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L. Giosanet al.

- LongshoreSedimentTransport Patternalong Romanian DanubeDelta Coast

LONGSHORE SEDIMENT TRANSPORT PATTERN ALONG ROMANIAN DELTA DANUBE COAST Liviu Grosnru', Boxulrtewtczl, Henry
Nicolae PANrN', lulianPosroLAcHE3
York State University, MarineGeosciences Center, giosan@sbmsOl.msrc.sunysb.edu StonyBrook,USA,E-mail: 2 National Institute of MarineGeology GeoEcoMar, and Geo-ecology of Romania DimikieOnciuStreet, No.23-25, 70318,Romania Bucharest +4AJ-252.25,94, panin-geomar@rolink.iiruc.ro Tel/Fax: E-mail: 3 Romanian RMRI, MarineResearch Institute Bd. MamaiaNo.304, Constanta 8700,Romania -643.288,F ax. +40-41 -831 rmri. ro Tel:+49-41 .274',E-mail:rmri@alpha 1 New

Abstract. The paper presents the littoralsediment drift patternsalong the Romanian Danube Delta coast. Using sand budget packageof U.S.Army techniques and simulations with the "ShoreModelling System" Corps of Engineers the longshore software sedimenttransportwas computedfor each of the six sectionstaken into consideration within the Danube Delta coast zone (about 140 Km-long). The current state of the beach dynamics along the coast of the Delta are presented herein and predictive are made. Some actionsare proposedto be taken in order to improvethe monitoringof the Romanian Black Sea observations coaslz0ne. transport, simulation, coastzone,BlackSea Key words: littoralsediments , sedlment

INTRODUCTION Many deltas around the world have been experiencinga drastic change in their evolution of both water and alteration due to anthropogenic sediment discharge, coupled with vigorous longshore sediment transport. In the case of Danube delia, coastal erosion is threatening the ecosystem of wetlands, and coastal lakes. Furtherrnorethe chronic sand deficit extends downstreamof the delta coast, negativelyaffecting the important tourist-economyof the seaside resortsin southernsector of the RomanianBlack Sea shore. Severalfactorshave been identified to explainthe recessional behaviour of Danubedelta: (1) alternatechannelswitching which divertsmost of the river sediment discharge to a single distributarystarving the earlier built lobes; (2) general decreasein the river sedimentdischarge due to damming, dredging and agricultural practices in the Danube drainage basin; (3) engineering structures which disruptthe longshore sediment transport pattern; and (4) relative sea level rise. The tidal processesare not important since the mouth of the Danube is a microtidal environment. This situationis not unique but also found in othermicrotidal deltaiccoastslike thoseof the Nile (Sestini, 1992;Stanley, 1996), the Po (Capobianco et al., 1995),and the Ebro (Jimenez and SanchezArcilla,1993; Palanques and Guillen,1995).The construction of dams and other river control structuresin the drainage basin, dredging along

the river,the entrapment of water and sedimentsin the drainagebasin and deltaicplainfor agricultural purposes, the decreasein the rainfallpattern,have been variously cited as important factors in decreasing the rivers sediment discharge and furthermore favouringthe change from a general progradational character of a delta into a recessionalone. The river sediment discharge have been reduced95% from the total load in the Ebro case (Palanques and Guillen, 1995), and 98% for the Nile (Sestini,1992), even though in some places, like the Ebro extensiveagriculture and deforestation have had contrary effects (Palanques and Guillen,1995).At the same time to the principal wave direction the acuteorientation of some deltaiccoastalsegmentstend to produce intenselongshoresedimenttransport.This is the case of Nile delta coast where net longshore sedimenttransportrates up to 1,200,000m'/year (Quelennic and Manohar, wereestimated 1997),or Volturno,a small cuspate delta on the western coast of ltaly, where the maximum net rate was estimatedto be 1,760,000mt/year (Benassaiet a l . ,1 9 9 5 ) . The objective of this study was to analysethe currentbehaviourof the RomanianDanube delta coast. We will show the importance of the wave induced longshore sediment transport and anthropogenically modified by engineering in controlling shorelinedynamicsalong structures the Danube deltaic coast partially inaciivatedby

GEO-ECO-MARIN A, 2/1997 National lnstitute of Marine Geology and Geo-ecologyof Romania Proc. lntern- Workshopon 'Fluvial-Marine lnteractions"in Malnas, Romania, Oct.1-7, 1996

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Pattem alongRomanianDanubeDelta Coast -2edimentTransport

The energetic wave alternatechannelswitching. of regime in the caused by the preponderance short fetches,by the local waves due to relatively high angle of wave attack, and by the ineffective on a relatively steepnearshore. refraction STUDY AREA Geological Setting The Romanian Black Sea coast (Fig.1) stretchesover 245 km from the Chilia distributary of the Danube (45"12' N, 29"40' E) at the border to the town of Vama Romanian-Ukraine Veche (43"44' N, 28'35' E) at the border with Bulgaria.The Romanian coast can be divided criteriainto a using geographicand geomorphic northernunit and a southernunit (Panin et al., '1979-1994). The northern unit is the low-relief unit Danubedelta coastalzone whilethe southern is characterised by eroding cliffs and loess, protectedin places by narrow beaches (Charlier 1979-1994). a n dd e J u l i o ,1 9 8 5 ;P a n i n ,

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withthe BlackSea. Reworked deltaicsandsalong the shore have builta coastalbarriercomplexfrom SfAntu Gheorgheto Midia. The barrier complex consists mainly of a baymouth barrier which separatesthe large lagoon complex of Razim1983), Sinoe,onceopen (Panin, from the sea.The shelf is broadestin the front of Danube delta and gradients narrows to the south.The nearshore to a 12-15 m depth along the Danube delta coast, rangebetween 0.003 and 0.01, with the steepest slopes along the Sakhalinbarrier island (Panin, 1985).The beach profileis generallymultibarred (Postolache et al., 1992). The modern sedimentson the nofthernsector quartzsands of the coastconsistof Danube-borne (about Panin, 70% silica, 1989). The heavymineral contentis about 3%. Sands carried by the littoral drift from the region north of Danube delta have highersilicacontent than the Danubian sediments (90%). The subaerial beach sediments are generally medium-fine sands (d50<0.5 mm). Enlarged contributionof shell detritus increases on the Razimthe grain size locally,especially (Paninet al., 1979complex beaches Sinoebarrier G i o s a n1 , 993). 1994; of the Danube delta has been The evolution extensively studied by Panin (1974, 1989) and Panin et al. (1983).The delta development has begun during the Quaternaryand it was strongly influenced by the sea-levelchanges during this period. During the WiJrm regression, the level of BlackSea was about100 m lowerthan today.This position favoured the erosion of the Upper deposits. The delta formed during the Pleistocene transgression succeeding by an alternatechannel extension process (\tt/right,1985). One to four alternately or distributaries were contemporaneously active, each building their own deltaic lobes. Today there are three main active distributaries. Chilia,Sulinaand SfAntuGheorghe. distributary OnlyChilia, the nofthernmost lobe,and the secondary delta of Sfdntu Gheorghe arm, environment which has been built in a quiescent lsland,are prograding. Almostall behindSakhalin The rate of the othercoastalsectorsare retreating. retreatseems to be enhancedby the influenceof (Paninet structures the recentcoastalengineering and by the general decrease of al", 1979-1994), the Danube sedimentdischargeduring the last century(Paninet al., 1979-1994; Bondar et al., 1992). Sea Level Variations The long term sea level change estimates indicate afall of-2.5mm/year at Varna,Bulgaria in partthe coast,whilethe level risesin the southern the northern segment with rates of 1.2-1.8 at Sulina mm/year at Constantza, and 3.3 mm/year (Bondar cited by Sp5taru, 1990; G6stescu and

