Grain & Feed Milling Technology September October 2013 - Full edition | Wheat | Automation

first published in 1891

The holistic approach to avoid losses in the feed mill

In this issue: •
Sieving technology in feed pellet production Mixed integer optimization:
a new step in formulation software

a new risk in maize production?

• •

the workhorses of industrial weighing

High-precision sensors:
the ideal solution for measuring grain humidity

A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891


September - October 2013


Published by Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace, St James’ Square Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700 Fax: +44 1242 267701 Publisher Roger Gilbert Tel: +44 1242 267707 Associate Editor Alice Neal Tel: +44 1242 267707 Design and Page Layout James Taylor Tel: +44 1242 267707



September - October 2013

Algeria’s first US grain imports Innovad’s global expansion Scientists speed up wheat breeding Feed Safety Assurance for milling by-products is licensed for delivery Biomin’s poultry star approved by EU Associations - Flour

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The holistic approach to avoid losses in the feed mill Increasing Pet food throughput Traceability in the food and feed supply chain Weighbridges the workhorses of industrial weighing Sieving technology in feed pellet production Mixed integer optimization a new step in formulation software PORTS: Continuous barge unloading High-precision sensors: the ideal solution for measuring grain humidity Managing mill maintenance: Flour mill training

10 14 18 24 28 32 36 38 44

Raw material outlook, by John Buckley 46 52 56 58 60 64

Circulation & Subscriptions Manager Tuti Tan Tel: +44 1242 267707 International Marketing Team Darren Parris Tel: +44 1242 267707 Lee Bastin Tel: +44 1242 267707 Tom Blacker Tel: +44 1242 267707 Richard Sillett Tel: +44 1242 267707 Latin America Marketing Team Ivan Marquetti Tel: +54 2352 427376 Pablo Porcel de Peralta Tel: +54 2352 427376 India Marketing Team Assocom-India Pvt Ltd Tel: +91 47 675216 Annual Subscription Rates Inside UK: UK£70 Outside: US$140/ Euros110 More Information

industry events
JTIC preview Livestock Asia review

the gfmt interview
Alfonso Garrido -sales director, Symaga, Spain

industry faces
Cargill’s new global technology director Double appointment at UK feed firm R-Biopharm Rhône’s new customer service manager From Kansas to Kenya: global accounts at Engrain

Cover image courtesy of Campden BRI©

Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published.

Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by

any means without prior permission of the copyright owner.

Global Miller

volume: 124 number 5

issn No: 1466-3872


Guest editor - Nelly Duprat, AEMIC
or four years, Grain & Feed Milling Technology has partnered the international JTICs (Les Journées Techniques de la Meunerie & des Industries Céréalières) organized by AEMIC (Association des Anciens Élèves des Écoles des Métiers des Industries Céréalières). I am happy and honored to have the opportunity today to present the editorial of this magazine and the actions of our association in the service of the wheat-flour-bread industry.


In the current economic and social context where overzealous individualism shows its limits, AEMIC members, JTIC participants and recruiters together form a dynamic and sustainable network at the heart of the cereals industry
Antoine de Saint-Exupéry said "the best job in the world is bringing people together." And that is also our motto at the AEMIC. Bringing together job-seekers and recruiters, suppliers and their customers, researchers and industrialists, through a placement/recruitment service, a directory, a technical journal and a trade show. Founded in 1925 by students of the French School of Milling, AEMIC’s aim is to develop and maintain professional and friendly links between the various players in the cereal industry, and to support the sector in France and abroad by communicating information about its products, occupations and training. AEMIC is run by a council of 15 volunteers representative of the sector by virtue of their businesses and the diversity of the positions that they occupy. It is managed on a daily basis by three employees entirely devoted to the service of its members. The association is attracting a growing number of members from partner schools and professionals wanting to add their experience to the dynamism of our association in promoting the French cereals industry. AEMIC partners four schools: ENSMIC, CNAM, Polytech, and the Compagnons du Devoir. These schools train technicians and engineers specializing in the cereals sector, representing a large pool of candidates. The association’s primary activity is to help students transition to the world of work by offering placements and junior jobs upon leaving school. It also tracks its members throughout their career and facilitates their professional mobility. Thanks to its placement/recruitment service dedicated exclusively to members of the association, AEMIC has become the partner of choice for companies

in the sector when recruiting skilled staff, millers, bakers, R&D engineers, account managers, quality assurance staff, production managers and more. Every two years, AEMIC publishes a members directory. In contrast to other directories in the cereals industry, it does not list companies but individuals. All members are characterized by their job, their position, their company, their geographic region, etc. A really useful tool for prospecting and researching jobs, the directory makes it easy to find and contact suppliers, customers, employers or job-seekers based on what you need. AEMIC also publishes the only French-language journal of technical and scientific cereals information. The journal Industries des Céréales is a training and information tool covering technical innovations and scientific research in cereals. The publishers of the journal also organize poster sessions at JTICs to comNelly Duprat, AEMIC municate to industrialists the latest research results and the applications developed for the industry. The 64th edition of the international JTICs will open its doors to professionals in the cereals industry from 13 November in Reims, France. This unique, unmissable event for all wheat and bread lovers, informed technicians, and investors looking for innovative solutions, attracts more than 2 000 participants over two days every year, from all corners of the world. They come to Reims to discover what France and Europe has to offer in the way of equipment, ingredients, products, services and training. More than a conference, more than a fair, the international JTICs organized by AEMIC is an opportunity to network, and to learn in an unparalleled atmosphere. Between plenary conferences presenting solid information about the latest topics, exhibitors offering solutions for every producer in the cereals chain, and events showcasing the latest innovations, visitors will have an embarrassment of choice. In the current economic and social context where overzealous individualism shows its limits, AEMIC members, JTIC participants and recruiters together form a dynamic and sustainable network at the heart of the cereals industry.

NEWS If you have a news story that you would like to see in our pages please send your releases to:

DAILY UPDATES For more industry news, try our daily news service - The Global Miller. Find it at:

2 | September - October 2013


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Heavy-Duty buckets with the Xtreme-Duty ones. If the new ones perform half as well as the originals, who knows how long they’ll last — maybe 20 years or more!

“ After a decade, we replaced our Tapco

Jamie Mattson Operations Manager JAMES VALLEY GRAIN, LLC Oakes, North Dakota, U.S.A. Jon Hansen Plant Operator


When James Valley Grain installed Tapco buckets in their new facility in 2001, nobody expected them to last this long. A lot of commodities of different density variations – like wheat, corn and soybeans – have run through the original 7.05-million-bushel terminal, which added extra wear on the STYLE CC-HD (HEAVY DUTY) buckets. Through the ® years, the volume of STYLE CC-XD (XTREME DUTY) material has gone way up, too.

Why 10 Years is Just a Drop in the Bucket When it Comes to the Performance of Tapco Buckets
calculated that the original Tapco buckets handled 169,297,881 bushels – and most of those buckets were the originals.” Anticipating even more volume, the plant recently decided to upgrade to Tapco CC-XD (Xtreme Duty) buckets – made with 35-50% more resin thoughout – not just at critical wear points. “Ten years is a long time for buckets to endure, especially running as hard as we do,” Mattson says. “Honestly, when we took them off, it was pretty incredible how well they wore. If the new ones perform half as well as the originals, who knows how long they’ll last – maybe 20 years or more!” Extend the longevity of your loadout legs with Tapco buckets. Find out why 75% of design engineers, contractors and bucket elevator manufacturers* trust Tapco to keep business moving.

“We went from five million bushels the first year to around 30 million the last four years,” Jamie Mattson, Operations Manager, James Valley Grain, says. “In fact, I just looked it up and


St. Louis, Missouri U.S.A.

Tel.: +1 314 739 9191 • +1 800 AT TAPCO (+1 800 288 2726) • Fax: +1 314 739 5880 •
*Grain Journal, Country Journal Publishing Co., Inc., Decatur, Illinois, U.S.A. The color blue, when used in connection with elevator buckets, is a U.S. registered trademark owned by Tapco Inc. © 2013 Tapco Inc.® All rights reserved.


September - October 2013


A blog dedicated to professionals - including nutritionists - in the transportation, storage and milling of grains, feedstuffs, rice and cereals, globally. Hello Millers We live in a technological age. With ever-increasing advancements in digital technology, research and development has never been so prominent. Over the past few weeks, the Global Miller has featured a range of the newest technologies and product developments that have taken the agricultural world by storm. There’s an app for that… American navigation company Trimble recently announced the launch of its Connected Farm™ Fleet app, built to serve managers and technicians by enabling them to access their fleet information from any location. Using smartphones and tablets, the app enables the fleet management sector of Trimble's industry-leading Connected Farm Web solution to go mobile. With the app, managers can track the location of vehicles, receive geofence and curfew alerts, analyse vehicle status, and view historical positions. Power to ewe UK based livestock feed manufacturer Keenan has partnered with British telecommunications company Vodafone to supply a machine-to-machine (M2M) solution to improve nutritional data analysis. M2M technology allows Keenan’s livestock machines and databases to share data over the Vodafone telecommunications network, using SIM cards embedded in the hardware. Keenan found that tracking data through M2M provides accurate, fine-tuned feed mixes for the farm’s animals by drawing on livestock data. Follow the current Here at GFMT we constantly strive to find new ways to deliver our content to readers everywhere. That’s why we’re now featured on Google Currents. The new Google app provides our full Global Miller news service, suitable for Android, iPhone and tablets alike. You can register and sign up using the link below. Note: Before signing up, please ensure you have downloaded the Google Currents app to your device and logged in. Would you like fries with that? History was made back in August with the launch of the world’s most expensive burger. It was not just the price of the patty that got the world talking – a steal at 250,000 euros – but the production of the meat itself. Produced using bovine stem cells cultured in a laboratory, the fibres were extracted from individual culture wells and then pressed together into a recognisable burger patty. Although in its infancy, it is hoped this new technology could be a sustainable way of meeting the rising demand for meat.

Algeria’s first US grain imports
year ago, the US Grains Council ( USGC ) and the US Depar tment of A griculture ( USDA)’s Foreign Agricultural Service announced efforts to convince Algeria, to remove value added and custom tax on all feed imports to the countr y, including dried distiller grains with solubles ( DDGS ) and corn gluten feed (CGF). As a result of these efforts, this September, the USGC made its first high-value import into Algeria since successfully removing the ta xes. The f irst shipment of DDGS and CGF was unloaded into the country with import duties and taxes reduced to zero until August 2014. In May 2009, in partnership with national poultry programme ONAB, Algeria's, the council conducted feeding trials on the inclusion of DDGS in broiler diets. The par tnership has also worked to provide training and pricing courses on corn use. “This shipment of U S DDGS and corn gluten feed will open the door for e nd - u se r s i n A lge r i a t o b u y U S cor n co - produc t s in t he future ,” s aid Car y Sifferath, regional director, USGC Middle East and Africa. “The council sees opportunities for these products fitting well into both the Algerian poultry and dairy industries.” W i t h o n l y 3 p e rce n t o f t h e c o u n t r y considered ar able, Algeria is currently the largest importer of food products in Africa. With a population of 35 million, it is also one of the largest importers of feed grains, second only to Egypt. As a result, the USGC is also working to educate large Algerian commercial feed companies and end-users on incorporating feed products in livestock rations.


Innovad’s global expansion


elgian based feed additive producer Innovad is set to expand. In a move that will secure an eighth international location, the company is breaking into the US market with a new Delaware based company Innovative Additives, Inc. Innovative Additives, Inc. will service the USA market with a rolling stock of inventory located in Baltimore, Maryland. The expansion will offer both new and existing clients full access to all Innovad’s animal health and production products, which represent some of the most unique and advanced technologies in the swine, poultry, dairy and beef industry. Heading the new company general manager Mike Collins brings over 25 years of experience in manufacturing, nutrition and sales, adding to Innovad’s experienced network of professionals.

This month we have added our pictures from Cereals Event 2013 to our Facebook page - take a look at:

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September - October 2013


Scientists speed up wheat breeding
cientists at the University of Queensland ( UQ ) , Australia have developed a new strain of wheat that is resistant to stripe rust and preharvest sprouting. By utilising a new breeding strateg y, the development time of the new wheat strain has been reduced from ten to just two and a half years. Dr Lee Hickey, researcher at UQ's Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, said t h e t e c h n o l o g y wo u l d b e of great benef it to farmers in the next couple of years, with field trials being grown


in Victoria and New South Wales. “Pending the performance of the wheat lines, we reckon that this new wheat variety with high-yield potential, resistance to stripe rust and pre-harvest sprouting tolerance could be available to southern growers in less than four years,” said Hickey. Wo r k i n g a l o n g s i d e h i s supervisor Dr Mark Dieters, the pair used a novel approach to transfer multiple genes for resistance to stripe rust and grain dormancy into the Australian wheat cultivar H45. First released in the 1990s, H45

was a successful wheat variety that boasted fast maturity and high yield potential. First adopted by growers in Victoria and New South Wales, it has since been abandoned due to its susceptibility to the current strains of stripe rust. As with all wheat varieties in Australia, H45 also lacked adequate grain dormancy to protect against pre-harvest sprouting. “ We developed 84 wheat lines, each 90 to 95 percent genetically similar to the H45 variety, but with multiple genes for resistance to rust and preharvest sprouting,” said Hickey.

“There are no wheat varieties available to Australian growers that offer adequate protection against pre-harvest sprouting, so this would be a first. “The population also displays useful variation in physiological characteristics, including days to flowering, maturity, spike length, leaf width, seedling vigour, and grain size. The UQ team has also utilised the same techniques to rapidly produce dise ase -resist ant strains of barley, working with breeding and seed companies across Australia and overseas to speed up grain improvement techniques.

Guttridge Ltd, in partnership with main contractor Chief Industries UK Ltd, will supply all the materials handling equipment for a new chicken feed unit in Georgia. The new unit will be established at the heart of Chirina Ltd, the largest integrated chicken production business in the region.

The Norwegian government has pledged US$23.7 million in a bid to conserve and manage the world's most important food crops, focusing on the critical need for crop diversity. "In just ten years we will have a billion more people at the global dinner table, but during that same time we could see climate change diminish rice production by ten percent with a one degree increase in temperature," said Marie Haga, executive director, Global Crop Diversity Trust.

The second phase of a rice genome sequencing project run by Vietnam and the UK was been launched in Hanoi, Vietnam. The first stage of the project successfully sequenced 36 lines of native Vietnamese rice. The next step is to characterise the genetic diversity of these 36 varieties of rice with particular attention being paid to tolerance to flooding, drought, pests and disease.

Cargill has announced plans to construct a new state-of-the-art feed mill in Hedrick, Iowa, US at a cost of USD$29 million. The new feed mill, which will be capable of producing 350,000 tons of pelletized hog feed annually, is strategically located in proximity to the already established feedstock raw material supplies and hog finishing operations in southeast Iowa and northern Missouri. The feed mill is scheduled to be complete in late 2014.


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September - October 2013 | 5

September - October 2013


Feed Safety Assurance for milling by-products is licensed for delivery


n the coming decades, the world p o p u l at i o n w i l l g row t o a b o u t nine billion people. At the same time, the welfare level is rising throughout the world. This results in higher demand for safe cere al produc t s for human consumption. At the same time, the safety requirements for milling by-products used for animal feeding are also becoming more stringent. Meat, dairy and egg products must comply with high food safety standards, so demonstrable control of feed and food safety is becoming more and more important for domestic and export markets.

