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1 BMCC 3743Signal Conditioning NH

Chapter 4 :
Signal conditioning
4.1 Introduction to signal conditioning
4.2 Bridge circuits
4.3 Amplifiers
4.4 Protection
4.5 Filters
2 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Introduction
3 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
WHY?
1. Easy to transmit signal from measurement site
the data collection site
2. Easy to amplify, filter and modify
3. Easy to record the signal


4 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Signal conditioning
Used in factory or machine automation : to convert
sensor or transducer measurement signal levels to
industry standard control signals
Provide computer and control system manufacturers a
common communication method to effectively receive
and transmit measurement and control data
Examples of measurement data : temperature or AC/DC
voltage/current signals from various transducers
Examples of control data : on/off signals for a heating
element or proportional signals for a valve actuator.
5 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Signal conditioning
6 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Bridge circuits
7 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Bridge circuits
Used to convert impedance variations into
voltage variations
Can be design so the voltage produced varies
around zero
Amplification can be used to increase voltage
level for increased sensitivity to variation of
impedance
8 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Wheatstone bridge
D : voltage detector
( ) ( )
4 1 2 3
4 2 3 1
4 1 2 3
4 2
4
3 1
3
R R R R
V
R R R R
R R R R
V
V
R R
R
V
V
R R
R
V
V V V
b
a
b a
=
+ +

= A
+
=
+
=
= A
9 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Exercise 1
Determine;
1. R
4
if a Wheatstone bridge nulls with
R
1
= 1000 , R2 = 842 , and R
3
=
500 .
2. The voltage offset if the supply
voltage is 10.0 V. The resistors in a
bridge are given by R1 = R2 =
R3 = 120 and R4 = 121 .
10 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Galvanometer detector
( ) ( )
G Th
Th
G
Th
Th
R R
V
I
R R
R R
R R
R R
R
V
R R R R
R R R R
V
+
=
+
+
+
=
+ +

=
4 2
4 2
3 1
3 1
4 2 3 1
4 1 2 3
11 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Exercise 2
A bridge circuit has a resistance of
R1 = R2 = R3 = 2.00 k and
R4 = 2.05 k and a 5.00 V supply. If
a galvanometer with a 50.0
internal resistance is used for a
detector, calculate the offset current.
12 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Bridge resolution
Resolution function of detector : to
determine the bridge offset
Resistance resolution : resistance change in
1 arm bridge that causes an offset voltage
equal to detector resolution
Detector can measure change of 100 V
13 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Resolution
The smallest discernible change in input; the
smallest change in input that manifests itself
as perceptible change in output that can be
measured (example : 0.000 1 mm)
Primary factor in deciding precision
Good resolution does not imply in good
precision
14 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Current balance bridge
15 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Current balance bridge
Used current to null bridge
( )
5
5 4 2
5 4
3 1
3
5
5 4 2
5 4
5 4 2
5 4
IR V
R R R
R R
V
R R
R
V
IR V
R R R
R R
V
R R R
R R
b

+ +
+

+
= A
+
+ +
+
=
>> +
>>
16 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Exercise 3
A current balance bridge has a 10 V
supply voltage and resistors
R1 = R2 = 10 k, R3 = 1 k,
R4 = 950 , R5 = 50 and a high
impedance null detector. Determine the
current required to null the bridge if R3
increased by 1 .
17 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Potential measurements
using bridges
18 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Potential measurements
using bridges
0
0
0
5
5
5 4 2
5 4
3 1
3
4 2
4
3 1
3
=
=
+ +
+

+
+
=
+

+
+
= A
+ =
IR V
IR V
R R R
R R
V
R R
R
V
V
R R
R
V
R R
R
V
V V V
V V V
x
x
x
b c
a x c
19 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Exercise 4
A bridge for potential measurement
nulls when R1 = R2 = 1 k, R3 =
605 , and R4 = 500 with a 10.0 v
supply. Determine the unknown
potential.
20 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Exercise 5
A current balance bridge is used for
potential measurement. The fixed
resistors are R1 = R2 = 5 k, R3 = 1 k,
R4 = 990 , and R5 = 10 with a 10 V
supply. Calculate the current necessary to
null the bridge if the potential is 12 mV.
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Amplifiers
22 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Op amp
characteristic
23 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Summing amplifier
(

+ =
2
3
2
1
1
2
V
R
R
V
R
R
V
out
24 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Noninverting amplifier
in out
out in in
V
R
R
V
R
V V
R
V
I I
(

+ =
=

+
= +
1
2
2 1
2 1
1
0
0
25 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Exercise 7
Design a high impedance
amplifier with a voltage
gain of 42 if R1 = 1 k is
chosen.
26 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Differential amplifier
( ) CMRR CMR
A
A
CMRR
V V
V
cm
b a
cm
10
log 20
2
=
=
+
=
( )
b a out
V V A V =
The transfer function;