The Romaniandeltaic coast extendsfrom the border with Ukraineto Midia in the south. The which includes Musurabay in stretchof shoreline the north. and extends to the southernmost with distributary of the Danube,Sfintu Gheorghe, the adjacent Sakhalin barrier island (fig.1) the major contactof the Danubedelta constitutes
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GEO-ECO-MARINA, 41997 of Romania Nationallnstituteof MarineGeologyand Geo-ecology lnteractions" in Malnas.Rotnania,Oct.1-7,1996 Proc. lntern. Workshopon 'Fluvial-Marine

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Driga, 1986). The Danube deltasubsides with 1.3- sediment in the last century discharge decreased 2 mmlyear, due to the compaction of deltaic mainly due to damming,the water discharge sediments and regional tectonics. The tide of the increased. Also the 25-30o/o sedimentdischarge Black Sea along the Romanian coast is reductionafter Danube dammingwas not as semidiurnal, with a rangeof 7 lo 12 cm. lt has an extremeas in the case of the Nile (98%;Sestini, unnoticeable effect when comparedwith other 1992) or Ebro(95%; Jimenez and Sanchez-Arcilla, deformational such as seiches or 1993),but addedto the previous fluctuations, regressive trend, stormsurgeswhich can reacha maximum of 2 m it amounts in to 5E%of thetotalload.Theincrease (Bondar, water dischargecan be attributedto climatic height,and 1.2 to 1,5 m respectively 1972;Panin et al., 1979-1994). Otherimportant changes,and partly after dammingto marsh meansea levelfluctuations with multiannual and reduction. The lron Gatesdams(lronGatesI and seasonal cyclicity are due to river discharge, lron GatesIl) were closedin 1970'sin the upper changes in the water exchangethrough the sector of Danube lower course. Major rivers Bosphorus straight,and precipitation/evaporation draining the Carpathian and Balkan are mountains variations. dammed, and discharge is therefore insignificant. The relatively small reduction in the sediment RiverDischarge discharge after damming, was due to increased The most significant factor affecting the erosion of the riverbottomand isletsin the lower budget of the BlackSeais the seasonal course hydrologic of the river(Panin, 1979-1994; Mihailescu, provides variation of riverdischarge. The Danube 1983), andto meander cut-offs in 1990's, alongthe 38% of the river water entering the Black Sea distributaries in deltaarea(Panin, 1979-1994). (Glaskow, 1970).Otherimportant riversin termsof Wind And WaveRegime their water discharge are Dniepr, Southern Bug, andDniestr. Danube's annual discharge is highest The averagewind speed in the northwestem from April to July. ln response to the variation in BlackSea is between 6.5 and 5 m/s (Bulgakov et river discharge, the sea level fluctuates between al.,1992). The predominant winddirections during 20 and 30 cm fromseason to season and about20 the year,as theyweremeasured at meteorological cm from year to year (Bondar,1972).Between stations on the coast,are fromthe north,west and 1858and 1988the Danube discharged annually south(Ciulache, 1993). The prevalent direction for about 191 km3 of water, of which 63% was the onshoreblowingwinds is from Northeast. discharged throughthe Chilia distributary, 17% During the summer months, however, the throughthe Sulina distributary and 20% through predominant direction is onshorefrom the south(Bondar (Diaconu distributary the SfAntuGheorghe et al., Southeast et al., undated, as cited by 1992).The Danubewater discharge increased Paninet al., 1979-1994). Because the Romanian f r o m 1 7 8 k m ' i n 1 8 5 8t o 2 0 3 k m ' i n 1 9 8 8 T . h e sectoris relatively short,the wind regimedoes not meantotalsediment of the Danube discharge was varysignificantly alongthe coastespecially for the about52x106 metrictons per year between 1858 onshore winds (Ciulache,1993). Storms are and 1966 (Bondar et al., 1992).The sediment prevalent from the north and Northeast, with an discharge in 1858was65x10o metric tons,butonly average wind speedof 9.8 m/s and a duration 38x10"metrictons in 1988(Bondar et al., 1992). rangingbetween I to 22 hours(Diaconu et al., This discharge was distributed 55%to the Chilia, undated, as citedby Panin et al, 1979-1994). 214/oto the Sulina and 23% to the SfAntu Waveshigherthan 0.2 m occurabout 50olo of Gheorghearm. About 25-30% reductionof the the year;60-85%of them are localwind waves, totalsediment discharge has been recorded after and 15-40o/o swells (Bondar, 1972). The wave 1970whenthe firstlronGatesdam was closed in regime for this studybasedon wave wasanalysed the Romanian-Yugoslavian sector of Danube observation periodbetween madeovera 1O-year (Panin et al., 1979-1994; Popa,1992). The bed- 1972 and 1981at a depthof 11m, offshore the grain southern that has a median loadsediment discharge, (see "Methods"). townof Constantza We size between 0.1-0.5 mm, has beenestimated to found thatwaveshigher than0.2 m (thelowerlimit be between 4.5o/o and 19o/o of the total sediment of the waveheight that was measurable usingthe discharge. Today, ^the Chilia distributary available instrumentation) arrived at the coastfrom tons/year discharges about3x10o metric bed-load all offshoredirectionsabout 51% of the year sediments(between57o/o afid 65% of Danube's (Fig.2).The annual average signiflcant wave total bed-loaddischarge), Sulina about 0.85- height was0.8 m, witha meanperiod of 5 seconds 1.3x106metric tons/yeir'(between18.5% and (Fig.3). Most waves anived from the NE-SE 24.5o/oof the total dischgrge), and Sfdntu quadrant, (about the predominant direction 3oo/o ot Gheorghe about 0.75-1x10"metric tons/year total waves)and energyflux being from E. The (between 19% and 20.5o/o of the total discharge; waves arriving from NE-ENE sectors occurred Bondar,1972;Bondarand Harabagiu, 1992).lt morefrequently and their mean energyflux was can be noticed fromabovedatathatwhileDanube
GEO.ECOMARINA, 2/1997 National lnstitute of Marine Geology and Geo-ecologyof Romania Proc. lntern. Workshopon'Fluvial-Marine lnteractions"in Malnas, Romania, Oct.1-7, 1996