The international GMP+ Feed Safety Assurance certificate is the most suitable tool for the milling industry regarding the production of milling byproducts to cope with the new challenges in the domestic as well as the export feed markets. In northwestern Europe a lot of milling companies not only use GMP+ certification for the production of milling by-products for the feed market, but also for the transport of cereals intended for human consumption. It is the most suitable available tool to transport food grade cereals in a safe way.

Importance of demonstrable assurance
Two examples underline the importance of demonstrable feed safety assurance. In spring 2010, contaminated maize from the Ukraine resulted in dioxin in Dutch eggs, which were sold to German supermarkets. In February 2013, a number of European countries were confronted with increased aflatoxin contamination of maize from Serbia, Hungary and Romania. It led to an increased level of aflatoxin found in milk products, but it also raised concerns about feed and food safety. These two examples detail the influence of feed quality on the safety of consumers’ products. However, there are also examples of the international character of the animal feed chain.

Global food availability


1% Increase in agriculture production
in Africa in the last 20 years

114 - 120 The global increase
in average kcal/person/per day energy supply in the last 20 years

51% The amount of energy provided
by cereals, roots and tubers between 2007-2009

13% The amount of protein/person/ per day at world level between 20072009 31% Of children under f ive in
Egypt affected by stunting caused by malnutrition

110 – 140 kcal/person/per day
energy supply in Africa

20 – 45% Average global stunting figures between 2005 and 2010
Source: FAO Statistical Yearbook of the Food and Agricultural Organization for the United Nations, Rome 2013
6 | September - October 2013

Feed Safety Assurance (GMP+ FSA)
The Feed Safety Assurance module started in 1992 as a Good Manufacturing

Practice code. Nowadays, it is a well-elaborated certification scheme for the whole feed chain, with a number of tools integrated in this scheme. HACCP and the requirements for quality management system according to ISO 9001/22000 are fundamental to the scheme. In addition, for the different types of feed companies in the feed chain, prerequisite programmes are integrated too: both for assuring a certain level of feed safety, and also for maintaining product standards (maximum permitted levels of undesirable substances). The chain approach is crucial. What this means in principle is that all suppliers in the chain should be certified in order to control risks at all stages of the chain. All these tools are used for prevention of contamination. Corrective tools are traceability and the early warning system, which can be applied in case

of occurrence of an incident to avoid further distribution of contaminated feed products. At the end of 2013, GMP+ will introduce a GMP+ B1.2 standard, combining ISO22000, PAS222 and GMP+ FSA standards. This will be interesting for food companies like the milling industry, to comply with market demands regarding ISO22000 as well as GMP+ certification.

All links of the feed chain, worldwide
The GMP+ Feed Certification scheme covers the whole feed chain between cultivation and livestock farming. At this moment, over 12,000 companies in the feed chain, located in over 65 countries worldwide, are GMP+ certified. More


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September - October 2013 Biomin’s poultry star approved by EU
new feed additive developed by animal nutrition company Biomin has secured renowned success as the only feed additive of its kind to achieve EU authorisation. The multi-species, hostspecific probiotic will be marketed in the EU under the umbrella of the globally successful Poultr ySt ar ® brand. Biomin carried out intensive research f o r t h e d e ve l o p m e n t of its Poultr yStar® brand, suppor ted by the EU Commission in collaboration with various universities and industry partners. The brand is both a result and key example of a successful industrial partnership. T h e u n i q u e p ro b i o t i c str ains in Poultr y St ar ® were isolated from the gut of healthy chickens, making them host-specific, safe and efficacious for antibiotics, PoultryStar ® addresses the demand for a product that can help tackle infectious poultry dise a se s , per for m ance losses, food-borne diseases in humans and the increased use of therapeutic antibiotics. “Feed additives are v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i ve s t o t ackle potential he alth problems in poultry which is a necessity in our industr y,” says Mickaël Rouault , technical & marketing director for Europe, the Middle East and Africa. “ Poultr ySt ar® of fers nutritionists and veterinarians confidence as a tried-and-tested product with strong scientif ic evidence that proves its abilit y to effectively enhance the health of birds especially in the starter and grower phases. A strong gut helps secure the performance and homogeneity of broiler f lock s through to the finishing stages of growth.”



use as a feed additive for poultry. More impor t antly, the PoultryStar® strains were selected from different p a r t s o f t h e c h i c ke n intestinal tract to ensure their reproduction and colonisation throughout most of the gut . The product promotes beneficial gut microflora in day-old chicks and birds of all ages, providing a much higher resistance to pathogens. “ Sever al feeding trials worldwide have already conf irmed the ef f icacy of Poultr yStar® in alleviating a wide range of pathogenic conditions such as coccidiosis, necrotic enteritis, bacterial lameness and salmonellosis, in addition to improving performance parameters,” s ay s M i c h ae l a M o h n l , d i r e c t o r, c o m p e t e n c e centre microbials, Biomin. In light of tight worldwide restrictions on in-feed

he International Milling Directory has been through a sudden rush of good news. I'll cover the latest events where the 21st edition has had its final physical copy Tom Blacker distribution and how the new 22nd edition is in an exciting stage where the team is working with me to finalise its delivery. At Livestock Asia 2013, 24-26th September in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia the last of the distribution of hard-copy directories were given out to millers and interested visitors to this important exhibition. There was great interest from many involved in all parts of the value chain of livestock, feed and farming that really surprised us. People were really quite happy to know that there is a new version on the way but the free distribution at events where we are exhibiting media partners delivers a great source of information, products and access to milling services in one guide. Otherwise, the team has been going beyond expectations for the new version. The design is looking great, the printer is primed and ready and the increase in our own involvement in milling and feed events in 2014 has led to revisions about how to most effectively bring this publication to those who matter and when it matters most. The blog has been seeing interesting updates which we encourage you to see the latest from our side of the directory. Go to www. for that. We are always still registering new companies for online and mobile app – please do go online and follow the easy steps for free registration today. The website is : w w w.internationalmilling. com and the mobile app can be downloaded from http://mobile.


GM debate heats up in China. The ever-present subject of genetically modified food has sparked a controversial debate between two of China's most powerful governing institutions. Peng Guangqian major general in the People’s Liberation Army suggested that Beijing’s GM policy allowed more trade in genetically modified grains, suggesting that GMOs are a Western strategy designed to compromise China’s food security. “If things change and the West cuts off our grain supply, are 1.3 billion people going to drink the north-western wind?” said Guangqian, who is also deputy secretary-general of China’s National Security Policy Committee. In response to this, the Ministry of Agriculture, the authority on China’s GMO policy, posted a question-and-answer transcript

A range of companies, government agencies and universities have set up an international organisation with the aim of promoting insects as a viable feed and pharmaceutical resource. The International Insect Centre (IIC), based in Brabant, the Netherlands will develop joint projects and rally towards breakthroughs in international legislation and regulation. As

According to news information service allAfrica, nutritionists in Tanzania are supporting a recent study that demands the mandatory fortification of some cereals to lead to the near eradication of anaemia. Speaking exclusively to a local Tanzanian newspaper, Dr Joyceline Kaganda, training director, Food and Nutrition Centre (TFNC) Department of Nutrition Education stated that anaemia is a big problem, especially in children under five and women of child-bearing age. "Based on the poor nutrition situation Tanzania is facing, there is a great need for mandatory fortification on some cereals," added Kaganda.

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September - October 2013 | 7

featuring an official from its GMO security committee. Lin Min, director of the Biotechnology Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, rejected Peng’s claim that “many scientists through experiments have proven GMO food is highly linked to cancer and infertility.” Min suggested that the US is the world’s largest consumer of GMO crops, adding that as China faces rising strains on its arable land, its use of “foreign resources and market coordination are inevitable.”

a cooperative, the Centre will also help parties who wish to contribute to the promotion of insects for food.



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UK nabim is the representative organisation for the UK flour millers, representing virtually 100 percent of the industry. Wheat is the industry’s main raw material, with approximately five million tonnes milled annually to produce four million tonnes of flour. nabim works closely with others in the agri sector including plant breeders, farmer organisations, agronomists, levy boards, research communities, grain merchants, bakers and government departments, covering wheat breeding and agronomy, food safety, training and health and safety, environmental matters and trade matters. Currently, the UK flour milling industry consists of 31 companies, operating a total of 53 milling sites. About 85 percent of the wheat used by UK flour millers is homegrown. France and Germany are the main wheat import countries within the EU, whilst Canada tops the import charts for the rest of the world. Imports account for approximately one percent of UK flour sales, while about two percent of production is exported. Currently, the main export destination for UK millers is the Republic of Ireland (about 160,000 tonnes per year). Associate Membership to nabim is available to businesses linked to flour, with eligibility extending to companies who do not operate in the UK and Irish markets.
8 | September - October 2013

Romanian National Association of Flour Milling and Baking Industries (ANAMOB)
Romania The Romanian National Association of Flour Milling and Baking Industries (ANAMOB) is a professional, non-governmental and non-political association. ANAMOB represents the interests of private millers and bakers helping to facilitate economic, financial, and legal contacts with other governmental and non-governmental organisations both local and foreign. Collaboratively established in 1994 by 57 companies, ANAMOB is now made up of over 170 members from all over Romania. ANAMOB is supported by US organisations Agricultural Cooperative Development International (ACDI) and the Volunteers in Overseas Cooperative Assistance (VOCA), who provide technical and financial information to Romanian millers, bakers and members of the association.

National Technical Association of Flour Milling Industry (ANTIM)
Italy The National Technical Association of Flour Milling Industry (ANTIM), was established in Bologna, Italy on December 7, 1990 with a total of 50 members. Today, ANTIM has over 120 members, ranking high in lists of registered millers, business owners, milling systems testers, quality control managers, students and managers of leading manufacturers involved in the milling sector. According to global food and agri financing service Rabobank, the Italian milling industry has lost a lot of its export market to lower cost exporters in the last decade. As a result, Italy now profits from the domestic artisanal bakery sector.

&feed milling technology

Turkish Flour Industrialists Federation (TFIF)
Turkey The Turkish Flour Industrialist Federation (TFIF) was founded in March 2005 with the aim of meeting the needs of the flour sector by seeking solutions to its problems and contributing to its stable growth. TFIF functions as an integrated structure comprising eight associations and 388 members as well as stakeholders throughout Turkey.
Top Ten Flour Export Countries Number Country Export Amount (kg) 64,597,873 13,446 5,090,900 4,307,500 3,880,000 4,364,000 4,246,000 3,436,652 2,695,903 2,307,000 Export Total (US$) 31, 689, 016 5, 483, 510 2, 207, 322 2, 005, 012 1, 759,163 1, 715,258 1,689,929 1,477,475 1,132,840 946,207

Caribbean Millers Association
Jamaica Not only does the Caribbean boast idyllic weather and scenery, it is also home to thousands of wheat-crop acres. The main wheat crop islands include Jamaica, Belize, Curaçao, Barbados, and Grenada. The Caribbean Millers’ Association comprises flour mills from all over the Caribbean and Central America. The first annual association meeting was held in Bridgetown, Barbados on November 8, 1996. The association, which was established on November 5, 1996, aims to protect the flour milling industry from unfair competition, develop and exchange problem-solving ideas across the region and present a regular lobbying position for negotiation with governmental agencies.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Iraq Philippines Benin Angola Syria Madagascar Gambia Thailand Sierra Leone Ghana

A key organisation, TFIF contributes significantly to the industry and economy, offering comprehensive and improved services within the flour sector. TFIF formulates its policies based on the understanding that wheat is a strategic product and that its importance is constantly increasing. TFIF is in favour of policies that promote wheat cultivation in Turkey.

The Brazilian Association of Wheat (Abitrigo)
Brazil The Brazilian Association of Wheat (Abitrigo) was established in Brasilia on June 17, 1991 to represent the wheatmilling sector. Associates are responsible for processing 75 percent of the wheat in the country and manufacture a wide range of flour for industrial and artisanal breads, pasta and cookies and the domestic segment, and wheat bran. In June 2013, Abitrigo celebrated its 22nd year in operation. Throughout this time, it has been working in the interests of its members and the industry, promoting the integration of the wheat chain and sustainable growth of the wheat and flour market. As a trade association, Abitrigo works to defend and preserve the general and common interests of its members in relation to economic, political, legal and tax, supporting them in technical issues related to industrial activities. To support its industrial activities, the association works together with wheat farmers, cooperatives, research institutes and government to represent the wheat chain both in Brazil and the rest of the world.

Source: Turkish Statistical Institute

The association aims to secure its place as a world leader in the flour trade by continuing to export to more than 100 countries, find new markets and ensure the continuity of efforts based on education and science. TFIF hopes that this cooperation of interest in sharing international experience and culture will contribute to the success of Turkish agriculture. TFIF’s goal is to have a 50 percent share of global trade. To achieve this, the organisation draws on two main strategies. The first one is to maintain its reputation as a key player in the global flour market. The second is to ensure and promote Turkish flour as a trademark both locally and internationally. Turkey is one of the world’s largest flour exporting countries, a global leader in wheat flour trade, technology and quality. Between 2005-2013, Turkey exported around 2,000,000 metric tonnes of wheat flour. Throughout June 2013, the country exported 125,381 tonnes of flour to 54 countries producing an income of US$57,287,707.

The North American Millers’ Association, (NAMA) has named Jim McCarthy as its new president. McCarthy joins NAMA from the Snack Food Association (SFA). With over 20 years experience, he has represented the food industry in Washington, successfully campaigning to help solve a range of state and federal issues including childhood obesity, trade restrictions, use of trans-fats, food safety, food stamps, hunger, and proposed taxes on snack foods. “I am looking forward to working with the NAMA board and members to chart a new course for the association’s future,” said McCarthy. “I have worked with NAMA’s excellent staff on a number of occasions and I am eager to join the team and learn more about the industry.” McCarthy succeeds Mary Waters, who resigned from NAMA earlier this year.

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September - October 2013 | 9


The holistic approach to avoid losses in the feed mill
by Yiannis Christodoulou, president, Agentis Innovations, Thailand


n the past five years the cost of ingredients and many feed additives has risen significantly.

correct location for discharge as well as provide for accurate stock inventory and traceability.

However, many feed companies within the Asia Pacific region still do not maintain tight control on stock inventory, scale tolerances and the volume of recycled fines and rework arising from inefficient production processes and equipment. This lack of control should be considered unsustainable and the aim of this paper is to highlight some of the common areas where waste and losses occur and what steps can be taken to improve so that feed companies remain competitive. For the purpose of this paper, we are going to consider a typical feed mill from the region, that receives bag and bulk tip raw materials and ingredients, stores corn in silos before transfer to the feed mill for grinding and blending and has a meal and pelleting line for production of final feeds in either packing silos or bulk silos.

Raw material unloading
Control of the unloading of raw materials is important to avoid waste. Waste can occur from a number of errors for both bags and bulk. For bulk intakes, errors can result in expensive losses due to incorrect manual silo selection or failure to recognise a silo is full. This represents both financial loss as well as nutritional loss due to mixing of different ingredients. Programmable Logic Control Units (PLC) in conjunction with adequate and appropriate instrumentation and software can eliminate this type of error through automatic route control and high level silo indicators to show when silos are full. Technology also provides sophisticated bag counters on the unloading conveyors which provide accurate real time stock inventory. Bag unloading can be inaccurate in terms of ensuring the correct number of bags are unloaded at the correct point. Technology now provides sophisticated bag counters on the unloading conveyors which are difficult to de-fraud and again provide real-time stock inventory.

rioration is a subject in itself and is a particular challenge in Asia Pacific region because of the need to take in grains at harvest and store for long periods of time. It is not uncommon to hear of significant volumes of grains being disposed of because they are unfit for purpose when emptying the silos. The other risk is the deterioration due to mycotoxin/bacterial contamination that often occurs due to long-term storage and which can result in significant nutritional losses. New in-line microwave moisture sensor technology is being utilised to provide real time information as grains either enter or leave the storage silos and are transferred into the feed mill, thereby providing valuable information to assess the total moisture loss from intake through to the mill storage phase. This will allow the operators to make adjustments based on the real moisture content of the formulated mixture or additional moisture addition, at the mixer or conditioning phase.

