this could of a Hebrewmanuscript. and those who used Rabbi Nathan's concordance or adopted his convenient method of citation by chapters. Hebrceus.he professed to have the authority only be a copy in which the beginningof the chaptershad been noted from iii. of 1667. See Gregory. MOORE.he is called R. 25 Aug 2013 00:08:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . etc. doubtless made such notes in their copies. advantages 4 This tableis reprinted of Calasius and Buxtorf.MOORE: CHAPTERS AND VERSES IN THE HEBREW BIBLE.

some one inferred that these numbers were introduced for the first time in 1521. =1W Separate titles or head-pieces for 2 Sam. The root of the error is probably Le Long-Masch. 9 In the library of Union Theological Seminary. 2 Chron. Ryle. The beginning of Nehemiah is indicated by the numeral i. Neh. Kanon und Text des 4. R1 1) . where in enumerating the differences between the Bomnbergedition of 1521 and the Brescia Bible. i. do not appear in the Hebrew Bible till a much later time. 2 Sam.." As nothing of the hind is said about its predecessors. p. the note :T 1= . Only at 2 Ki. Ezra-Nehemiah. at Neh. Preface to Bachur. i.. Elias Levita. 1 . 2 Chron.. edited by Felix Pratensis) and the first quarto. while Samuel (I Sam.92 on Sun.) has an ornamental title. Neh. i.167. The passage is strangely mistranslated by Ginsburg in his edition. but the running title.. in the Advice to the Reader. 1891. of 1518. i. I518. says that Bomberg introduced the Latin chapters.134. 19." and at 2 Chron. Canon of the O. In the quarto of 1521. runs on without a break after I Sam. the marginal note. Ezra. I. i. It is commonly said that they were first introduced in the second quarto edition published by Daniel Bomberg.8 Accordingly. '=.. i. 25 Aug 2013 00:08:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . xxxi. p. We have seen that Rabbi Nathan in his concordance cites by the number of the Vulgate chapter and the number of the Massoretic verse in the chapter. Thus. 10 See also Pagninus..74 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE. "Here ~9 •i1 i j~i the Greeks and Latins begin the Fourth Book of Kings. i.. Venice. is there a marginal note. 7 I possess a copy of the folio. the quarto I have examined in the library of Union Theological Seminary. and implies clearly enough that this was done in the first folio and the first quarto. Kings.' This is an error.. 238. Bomberg.. Preface to his Hebrew Lexicon (1529). i. 8 See Elias Levita. which divides each of these books into two. "1' . 85. 2 Ki. 229. p. and Chronicles. i.. is carried on. T.'0 After it became usual in editions of the Hebrew Bible to designate the beginning of each chapter by a numeral. they appear in both the preceding Bomberg editions. 1521. the folio of (1517-) 1518 (the first Rabbinical Bible. Masch writes: " 5.7 In the books of Samuel. 2 Ki. and so in the other cases. With this the quarto of 15 I8 exactly agrees.9 we find at 2 Ki. prefixed to his Massoreth ha-Massoreth (Venice.. The chapters were not marked in the earliest printed editions. i.. in the folio of I518 the numeration begins anew at 2 Sam... 1538). the numbering of the Vulgate chapters follows the usage of the church. capita librorum litteris hebraicis sunt numeratae.. This content downloaded from 64. T. New York. '7 i7: (but still with the running title '"1 I at 2 Chron. it was not a long step to the introduction of numerals for the verses 6 See Buhl. but the division is not in any way recognized in the text.