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L. Giosanet al. - LongshoreSedirnent Transport PatternalongRomanianDanubeDelta Coast

higher than those from ESE-SE sectors. Nearshore wave climateis controlled by the beach slope, thus implicitly by the shelf width which narrows southward to Sf6ntu Gheorghe mouth, and widens farther south (see Fig.7). The strongest wave activityis expectedalong Sakhalin island,due lo poor refraction and wave shoaling on the steep be

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beach situated just south of the jetties was nourished with sand extracted from Sulinaharbour, and two groinswere also built. A revetment was recently built along the southernbarrier beaches between Peritescaand Chituc (Postolache et al., 1995). In order to mitigate the beach erosion on these beaches, some Romanian hydrotechnical engineers have proposedto deviate part of the SfAntu Gheorghe distributary water and sedimentload farthersouth, through a channel discharging between Ciotica and Perisor(Hanguet al., 1992).Midia harbouris protected by jettiesextending about 5 km offshore; these jetties restrictthe amount of sand carried southwardby the longshoredrift by redirectingit (Fig.1). offshore ShorelineDynamics The northernpart of delta coast which includes Chiliadeltaand MusuraBay beaches,most of it on the Ukrainian territory, has been intensely progradingin the last centuries (Panin, 1985; Mikhailova,1995), ,Afterthe Sulina jetties were built at the beginning of the century,the deltaic coastfarlherwas partlyisolatedfrom the sediment drift coming from northern Chilia coast. This isolation increased in time with the jetties extension.The jetties can be considerednow as impermeable to the sedimentdrift. profiles Beach were measuredon a networkof benchmarks alongthe delta coastsouthof Sulina, including one landmark on Sakhalin lsland.Based on these, shoreline changes were analysed by Bondaret al., (1983)for the periodbetween1962 and 1978, and by Vespremeanuand Stefanescu (1988; 5) forthe periodbetween Fig.4, 1962and
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Engineering Works Two jetties started to be built at the Sulina mouth(Fig.1) in 1856 and now extendas far as 8 km offshore.These jetties were built to protect Sulina navigationchannel againstshoalingwith driftingfrom the nodh. The Sulinajetties sediments stronglyaffectthe evolutionof the beachesfarther south, by dischargingthe distributarysediment load offshore, the longshore as well as intercepting drift of sand from the north (Sp5taru,1990; Panin et al., 1579-1994). During the second half of the 19'ncentury, channels were cut to shorten the navigationroute on Sulina distributary. When this was done, the southernarm of SfAntuGheorghe fost about 3Oo of its water discharge and consequentlyits sediment transport capacity in favour of the shortenedarm of Sulina, (Sp5taru, 1990).Sulinabed-load accumulates at the end of the jetties as a mouth bar, which is periodically dredged.The dredged sedimentsare discharged offshore, and thus are lost from the nearshore transport system(Paninet al., 1979-1994). Sulina
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GEA.ECO.M AR INA,2J1 997 Nationallnstitute of MarineGeologyand Geo-ecology of Romania Proc. lntern. Workshopon'Fluvial-Marine lnteractions" in Malnas,Romania,QcL1-7, 1996

L. Giosan et al. - Longshore Sediment TransportPattem along Romanian Danube Delta Coast

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1987. The actual shoreline Dositionswere not Gheorghe. Under the influence of mainly published but only the calculated end-point southwardsedimentdrift the mouth bar sands are shorelinechange rates. Panin et al. (1979-1994) supposedly transfened south during storms collectedannual beach profilemeasurements after causinga continuing increasein lengthof Sakhalin of the Romanian 1978withinthe framework Marine island(Paninet al., 1979-1994). At the same time, Geologyand Geoecology institute s "Danube-Black as observed from successive maps and aerial Sea System Monitoring Program". GAstescu photos,Sakhalinisland shore is retreating,more (1979,1986)published shoreline changeanalyses intensely in its centraland southernparts (Paninet for most of the Danubedelta coast basedon map al., 1979-1994).The northern half has already comparisons. been connected to the mainlandmarshes in 1975 The shoreline is retreating over almost the due to both island retreat and SfAntu Gheorghe progradation, intensive entire Danubedefta coast situatedsouth of Sulina secondary delta transforming the island in a spit. Due to its low mouth (Fig.4,5). The maximumretreatrate for the (0.5-1.5 relief m), the retreat of the island is Sulina-Sfdntu Gheorghe sector is over 2A mlyr., controlled apparently by ovenrvash and breaching which is found at the latitudeof Rosuletlake,about 15 km south of Sulinajetties.Almazovet al. (1963) processes as suggested by the numerous suggestedthat the highest retreat is due to the successive breaches which appeared over the divergent of the longshoresediment drift in this years followingmajor storms (Panin et al., 1979were generallyrapidlyclosed zone which may be caused by an anticyclonal 1994).The breaches the as wind-induced, and secondarilytidal flows, eddy attachedto the south lee side of the Sulina between the lagoon the sea are not strong and jetties, generated by a quasipermanent coastal to keepthem open.The southern tip ofthe current directedsouthward.The existenceof this enough divergence zone is also recognised in other island recurves into the lagoon due to wave patterntypicalfor this type of areas and sediment drift studies based on radioactiveor refraction also because the low reliefbeach at the tip evolves fluorescenttracers (Dragota, 1973; Bondar and in an ovennrash mode (as conceptually described (Bondar, Craciun, 1970), salinity distribution 1964), in Kana, 1996). The analysis of island evolution for and physicalmodelling(Sp6taru,1971).However period (Bondar the 1858-1968 et al., shows 1983) the divergence zone may be explained by in offshore shelteringand diffractionof the waves comingfrom that the islandplatformbuilt intensively the Northeast sector. Shoreline recession rates directionbetween 1850 and 1923. This process over 10 m/year were also registeredalong the ceased practically afteruards leaving the profile below 10 m depth until 1968.Above this Sakhalin barrier island, and south of Ciotica and unaltered depth bathymetriccontours show a retreat for the betweenPortitaand Chitucon the southernbarrier period. same the Consequently the beach profile io beaches. The shoreline advances immediately 10-12 has m depth flattened while the island jetties south of Sulina where it is accompanied by intenseshoalingof the submergedprofile(Bondar retreated.Also bathymetriccharts comparisons and Harabagiu,1992). The shorelineadvances show that the island platformhas been buildingin direction(Jianu and Selariu, behind Sakhalin island where Sfdntu Gheorghe the axial (longshore) process 1970). This extends to a depth of about 12 secondarydelta is activelyprograding, and slowly it m and was uninterrupted though cyclical, at Perigor,south of the Ciotica retreatingzone, (Bondar between 1858 and 1968 et al., 1983).In where the shore orientation changes from platform island summary, the building in axial and approximately E-W to a NE-SW direction. and Shorelineadvancewas registered on the southern possiblyoffshoredirection,and also ovenrvash Chituc spit due the sedimenttransportobstruction breaching are the processes that extract exerted by Midia harbour jetties. The submarine sedimentsfrom the Sakhalin nearshore system. slope also shoals on the sides of Midia structures Using the maps of Breier and Teodor (1979) and Panin et al. (1979-1994; Fig.6), the island (Paninet al., 1979-1994). periodwere shoreline changes for the 1962-1993 Nearshore Processes along Sakhalin computed for this study(Fig.4). Barrier Longshore Sediment Transport Bratescu (1922), Panin et al. (1979-1994), There are several direct indicators of the (1983), Breier and Teodor (1979),Vespremeanu longshore sediment transport direction and and Bondaret al, (1984)analysed Sakhalin lsland genesis and evolution.Sakhalin lsland (Fig.1) magnitude including sand accumulation on formed in 1897,from a bar developed south of the oppositesides of engineeringstructuressuch as Sf6ntu Gheorghe mouth (Bratescu, 1922). jetties and groins, and the longshore groMh of Sediment discharged by SfAntu Gheorghe spits and barrier islands, methods which were distributary, and also drifted from north, previouslyapplied on the Danube delta coast. accumulate as a bar at the mouth of SfAntu These previous studies indicated that the magnitude of the net longshore transportis
GEO.ECO-MARINA, U1997 National lnstituteof Marine Geology and Geo-eaologyof Romania Proc-lntern. Workshopon'Fluvial-Marine lnteractions" in Malnas,Romania,Oct.1-7,1996