Raw material receiving
In the Asia Pacific region, many companies still rely heavily on bags and less in bulk for the receiving of ingredients. In either case it is common to see numerous trucks lined up either inside or outside the mill waiting to unload. This creates a number of challenges in terms of maintaining control of trucks and personnel while on site and ensuring the correct quantity and type of product are unloaded. Manual systems that rely on paperwork are prone to human errors. To counter this, automation systems can be installed that replace the paperwork and ensure the movement of trucks and ingredients to the
10 | September - October 2013

Losses occur at this process step due to the physical effect of grinding on moisture levels. Automating the control of the grinders is one method to optimise throughput and reduce energy costs as well as reduce the moisture loss associated with excessive grinding.

Grain silos and drying
Often the quantity of grains discharged into and out of silos is not known accurately due to the lack of a weigh scale hopper or in-flight conveyor weighing systems resulting in inaccurate stock reconciliation when transferred to the mill. The most common causes of loss are either wastage due to poor silo management or losses due to moisture shrinkage. Silo management to prevent grain dete-

Batch control
The weigh scale system is often associated with losses due to excessive tolerances and lack of in-flight material control. Clearly these losses are significant when you consider microscale weighers and the value of the products that are being weighed. Modern, appropriately sized, mulGrain

&feed milling technology

FEATURE tiple batch-weigh scales and digital PLC controls should provide an accuracy of 0.5 percent or less. Therefore, it is important to optimise the scheduling/production planning to ensure the flush process is only used where there is no alternative. This can be achieved most effectively through PLC control which can prevent cross contamination scheduling and programme the flush batch automatically before a sensitive feed type. The pelleting lines may also require flushing and this again will impact significantly on production cost. Some feed mills run the same feed material used for the mixer flush through to bulk or packing silos. This is certainly wasteful because of the time involved and the manpower required to pack or transport the rework back to the raw material silos or intake. Some feed companies use a specified quantity of the first batch of feed, following the coccidiostat or medicine, and run this through the line and recirculate as rework. Once again this is wasteful not only for the reasons already listed, but because each time you reprocess feed there will be some deterioration in some of the heat sensitive

Hand additions and premix addition
The losses that can occur at this stage are significant because of the impact of putting the wrong additive into the wrong feed type, or the impact of under or over dosing. The most effective method to reduce the risk of errors is to automate the process using either barcoding or weigh stations or a combination of both. This has the advantage of providing complete traceability which can also limit losses if an error does occur.

Flush batching
In many feed mills there is a requirement to flush or purge the mixer and pelleting lines to avoid carryover of specific materials or feed additives, coccidiostats and medicines. The method of how the mixer and pellet lines are flushed will impact how much loss is associated with this process. Mixer flushing is usually done using a defined quantity of raw material such as corn, which is then re-routed back to a nominated silo for inclusion into specified feed types. Each flush batch represents cost in terms of mixer time, energy consumption and potential losses associated with the re-circulation system.

vitamins as well as the risk of over-gelatinisation of starch leading to poorer nutritional performance. A more efficient flush procedure is to be able to use the flush batch as final feed. This can be done by either removing the coccidiostat or medicine in the final batch but adding this to the existing feed on the basis that when mixed with the original batches it will only represent a minor dilution. Once again the PLC pelleting control can control the routing of different feed types to each pellet line and ensure a flush is created before the next sensitive feed type.

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FEATURE pelleting and conditioning represent one of the most wasteful areas in terms of energy, blockage downtime and reprocessed feeds. The major limiting factors are manual control and poor conditioning. Automated pelleting can reduce the power consumption by more than 40 percent in some cases as well as improve the productive life of pellet die and rolls and prevent blockage and cleanout times. Automation removes the manual variability that leads to suboptimal steam conditioning and power settings resulting in variable pellet quality, which in turn results in a higher level of returns from the sieves. This is particularly important when producing crumbs because in some feed mills sieve return levels of 30 percent are not uncommon which is extremely wasteful as well as resulting in feed being reprocessed three or four times. Automated pellet control therefore results in a significantly lower level of returns from the sieves, reduced down time and blockages and efficient scheduling of flush batches.


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in the wrong silo or placing the product in a silo which is not empty can be avoided by implementing automated route control, fixed silos and high/low level indicators to provide accurate record of how much feed is in each silo. The other challenge is accurate data about the number of bags packed and sent to the warehouse. Weighing systems and bag counting technology can provide the necessary solution so that management personel are able to log the productivity of each packing line.

Bulk truck loading
The control of trucks entering the mill and loading procedure can be automated to avoid human errors and provide real time stock inventory and traceability. Modern bar coding technology or computer input screens can remove the element of human errors and avoid having drivers operate the loading system.

Batching or post pelleting liquid addition systems
Batching, pelleting or post pelleting liquid application systems require very a specific set up, nozzle type and accurate dosing due to the high cost of either over or under-application. Lack of automation control linked to the central batching system frequently leads to variable analysis or performance and variable pellet quality leading to further rework and waste.

Bag loading
In Asia Pacific this represents a real challenge because of the confusion that can occur from having multi loading belts and different products to load. The primary concern is inventory control to ensure the correct product type and quantity has been loaded. This can be most achieved by utilising scanning and bag counting technology.

There are two losses associated with the cooling process. One is the dust and fines that can be lost from the air ducting due to incorrect set up and fan speeds, and the second are the losses associated with moisture loss. New technology to reduce moisture loss during the cooling process is now available to the industry. This technology is specifically developed to provide vital information to a PLC in order to perform real-time control of a number of parameters that influence moisture loss.

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Plant maintenance
How many feed mills measure the amount of waste each month? An effective automated preventative plant maintenance plan can significantly impact the level of waste from leaks and blockages.

Poor pellet quality leads to an increase in fines and dust for rework which incurs losses. The ‘throughs’ of the sieves, at all settings, should wherever possible be routed back to the pelleting process for immediate reprocessing without the need for any intermediate storage or manual handling. Mills that have particularly long conveyor or elevator handling systems, or fall from the highest point (usually distributor head) also result in greater damage to pellets (or segregation of coarse and fine material in mash feeds) and hence dust. Sieves can be programmed to switch off when producing medicated feeds to avoid recirculation of medicated dust back to the pellet silos.

A lack of adequate waste control should be considered unsustainable if feed companies wish to remain competitive. Losses through moisture loss, inadequate waste control, accuracy of production or time management are not acceptable. Technology is available that can improve all of these factors and also provide valuable real-time stock control from intake to loading and full traceability from supplier to farm. Agentis Innovations is a specialist in providing and developing technologies that automate manufacturing processes and integrate data collection for the global agricultural industry which include animal feed, aquafeed, pet food, and premixes. More Information:

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Increasing Pet food throughput


ngrained within Suffolk history, Skinners Pet Foods has been producing dog food for over 40 years in their mill, which has been in operation since 1688. However, faced with a recent increase in product demand the familyrun business automated their manual bagging operation with equipment designed and installed by Pacepacker Services. The subsequent installation of a further two packaging lines - which weighs, bags, and seals - has increased throughput to almost 2,000 bags of pet food per hour - an increase on manual bagging of almost 70 percent. The lines, consisting of a C21 Multi Pile Sack Placer and a Total Bag Control System (TBC), were installed following the introduction of a new extruder which increased the product volume manufactured by Skinners and sold to vet practices and independent pet food traders. Two out of the three lines were designed to handle bags of up to 15 kg in weight - running at speeds of up to 500 bags per hour. However, the final line was introduced recently following an increase in demand for smaller bags of pet food, and subsequently achieved brand

growth for the manufacturer. Significantly, Pacepacker designed this bespoke third line as a miniature version

of the initial lines to handle the 2.5 kg bags - which is running on a throughput of 800 bags per hour. “Pacepacker equipment typically handles large bags between 15-50 kg in weight, but the flexibility of our systems is such that they can easily be reconfigured to handle smaller pack sizes and weights. As with most of our systems, the C21 and TBC have many options and interchangeable parts to accommodate different applications. Using this modular architecture, we created a ‘mini’ system for Skinners so that they could fulfill consumer demand for smaller more convenient bag sizes,” said Paul Wilkinson, business development manager, Pacepacker, UK. As highlighted by Michael Marjoram from Skinners Pet Foods, the Pacepacker system is extremely versatile with ultra quick-change filling heads for different bag and gusset sizes. “In total the three lines handle a combination of 36 different products, so we needed a system which was versatile enough to deal with this high changeover. While the weight Reforming gussets at the sack mouth of the product remains the same, the whilst still on the filling clamp provides a changeover of the bags has proved perfect finish quick and simple,” said Marjoram.

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Coinciding with the first installation, Skinners introduced a range of pet food products in plastic bags. Coupled with an

increase in demand from their customers for this form of packaging the move was also due to the cost effectiveness and durability of plastic bags - however the process did not come without complications. “Plastic bags are notoriously unstable to seal efficiently due to the material’s consistency and as our bags are trimmed and sealed at the top. It was almost impossible to achieve a consistent pack presentation when packed manually as the inside of the bags are white and any slight error would be on view. Since the line has been automated, however, Pacepacker’s system has continuously attained a perfect finish on each bag,” said Marjoram. This is achieved through the sack closing Total Bag Control System (TBC) which overcomes these problems by firstly reforming gussets at the sack mouth whilst still on the filling clamp then, by gripping the sack top prior to its release

onto a short static conveyor. Both the sack top and base are indexed clear of the filling clamp at high speed and in perfect synchronisation, allowing for the rapid placement of the next bag in readiness for filling. The top grip arms then transfer the filled sack to a pair of powered belts, which in turn feed the sack top trimmer and heat sealer thus ensuring neat, parallel seal. “The system consistently creates a perfectly presented pack, which in turn eliminates sack and product waste,” said Wilkinson. "Skinner’s line automation has been highly successful," said Marjoram. “The line consistently provides accurately finished bags and requires little operator supervision. Right from the beginning Pacepacker has been extremely accommodating to all our needs and exceeds our expectations; they have provided an excellent service and helped us achieve brand growth into new markets. Our original packing line staff were due to retire and we have not had to replace them as the Pacepacker equipment is easy to operate, low to maintain and quick to changeover and only one operator is required to oversee the operation.” More Information:
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by Chris Knight, head of agriculture, Campden BRI, United Kingdom
raceability identifies the path from where a product originated to where it has been supplied, and consists as a series of interlinking chain of records either between process steps in an individual food (or feed) business operation and/or between different stages in a food supply chain. There are two categories of information relating to traceability: • External traceability, which relates to product information that a food business operator either receives from suppliers or provides to customers the so-called one step back/one step forward approach • Internal traceability, which relates to the processing history within an individual food business operation, i.e. the matching up of all inputs to outputs The requirements for traceability apply to any business that trades in food at all stages of the food chain. This includes for example primary producers, grain stores, merchants, processors, manufacturers, transporters, and retailers. The food chain therefore is a series of separate operations in sequence linked by their respective inputs and outputs, where the output from one operation becomes the input for the next stage in the chain. Each operator in the food chain records information which links the operations and provides chain traceability. Most food business operators cannot create traceability through the whole supply chain, but each has a role to play in collecting and storing information about the materials supplied to them, their production process and the products they supply to customers for the section of the food chain under their control. Traceability in the food
18 | September - October 2013

in the food and feed supply chain
supply chain therefore relies on each food business operator establishing traceability, keeping associated records and being able to make traceability information available to whoever needs to know be this internally, customers or regulators. The focus therefore, is on individual food business operators establishing internal and/ or external traceability for the section of the food chain or production operation under their control. For an individual food business this is typically from receipt of raw materials (the inputs) to dispatch of finished products (the outputs). By linking each


Table 1: Stages in conducting a traceability study Stage 1 Define the scope of the study Define authority and responsibility The study terms of reference of the traceability system should be defined, including the product and process the study applies to and the product identity criteria that apply where applicable. A traceability study will require the establishment, implementation and maintenance of the traceability system, and is best carried out by persons with appropriate authority and knowledge of the product and process. A full description of the product(s) under study should be prepared, including defining key identity parameters which relate to traceability. Prior to the traceability study beginning it is necessary to carefully examine the process operations under study and produce a flow diagram around which the traceability analysis can be based. Identify and list the traceability attributes; conduct a traceability analysis to determine where identity is read, recorded and applied. The traceability personnel should put into place procedures that can be used to ensure compliance with the stated traceability procedures and to determine the effectiveness in use

Stage 2

Stage 3

Describe the product Define the process Conduct a traceability analysis Perform test and review activities

Stage 4

Stage 5

Stage 6

Efficient and accurate record keeping is essential to the successful application of traceability. It is important for the food business Establish to be able to demonstrate that the traceability system has been documentation Stage 7 implemented and maintained, and that the system documentation and record and records have been established and kept in a way appropriate keeping to the nature and size of the business. The retention time should also be defined. From Campden BRI Guideline No 60

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FEATURE • To assist in process control and management, e.g. stock and waste control There is however no single definition or system of traceability; it depends on many factors including the nature of the product and production operation. Traceability systems may also have different objectives such as assuring food safety and quality, product identity and provision of information to the next stage in the supply chain. Although regulations (e.g. EU General Food Law, Regulation 178/2002), international standards (e.g. ISO 22000) and private voluntary standards (e.g. BRC Global Standard for Food Safety and the UK Feed Materials Assurance Scheme) require traceability, none is prescriptive in the way traceability is achieved. This is because many options are available. Nonetheless, traceability comprises of three basic elements: • Supplier traceability - Identify and trace what material is received and from which business (the one step back external traceability) • Process traceability - Identify and trace what product is made from what materials, when and how (internal traceability) • Customer traceability - Identify and trace what product is supplied and to which businesses (one step forward external traceability)

food business operation in the supply chain together through their respective inputs and outputs, traceability in the supply chain can be established.