MOORE: CHAPTERS AND VERSES IN THE HEBREW BIBLE. p. 25 Aug 2013 00:08:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 27. 13 H. which is commonly. (S. erst I661 (Athias). from the beginning of the chapter. 20.) . at every reference. 266 n. and in every edition that was ever printed. Roos. I quote the translation. which appeared in the Edlitio Sabioneta 12 of the Pentateuch (155 7). The Canon of the Old Testament. Sie findet sich zum ersten Male in natirlich die Kapiteleintheilung der Sabbionetaausgabe des Pentateuchs 1557. for example. Davidson) II. It is not merely "the principle of the division into verses " which " is ultimately of Jewish origin ". ICanon und Text. Annali ebreo-tipoIf it were II. Ifit/heilungen. the verse divisions appear in every codex. 23 = Annales Typograp/zicce Ebraicae Sabionetenses. the existing verses are the basis of the whole system of accents. Parma. They had been previously in the Vulgate so early as 1558. . the numeration adopted was borrowed from Rob. T. 1892. 29: "The introduction of verses into editions of the Hebrew Bible proceeded from Athias. n writers on the history of the text have gone on copying the mistakes of their predecessors with increase of their own. p. E. " If the principle of the division into verses be ultimately of Jewish origin. grafici di Sabbioneta. im ganzen A. Frid. 12 The name of the town is Sabbioneta. etc. Professor Ryle has confounded the division into verses with the marginal numeration of the verses. Petersburg codex of the Prophets (A. even with the example of Berliner and Buhl (1885) before them. in the St. Erlangen. 1780. This content downloaded from 64. who in his description of it writes : "In editione hac non solum capitibus sed 11 See Eichhorn. a numeral was affixed only to every fifth verse (i." "' It would be impossible to condense more misinformation into the same compass." (!) I66I.92 on Sun. 1783. 5. 14 So Buhl. subsequently each verse was designated by a numeral.167. p. 229: "Die Numerierung der Verse setzt voraus. 75 also. 166 n. . Ryle. Edilio Sabionela is hardly the way most scholars would prefer to write it. The climax is reached in a recent English book in which we read: "The division into verses. etc. .1 The ultimate source of the statement that the verses were numbered for the first time in this edition is G-B. in the first edition. every statement in these sentences is erroneous. necessary to write " Sabbioneta edition" in Latin. Ex Italicis Latinos fecit M. they are carefully enumerated in the oldest Massora. 15.D. I. and again. Jo. though erroneously. see De Rossi. Einleitunzg4. 238. believed to have been first employed in the Sabbioneta Pentateuch of 55 7." 15 Annali ebreo-tipografici di Sabbionela. No one seems ever to have investigated the origin of the verse numeration. I780.134. does not seem to have been applied to the whole Hebrew Canon before the edition of Athias (1661)" . At first. Stephen's Edition of the Vulgate (1555). Compare Horne's Introduction. thus saving the necessity of counting. 10 ed. De Rossi. o10. 916) . Lagarde.

Critica sacra. saltem primarum una. Venice. 4. It was not. Dissert.76 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE. . etc. 2 ed. This content downloaded from 64. several of the best known editions of the sixteenth century are numbered throughout. were designated by numerals. 30. In reality the verses were numbered throughout in this way in Bomberg's Great Bible of 1547-1548 (4 vols. ? Io.'s the octavo Bible of De Gara. 25 Aug 2013 00:08:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .134. 1568-1572. an absurd blunder.. Tandem anno 166o . et me quidem judice prima omnium haec est editio. iii. Postea circa medium fere proecedens seculum quintus quilibet versus ad marginem fuit annotatus literis Hebraicis M.M. "Sed olim in Bibliis Hebraicis ad marginem non solebant exprimi literm Hebraicae. 420-421. the edition of Manasseh ben Israel. fol..167. I~. 20 I. in quibus hoc obvium est.l" and as they were not so numbered in any of the preceding Bomberg editions. The currency of this error is the more remarkable because the preface to the edition of 166I (by Leusden) contains a perfectly clear account of the innovation which Athias made. . quinto etiam cujuscunque capitis versiculo numerus additur. aliorumque editionibus. (1748). is. That the numeration of the verses was first extended to the whole Bible by Athias in I661. 18s 19 Le Long-Masch. Amsterdam.). p. the Plantin Bible of 1566. Leusden argues that the division into verses dates from the authors of the Old Testament. etc.. have no verse numerals. In my library. Munsteri. Bomberg's example is followed in the Sabbioneta Pentateuch (1557). numericis notis (excepto quinto quolibet versu. Z. and the Mantua Bible. versus Latinis singuli qui more antiquo literis Hebraicis exprimitur) in Bibliis Hebraicis editionis Amstelodamensis (me suadente et instigante) ad bonum 16 17 See C: rpzov. Compare also the preface to the edition of 1667." Later writers transformed this cautious statement into the positive assertion that this was the first edition in which the verses. third) Rabbinical Bible. however. 1 . of course.20 A somewhat fuller statement is found in Leusden's Pizilologus Hebrieo-GrCecus. denotantes distinctionem versuum. Aside from the Great Bible of 1547-1548.). The convenience of this method of numeration was soon recognized. 1742-1744.92 on Sun. every fifth verse (X.17we may affirm with some confidence that the system was first introduced in this second (or.19 etc. for example. 1635 f. ut videre est in antiquis Bibliis Hebraicis Bombergi. if that of 1518 be counted in the series. which I transcribe. or more properly. I have a copy of this edition in my library. universally adopted.