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L. Giosanet al. - LongshoreSedimentTransport Pattem alongRomanianDanubeDelta Coast

direction is also a direct indicator of the net longshore transport rate. By using previously estimated shoalingrates to 9 m depth (Bondaret al., 1983),the transportis directedsouthwardat a rate of about 1,080,000m'/year. Farther south along Chitucspit, Bondaret al. (1980)estimated the longshoretransport by using synoptic wind data. The drift was directedsouthwardat a rate of about900,000-1,110,000 m3lyear down to the 9 m isobath. METHODS SedimentBudget A sand budget was used to estimate of the longshoresedimenttransportpattern.The active beach, the longshore transport, and the river sediment input were assumed to be the only sourcesor sinks for sediments for the entirestudy area.The above assumptions, however,would not be valid alongbarrierbeachof Sakhalinthe island, since the cross-shore sedimentation by ovenirrash and breaching(Panin et al., 1979-1994),and possibly loss (Bondaret al., 1984; Jianu offshore and Selariu, 1970)are likelyto be important. The calculations thereforewere not done for Sakhalin island but special consideration was given to the budgethere. The remaining study area was divided into two coastal cells based on the changes of the longshore transport direction and on Danube distributaries sediment discharge. The northern cell was taken betweenSulina mouth and SfAntu Gheorghemouth. The Sulina mouth jetties were considered to be impermeable to sediment transport because they extend almost to the estimated depth of closure. Thus the northern lateral boundary for this cell was considered closed,while the southernone was left open. lt is to assume that the Sf6ntu Gheorghe reasonable distributary sedimentdischargeis largely directed to the south,in such a way there was no significant contributionfrom this source to the northern Sulina-Sfdntu Gheorghecell. The southem cell was between Ciotica, situated on the deltaic mainlandshore, and Midia.The southernlateral boundary was assumedto be closed becausethe jetties protecting Midia harbour disrupt the longshore sediment transport by redirecting it offshore.The northernboundary of this cell was patterns left open.Net longshore transport for each cell were derived from the calculated volume them startingat the closed changesby integrating boundaries. The active beach volume changes were calculated basedon shorelinechangerates for the periodbetween1962 and 1987 (Vespremeanu and Stefanescu, 1988;Fig.2and Fig.3). these Because data do not extend as farther south as Midia harbour, the shoreline progradation rate was

Fig.6 Consecutive posiiions of Sacalin barrier island (compiled from Breierand Teodor;1979,Gdstescu, 1979;and P a n i ne t a l . ,1 9 9 4 ) .

extremelyhigh. From northto south,the sediment drift is directedsouthward along Chilialobe,shows a reversalsouth of Sulina jetties, and continues southward to Midia afterwards.Shuisky (1984) estimatedthe net sedimenttransportalong Chilia delta to be between120,000m'/year and 850,000 mt/year, dependingon the local orientation of the coast. The southward drift along Chilia can be estimated from the shoalingrates on northernside of Sulina jetties. Bondar and Harabagiu(1992) proposed a^ value between 1,100,000 and 1,900,000m'/year for the shoalingrate but the perimeterfor which it was calculated is not clearly Thg shoalingrate of 500,000m3/year specified. to m'/year (Bondarand Harabagiu, 1992) 1,300,000 on the southern side of the jetties is a direct estimate of the net longshore transport in the reversalzone south of Sulina.The naturalshoaling in this area was clearly overestimated since an amountof sand retrieved unknownbut substantial from Sulinaharbour was discharged on the beach in 1980s. South of the reversalzone to SfAntu Gheorghe,^thelongshoredrift was estimatedto 700,000 m'/year(Paninet al., 1979-1994) fromthe beach sand deficit. Shuisky (1985) suggesteda net longshore sediment transport of 800,000900,000 m'/year along the same sector. The Sakhalinbarrierislandplatformbuilding in the axial

GEO.ECO.MARINA, A1997 National lnstitute of Marine Geolagy and Geo-ecologyof Romania 'Fluvial-Marine lnteractions" Proc. lntern. Workshopon in Malnas,Romania,Oct.1-7,1996