Key attributes of traceability
Traceability can be said to have a number of roles or benefits for food businesses, their customers and regulatory authorities, includ-

ing for example: • To identify and record the history of a product and locate it within the supply chain • To assist in targeted and accurate withdrawal or recall • To support claims about products and provide information to customers and consumers

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19.09.2013 13:48:16

FEATURE This is in turn linked to efficient record keeping. The Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) for example, which benchmarks food standards against food safety criteria, specifies with respect to traceability that there should be both internal and external traceability and that a standard shall ensure: • Identification of outsourced product, ingredient, or service • Complete records of batches in process or final product and packaging throughout the production process • Record of purchaser and delivery destination for all products supplied ISO 22000:2005 includes a specific requirement for a traceability system. This covers the establishment and application of a traceability system that enables the identification of product lots and their relation to batches of raw materials, processing and delivery records. Specific reference is also made to identifying incoming raw materials from the immediate supplier and the initial distribution route of the end product, and record keeping. This is equivalent to establishing external and internal traceability plus associated record keeping. In general legal requirements focus on external traceability and do not require internal traceability. In European Union food law, for example, food business operators must be able to: • Identify from whom and to whom product has been supplied • Have systems and procedures in place that allow this information to be made

available to competent authorities upon their request

Product identity
The key to a successful traceability system is also about the assigning of unique identifiers to specific batches of raw materials, in process materials and finished product, and maintaining the integrity of the batch together with its information. Maintaining batches can be achieved in space or time, e.g. physical separation of materials in separate units or specific production run times. What constitutes a batch and how it is identified will depend on the nature of the product and production operation. In a grain store for example, a batch may be a grain storage bin or compartment in a flat store, whereas in a process operation a batch may be a production run date or time. Maintaining and identifying batches should also consider the type of unit operation. For example, whether batches are transferred, joined or split. Transfer is the simplest of operations, where product identification is transferred with the product through one or more steps in a process. That is

where the traceability information is retained and the identification is transferred between the process steps. Joining is where one process step combines several traceability units; each with a unique identification code and a new identification code is established for the joined materials. Splitting, on the other hand, is where a traceability unit is split and used in the production of new traceability units, each with a new identity code, for example, in different processes, products, or customer destinations. In a grain handling operation for example, a number of individual identified deliveries may be mixed and joined in one storage bin. The storage bin is then the new identified material. As the grain in the storage bin is used it is split into separate individual units, each of which has a separate identifier based on the use. The important aspect is that there are clear records of the identity of the materials that are loaded into the bin (the inputs) and the materials that are unloaded from the bin (the outputs). In this way a traceability trail is established around the storage bin, albeit materials are joined and the mixed materials subsequently split. The actual identifying reference used will depend on the organisation and the traceability system used. In its simplest form a batch may be assigned a unique sequential number, date or identification reference (e.g. storage bin number). An alternative might

20 | September - October 2013

&feed milling technology

FEATURE be to encode further details using an alphanumeric substitution code. The principle of product coding is to ensure that the various sources of traceability information that are used in an operation are linked, so that the history of the product can be established. activities to ensure the traceability system is fully effective. Examples include documentation and record keeping, internal audits, training, control of non-conforming product and purchasing procedures. These enable the traceability system to be focused on the mechanics of traceability, and help the effective implementation of traceability. The system of traceability adopted by a food or feed business operation and the level of traceability achieved will depend on the nature of the product and type of production operation. In a typical milling or feed operation, there will be a degree of joining and splitting of materials, and products may either be supplied in bulk or discrete units such as large bags or small sacks. In other types of food business, more direct traceability may be achievable and identify is transferable directly between process steps or operations. An animal, for example, can be identified individually and the feed materials consumed by the animal traced. That identity can be retained with the carcass after slaughter and cutting. It is therefore for the business to decide on the level of traceability achieved and identity applied to product units. This, however, needs to be clearly defined in the traceability system adopted. The planning stages establish the essential characteristics of the product and process relevant to traceability and organisational responsibility. This involves establishing the scope, responsibility for traceability, product details and the process operations. They enable the personnel involved with the traceability system to focus on the key issues and ensure the system is established, implemented and maintained effectively. The traceability analysis (Stage 5) depicts how and where traceability is established and the control points in the process. The analysis is systematically applied at each process step in sequence as defined in the flow diagram (Stage 4). In practice this involves establishing three traceability criteria at each process step: • What identification details (codes or identifiers) are read? • What information relevant to traceability is recorded? • What identifications (codes or identifiers) are transferred to the next step (new or retained)? The purpose is to identify the traceability information that is read relevant to the materials used and applied to the materials which are transferred to a subsequent step, together with the records taken. The latter may be a new identifier or one that is retained from the materials used. If, in the analysis, it is determined traceability is compromised in any way and it is deemed necessary to establish traceability then the procedures need to be modified to ensure

The traceability system
How a traceability system is to be established, implemented and maintained by a food business depends very much on the nature of the product and the production operation. The traceability system will also need to take account of any regulatory and adopted international or private voluntary standard requirements. There are four basic components of a traceability system: • Organise and plan traceability • Implement traceability • Ensure effective operation of traceability • Document and record traceability When planning traceability it is helpful to conduct a traceability study. A typical study comprises seven stages (Table 1). These stages include essential planning stages (Stages 1 to 4), the implementation stage (Stage 5) and maintenance stages (Stages 6 and 7). In addition there are also a number of procedures that support. (and interrelate with) a traceability system and underpin the effective operation of traceability. Typically these form part of a quality management system and provide essential supporting

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FEATURE an appropriate level of traceability is established. Performing test and review activities (Stage 6) is akin to verification of HACCP systems. The objective is to confirm that the traceability system is working effectively. The aim is to demonstrate conformance with stated procedures and that traceability is established effectively. For traceability systems there are two key questions: • Does traceability work in practice? That is, is there conformance with the traceability system as implemented and is working in practice? Typical examples are audits or other inspections of the systems, and testing the system in some way, e.g. a traceability test and mass balance check • Is the traceability system up to date? That is, has there been any change that affects traceability, e.g. with the product or process? This will involve a periodic review of the traceability system the materials received into the business (process step 1), which are also the grain supplied by another business (the one step back), and by the identification of the grain supplied to another business (process step 5), which is also the material received by another business (the one step forward). Internal traceability is established by the matching of inputs (step 1 intake) to the outputs (step 5 dispatch) through the steps in the process (temporary holding, drying and storage). In this example it is not possible to directly link the materials received to the materials supplied to the customer. This is because there has been joining or splitting of grain at various steps in the process. Different traceability units are joined and mixed in bulk storage units at steps 2 and 3. There is splitting where grain is drawn from the long-term grain store to make separate deliveries to customers. However, the records taken would clearly identify the identification references of all the components joined or split at the process steps. In this way internal traceability is established at each process step including steps where grain is bulked and split, albeit that direct traceability of individual batches received is lost. Direct traceability might theoretically be achieved if the grain received, depending on source or the type grain, is handled and stored separately. That is where product identification is transferred with the product through one or more steps in the process, and the identification is transferred between the process steps. However, in a typical grain storage operation this may not be a practical option due to the nature of the handling operation and bulk storage. Traceability in this example may be summarised as follows: • Suppliers: Information relating to from whom grain has been supplied is linked to intake records (one step back external traceability) • Process: Information relating to the matching of inputs to outputs is linked to storage and drying records (internal traceability) • Customers: Information relating to whom grain is supplied is linked to dispatch consignment records (one step forward external traceability)

Grain storage traceability analysis
An example traceability analysis is given in Table 2. This depicts a typical grain storage operation. The example is given for illustrative purposes only and demonstrates a generic approach to traceability in such an operation. The details such as identification read, records taken and identification applied are shown for indication only. However, the traceability analysis concept that is demonstrated can be applied to any product or production operation. External traceability in this example is established by the identification of

Table 2: Traceability in a grain storage operation - Terms of reference Product Wheat


The storage of harvested grain Start: Intake of grain from farms and merchants (suppliers) Finish: Dispatch of grain to customers Grain is handled in bulk. Grain is identified by the bulk consignment reference (external traceability) or storage unit identity reference (internal traceability)

Traceability criteria

Traceability analysis (each process step in the grain storage operation) Process step Identification read Recorded information Identification applied

1: Grain intake Receipt of grain from suppliers, including intake checks and tipping of grain at intake point 2: Temporary holding Temporary storage of grain pre-drying (bin store) 3: Grain conditioning Cleaning and drying grain by heated-air (batch or continuous process) 4: Long-term storage Storage of conditioned grain in cool and dry conditions (bin or flat store) 5: Dispatch Unloading of store, and loading of transport vehicle

Supplier’s lot, batch or consignment reference

What was received (lot, batch or consignment reference), the quantity, who supplied it, and date received What received grain is loaded into a temporary store is detailed on intake records What was dried, from what (temporary store references), how and when What dried grain is loaded into a long term store is recorded on the drying records What product was supplied (long term store reference), to whom and when

Supplier’s lot, batch or consignment reference is retained

Supplier’s lot, batch or consignment reference

Temporary store reference

Temporary store reference

Drying batch or run reference

Further reading
Long term store reference

Drying batch or run reference

Traceability in the food and feed chain: General principles and basic system requirements. Campden BRI Guideline No 60 More Information:
Tel: +44 1386 84201 Fax: +44 1386 842100 Email: Website:

Long term store reference

Each delivery of stored grain supplied is identified by a unique consignment reference

22 | September - October 2013


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Photo: Weighbridge load cell

WEIGHBRIDGES the workhorses of industrial weighing
by Mark Spick, Parkerfarm Weighing Systems, United Kingdom
eighbridges play a vital role in today’s grain, feed and milling industries, providing valuable weight data for incoming and outgoing vehicles at farms, mills, food processing plants, storage facilities and terminals, as well as for bulk loading activities. Today, a blend of versatile instrumentation, user-friendly software and communication technology is rapidly increasing the scope of weighbridges, thereby expanding their operational and data collection capabilities. Parkerfarm’s Mark Spick outlines what users should look for in a weighbridge and how the new technology is increasing operational efficiency.


These workhorses of weighing come in all different shapes, sizes and designs, manufactured from steel, steel-concrete composite and pre-stressed concrete. Designs include pit mounted and surface mounted; modular and portable. Typical capacities range from 30 to 100 tonnes, in lengths from 6 to 23 metres. Higher capacity units with increased dimensions are available, usually to special order. The common factor for all these variants is that they need to be robust, accurate and reliable. The choice for a particular application will depend on factors including maximum vehicle sizes and weights, available space, usage
24 | September - October 2013

and, of course, budget. Most weighbridges are operated in a drive-through manner. In other words the vehicles drive on at one end and off at the other. However, in applications where space is at a premium, vehicles may go on and off from the same end. Steel fabricated end boxes facilitate installation for such applications. For busy operations where vehicles are weighed in and out, the obvious choice is to operate two separate weighbridges. Not only does this streamline traffic flow, but it also gives the opportunity to service one bridge, while keeping the other operational. However, this is clearly a more expensive option and in many applications one weighbridge is sufficient.

Most mechanical weighbridges have now given way to fully electronic versions where the weighbridge deck or deck sections are supported on a number of strain gauge load cells, subsequently connected to weight instrumentation. As the name implies, pit-mounted weighbridges are flush with the ground. As a result, they pose no restrictions to on-site vehicle flow. Most mechanical weighbridges were installed in pits so new electronic pit mounted weighbridges using existing foundations provide a very cost effective answer. Surface weighbridges offer one of the

strongest designs and the side frames ensure vehicles always drive centrally through the bridge. Approach and departure ramps can either be of steel construction or pre-cast in concrete on-site. Removable steel ramps have the advantage of being able to be easily moved with the bridge if relocation is required, leaving the site level. Transportable weighbridges have special load cell assemblies and spreader plates, allowing temporary installation with minimum foundation preparation: steel ramps provide access. There are low profile units available that can be delivered as complete modular units that then fold out. The load cells and cabling are already installed within the modules making installation extremely simple. Concrete weighbridges can offer advantages for certain applications. Pour on-site composite versions provide a cost effective solution for low to medium use operations. These consist of a steel outer frame, inner strengthening beams and reinforcing mesh. Once the unit is assembled on-site, the ready mixed concrete is poured in and when the deck has cured, the load cells are fitted. This design is also suitable for installations where crane access is limited. Alternatively, the complete weighbridge can be constructed at the factory and delivered to site. Modular designs optimise transportation and installation costs.

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Solid foundations 
The foundations of any weighbridge are crucial to their performance. It is of little use having the most accurate load cells and well designed weighbridge structure if the foundations are not level or unstable. For pit weighbridges, adequate drainage is also important to prevent flooding. Where applicable, it is possible to install weighbridges on sloping terrain (up to 1:30) using special load cell mounting assemblies. This reduces on-site civil engineering costs. Significant end-to-end forces can be generated when vehicles drive on and off the weighbridge, especially if heavy braking occurs. Such forces can damage critical components such as load cells and can also cause serious damage to the surrounding structure. Built-in restraints are therefore an important part of any weighbridge design.

Environmental protection
Weighbridges are expected to operate in the harshest of environments often fully open to the elements. Therefore a well-structured finishing procedure is essential to provide optimum longevity. In a typical coating process all steel is shot-blasted to remove mill scale and surface imperfections prior to painting. This ensures maximum adhesion of the surface coating applications. In parallel, sound design principles ensure a well-drained deck and no hidden traps underneath where hidden corrosion can occur. Fully sealed IP68 load cells are essential for long term reliability.

Our sensors are successfully used in many applications to ensure product quality, maximise yield and save energy. Typical uses include:

• • •

Controlling the moisture in the grain drying process to save energy and ensure quality Optimising the efficiency of expensive additives such as mould inhibitors Controlling moisture content during the pelleting process

Hydro-Mix VII

Weighbridges are classed

Hydronix sensors are:

• • •

Suitable for chutes, silos, mixers or conveyors Not affected by dust or colour Temperature stable
Surface weighbridge
September - October 2013 | 25
GFMT half page vertical 90 x 270 plus 3mm bleed not left.indd 1 30/11/2012 13:44:07

&feed milling technology


Pit weighbridge

as non-automatic weighing instruments (NAWIs) and if the weight data is used as part of any commercial transaction they require approval to European weights and measures standards (in line with EN45501). This involves the bridges being tested with calibrated weights when first installed and then re-verified at regular periods, or when any critical components are replaced. Some companies insist their weighbridges are weights and measures (trade) approved, even if they are not used for commercial transactions. This ensures that the weighbridges are maintained and certified for optimum precision.

For most applications, weighbridges are quoted as having accuracies of one part in 2,500 or one part in 3,000. Therefore the displayed weights for a 50 tonne capacity weighbridge (one part in 2,500) would be in 20 kg increments, the same as a 60 tonne weighbridge with a quoted accuracy of one part in 3,000. Therefore, if the weighbridge is regularly maintained and calibrated, any weight reading should be accurate to ± 20 kg. It should be noted that this is a fixed tolerance over the working capacity of the weighbridge so the relative error of any weighment increases as the vehicle being weighed decreases. Higher accuracy (one part in 5,000) and dual range weighbridges are available, but there may be restrictions to the use (e.g. indoors only).

from one part of a site to another, or to a different site altogether. No one likes paying more for their products than necessary, but purchasing weighbridges and support services on cost alone can be false economy. A number of factors should be considered when choosing a weighbridge supplier including: • The design and build of the weighbridge itself • The pedigree of key measurement chain components (load cells and instrumentation) • Peripheral control equipment compatibility • Software functionality and software integration To ensure optimum system compatibility, there are distinct advantages for the customer if the weighbridge supplier is responsible for the design and manufacture of all critical equipment and software in these areas. This provides practical and efficient single source system responsibility. In addition, purchasers should look at the level of aftersales support a supplier can offer, together with their quality system accreditation and relevant trade association membership. ‘Cost of ownership’ may be an over-used cliché, but it is still very relevant when it comes to weighbridges especially in the medium to long term.

Of all the designs, clear evidence from the field shows that compact stainless steel canister load cells, together with well-designed rocker mounting assemblies, provide the optimum solution for weighbridges. More cumbersome single ended bending beam load cells or vulnerable double ended shear beams with ball bearing mountings are more likely to fail and generally require more ongoing maintenance. It should be remembered that weighbridge decks can be subject to relatively large expansion-contractions. This affects the load introduction angles and this places further importance on the requirement for welldesigned load cells and mounting assemblies.

Modern technology
Traditionally the weighing process in many weighbridge applications has been relatively slow and data collection has been confined to local printouts of tickets and daily tally rolls. Now more emphasis is being placed on developing key peripheral areas. This is aimed at speeding up throughput of vehicles, improving security and extending weighbridge operational periods, together with improving and simplifying data collection and distribution.