Common mode rejection;
( )
1 2
1
2
V V
R
R
V
out
=
27 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Voltage-to-Current converter
( )
( )
5 4 3
3 5 4
4 2 5 3 1
3 1
2
R R R
R
I
V
R R
R
R R R R R
V
R R
R
I
m
sat
ml
in
+ +
(

+
=
= +
=
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Current-to-Voltage converter
IR V
out
=
29 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Exercise 8
For a voltage-to-current converter using an op-amp, show
that the relationship between current and voltage is given by
.
in
3 1
2
V
R R
R
I =
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
5
R
L
I
-
+
V
in
30 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Integrator
t
RC
K
V
dt V
RC
V
dt
dV
C
R
V
out
in out
out in
=
=
= +
}
1
0
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Exercise 9
Use an integrator to
produce a linear ramp
voltage rising at 10 V per
ms. Determine the R and C.
32 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Differentiator
dt
dV
RC V
R
V
dt
dV
C
in
out
out in
=
= + 0
33 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Linearization
( )
|
.
|

\
|
=
= +
R
V
G V
V I
R
V
in
out
out
in
0
34 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Linearization
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) R I V V
V I V I
e in c out
out out
0
0
log
1
log
1
exp
o o
o
=
=
35 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Filters
36 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Filters
Filter : a circuit that is designed to pass signals with
desired frequencies and reject or attenuate others
4 types of filters:
1. Low-pass filter: passes low frequencies and stops
high frequencies
2. High-pass filter: passes high frequencies and rejects
low frequencies
3. Band-pass filter: passes frequencies within a
frequency band and blocks or attenuates
frequencies outside the band
4. Band-reject filter: passes frequencies outside a
frequency band and blocks or attenuates
frequencies within the band
37 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Low-pass RC filter
38 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Low-pass RC filter
Critical frequency:


Output-to-input voltage ratio:
RC
f
c
t 2
1
=
( )
2
/ 1
1
c
in
out
f f
V
V
+
=
39 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Exercise 10
A measurement signal has a frequency less than
1 kHz, but there is unwanted noise at about 1
MHz. Design a lowpass filter that attenuates the
noise to 1% if a capacitor 0.01 F has been
used. What is the effect on the measurement
signal at its maximum of 1 kHz?
40 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
High-pass RC filter
41 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
High-pass RC filter
Critical frequency:


Output-to-input voltage ratio:
RC
f
c
t 2
1
=
( )
( )
2
/ 1
/
c
c
in
out
f f
f f
V
V
+
=
42 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Exercise 11
Pulses for a stepping motor are
being transmitted at 2000 Hz.
Design a highpass filter to reduce
60 Hz noise and reduce the pulses
by no more than 3 dB.
43 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Design Methods
1. Determine critical frequency, fc
2. Select standard capacitor (F pF)
3. Calculate required resistance (1 k - 1 M)
4. Use nearest resistance standard value to
calculated value
5. Consider tolerance in resistors and capacitors
44 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Practical considerations
1. Very small resistance -> lead to large currents and
loading effects -> avoid large capacitance
(R= k -M, C= F pF)
2. The exact fc is not important, choose R and C of
approximately to the fc
3. Isolation filter input/output with voltage follower
4. Cascade RC filters to improved fc sharpness ->
consider loading
45 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Band-pass
RC filter
46 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Band-pass RC filter
Critical frequency:


Output-to-input voltage ratio:
H H
L
C R
f
t 2
1
=
( ) ( ) | |
L
H
H L L H
H
in
out
R
R
r
f f r f f f f
f f
V
V
=
+ + +
=
2
2
2
2
1
L L
H
C R
f
t 2
1
=
47 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Exercise 12
A signal conditioning system uses a frequency
variation from 6 kHz to 60 kHz to carry
measurement information. There is considerable
noise at 120 Hz and at 1 MHz. Design a
bandpass filter to reduce the noise by 90%.
What is the effect on the desired passband
frequencies if r = 0.01? Determine all the
resistors and capacitors.
48 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Band-pass RC filter
49 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Band-reject RC filter
50 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Twin-T notch
filter
51 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Twin-T notch filter
Critical frequency:



Grounding resistor and capacitor:


c n
f f 785 . 0 =
RC
f
C
t 2
1
=
c H
f f 57 . 4 =
c L
f f 187 . 0 =
10
1
R
R
t
=
t
C
C
10
1
=
52 BMCC 4743 Signal Conditioning NH
Exercise 13
A frequency of 400 Hz prevails aboard an aircraft.
Design a twin-T notch filter to reduce the 400 Hz
signal if 0.01 F has been used and calculate the
grounding resistor and capacitor. What effect
would this have on voice signals at 10 to 300 Hz?
Determine the higher frequency when the output
is down by 3 dB.