was published 1528 at Lyons. the use of 21 In the preface of 1661 he says only: Sed nulla Biblia quod scio. The assertion.92 on Sun. requires qualification. and this is the case also in the separate edition of the Hebrew text with interlinear Latin translation which forms a supplemental volume (sometimes numbered VII. in which every fifth verse (i.134. were designated by Arabic numerals. Verse. by which verses 2.. then: the Vulgate chapters were introduced into the Hebrew Bible in the first two Bomberg editions. 1888. 22See W. 1599. more properly perhaps. and the Leipzig reprint of 1657 in folio. 7.v." ation is found in the Hebrew Bible eight years earlier." 1610-1615.2 In the Antwerp Polyglott (1569-1572). editions and numerous later reprints of this volume. quales notae numericae numquam antehac ulli textui Hebraico appositae fuerant. 464 sqq. etc. that such numerals had not previously been affixed to any edition of the Hebrew text.. This usage is followed also in the VI. I. Professor Ryle is equally unfortunate in his remaining assertion. sometimes VIII. The verses of the Hebrew text are numbered throughout by Arabic numerals in the Commelin Polyglott also (1586. etc.. 77 publicum a Josepho Athia distinctae sunt. Wright in Kitto's Cyclopoedia. the folio and the 8. if not correction. 167 sqq. the numeration of the verses was introduced in quarto of 151 Bomberg's Great Bible of 1547-1548. To sum up. 5. 1616).. and in the Old Testament the numeration of the Massoretic verses in the Vulgate chapters is identical with that which we use. that "the numera/ion adopted was borrowed from Rob. 25 Aug 2013 00:08:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .) is designated by the Hebrew numeral. every verse of the Hebrew text has its Arabic numeral. or his Critical Essays. 4 . This content downloaded from 64. with the verses indicated in the same way. Editio octava critica maior. it is well known that the numbering of the (Massoretic) verses in the margin of the Latin Bible was not first introduced by Robert Stephens in his Vulgate In 1509 Henry Stephens printed Le Fevre d'ltaples' of 1555-22 Quincuylex Psalterium with Arabic numerals for every verse. p. 9 . as in our common editions. In the whole Bible. io." Leusden thus claims for himself the credit of an improvement in the method of numbering introduced in Athias's edition. hactenus edita sunt.) to that Polyglott (I57I). including the octavo Bible "ex officina Plantiniana Raphelengii. in the Latin version of Pagninus. Boston. p. Stephen's [sic] Aside from the fact that the numerEdition of the Vulgate (i555). s. however.-IV. 8. in quibus ita distincte versus discernuntur. Vols..MOORE: CHAPTERS AND VERSES IN THE HEBREW BIBLE. Ezra Abbot in Gregory's Prolegomena to Tischendorf's Greek New Testament. 6.167. 3.

etc. 4 . 6. This content downloaded from 64. 9 .134. 8. 7. 3.92 on Sun. Arabic numerals for the intervening verses (2. 25 Aug 2013 00:08:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .78 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE.) was introduced by Leusden-Athias in 1661.167. though there were older editions (in Polyglotts or with interlinear Latin version) in which every verse was indicated by an Arabic numeral.

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