Driver operated systems
Driver operated systems (often referred to as unmanned weighbridge systems) have been one of the most effective developments for weighbridge operational efficiency and security. Such systems offer a number of advantages and remove the need to have permanently manned weighbridges. ANPR systems (Automatic Number Plate Recognition) with traffic lights and barriers can provide secure access, with additional security via a designated swipe card or key (permanent

Load cells
The load cells and their associated mounting hardware are considered to be the most crucial part of the weighbridge and are required to work under a range of harsh and challenging environments. Therefore, design and application optimisation for these essential components is crucial; not only for performance, but also for long-term reliability.

Ownership options
There are a number of ways of ‘owning’ a weighbridge. These include outright purchase, lease purchase and hire. Portable weighbridges are ideal for short-term usage or where the weighbridge has to be moved
26 | September - October 2013

&feed milling technology

FEATURE and temporary use). In this way the driver terminal can provide a complete material handling management system, which is easy to use by both vehicle and site operators. Such systems can be pre-programmed with a wide range of data relating to the vehicles using the weighbridge, including owner information, tare weights and materials. Vehicle tare weights typically remove the need for double weighing (in and out). Not only do driver terminals speed up weighing operations, they also extend the available working period for weighbridges.

Concrete weighbridge

Weighbridge software
Bespoke, yet configurable, software packages play a vital role in modern weighbridge systems and these can now be tailored for specific applications. These systems are designed for the seamless integration with existing management systems such as Sage, SAP, JD Edwards and Microsoft Navision. Integration with remote inventory control systems can bring important benefits in ensuring optimised stock holding of key raw materials. Dedicated grain storage software packages ideally complement weighbridge installations where critical weight data is an essential part of multi-source grain management and distribution. Modular construction makes them suitable for all sizes of storage facilities at single or multiple sites. Furthermore, they are designed to co-ordinate all the operational, management and fiscal requirements. Powerful database resources, combined with secure web access, provide unrivalled control and data management whilst direct integration with standard accounting and quality packages completes the offering.

Service and support
Service and support is a critical issue for weighbridge operators especially for equipment working in harsh environments. The new technologies are bringing important changes to the way in which servicing can be optimised and this is particularly useful at remote unmanned sites. Any weighbridge breakdowns have a rapid and major impact on daily operations

and therefore effective servicing and trouble shooting is very important. However, traditional methods of servicing do not necessarily cater for the changes in the working pattern of a particular weighbridge. Typically estimates are made to establish the frequency of servicing, often with the emphasis on minimising costs. Most of us are familiar with the built-in service monitors on modern cars, which assess servicing requirements based on a combination of factors including time, mileage and how the car is driven. This technology is now available for weighbridges advising, for instance, when the next service is due based on time, number of weighments or a combination of both. The system can also record a history of peak loads, which may be above normal operating capacity and detrimental to the working of the bridge. This information can be useful in determining why, for instance, a particular weighbridge is going out of calibration or suffering from excessive component failure. Although regular servicing and maintenance can help to minimize problems, predicting what and when things will go wrong is very difficult with traditional weighbridges. Therefore, the ability to offer remote maintenance service support can save considerable time and effort especially for equipment operating in harsh, remote areas.

With such a system installed, any problems with the weighing equipment are automatically flagged up at the supplier’s offices. Details are immediately forwarded to the local engineer who can then dial into the weighing system remotely and make a risk assessment of the situation. In many cases, the engineer can carry out a range of checks and where possible rectify the problem without having to visit the site. If not, then if appropriate, plans can be made to carry out any remedial work during the next scheduled visit, thereby minimising the disruption to the site operation.

Modern weighbridge systems can offer considerably more than weight information and their integration with other technologies is bringing dramatic changes to a wide range of industries. However the quality of the data they provide is still totally dependent on sound mechanical design principles and well defined installation procedures. Customers should avoid buying on price for perceived short-term gains. More Information:
Tel: +44 1246 456729 Fax: +44 1246 260844 Email: Website:

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September - October 2013 | 27


Sieving technology in feed pellet production
by Amanda Zhou, Allance Machinery, China
he appropriate feed processing technology and a proper set of feed processing equipment will offer you assured feed products. Thus feed milling technology plays quite a very important role in feed production. It ensures the benign and steady development of the feed industry. Technology also provides a technique guarantee for converting animal nutrition research into high quality feed products and makes a great contribution to improving feeding efficiency and the value of feedstuffs. Feed pellets, as a kind of palatable and nutritious feed, enjoy wide popularity in feeding poultry, livestock and aquatic animals. At present, more than half of the world’s feedstuff are processed by pelleting technology.


handle, more palatable and usually nutritious enough to ensure animal healthy growth. For the pelletizing process technology, it has the following steps.

Grain material selecting and sieving
Grain materials are sieved to remove the big and magnetic impurities. The sieving machine structure should be capable of avoiding material blocking and ensure a consistent smooth flow. The mass flow concept features once the feeder opens, the mass material will flow down without blocking, packing and will be graded automatically.

grain being processed, and depends on the species and life stage of the animal. Bearing all these in mind, selecting the proper method of grain particle size reduction is a critical decision.

Hammer mills for grinding and sieving
In general, both roller mills and hammer mills have been applied to the task of particle size reduction or grinding in feed pelletizing technology. The hammer mill has been traditionally used to produce the finer materials commonly used for pelleting, and for many mash feed applications. A hammer mill is essentially a steel box surrounding a rotor. Swinging hammers attached to the rotor flail out when the rotor spins. A screen covers the discharge opening to regulate the finished particle size. In the hammer mill, the motor drives the rotor to rotate at a high speed through the belt, and on the rotor there are series of hammers. When the materials get into the working area of hammers, the

Feed pellet processing technology
Feed pellets have been defined as ‘agglomerated feeds formed by extruding individual ingredients or mixtures by compacting and forcing through die openings by any mechanical process’. Basically, the purpose of pelletizing is to process finely divided, sometimes dusty, unpalatable and difficult-to-handle feed materials and, by way of heat, moisture and pressure, into larger particles. These larger particles are easier to

Grain grinding
Grinding or particle-size reduction is a major step in pelleted feed manufacturing. Grain grinding generally improves feed digestibility, acceptability, mixing properties, pellet quality, and increases the bulk density of some ingredients. According to research, feed pellet quality depends on the following factors: 40 percent diet formulation, 20 percent particle size, 20 percent conditioning, 15 percent die specifications, and 5 percent cooling and drying. Apart from diet formulation, particle size is the first factor that will dictate about 20 percent of pellet quality and also has a significant effect on the other factors, such as decreasing the particle size of ingredients results in a greater surface area per unit volume for absorption of condensing steam and increases the surface area available for bonding. Moreover, penetration of heat and moisture to the core of a particle can be achieved in a shorter amount of time with small particles and a large surface area per unit of weight. But this is not a one-size-fits-all situation. The ideal finished particle size varies by the

Table 1: Example particle size distribution US sieve 12 16 20 25 30 40 Pan Total Grams 0.03 1.64 27.21 43.29 40.33 17.09 7.25 136.84 Percentage 0.02 1.20 19.88 31.64 29.47 12.49 5.30 100

1/8’’ grind milo based ration

28 | September - October 2013


&feed milling technology


Table 2: Tip speed-feet/minute. Rotor diameter*RPM Diameter 19’’ 22’’ 28’’ 38’’ 42’’ 44’’ 54’’ 1200RPM NA NA NA 11938 13194 13823 16964 1800RPM 7536 10362 13194 17670 19782 20724 25434 3600RPM 17898 20724

"Feed pellet production needs not only a complete proper set of equipment but efficient and cost-effective processing solutions"

rotating hammers with high rotation speed strike them over and over until they are small enough to fit through a screen. A large amount of air also moves through the hammer mill, and it dragging any material small enough to make it through screen holes this becomes the final product - the larger products are brought back to the crushing area by the hammers for being re-crushed until they reach the required size. As materials move through the grinding chamber, they tend to approach hammer tip speed. Since reduction only occurs when significant energy is transferred from the hammer to the particle (large difference in velocities), less grinding takes place when the particles approach hammer tip

speed. Many manufacturers incorporate devices within their mills to interrupt this product flow, allowing impact and reduction to continue. Tear circle hammer mills have a more positive, natural redirection of product at the inlet than ‘full circle’ design machines.

Factors determining ground particle size: sieves
Precision and consistency of the finished particle size have a strong effect on the digestibility of feed pellets. A finished particle size that is either too large or too small will have adverse effects on quality of pellets and animal performance. The primary factor determining finished parti-

cle size is the measurement of the perforations in the screen covering the discharge area. The size of these perforations is equal to the maximum finished particle size of the material processed. Large particles will cause cracks and fractures in pellets. It is recommended that the hammer mill screens for grinding do not exceed 1/8 inch diameter. Better results can be achieved from use of a #7 (7/64 inch) screen. Smaller particles will increase horsepower efficiency by increasing the throughput of material through the die holes with less horsepower. The finer grind also extends the die life as it decreases the ‘grinding’ or milling of material on the solid surface between the holes on the die face. The ideal particle size range of 650 to

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September - October 2013 | 29

FEATURE 750 microns can easily and consistently be achieved through proper screen selection. In addition, screens can easily be changed to accommodate the processing goals of a variety of grains using the same hammer mill. Machinery sifting is the main screen technology applied in animal feed machinery at present. In the present market, punching, woven screen and bar grizzly are widely used as screen plates. The key part of screening equipment which affects sieving efficiency is screen surface. grind materials like soybean hulls, mill feed, and mixtures with animal protein products, a higher tip speed is needed because more energy is required to grind these kinds of materials. Normal tip speeds for fine grinding and fibrous materials are obtained on 42" and 44 inch mills operating at 1,800 RPM (19,500 and 20,000 Ft/Min), or 28 inch mills operating at 3,000 RPM and 54 inch mills operating at 1,500 RPM (21,000 Ft/Min). Recent developments in hammer mill grinding have included the use of 54 inch diameter mills operating at 1,800 RPM. This very high tip speed (>25,000 Ft/Min) is particularly well suited to fine grinding at high capacities and high efficiency. Because a larger screen (hole) sizes can be used while maintaining the fineness of the grind, operating costs are reduced as well. conditioning. The machine consists of cylindrical dies of different diameters to pelletize varying sizes of feed, which depends on the age, size and spices of animals involved. Most feeds produced are compressed pellets. Pelleted feeds have numerous advantages which include less feed wastage, uniform feed intake, and destruction of growth inhibitors. The ring die feed pellet mill is equipped with one or more layer conditioner to be added in the form of steam which softens the feed and partially gelatinizes the starch content of the ingredients, so as to process firmer (and for aquatic feed more stable) pellets. Generally speaking, the starch in grain materials can be ripened about 60-80% by hot air in conditioner so that high starch or molasses content pelleted feed can be processed.

Factors determining ground particle size: tip speed
Tip speed, in addition to screen size, has a significant influence on ground and sifted particle size. High tip speeds (>18,000 Ft/ min) will always grind finer and produce more fines than lower tip speeds. Low tip speeds (<13,000 Ft/min), on the other hand, produce a coarser granulation with fewer fines. As a rule, smaller screen hole sizes should be used with higher tip speeds, and larger screen hole sizes with lower tip speeds. Tip speed is simply a factor of mill diameter and motor RPM and is not easily changed on direct coupled machines. There are a few V-belt drive hammer mills on the market today. To produce a uniform granulation with few fines on materials like corn, wheat, grain sorghum, pelleted ingredients and solvent extracted meals, an intermediate tip speed is normally desirable. Hammer mills with a tip speed of 13,000-18,000 Ft/Min will produce a high quality finished product with excellent capacity and efficiency. 38" diameter mills with 1800 RPM motors (17,800 Ft/Min) and 44" mills with 1200 or 1500 RPM motors (13,500 or 17,250 Ft/Min) are both used extensively in the processing of all kinds of feed ingredients. For finely ground products and tough to

Mixing or blending can be either a batch process or a continuous process. Batch mixing can be done on an open flat surface with shovels or in containers shaped such as cylinders, half-cylinders, cones or twin-cones with fixed baffles or moving augers, spirals, or paddles. Continuous mixing proportions by weight or volume is a technique best suited for formula feeds with few ingredients and minimal changes. Different types of mixers, such as horizontal or vertical as well as special mixers like liquid mixers are used to achieve mixing.

Pellets from dry pellet machines may exit at up to 88°C and 17-18% moisture. The temperature must be quickly reduced to ambient or less and the moisture level to 10-12% or less for proper storage and handling. Pellets must therefore be cooled and dried. Moist pellets, if they are going to be converted to dry pellets, also need drying although their temperature is not normally much elevated during manufacture.

Mechanically, the pelleting process involves forcing soft feed through holes in a metal ring die or flat die. The holes may be round or square, tapered or non-tapered. This is done either by using a locally fabricated pelleting machine, which is operated by diesel engine, electricity powered machine or manually, or by using automatic highly sophisticated machines with hot air or water

Pellet sifting is the last process in pellet manufacturing and this equipment should be located just above the bagging or final discharge bin. A rotary sieve, as the specially designed sieving device, is used to grade and screen feed pellets having undergone the secondary crushing in the large or mediumsized animal feed manufacturing plant. The undesired feed pellets can be removed from cooled pellets to get uniform finished pellets. In order to get perfect product, more and more feed pellet plants choose proper sifters in their feed pelletizing process.

Feed pellet production needs not only a complete proper set of equipment but high efficient and costeffective processing solutions. A finer grinded material or mixture will produce a better quality pelleted feed at a lower cost both in terms of energy and maintenance. The fineness of the grind must be matched to both the particle size and capacity requirements of the entire feed manufacturing process.

More Information:
Email: Website:
30 | September - October 2013


&feed milling technology


Mixed integer optimization: a new step in formulation software
By Merryl Webster, Format International, UK
ormulators and nutritionists in animal feed manufacture typically use formulation software based on Linear Programming (LP) to obtain least-cost recipes when mixing raw materials to meet specified nutrient profiles. Physical constraints in the plant and particularly in the weighing equipment often mean that the formulae resulting from the formulation system cannot be presented directly for manufacture. Rounding and creative ‘tweaking’ normally happens, post-optimization, in order to get the quantities of ingredients to match the minimum weighing quantities (MWQ) and rounding factors (RDF) relevant to the scales and batching system.
Table 1: Plant information Number of optimized products Number of ingredients Ingredients with MWQ Range of MWQ Ingredients with RDF & MWQ Ingredients with overall quantity restrictions


Despite efforts over the years to make the techniques more sophisticated, automatic rounding functionality in formulation systems remains a blunt instrument. It usually ends up producing formulae which have in one or more ways ‘broken’ the intended specification, perhaps not by much, but nevertheless any such breakage or flexing of the constraints needs investigation. Some formulation systems have developed very helpful exception reporting, such as Format’s Biosecurity system, which provides intelligent analysis of serious violations; nevertheless manual intervention is often required prior to approval for manufacture. As a consequence it may take a formulator a matter of minutes to get an ‘optimal’ solution to the plant’s formulas, and then several hours of further work to make them ‘production-ready’. This is not simply an issue for traditional or older manufacturing 130 plants. The most modern of feed 95 mills with state-of-the-art process 47 control systems, batching and weighing equipment and sophisti0.02 to cated software also have the same 80 Kg issues; this is very well understood 4 by informed formulators and pro9 duction directors. Indeed the con-

straints in more modern feed mills may well be more severe and more apparent than in older plants.