L. Giosan et al. - Longshore Sediment TransportPattern along Romanian Danube Delta Coast

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consideredto be constant southwardof the last point and have the same value as measurement measured at that last transect. Although the measurement station used for collecting the shorelinechange data were widely spaced along the coast they were consideredto representwell the actualshorelinebehaviour beingvery similarto the estimates presented by others (Gdstescu, 1986 and 1993; IUCN,1992:Spdtaru, 1992).The shoreline change rates were corrected for sea levelchanges by applying Bruun's rule (lnmanand Dolan,1989),assuminga 3 mm/yearsea-level rise for the active deltaic shore (i.e. Sulina-Sf6ntu Gheorghecell) and a 1.2 mmlyear sea-levelrise for the Ciotica-Midia cell. An averageberm height of 0.5 m was used for the entire coast as the landwardboundary.Becausesuitablesubmerged beach profile measurement series were unavailablefor the Romaniancoast, an average depth of closure of 9 m was estimated using Halermeier'smethod (1981 a, b) based on the available wave data. The annual values for the estimated depth of closure, between 1972 and 1981, ranged between 6 and 12 m. Previous studiesof the long-term submergeprofileevolution suggest a closure depth between 10 and 12 m (Jianuand Selariu, 1970,Bondaret al.,1984). usinga hybrid Volumechangeswere calculated model as appropriate, eitherunderassumption that an equilibrium longterm beachprofileis conserved ("one-line" model; Pelnard-Considere, 1956; Hansonand Kraus,1989),orthatthe beachprofile generalshape is non-conservative duringshoreline retreat. During delta formation phase, both the shoreline and the subaqueousdelta advance at the same rate, while in the reductionprocess, the more rapidlythan the delta shorelineis retreating subaqueousdelta (Refaat and Tsuchiya,1991). This latter behaviouris due to the highererosion rates in the surf zone comparedto fartheroffshore following a decrease in the river sediment discharge, which must occur to maintain the potentiallongshoresedimenttransportrate. Thus an equilibrium beach profile is not conserved process, sincethe profile duringthe delta reduction slope becomes more gradual. Jimenez and Sanchez-Arcilla (1993) confirmed the above experimental resultsin the case of Ebro delta.The "one line"model seems appropriate to describe the beach volume changes on a delta coast in the formationphase only. When a deltaicshorelineis retreating, as is the case of the Danubedeltacoast to computethe under study, it is more appropriate beach volume changes using a wedge-shaped erosionalprism. However the accretingsector of the shoreline south of Sulina jetties seems to conserve an equilibrium during its advance (G6stescu,1993). Thereforeit was reasonable to model tor this sector,as well as use the "one-line"

(Perisor, for the otheradvancing shoreline sectors pattern andChituc). Longshore net sandtransport was derived fromvolumechanges for the depths of closure of 6, 9, and 12 m. The resultfor the 6 and 12 m depth were used to estimatethe range of the nettransport. magnitude However, the mostplausible estimates wereconsidered to be for the average depthof closure of g m, andthey will discussions. be usedin further Potential Longshore Sediment Transport Rate Wave characteristics have been recordedat part of the Romanian in the southern Constantza, Black Sea coast,since 1964 by the Romanian Marine SciencesResearchInstitute.Significant and meandirection at wave height, meanperiod, period between 6-hour intervalover a 1O-year 1972 and 1981 were used in the currentstudy (Fig.2, 3). The measurements involvedvisual of a buoyfixedat a waterdepthof 11 observations includemean m. The measured characteristics period, anddirection threetimesdaily waveheight, during the daylight. The wave direction tp of about20". estimated visually, with an accuracy due to periods of poorvisibility Gapsin the record significantvalues were filled with statistically (Kraus 1983). Wavedataweresparse andHarikai, of the coast.Because the wind for othersectors along the regime does not vary significantly relativelyshort coast, the wave climate at was assumed to represent that alone Constantza forthe entire coast. was obtainedby digitising The bathymetry scalemapspublished by the Romanian 1:50,000 Service, basedon their 1979 NavyHydrographic waveswere backward survey.Thenthe observed on the real bathymetry around the point refracted usingiteratively a wave weretheyweremeasured programprovidedby U.S. Army transformation (RCPWAVE; Cialoneet al., Corpsof Engineers in an attempt to transform thewavedatafor 1992), (-30 m). However, conditions because deepwater is poorlyresolved in the the angleof approach originalfigures,the transformed data were not significantly different. longshore sedi.r-.nent transport was The potential sedimenttransport estimated usinga nearshore modelbasedon the wave energyflux (NSTRAN; of Engineers, 1984;lnmanand U-S.ArmyCorps k, whichdescribes the Dolan, 1989). The constant efficiency of longshore component of waveenergy an sediments, was considered flux in transporting adjustableparameter.A value of k=0.256, the sandbudget computations to a calibrated using depth of 9 m, was used. Both NSTRANand RCPWAVEare componentprograms of the "Shoreline (SMS)standardised Modelling System" by the U.S.Army Corps software ccllection crealed
17

A1997 GEO-ECO-MARINA, National Institute of Marine Geology and Geo-ecologyof Romania Proc. lntern. Workshopon'FluviaLMarine lnteractions" in Malnas,Romania,Oct.1-7,1996

L. Giosanet al. - LongshoreSedimentTransport Pattem along RomanianDanubeDelta Coast

(Hansonand Kraus,1989),The 140 farther south becauseof an increasein the of Engineers beachslope(Fig.7) andthe sheltering km-long area extendingfrom Sulinato Midia was submerged jetties. divided in six sectors accordingto the shoreline effectof Sulina mean orientation (Fig.7) and the potential net 3doo' sediment transport was computed for each of patterns were compared to the them. The resulting transport rates computedfrom the sand budget. RESULTS The general pattern of the net longshore transport provided by the sediment budget compared favourablyto that calculatedby wave energy flux method (Fig.8, 9). The net longshore sedimenttransport alongthe entirestudiedcoast is high on average, mainly as a result of both the prevailing E-NE waves superimposedon NNEof the coast. SSE generalorientation Sulina-SfdntuGheorghe From Sulinato SfAntuGheorghe,the resulting net sediment transport scheme was basically made up of two cells (Fig.8, 10): a sector of northwarddirectedtransportsituatedimmediately south of the Sulinajetties with an averagerate of 190,000 m"/year (ranging between 130,000 m"/yearat 6 m depth, and 250,000m'/year at 12 m depth) and a longer sector of southward transportfarther south to SfAntuGheorghewhich had an average rate of 620,p00 m'/year (with a rafige between 415,000 m'/year and 830,000 m"/year).The magnitude of the transport in the northerncell does not explainthe shoalingrate of at least 500,000 m'/year south of Sulina jetties (Bondar et al., 1992). Presumablythe artificial nourishment of the beach with an unknown quantityof sand, is the main factor affectingthe budget there. The potentialtransport calculation also showeda two-cellpattern,but for the northern were less cell boththe lengthand the net transport than those obtained from the sand budget. The two-cell pattern is the result of the shelteringof waves coming from the NE quadrant, and diffractionaround the jetties. The poor quality of wave data, poor performance of the wave refractionmodel adjacentto jetties,the corrupted sand budget, and probably the existenceof an attached anticycloniceddy in this shadow zone (Almazovet al., 1963),all concurin creating the difference between patterns. Other investigators have found that closed attachededdies may from in the lee of capes, jetties, or other topographic indentations of the coast, with consequent modificationsto local distributionsof sediment (Ferentinos 1980;Davies and Collins, et deposition al., 1995).In the southerncell, the net transport increased from zero at the nodal point, up to 800,000mt/yearat CAslaVSdanei, remaining fairly constantup to the cell end, at Sf6ntu Gheorghe (Fig.8).The sedimenttransportrate northof C6sla VSdaneiis lower relativeto the rate of transport
,IB

Fig.7 Bathymetryof the study area, and the average orientationof different coast sectors used in computing the potential transport. longshore sediment

-/--'---.
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Fig.8 Patterns of net longshore transport (circles) and potential (line)between Sulinaand the southern transport tip of Sacalin lsland.
t<

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Fig.9 Patterns of net longshore sediment transport for the deltaic coast south of Sacalin barrier island (using same conventions as in fig.8).