Mixed integer optimization (MIO)
A highly appealing and thoroughly practical solution would be to incorporate the MWQ and RDF directly into the Formulation Solver, thus obtaining the least-cost solution that complies with all such constraints. This type of problem is non-linear and requires Mixed Integer Optimization (MIO) in order to solve it. While it’s relatively straightforward to provide this technique in single optimization, that’s simply not enough for today’s professional formulators who require Multi-Mix® ingredient allocation capabilities to deal with the complex issues in the supply chain. As a result of a three-year research and development program, Format has produced a new Solver which not only includes these integer constraints but also fully solves them in the context of a multi-product optimization which includes the overall ingredient availabilities. The latest software is now demonstrating the power of the new approach.

Production plant case study
A study from a real-life production plant

32 | September - October 2013

&feed milling technology

FEATURE provides an impressive illustration. The plant in question is a complicated but not untypical plant with ingredient restrictions and equipment limitations that impose minimum weighing quantities on many of the ingredients. The size, number and type of restrictions are given in Table 1. In this plant, many of the macroingredients, such as maize, soybean, sunflower and wheat middlings cannot be weighed accurately unless more than 50 kg is used in the diet. Other microingredients also have minimum weighing quantities resulting from equipment limitations. These typically are much smaller minimum weighing quantities, in the order of 0.1 kg. The smallest minimum weighing quantity in operation is 0.02 and the largest is 80 kg. Of the 95 ingredients in use in the plant, 47 have a minimum weighing quantity stipulated. A much smaller number of ingredients have additional rounding factors of the order of 40 or 50 kg. Multi-Mix® solutions were obtained (as shown in Table 2). The strictly linear optimization takes only seconds to solve, and produces a solution with the total cost given in the table above. An inspection of the resulting formulae reveals that there are 92 products needing attention, containing 144 violations of the minimum weighing quantity and/or rounding factor constraints. This typically takes the formulator several hours of careful but tedious
Table 2: Solution Results Standard LP solution Ignoring weighing constraints Overall Cost Range in individual product cost No. of MWQ/RDF violation No. of products with MWQ/RDF violation Time to solve Post-optimization ‘tweaking’ 144 92 5 seconds Several hours 0 0 59 seconds None New MIO solution Includes MWQ and RDF Difference



0.33 % -2.45% to +5.34%

tweaking to tidy up ready for presentation to the plant.

MIS: Longer but more consistent
The mixed integer solution took much longer (relatively speaking) to solve – 59 seconds compared with five seconds. However, all of the formulas produced are entirely consistent with the minimum weighing quantity and rounding factor constraints. Moreover, they are already prepared for production. An obvious snag could be that the integer solution is more expensive – and so it is on first inspection; but only by a very small amount, in fact considerably less than half

of one percent. This apparent ‘cost’ of the integer solution is not real; in practice the plant cannot make the recipes supplied by the linear solution, so left to deal with the LP solution using its own devices, it will overuse some ingredients and under-use others, resulting in both additional cost and violation of the nutritional specification. Sometimes this is picked up only by ingredient stock reconciliation at the end of the period, and by unexplained variation in product analysis during testing. Use of this new MIO approach ought to explain part of the missing cost and ought to match more closely the actual ingredient consumption.

Find out more at our forthcoming User Group Meetings

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in Feed Formulation


&feed milling technology

September - October 2013 | 33

FEATURE LP solution was that an additional, restricted ingredient was made available for use in those products because it had been removed from other products where it would not be cost-effective to meet the minimum weighing quantity. This illustrates the additional benefit of applying the integer constraints within a multi-product allocation model. In terms of raw material effects, typically the difference in usage for the major ingredients was small – of the order of 0–4%. The most substantial difference was seen in the usage of soya oil (a reduction in the MIO solution of 35%). the new solvers to operate on multi-core machines (for example the four cores found in most laptops). This typically makes the solver step 3 to 15 times faster than it is currently. Thus, it is possible to include these new techniques and still expect solutions within a reasonable time frame.

Linear Programming works well when the constraints are ‘continuous’ and allowed mathematically to range between the upper and lower constraints (bounds) without any limitations and when the plant can accurately weigh the resulting ingredient quantities. However, in the real world where manufacturing practicalities intrude, more appropriate and more cost-effective solutions can be found using the new MIO approach. This is a genuinely helpful advance for formulators. To quote a couple of our users: “It’s incredible!” and “This could possibly be the most important thing that’s happened in formulation for 40 years”.

No violations of constraints
The new integer solution has a major advantage over the rounded, linear solution, in that all constraints (nutritional, manufacturing, supply, marketing etc) have been properly satisfied: there are no violations of constraints. It’s also true that the new integer solution is never more expensive and could be much cheaper than the alternative method of obtaining an LP solution and then rounding and adjusting it. A potential drawback to integer solvers is that they usually take much longer to arrive at a solution than LP and, in formulation, we are certainly not used to waiting long for answers! The problem sizes are also larger, adding to the computation time needed to solve them. Format has addressed this by writing

Interestingly, for some of the products the resulting recipes were the same in both solutions (27 out of 130). However, most of the product recipes were affected to some degree and the range of their cost difference was -2.45% to +5.34%. The reason that some products were able to solve with a cheaper recipe than in the



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Conference sponsors:



Bangkok International Trade

8-10 APRIL, 2014


& Exhibition Centre (BITEC)
Conference patron & Grapas awards organiser



Grain and Feed Milling Technology (GFMT) magazine - the oldest milling magazine still in print and established in 1891 – has joined Victam International to sponsor the Victam Award for Milling. The award will be made to the most innovative and economically beneficial equipment, process or service exhibited at the GRAPAS Exhibition. All nominations will be published in a special edition of GFMT along with a review of the event itself. Nominations for the award will be clearly identified on the exhibition and in the show guide in order to attract visitor attention. Entries can be from one of the three following categories: • A milling technology development (flour, rice or other cereal) • A production process or refinement that makes for more efficient and/or safe production • A service (online or otherwise) that helps millers achieve their goals more efficiently All entries are subject to the utmost confidentiality until publication of the special show issue. A panel of independent industry experts will judge the entries. The award will be presented during the GRAPAS Asia 2014 exhibition.. How to enter You must be an exhibitor at Vicatm/Grapas exhibition to enter. Use you exhibitor username and password to login at and click on the Grapas awards tab to enter.


Continuous barge unloading
elgian-based Vigan Engineering designs and manufactures port equipment for dry bulk handling and is widely recognized throughout the world as an expert in pneumatic bulk handling technology. With their numerous advantages compared to grabs or other mechanical devices, pneumatic barge unloaders have a wellestablished reputation among large-size agribulk businesses all around the world. Continuous barge pneumatic unloaders have particularly proven their suitability for discharging products such as all types of cereals and oilseeds, raw materials for animal feeding, as well as many other free-flowing products like fertilizers, soda ash, aluminium oxide (alumina) or emerging new commodities such as wood pellets.


system and floodlight for the illumination of the barge hold. The vertical and horizontal telescopic pipes are controlled by remote control boxes (push button and radio types) and Vigan provided a special cutting nozzle, enabling the suction of less free-flowing material such as soybean meal.

Efficiency: fast and perfect hold cleaning
When unloading barges and other vessels, speed is a major challenge. It’s also crucial for hold cleaning. Mechanical grabs, for instance, offer a high unloading rate at the beginning of operations. However, the final cleaning of the hold at the end of the process requires considerable attention from the crane operator and the auxiliary workforce in the barge hold, in order to co-ordinate tasks to achieve maximum efficiency. With mechanical grabs, the remaining layers of product in the bottom and along the barge hold borders need to be gathered around the target area. This is usually quite time-consuming (a real nightmare for the manager in charge of productivity targets) and also rather dangerous for the workers. On the other hand, pneumatic unloaders behave like vacuum cleaners, efficiently sucking the product particles down to the hold bottom. Thanks to the telescopic characteristics of the pipes and the rotating capability of the boom supporting the conveying line, the suction nozzle is also able to reach the hidden corners of the hold. Most recent attempts with other mechanical continuous unloading systems have failed, or have performed poorly when attempting to provide an efficient final cleaning of the barge hold. A single worker can manage the whole barge unloading process, including when

behaving as the driver of the auxiliary ‘skid steer’ equipment and for final brushing of the products around the suction nozzle. For barges, it is quite common to achieve an average efficiency rate of up to 80 percent with a Vigan pneumatic unloader in comparison to only 60–65 percent with conventional grabs.

Environmentally friendly
In terms of environmental friendliness, the Provimi unloader’s green paint is just the beginning. The machinery room is noise-insulated with a turbo blower group and high-performance silencers. Negative pressure is maintained around the suction nozzle, whose filtering system ensures less than 10 µg of dust escapes per cubic metre. The lack of a grab crane means that the boom can move at relatively slow speeds, reducing any disturbance to nearby wild animals. Finally, the use of pneumatic equipment eliminates the risk of spillage from potential contaminants like nitrates.

Provimi Dresses in Green
In May 2013, Vigan installed a pneumatic barge unloader at Provimi (part of the Cargill Group) in Kaiseraugst, Switzerland. The machine was painted in green to blend in with the forest landscape, and the unloader was mounted on a floating bridge to avoid damaging the environment. With an unloading capacity of 300 t/h (metric tonnes per hour), the pneumatic unloader is equipped with a four-stage turbo blower directly driven by a main electrical motor of 250 kW and controlled by frequency inverter (this speed variator enables a flexible unloading capacity from 150 t/h to 300 t/h and optimizes power consumption at all times). The machine’s central tower includes a high-pressure jet-pulse type filter (filtering area of 112m2) on a slewing pedestal mounted on the stationary gantry. The 15 metre long rotating boom is completely hot-dip galvanized, with a lighting
36 | September - October 2013

Low power consumption
Most recent technological developments such as the installation of frequency inverters, direct drive of the turbo blowers, optimized design of the suction nozzle, and the general philosophy of pneumatic conveying systems enable low power consumption. For barge unloading, power consumption is around 0.6–0.7 kWh/t.

Advantages of barge unloaders
Efficient barge unloading is indeed a challenge, but it is a must in most modern industries. Further to these advantages, pneumatic continuous unloaders allow easy, low-cost maintenance and have an almost nonexistent accident risk.

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The right storage solution starts with the right advice.

Storage decisions can affect your operation for decades. That’s why so many companies around the world trust Westeel with their storage needs. Not only do we supply some of the most advanced storage products available, we support our products with the expert project leadership and sound engineering advice necessary to ensure that the decisions you make today continue to serve your company well for years to come.
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VIGAN manufactures dry agribulk materials handling systems:
• Portable pneumatic conveyors or grain pumps (100 - 250 tph); • Pneumatic Continuous barge & Ship Unloaders (160 - 800 tph); • Mechanical Continuous Ship Unloaders (up to 1,500 tph); • Mechanical loaders (up to 1,200 tph). as well as complete storage systems in ports and the agricultural industries.
From project design to complete turnkey bulk handling solutions and port terminals with mechanical and/or pneumatic reliable and cost effective equipment.

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21/02/12 September - October 2013 | 15:37:04 37


Figure 1: Microwave resonator with inner lens tube

High-precision sensors:

the ideal solution for measuring grain humidity
by Hinrich Römhild, sensors and measurement senior R&D engineer, WORK Microwave GmbH, Germany
toring and manufacturing food materials like grain can be extremely challenging. Even the slightest bit of extra humidity can create mould growth, causing the grain to deteriorate. This leads to economic losses for manufacturers in the commercial food industry. Microwave resonator-based sensors offer a solution to this problem by enabling manufacturers to obtain a precise measurement of the weight, moisture, or water content of grain. Moreover, microwave sensors can also be used to identify foreign particles or substances that have come into contact with grain. This article explains the benefits of relying on microwave frequencies and RF resonators to accurately measure the humidity of grain.
38 | September - October 2013


Measuring grain humidity
In the food manufacturing business, if grain materials are exposed to too much

humidity, they can develop mould and would then need to be discarded. This can be prevented by controlling the humidity within the Key for Figure 2: ¢ Oats ¢ Triticale ¢ Barley ¢ Wheat

Figure 2: Resonance curve for different samples of grain

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FEATURE production facility using microwave frequencies and RF resonators. Resonators are high-quality factor (Q factor) structures that resonate at specific frequencies. When a sample of the grain material is inside of the cavity region, it affects the cavity’s centre frequency and Q factor. The material’s electrical permittivity and permeability are determined using the frequency shift between the resonant frequency of the unloaded resonator (f Res unloaded) and the loaded resonator (f Res loaded). The Q factor is calculated based on the frequencies from 3 dB to the magnitude at resonance. Measuring the shift in resonance frequency and Q factor helps to determine two corresponding physical qualities, such as weight and humidity. In many cases, only one physical measurement is required, necessitating the resonator to only measure the shift in resonance frequency or the Q factor. A typical resonator measurement system using the resonant cavity method includes a resonator cavity, signal processing part, and software control by a computer. For this specific application, the resonator is aluminum-based and has a diameter of about 22 cm and a height of approximately 32 cm (Figure 1). The electrically active part is supplemented by two flanges on the top and the bottom. They enable integration in a tube system and avoid any discharge of electromagnetic radiation. The aluminum resonator also features a tube made of PEEK. PEEK, or PolyEtherEtherKetone, is a type of plastic approved for appliance in food technology. It is extremely resistant to chemicals and offers a heat resistance to 480°F. Thus, a PEEK tube does not degrade after being exposed to water or steam and is flame- and radiation-resistant. Unfilled PEEK received FDA approval in 1998 and may be used in food contact and in processing equipment without danger of contamination or degradation. In an aluminum resonator with a PEEK tube, the grain only encounters the PEEK tube, ensuring the materials are not compromised. The plastic tube of the sample resonator has an inner diameter of 62 mm. For measurement of electrical characteristics, the resonator includes two small antennas. One is used for sending microwave signals, the other for receiving. In order to analyse the data from the antennas, the absorption of the microwaves on their way from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna needs to be contemplated. Thus, the resonator is connected to an evaluation unit. A laptop shows the transmittance measured. By applying the microwave transmittance over the frequency, users can determine a maximum with a frequency of 1050 MHz in an empty test resonator. If the user fills grain in the resonator, this maximum will be shifted to lower frequencies. This makes it possible to distinguish between different kinds of grain (Figure 2).

Making the same adjustment, it is also possible to distinguish between samples of the same grain with diverse humidity. Figure 3 shows the differences between various wheat samples. The curves received are easily reproducible. The analysis shows that changes in humidity are detectable in a one-tenth percent range without any problems. Examination of the complete resonator curve is not feasible in the field. Therefore, the output of the sensors has been limited to the transmittance of one frequency. In this instance, only one value corresponds with the humidity of grain. In order to demonstrate the measurement process an adjustment was made (Figure 4). Figure 4 shows a tube of acrylic glass with three samples of grain with different humidity. The samples are physically fastened by foam bucklers. The measurement reading is the transmittance on a working frequency while the test tube is pushed through the resonator. Figure 5 shows the measurement result over time. The samples of grain can be distinguished clearly. The minima arise if the foam is in the active area of the resonator.

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September - October 2013 | 39


Figure 4: Measurement adjustment in humidity small as 1 mm3) with precision accuracy at high speeds of 10,000 samples per second. Given the small size of grain, this is important on a manufacturing line. Microwave resonators are also highly sensitive, making it possible to detect small differences of the unloaded resonator while the probe is on. This is critical to measuring the humidity of grain with the utmost accuracy. The repeatability of a microwave resonator is about 0.1 percent, indicating that the variation in measurements taken by a single sensor is quite low and that an accurate measurement is being taken. The microwave resonator technique is also much safer and more cost-effective than using nuclear-based sensors. In the food industry, consumer safety is of utmost concern. Nuclear sensors contain radioactive material, requiring manufacturers to train their employees about the proper protocols involved with handling radioactive materials. Nuclear sensors also require a strict waste disposal process that is heavily regulated by the government.