Sakhalinlsland Sakhalin island shoreline situated south of SfAntu Gheorghe mouth receded everywhere between 1962 and 1993, reachingthe highest retreatrateon the Danubedelta coast (66 m/yr.)at the islandcentre (Fig.4).Consequently the island convexityhad been reduced (Fig.6). During this periodnot only did the islandmigratelandwardbut its lengthalso increased with about 1.5 km at the northern tip and 5.5 km at the southernend. lt was

GEO-ECO.M ARI NA, 2/199 7 of Romania Nationallnstituteof MarineGeologyand Geo-ecology lnteractions" Proc. lntern. Workshopon 'Fluvial-Marine in Malnas,Romania,Oct.1-7,1996

L. Giosanet al. - LongshoreSedimentTransporl Patternalong RomanianDanubeDelta Coast

50

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coast (Fig.9,10).The generalpatternof not possibleto computea sedimentbudgetfor the Romanian Sakhalin island because measurements of net transport calculated from the sand budget submerged beach profile were not available. resembled closely the pattern of the potential However, the pattern of potential longshore transport. In particular,the positions for local transport was estimatedusingthe same valuefor k minimaand maximain the transportrate were the (i.e.0.256)as for the entire study area. The net same. lt was expectedthe cross-shore transportto transport directed to the south with an average be significant, where barrier beach separatingthe magnitudeof about 1,230,000m"/year, and a Razim-Sinoelagoon complex from the sea was range between 820,000 m'/year and 1,640,000 narrowest, between Portita and Periboina(Fig.1), m'/year. This value was, not unexpectedly, the and thereforeto alter the accuracy of the sand highest figure on the entire Danube delta coast budget, Estimatesof the overurashprocesses in (Fig.10).Sakhalin average shorelineorientation this area would increase the accuracy of the increases the wave angle of attack,and the steep model.However, it is expected that the importance gradientminimises nearshore wave refraction. The of ovenruash will diminishas a resultof the recently transport increasedfrom about 900,000 m'/year builtrevetment. south of the SfAntu Gheorghe mouth to about A notablediscrepancy is a 10 km-longreversal 1,750,000mtlyear in the island median section of the transport,along Periteascabeach (Fig.9), (Fig.8).For the southernhalf of the island,the which was not found in calculation of the potential transportshowed a decreaseto 750,000m"/year. sedimenttransport. The magnitudeof the reverse This indicatesthat the southernhalf of the island transport, however, was relatively small (8,000 should have been accreting but the shoreline m"/yearon averageusing the average9 m depth retreatedinstead (Fig.4).Therefore,the shoreline of closure; takenas negligible, i.e. -0 in Fig.10). lt variation must have been controlled by may have been merely due to uncertainties in the mechanismsother than the longshore sedimenl transport magnitudes calculated from the sand transport. Cross-shore sediment transfer budget.Therefore the reversalzone at Perisoras processessuch as ovenryash, (Paninet resulted from sediment budget should be breaching al., 1994), and offshore sediment transport considered with cautionuntilnew data will improve (Bondar et al., 1983 and Bondar et al., 1984) the accuracyofthe budget. during storms could be more likely to have been BetweenCiotica and Perisor,the net potential responsible for the overallrecession of the coast in was directed southward at an average transport the southern part of the Sakhalin lsland. The rate of about270,000m"/year(180,000m'/year to northern half of the island was wider and had a 6 m depth, and 360,000 m'/year to 12 m depth; field of relatively high foredunes (Panin et al., Fig.10). The average rate of the net transport 1979-1994), which would inhibitcross-island sand south of the reversal zone to Midia was about transport. The southern half of the island was 660,000 m3/year_to the south (440,000 mt/year narrowerwith a lower relief and more likelyto be and 880,000 m'/year to 6 and 12 m depth overtopped duringstorms. and breached respectively; Fig.10).The rate increasedfrom 0 to There is a convergence iq net potential a maximumof 1,075,000 m'/year on the northern transport of about 500,000 m"/year of sand Chituc spit and decreasedaftenruards to 775,000 between the southern tip of the Sakhalin island m"/yearat Midia(Fig.9). (Fig.8)and Cioticaon the mainland(Fig.9). This The potential transportrate was southwardfor amount of sand was apparentlynot transported the entireCiotica-Midia stretch.A decreasein the farther south along the coast but accumulated on and km.85 indicatedthat the rate between km.78 the axial zone of island platform.Bondar et al. shorelinein Perisorsector was advancing(Fig.9), (1983b)estimatedthis shoalingrate,to a depth of but it underestimated both the intensity of 9 m, at 1,400,000 m"/year, but for the period accretion, and the alongshoreextension of the between1858 and 1968. lt is also possible that accretionary zone. Furthercalibrationbased on a part of the sand enteredthe bay behind Sakhalin more accuratesand budget would be needed to island. The bay behind Sakhalinis known to be clarify the discrepancies. shoalingdue to Sfdntu Gheorghesecondarydelta progradation (Panin et al., 1979-1994; GAstescu, DrscusstoN 1979and 1986;Vespremeanu, 1983),but because Chilia lobe is the only part of Danube delta no quantitativestudies were done in the area, intensely prograding" SfAntu Gheorghe distrithere are no estimates for the sediment flux butary is in equilibrium on its northern side, possiblycomingfrom the offshore. progradation being active in the secondarydelta behindSakhalin island.The earlierlobe of Sulina Giotica-Midia continues lo be reworked in an accelerated regime The net transport continued to be mainly (i.e. influence under anthropogenic dredging, southward in the Ciotica-Midiasector of the jettiedmouth).Furthermore the entirecoast south
GEO-ECO-MARINA, A1997 National Institute of Marine Geology and Geo-ecologyof Romania Proc. lntern. Workshopon'Fluvial-Marine lnteractions" in Malnas,Romania,Oct.1-7, 1996
t5