Key for Figure 3: ¢ Wheat humidity 14% ¢ Wheat humidity 18% ¢ Wheat humidity 20%

Figure 3: Resonance curve for wheat with diverse humidity The sensor (including local electronic) can be easily integrated in a transport system of a grain dryer. Analysis can then be performed on a local laptop or on a PC at a central location via ethernet connection. Of course, a custom-built adaptation on the type of dryer in question is necessary.

Benefits of microwave resonator technology
In addition to helping food manufacturers accurately measure the humidity of grain, microwave resonator sensors offer a number of other benefits. One is the ability to measure extremely small samples (e.g. as

Food manufacturers have a responsibility to deliver the freshest quality product possible to consumers. A microwave resonatorbased sensor allows them to achieve this by performing real-time, accurate measurements of the weight, moisture, and water content of grain. Microwave resonator sensors can easily be integrated into any manufacturing facility to increase productivity and profits. While this article specifically addressed the use of microwave resonator technology for grain, RF sensors based on the microwave resonator technique can also be used to measure other food materials. They can also be applied in other industries, such as tobacco, pharmaceutical, automotive, recycling, and chemical to measure moisture, mass, and density, as well as to identify foreign particles and measure dielectric properties.

Figure 5: Sensor signals for wheat with different humidity (14, 18 and 20 %)
40 | September - October 2013

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6th International Flour, Semolina, Rice, Corn, Bulghur, Feed Milling Machinery & Pulse, Pasta, Biscuit Technologies Exhibition

23-26 APRIL 2015

Istanbul Expo Center (CNR Halls: 1-2-3) Visiting Hours: 23-25 April 2015 / 10:00 – 19:00 26 April 2015 / 10:00 – 17:00



In the footsteps of Broomhall

In the footsteps of Broomhall


n this edition of Broomhall, we take a step back in time in celebration of Grain and Feed Milling Technology’s rich heritage. First published in 1891 under the name Milling, our roots lie in the flour and feed mills of the British Isles. As you read on, you’ll find a range of news stories drawn from the original Milling publications. We hope you find this blast from the past interesting. After all, it is an interesting concept that the greatest innovations in the flour milling industry have been the outcome of ideas emanating from the brain of a miller!

US farmers
Professor Scott Watson, described as the first agricultural attaché ever sent to a British embassy abroad, gave a broadcast talk on his impressions of agriculture and production in the USA. He remarked that the crops in the USA are so heavy as to seem to us almost unmanageable. The capacity of the country to produce food is prodigious. He detailed the service that is rendered to the industry by a great army of able, highly trained and devoted men and women, who have great achievements to their credit. He also referred to the desperate plight of American farmers about ten years ago. British farmers had experienced several economic crashes, but nothing like the crash that hit these people in 1932. It was not surprising that these farmers looked to the future with some anxiety, but even that did not deter them from exerting the utmost efforts during the present crisis.

Wonderful achievements
The history of flour milling is full of wonderful achievements, of which we should be proud, for it can be said that flour manufacture was one of the earliest industries to become mechanised. Was it not in 1783 that Oliver Evans, the famous American engineer (or should we say British since he was born of Welsh parents in the then Crown colony of Delaware, America, 1755) who invented the elevator, worm conveyor band conveyor and the creeper with wooden slats attached and, in doing so, paved the way for further progress to which it appears there is no finality.

The first hits on the mills (the ordeal of Malta’s flour mills in the Second World War, A.A. Cassar Torregiani)
The flour mills had not long to wait for a taste of bombing. On the 26th of June 1940 there was a raid on Marsa, where all the seven flour mills are situated in a mile radius; one bomb was a direct hit on the engine of Gatt’s Flour Mill, which is separated from the St. Publius flour Mills by the width of the road. Another bomb fell on a busload of passengers in front of St. Publius Mill, killing six people and wounding many others, most of them burnt. The same bomb burnt our main doors, all the glass of our windows was shattered, and all the woodwork suffered damage. In this raid, 23 people were killed; and a farmer next to our mill lost 50 goats.

Alcohol from wheat
Much has been said and written recently about the possible use of wheat for alcohol production, but it is reported that a low-grade flour is now being used for the purpose by Commercial Alcohols Ltd., in a new plant unit built for the process at a cost of $250,000. This flour supplies a much higher starch content than ordinary flour. Husks and other contents useful for cattle feed are first extracted. After the flour has been made into syrup, the syrup is processed in the same way as molasses was in the original manufacture of alcohol, thus allowing the use of the same machinery.

A high speed mixing machine
The Morton Machine Co. Ltd. held a press conference on 2nd January 1953 at the Savoy Hotel, London, UK to explain the design and purpose of a high-speed mixing machine. It is claimed that the machine will produce white bread without employing any chemical bleachers and improvers. It was also stated that the machine is employed with a process patented by Joseph Rank Limited.

New dust to kill insect pests in grain
A new dust used to kill insect pests in stored grain has been discovered, and it is ten times as effective against grain weevils as the best mineral dust previously known. J.A. Kitchener, P. Alexander and H.V.A Briscoe of the department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Imperial College, London who have been studying the problem since the outbreak of war, described its discovery in Chemistry and Industry, the journal of the society of the Chemical Industry. The new dust is a fine white powder produced by a chemical process. It is chemically inert, insoluble in water, non poisonous and free from any danger of silicosis. The toxicity of the dust is due chiefly to the fact that it promotes loss of moisture by evaporation through the insect’s cuticle, a process that results in death by desiccation.
42 | September - October 2013


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In the footsteps of Broomhall

1973 1963
Canadian flour mill to be rebuilt
The Ogilvie Flour Mills Company Ltd., are to have the interior of their Winnipeg Manitoba mill completely rebuilt and modernised and have placed a contract for this work with Henry Simon Ltd of Stockport, through Simon’s Canadian associates, Simon-Day Ltd. The new mill, which will be built into the old structure, is to be fully automatically controlled and will be designed to handle spring wheat as well as durum. It will have a rated capacity of 3000 cwt., but the pneumatic system is to be built to overload to 4,000 cwt. Site work on the reconstruction, the purpose of which is to increase the existing mill’s capacity to supply Winnipeg and its surrounding area, is expected to start in the second quarter of this year.

New Spillers Company
Spillers International has been set up by Spillers to partner Unilever in marketing pet foods throughout Europe. The latter’s Dutch wing of Unilever NV take 51 percent in this joint venture. Meanwhile, Spillers are reportedly hoping to complete another pet food venture in Canada and planning a feed mill in Barbados in partnership with local government.

French wheat usage
One study among three prepared by the Maritime Transport Research Section of the Shipbuilding and Repairers’ National Association foresees France providing a bigger share of our wheat requirements in the future, and a declining demand for bread. It attributes the latter likelihood to an increasingly affluent society eating more meat. The trend, it is thought, is already evident with the latest decline in the volume of wheat in dry cargoes, this being replaced by coarse grains trading and shipment for animal feed.

Young Australian farmers
Aboard the P & O liner ‘Arcadia’ which has just returned to Bombay with engine trouble, are six young Australian farmers on their way to Britain to study agricultural methods. The farmers are winners of the coveted ‘Canberra Awards’ and each one represents a different Australian state. During the early part of their stay in Britain, they will be guests of Ranks Hovis McDougall Limited, and are visiting the vast Rank’s Premier Mills at the Royal Victoria Docks, London, on 8th March 1963. They will see Australian grain made into flour.

Hygiene and fumigation in the mill
The flour milling industry has long been aware of the importance of hygiene in the mill and the dangers attendant upon pest infestation. The Prevention of Damage by Pests Act, 1949, delegated authority to local authorities only regarding infestation by rats and mice in respect of premises where food is either handled or stored and although authority in respect of infestation by insects and mites may be so delegated no such delegation has so far taken place.

Farm storage
The Farmers Union Grain Terminal Association of the US has forecast a major move towards farm storage of grain by 1980. The association suggests that by that date farmers will either market directly or through fewer but larger local or subterminal elevators.


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September - October 2013 | 43


Managing mill maintenance
by Richard Sillett Grain and Feed Milling Technology, United Kingdom

Flour mill training


ost mill maintenance is a question of inspecting equipment for signs of wear, replacing parts and identifying problems before they turn into failures. Equally important is the investment you make into the mill’s human components. So how do you ensure your technicians and managers aren’t having their sharp edges ground down by years of habit? Where can you source the highest quality of new employee? And how can these new appointments be fitted into your work processes in the most effective way? To quote former UK Prime Minister Tony Blair, the answer is ‘Education, education, education’. Wheat and flour behave according to complex physical and chemical processes, so anyone who wants to change aspects of their recipes or milling needs some understanding of the science behind them. And the various kinds of equipment involved provide challenges both in terms of process control and safety – again, these are elements that – with education – millers can master. There are a few providers of training and qualifications for millers, but this column is going to focus on four organizations with a global reach: The National Association of British and Irish Millers (Nabim); the International Association of Operative Millers (IAOM); Bühler; and Kansas State University.

millers to have the opportunity to learn using similar machinery to that found in their day job: industry partnerships like these are popular for this reason. The course’s emphasis on projects carried out within the candidate’s own company is another area where the practical meets the theoretical. Technological or operational research to benefit the milling industry is undertaken by analysing and experimenting inside the mill, exemplifying the kind of continuous improvement that all modern industries have to be comfortable with. Expert tutors are also provided (with strict confidentiality) to ensure that the research is carried out is of high quality. Nabim is particularly proud of this aspect of its assessment process, its tutors also being used for the distance learning component of the diploma. The Advanced Milling Diploma currently only provides places for 10 candidates every three years, so it’s the correspondence courses that are the obvious starting point for millers seeking professional training. The courses themselves consist of seven modules covering the range of flour milling procedures and activities, and complementing the textbooks are individually-assigned tutors who assess submitted coursework and assist their preparation for yearly exams, which, inevitably, take place in May.

As Nabim can testify, the rapidly industrializing developing countries of the modern world are driving demand for internationalized milling education. Major growth markets right now include Southeast Asia and Latin America, and milling schools work hard to develop courses that tap into that thirst for knowledge. In the USA, Kansas State University is well placed to take advantage of the demand for milling education in the Spanish-speaking parts of the Americas. Its International Grains Program (IGP) is partnered with Latin America-focused associations like the United

States Soybean Export Council (USSEC) and CANIMOLT (Cámara Nacional de la Industria Molinera de Trigo) and through these organizations holds several training programmes at its Manhattan, Kansas base every year. A similar on-site training course is provided every July for Nigerian flour millers, proving the viability of such educational programmes in Africa too. For Latin American millers unable to attend the course in person, the IGP currently offers one correspondence course in Spanish, with more in the pipeline. Mark Fowler, associate director of the International Grains Program, believes the two philosophies complement each other: ‘The preference is always on-site training which allows a better personal attention to the training – education with a hands-on component is always optimum. ‘But we do understand not everyone has the time and resources to come to Manhattan, which is why we are developing courses that combine both.’ It’s this reason that makes Bühler’s own training courses stand out in the global market. The company (from multilingual Switzerland) is proud of its capacity to deliver courses in various languages, ranging from German, English and Spanish to Italian, Russian and Japanese. Indeed, their expertise in this area has been crucial to Kansas State’s efforts to bring milling education to Latin America.

Having been at the forefront of the milling industry in Britain and the Commonwealth, Nabim has a great deal of experience in delivering training courses and assessments to millers. The jewel in its crown is undoubtedly the Advanced Milling Diploma, a threepart course which includes distance learning, on-site training and on-the-job projects. On-site training takes place with Nabim’s partners, namely the British research institute Campden BRI and the Bühler Training Centre in Uzwil, Switzerland. It’s crucial for
44 | September - October 2013

Networking opportunities
Though it offers a similar mix of residential and correspondence courses, the IAOM brings something unique to millers developing their knowledge and abilities. The week-long residential courses take place at Kansas State University in conjunction with its Grain Science and Industry department, and the whole course syllabus was revised after a complete overhaul in 2012. What really makes the IAOM’s offering stand out are the opportunities presented by its famous collection of meetings and

&feed milling technology

FEATURE conferences. Annual regional expos in the Middle East and Africa, Southeast Asia and Latin America regions, as well as the Annual Conference & Expo held in the United States, provide significant networking opportunities for millers at all stages of their careers. The IAOM is doing a bit of networking of its own to connect these two services, developing a programme where millers can log professional development hours for attending or giving presentations at their conferences. In one sense, education never stops, and this system will allow those seeking development to teach conference attendees from their experiences at the cutting edge. Although the IAOM has become famous for its global credentials, its unique characteristics make it even more wedded to the English language than other educational providers. Executive Vice President Melinda Farris sees the drawbacks alongside the obvious positives of their association’s approach. ‘Europe has been a tough nut to crack. We have this formula that has worked around the world, but they already have their national milling associations. ‘There’s also a language issue. One of the great advantages of IAOM is the networking – if there’s no common language other than milling, it can be difficult.’ us to get closer to our customers. We are interested to know the needs of our customer, and offer training courses so they can optimize the running of their plants. ‘It’s in our own interest to support the milling education around the world and also support the best schools. Milling managers get an opportunity to receive as much input as possible in a defined, short time, and we offer them the chance to discover our newest machines and technology.’ And the benefits for Bühler, the company? ‘It’s always very interesting and very efficient to speak with good educated milling personnel. Well-educated milling personnel understand things better, they see and explain their needs. And on the other hand, we also strengthen our relationship with the customer and show him how they can profit from employing well-educated personnel.’ A feeling of responsibility for the direction of the milling industry was common among all the training providers, corporate or otherwise. Mills in the developing world need well-trained personnel, and mills in Europe, North America and Japan are faced with the necessity of replacing an ageing but highly knowledgeable workforce. Faced with these challenges, one thing is for certain: educators and training providers around the world are competing to make sure you have a solution that’s right for your mill and your employees.

Industry partnerships

One of the most visible aspects of the milling industry’s training providers is the level of technical partnership with major players. Nabim’s courses are tied to the UK’s Campden BRI, and – like many in the sector – the Bühler training centre in Uzwil. The IAOM partners with the Italian machinery manufacturer Ocrim, and there is a consensus among providers that the ability to work with similar Interview: equipment to that found in Nigel Bennett, Secretary, Nabim a modern mill is a big draw for students. Nabim is a British-based association but Equipment suppliers a look at your course enrolment shows also benefit from these an international dimension. Where in the partnerships, as Bühler world are you looking to expand? marketing manager Isabel "Over the last few years, around two-thirds to threeMaganto explains: quarters of all enrolments in our distance learning pro‘These partnerships enable gramme have been from outside the UK. Traditionally, our overseas customers have been in the Commonwealth but Southeast Asia has been a growth area outside that base."

Can the course compete with the likes of KSU and IAOM?
"We believe our courses suit training needs throughout the world, the only limiting factor currently is that they are delivered in English only. We believe we have a unique product. "Whilst there may be other distance learning courses available, no other programme, so far as we are aware, provides the same tutor support, keeps its textbooks so up-to-date through a rolling review process or uses a rigorous assessment process (of written examination) to test whether students have retained knowledge and understanding. "Where the UK cannot compete is in the provision of practical mil training facilities such as those available in Switzerland, Germany, Canada and the USA, to name just four. The UK never set up a milling school and the numbers employed here now would not justify it."