Patternalong RomanianDanubeDelta Coast L. Giosanet al. - LongshoreSedimentTransport

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GEO.ECO-MARINA, Y1997 National lnstituteof Marine Geology and Geo-ecologyof Romania Proc. lntem. Workshop on'Fluvial-Maine Interactions"in Malnas, Romania, Oct.1-7, 1996

Patternalong RomanianDanubeDelta Coast L. Giosanet al. - LongshoreSedimentTransport

of Sulina is isolated form Chilia lobe by Sulina jetties.The coast between Sulina and Midia has retreatedat very high rates in the last decades, under very energetic waves due to their acute angle of attack, and poor refraclionon relatively steep nearshore.Since this part of the coast is closedlaterally to north and south by impermeable structures,shoreline changes were due to the transport sand from an longshore that redistributed area to another. Cross-shorelandwardsediment for the transferprocessesappear to be important for the Sakhalinbarrier island, and potentially and narrowsandy barrierbeachbetweenPeritesca Chituc. Sediment transfer to the offshore is probablyactive on the steep Sakhalinbeach,and is also inducedby the jettiesat Midia. About 800,000m3/yearof sand are lost for the nearshore system by maintenancedredging of Sulina mouth. This amountwould be enoughto keep the shoreline south in equilibrium.lf bypassedsouth of the reversalzone adjacentto the jetties, it will possibly stop shorelineretreat. for The sedimenttransportreversalis responsible trappingsand in the side of the Sulinajetties, increasing downstream beachstarvation. Sf6ntu Gheorgle distributaryalso discharged about 800,000 m'lyear of sand. The potential sedimenttransportindicates that the averagerate of beach retreaton northernSakhalin, which was about 35 m/year, would more than double if this sediment inputwoulddisappear. The sand passing to the southerntip of Sakhalinisland contributes the island platformbuilding,and it is not able to feed the beachesfarthersouth since the shoreline orientation changes abruptly.Continuedretreatof to the islandwill enhancebypassingof sediments the south. The change in coast orientation south at Periteasca, under the present wave climate, transportconvergence, and thus favourslongshore beach accretion.This sector acts as a buffer for the sand transportfarther south, increasingeven more sand starvationof beaches.The proposed channelto deviate some of the Sf6ntu Gheorghe distributary discharge farther south, between Ciotica and Perisor, as a solutionto reduce the erosion, would probably reduce the shoreline locally in a zone of relativelyreduced economic but the Sakhalinbeach and ecological importance, the loss via erosion.The will have to compensate island beach, already has the highest shoreline coast,would became retreatrate on the Romanian additionallysand-starvedby applying this plan, endangering the rich Sakhalinbay wildlifehabitat. Furthermore, the solutiondoes not seem viablefor stabilising beachessouthof the bufferzone. The area with highest potential risk is the narrow barrier betweenPeriteasca and Periboina.

even though the sand accumulation zone upstreamthe Midiajetties may eventuallyprovide some positiveeffects on a longer time scale. On the other hand, the sand trapped upstreamMidia harbourstarves of sand the southern Romanian coast where most of public beaches and tourist objectiveswere developed.lt can be anticipated that the time when the trapped sand will be bypassedsouth of Midia is not too far artiflcially away since other protection solution applied Mamaia beach were not particularlysuccessful. Alternately, the development pressure may relocateto the northernbeaches on the Danube deltacoast. CONCLUSIONS and RECOMMENDATIONS The long-term recessional character of the beach betweenSulina and Midia is prescribedby the alternate channel switching process, for Danube delta evolution. As a characteristic consequence in the last centuries, Danube distributary discharged mostlythroughthe northern of Chilia.The shorelineof previouslybuilt lobe of Sulina retreats,as it is being reworkedunder the longshore sand transport induced by the high energeticlevel and acute angle of wave attack. SfAntu Gheorghe lobe has ceased to prograde, exceot for the sheltered area behind Sakhalin island. The shoreline evolution was negatively influencedby the engineeringworks at Sulina mouth and Midia harbour,and most probably,by the natural and human induced decrease of the The negativeeffectof Danubesedimentdischarge. damming on the Danube sediment load was attenuated by erosionof the river bottomand islets in the lower course and by artificialmeander cutoffs in the della. Because the sand deficit is potentially of the entire coast high, the restoration between Sulina and Midia may be financially prohibitive,and a system of priorities must be strategies with established. An array of restoration minimum negative effect for adjacent beaches, and beach nourishment, sand bypassing, including breakwaters, are needed. detached lncreased coverage and accuracy of wave measurements would probably provide the greatestimprovement in future studies.Three new gaugesare plannedto be installed alongthe coast. At least one of them should be situated between where shorelineorientation Cioticaand Periteasca changesabruptly.For the highly active Danube delta coast, monitoring would include aerial coverageof the area at least once a year; beach profiling to the depth of closureon an more closely spacedlandmarknetwork,at least twice a year in order to estimate both the annual and seasonal surveys for the highly variations; and bathymetric dynamic areas such as Sulina and Sf6ntu Gheorghemouths,and Sakhalinisland at least

997 GEO-ECA.MARINA, 2/1 of Romania National lnstitute of Marine Geology andGeo-ecology 'Fluvial-Marine Romania, Act.1-7, 1996 Proc. lntern. Workshop ot1 Interactions" in Malnas,

L. Giosanet al. - LongshoreSedimentTransport Pattem along Romanian DanubeDelta Coast

jetties, promising onceper decade. A potentially method shoaling upstream Midia a sitewhichis far send transport to be used in the enough for estimating from Danube distributaries mouthsnot to wouldbe the monitoring of the be dependent modelcalibration on theirsediment discharge.
C r u l n c n eS , .,1992, T h e W i n do n t h e R o m a n i a n S h o r eo f the BlackSea,AnaleleUniversitdtii Bucuresti, 1-'10. Ar-unzov, A.A., BoruonR, C., DAcoNU,C., et al., 1963, R.A., 1995, Eddy Zona de virsare a Dundrii.Monografie hidrologici, Deues, P.A., Dnxm,J.M., FnlcorlER, FormationBehind a Coastal Headland,Journal of Ed. Tehnicd,Bucuresti, 396 C o a s t aR l e s e a r c h1 , 1 ,1 , 1 5 4 - 1 6 7 . G., MArNoLFr, BENASSAT, R., SRNsone, E., 1995, Dnnoorn, G., 1973, Studiul circulatiei aluviunilor in zona Monitoring of the CoastalZoneat the Mouthof River g u r i i c a n a l u l u i S u l i n a , c u a j u t o r u l n i s i p ului cu Volturno, ltaly, in Ozhan, E., Proceedingsof the luminorfi, Studiide Hidrologie, XL, Bucuresti. Second International Conference on the G., Collrrls, M.8., 1980, Effects of MediterraneanCoastal Environment,MEDCOAST Fenerunruos, '95, 965-974 Shoreline irregularities on a Rectilinear Tidal Current Their Significance and in Sedimentation Processes, BoNDAR, C., 1964, Date asupra distributiel spatialea Journalof S e d i m e n t a rP ye t r o l o g y 5,0 , 4 , 1 0 8 1 - 1 0 9 4 . s a l i n i t i t iiin j u r u l g u r i l o r D u n 6 r i iS , t u d i id e H i d r o l o g i e , GAsrescu,P., 1979, Evolutia tdrmuluiMirii Negre intre Xl, Bucuresti. bratul Sfdntu Gheorghesi grindul Perisor,Studii si BoNonn, C., 1972, Probleme de hidraulicd ale Cercetdri de Geologie, Geofizic6 si Geografie, XXVI, contactuluiapelor fluviale cu apele Mirii Negre la Bucuresti. GurileDundrii, Studiide Hidraulicd, XXXIl,Bucuresti. '1986,Modificarile t6rmului M6rii Negre, C., CnActutl, S., 1974, MSsurdtoriasupra GAsrescu,P., BoruonR, Universitatea din Bucuresti, Bucuresti. misc6rii a l u v i u n i l om r a r i n e l a g u r a c a n a l u l uS i ulina nisip marcat radioactiv, Studiide Hidraulici, GAstescu,P., 1993, The Danube Delta: Geographical utilizTnd Characteristics and Ecological Recovery, XXlX, Bucuresti. GeoJournal, 29, 1, 57-67, Kluwer Publishers, BononR,8., Srnre, 1., CERNEA, D., Mruescu,F., 1980, Amsterdam. imbundtititela studiui Aplicareametodeienergetice oroceselor dinamicii tdrmului romdnesc al Mdrii GAsrescu,P , Dnrce, 8., 1986, Morphohydrographical changes of Romanian accumulation Black Sea Negre,Studiide Hidrologie, XLV|ll,Bucuresti coast,RevueRoumaine et de G6ologie, Gographie BouonR, C,, Srnre, 1", Bure. C., 1983, Geneza si G6ophysique, 30, Bucuresti, 29-30. evolutia insulei Sahalin de la gura bratuluiSfdntu Grosnru, 1., 1993, Studiul evolutiei dinamice a sediStudiide Hidrologie,L, Bucuresti. Gheorghe, mentelor in zona litoralS din fata Deltei Dundrii, BoNDAR, C., Srnrr, 1., Burn, C., 1984, Caracte-risticile Lucrare Universitatea de diplomd, din Bucuresti. evolutieiversantului submarinal Deltei in perioada Gllsxow, V., 1970,Three-Dimensional T-S Analysisof 1830-1970, Studiide Hidrologie, 52, Bucuresti. of 10, Water Masses the Black Sea, Oceanology, 1992, BoruoeR, C., HnRneacru. E., Regimuldepunerilor 771-774. d e a l u v i u n i l a g u r a c a n a l u l u iS u l i n a , S t u d i i d e HALERMETER, R.J., 1981,A, Seaward Limit of Signiflcant HidraulicS. XXXII l. Bucuresti, Sand by Waves: Transport An Annual Zonationfor C., Srnrr, 1.,CERNEA, D., HnnRancru, E., 1992, Boruonn, Seasonal Profiles, U S Army Corps of Engineers, gurile si Dun5rii Scurgerea de apd aluviuni a la Technical Aid 81-2. b r a t e l o r D u n d r i i i n a n i i 1 8 5 8 - 1 9 8 8 ,S t u d i i d e HALERMETER, R.J., 19818, A Profile Zonation for XXX|ll, Bucuresti. Hidraulicd, Seasonal Sand Beaches fromWave Climate, Journal Bneren, A., TFoDoR, S.M., 1979, Utilizarea fotografiilor of the Waterway,Port, Coastaland Ocean Division, aerieneln determinarea dinamiciialbiilorr6urilora ASCE, New York,253-277. regiunilor deltaice, Studii de Hidrologie, XLVI, HRrucu, S., DurunD., Slrueorrlr T., A., DnN P., GnrruoA Bucuresti. privind 1992, Qercetdri hidraulice din amenajirile N P., Golueev,Y.N., KurreRxov, A.Y., 1992, Bur-cAxov, Delta Dun6rii,in scopul ameliordriialiment6riicu Energy Active Zones of the Black Sea, Doklady aluviuni a plajelor din sectorul litoral Sud i a u k ,3 2 6 ,1 , 1 7 7 - 1 8 0 R o s s i y s k oA y k a d e m iN Sf.Gheorghe-Cap Midia,Studiide Hidraulic6, XXXlll, '1995, lmpact of CepoernNco, M., AaRnur, G., Ruor-,P., Bucuresti. Climate Change on the Evolutionof the Po Delta Hnrusoru, H., Knnus,N.C., 1989, GENESIS:Generalised Plain. Framework for the Definitionof Boundary Model for SimulatingShorelineChange-Report1, of the Second Conditions, in Ozhan,E., Proceedings Technical Reference, U.S. Army Corpsof Engineers, lnternational Conference on the Mediterranean Technical RepodCERC-89-1 9. MEDCOAST-95. 754-767 Coastal Environment. D.L., DoLAN, 1989, Outer Banks of North IttunN, R., The R .H ,n E . CHARLTE R , . , D e J u u o , E . W . , 1 9 8 5 ,R o m a n i a i of Sediment and Inlet Dynamics Carolina: Budget Bird and M.Schwartz,The World's Coastline,Van Alonga Migrating BarrierSystem,Journalof Coastal NostrandReinhold Co., New York,459-465. . Research.5-2. 193-237 Cnrorue, M.A., Mrnr, D.J. et al,, 1992, Coastal 1992, Conservation Status of the Danube Delta, IUCN, ModellingSystem (CMS) User's Manual,U.S.Army Status Report, Volume4, Cambridge, Environmental Corpsof Engineers, Technical RepoftCERC-g1-1 .

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GEO.ECO-MARINA,2/199 7 National Institute of Marine Geology and Geo-ecologyof Romania Proc. lntern. Workshopon'Fluvial-Marine lnteractions" in Malnas,Romania,Oct.1-7,1996

L. Giosanet al. - LongshoreSedimentTransport Patternalong RomanianDanubeDelta Coast

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GEO.ECO-MARINA, U1997 National tnstitute ol Marine Geology and Geo-ecologyof Romania 'Fluvial-Marine Prac. Intern.WorkshoD on lnteractions'' in Malnas.Romania.Oct.1-7.1996

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