What can your courses offer to millers?
"Nabim’s distance learning programme has been running for decades but is kept fresh, not least through updating each of the seven module textbooks every five or six years. ‘The programme provides an overview of the industry and process for all involved in flour milling. It provides the underpinning knowledge and understanding for all who wish to progress in the industry, from wheat buyer to flour salesman, from miller to management trainee. ‘The seven modules each tackle a specific subject area and the programme allows the flexibility for their study in any order and combination to suit the individual and their mill."

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September - October 2013 | 45

Every issue GFMT’s market analyst John Buckley reviews world trading conditions which are impacting the full range of commodities used in food and feed production. His observations will influence your decision-making.
Recovering ‘Black Sea’ (former Soviet country) crops may now live up to, even exceed, their early promise in terms of tonnages but there may be some quality issues after wet harvests for the latter stages of Russia, Ukrainian and Kazakh harvests. The latersown spring wheat and corn crops will be most at risk.

Big supply drives grain costs to 3-year low


FEW months ago, a major recovery from last year’s unusual succession of crop setbacks was no more than a promise based on larger sown acreages and hopes for ‘normalising’ weather in the world’s key grain-producing regions. That didn’t stop prices falling as markets put their bets on a return to looser supplies but, after a tough winter and a cold wet spring delayed winter crop development and spring sowings across much of the Northern hemisphere, some caution was still required. Now crops have mostly caught up, seen off some drought and heatwave scares in the US and the former Soviet Union and, over the last few weeks before this issue went to press, harvest yields have been confirming what the optimists had only dared hope: Output of all the major grains is not only up but significantly exceeds even the top forecasts. The recovery is led by world maize production, now expected to rise by a remarkable 11% while wheat and barley crops are seen up by around 8% each. Even sorgum outpout is up by almost 10% . As a result, coarse/feed grain supply will comfortably overtake demand, allowing a needed replenishment of the stocks that were depleted by last season’s production shortfalls. In fact, maize

stocks at the close of the coming season will be at their highest for 12-years in global terms, largely due to a recovery in the US (where most of the drop occurred last year and where they will reach an eight-year peak). That’s clearly bearish long-term for maize costs. Wheat stocks are also expected to improve as production rebounds and the consumption response to plentiful supplies and lower prices is kept in check by the return of much fiercer competition in the feed sector from cheap and abundant maize and barley (about 20% of global wheat use is in animal feeds and well over 40% of consumption within the European Union). The biggest price response to supply recovery so far has been in the maize market – hardly surprising as production of this grain is now estimated to increase by almost 100m tonnes. Remember that the global maize crop decline which last season propelled maize costs to their highest level ever, was only in the order of 24m tonnes! This season, not only has the US maize crop bounced back by almost 80m tonnes to a new record of over 350m tonnes but crops in the up-and-coming exporters are also soaring to their highest ever levels – Brazil’s +8m at 81m tonnes

46 | September - October 2013


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(possibly more), Ukraine’s +8-10m at 29/30m tonnes alongside some notable gains too in exportable output from Russia, Argentina and Serbia. Even the EU expects a crop increase of around 5-6m tonnes. Most of these rival corn suppliers have already been undercutting US export prices by a substantial margin in past months, enabling them to win the lion’s share of any ‘non-routine’ tenders as well as a large chunk of the USA’s most loyal custom from countries like South Korea and Taiwan. Most of these exporters are also doing their best to capitalise on the windfall demand for maize from China which we mentioned in our last issue. Exports aren’t the biggest factor for the USA, accounting for about 10-12% of its total maize demand, the rest going to domestic feed, food, ethanol and other industrial outlets. Combined demand from these US domestic sectors fell by about 10% during the past season of tight and expensive corn supplies but the US Department of Agriculture reckons that all of that lost demand will be made up in 2013/14 (which started Serptember 1). It seems a fair assumption. However, USDA’s accompanying prediction that exports will jump back by 67% in this competitive global environment inspires far less confidence. Reflecting these loosening supply/demand fundamentals, the bellwether Chicago maize futures market, which was still trading over $7/bu in July (about $280/tonne) has recently plummeted as low as $4.50/bu (about $177) which is the cheapest it’s been for about three years. The USDA meanwhile predicts a US seasonal ex-farm price during 2013/14 of between $4.40 and $5.20, median point $4.80, which is about 30% below the average price achieved last season and about 22% cheaper than in 2011/12. Forward maize futures are currently about 8.5% higher than current delivery on the assumption that recovering US demand and a possible switch in sowings away from this grain and towards soyabeans (which are now far more attractively priced for the farmer) will occur in Latin America this autumn and

in the US itself next spring. If that happened the 7m tonnes forecast by the USDA although it might reduce some of the pressure from their estimates might be subject to some large supplies longer term but there are no wishful thinking and biased toward keeping guarantees of that. We only have to look at their import costs of maize down. how South American and East European/FSU Demand generally is usually more maize crops and expor ts have been consistently INTERNATIONAL MILLING AND under-rated in CEREAL INDUSTRIES MEETING recent years to appreciate the th possibility that international maize supplies may continue on a larger than normal scale next year ES RENC E too. F N MULTILINGUAL CO China r e mains a n important fac tor for maize demand as its growing feed demand November • Cereal sustainability • Interaction between genotype and boosts environment impor ts. Yet • Regulatory changes in • Sensitivity to gluten: contemporary here too, Reims - France road transport myth and medical truth domestic maize output is continuing S to exceed ITOR B I H X E INTERNATIONAL western analysts’ • Enlarge your network. estimates. • Find new partners. The Chinese • Increase your knowledge. authorities • The place to be ! also see their imports below




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&feed milling technology

September - October 2013 | 47

predictable than supply and therefore less likely to drive up maize costs. The more potent factor (far more important even than farmers’ cropping plans) is the weather and its ability to affect sowing, crop development and yields. If, for example, the Latin Americans had one of their periodic droughts in last quarter 2013 or first quarter 2014 – or the US had a wet planting season and/or a summer 2014 drought/heatwave, maize supplies could be much tighter and costs could be looking very different in six months/one year’s time. But in the meantime, consumers, especially in the feed and industrial sectors look set to enjoy a fairly lengthy period of low costs. Given that record maize prices helped lift wheat values to unusually high levels last year, questions are now being asked whether wheat has fully discarded the ‘borrowed’ portion of the past year’s larger than usual premium over the feed grain. Although US (Chicago soft red winter) wheat futures are about a third cheaper than the peaks reached this time last year, they have not broken significant new ground the two months since our last review and are still almost 10% dearer than their mid-2011 peak – so the premium has actually widened out. However, US hard spring wheats for export, while not much cheaper than in Jul/Aug, have

edged down under ample supply outlooks and by enough to set three-year lows (see chart). European milling wheat prices also set threeyear lows in August, from which they have recovered only partially, then slumped again. The main factors here have been the weak US grain markets, strong export competition and higher than expected domestic wheat output. The latest series of increments to most EU wheat harvest estimates from the Commission, private analysts and official/national bodies now suggests the Union has produced about 7.5% more wheat this year than last – quite an achievement after all the weather scares. French, even UK, quality has turned out far better than expected earlier in the summer when late crops had too much rain and not enough sunshine which willk be good news to domestic millers. EU soft wheat exports are tending to prevent prices falling further at this stage, having started the season with a bang and currently running at almost twice the rate of this time last year. The USDA expects the full season’s EU exports to rise by a mere 3.6% from last season’s 22.2m and from just 16.7m the year before. However, reaching that figure, let alone maintaining the recent stellar pace, may require some competitive – i.e. lower – pricing amid the strong competition

from other exporting countries, especially the FSU trio - Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. These three are currently expected to raise exports from 25.5m to 36m and in recent weeks have continued to undercut EU wheat prices in some of the key import markets – especially Egypt. The FSU countries might have even more than that to sell abroad. While latest USDA forecasts have raised their combined wheat production to 93m tonnes – almost 30m more than last year - some trade analysts believe their final crop total could be as much as 5-8m tonnes higher still. However, while Russia is likely to remain the largest exporter in this group, it may be handicapped somewhat by quality issues following rain during the later (40%) stages of the harvest. This is expected to result in much less wheat than from last year’s crop (maybe 5m less) grading No 3 milling. In combination with plans to replenish depleted intervention stocks, this might limit exports at a lower level than markets expect as well as putting a floor under Russian prices, some traders suggest. Good news for millers who import North American hard wheats to beef up the quality of their grists is the much larger than expected Canadian wheat crop, recently estimated at a massive 31.5m tonnes against last year’s 27.2m and the recent annual average between 23m and 25m tonnes. The lion’s share of this is higher grade spring wheat. Canada has reportedly already begun to compete with the US for recent windfall orders from the world’s second largest importer, Brazil and is expected to be an aggressive seller into the autumn/early winter months. After some bouts of dry weather, estimates of Australia’s traditionally higher quality crop have recently been trimmed by some analysts to around 24.5m tonnes. However, this too would still be one of its bigger harvests and about 2.5m over last year’s – and some welcome rains seem to be on the way here too as we go to press. Like the US and the EU, Australia has been selling wheat to China, this year’s biggest import growth market (from 3m to a forecast

48 | September - October 2013


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9.5m tonnes from all suppliers). Even in a season of shrinking export supply from the former big supplier Argentina, it all adds up to a highly competitive market among the leading exporting nations in 2013/14. Against that, world wheat trade is expected to expand quite sharply from 147m to over 152m tonnes (only the second time ever over 150m) largely on the back of the boom in Chinese demand. The figure could even reach a new record level, several million tonnes higher than this after Iran’s president signalling a need for 7m tonnes of imports compared with the 4.5m used in the USDA forecast. As a rough guide to forward pricing, the futures markets show only a small 2-3% premium on the distant months, EU milling wheat futures hardly any premium at all for the mid-2014 positions. The USDA’s forecast for seasonal average prices on the US market is meanwhile in a range of $6.50/7.50, the median point equivalent to around $257/tonne versus the past season’s $285 average and 2011/12’s $266/tonne. The cheapest ‘Black Sea’ milling wheat is meanwhile selling currently for $247/250 per tonne. Can even these prices hold up if maize stays $2/bu ($75/tonne) and more cheaper? Time will tell.

The odd man out in the recent descent in milling and feed ingredient costs has been soya meal which has actually trended up, dragging the rest of the oilmeal/protein complex with it. The main factor has been uncertainty over the size of rthe forthcoming US soyabean crop. A few months ago this was expected to rebound from last year’s rather dismal 82m tonnes to as much as 93m. However, a lot of planned acreage was delayed by wet weather and went unsown while in contrast to last year, when crops were rescued from an even worse fate by timely finishing rains, this year has seen an extended drought spoil good interim development, right up toward crop maturity. Because the crop was planted and is running late, harvest has barely begun in midSeptember, leaving yields largely to guesswork. The USDA has cut its crop estimate already to 85m only to pushed it back to 88m in September. Now the Department’s Farm Service Agency has stirred the pot again with a forecast of higher unplanted and unharvested acres while, at the same time, the trade is reporting better tha expected yields. Traders will make what they will of that – a crop no better than last year’s 82m or closer to the last USDA estimate? The lower figure would

suggest another very tight season for the US with riskily low finishing stocks in the pipeline for the second year running. Even the higher crop figure would not spell abundance. However, there are mitigating factors. Chief amongst these is the Latin American crop harvested last spring which the USDA has increased to almost 141m tonnes – 31m more than last year. That not only raises world soyabean supply to a new record 267.5m tonnes but results in world stocks growing from 55m to 61.5m. As soyabean prices remain high compared with maize, their main competitor for land in the Americas, the Latin producers are expected to up their acreage yet again this autumn (planting starts around October) and on current pointers, USDA sees their output rising again to about 150.5m tonnes. This all pre-supposes good weather and it is a bit hot and dry in Brazil especially at the moment. However, if all goes to plan, world soya stocks will loosen further in the season that closes at the end of August 2014. Rapeseed and sunflowerseed crops have also exceeded forecasts this season and (+3.6m and 5.4m tonnes respectively) thanks to large crops in Canada, the CIS countries and Western Europe. With good crops of cottonseed, palm kernels, groundnuts and copra, this puts world oilseed output on track

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September - October 2013 | 49

for a new record 495m tonnes. Amid looser supplies and cheaper prices, world oilmeal consumption is expected to grow by 3.3% compared with less than 1% over the past season. By far the largest component in oilmeal growth will remain China (30% of the total increase) but healthy gains are also seen in demand within the USA, Europe, the Latin American soya producing countries, India, Mexico, Japan and other moderate sized consumers. Soya meal, which forward markets suggest will be about 5-6% cheaper this time next year, will again take most of the growth in global oil meal demand.

• Recovering ‘Black Sea’ (former Soviet country) crops may now live up to, even exceed, their early promise in terms of tonnages but there may be some quality issues after wet harvests for the latter stages

European, North American and Australian wheat exporters and an anchor on both milling and feed grain values in Europe and around the world. Continue to watch for possible government intervention in Russia to support prices and rebuild depleted reserve stocks but we expect this to be on a smaller scale than earlier thought and the effect temporary. • Despite the Black Sea competition, the EU wheat export campaign is off to a roaring start, well ahead of the pace needed to meet the near record 23m tonnes forecast by the USDA. While this year’s EU crop was a big one (+8m tonnes), keeping up this export pace would lower stocks and could support prices at a higher level – although this situation could be corrected by another season of large impoirts of cheap maize from Ukraine and other non-EU countries and by EU wheat prices become less competitive when/if prices did rise. (the past season’s EU maize imports hit a modern record of 11.3m tonnes and at least 7.5m is expected to come in this season).

quality milling wheat supplies, keeping costs in this sector under control. • A good Monsoon is boosting India’s crop which may turn out larger than expected. It has huge stocks, much of them inadequately stored and better sold into export markets at a low price/loss than spoiling. The government plans to free more expor ts which could help lower feedwheat prices internationally. • The surge in Chinese wheat imports seems to have peaked for now but second largest importer Brazil has been buying heavily due to a frost damaged domestic crop while the top importer Egypt has returned as a big buyer of months of absence during its political/financial crises. Iran has signaled much larger import needs and the Mideast region generally will probably want to keep wheat and other food stocks high in these uncertain times, especially given that current wheat import prices are so much lower than they were this time last year. • A record world maize crop will keep wheat use in feeds below the peak level of two years ago. But food, bio-fuel and other outlets will still add about 3.8% or 26m tonnes to world total wheat consumption in 2013/14. That means only modest stock growth but the global wheat inventory will still be large in relation to consumption needs.

• How much does the USDA need to trim off its US final acreage figure and will the excellent, better than expected yields seen from the early harvest hold up as the combines roll into the drier parts of the Midwest and Northern Plains? Clearly there is potential for the maize crop number to go either way (probably down a bit). Either way, the trade consensus remains fairly confident that the US will build carryover stocks to very comfortable levels by the end of 2013/14. • Strong export competition from Ukrainian, second crop Brazilian and other maize suppliers will continue to undercut US prices and limit the traditional top exporter’s world market comeback – bearish for prices. • Europe’s own maize crop rebound should cut its import needs. Prices here should be kept in check by bigger supplies and by cheap and abundant maize imports from Ukraine • Cheaper prices are expected to win back the 10% of US corn consumption that was lost to last year’s record costs in feed and ethanol sectors – or is that a little optimistic? Some US traders have their doubts. • Will China spring more surprises with its maize import programme – or have we seen the bulk of this now? World corn supplies

of Russia, Ukrainian and Kazakh harvests. The later-sown spring wheat and corn crops will be most at risk. At this stage, however, these countries continue to set the bar low for export prices – a challenge to

• Canadian, Australian and Argentine crops are all expected to rise this season – by a combined 10m tonnes. Along with the US and Europe, these producers will be able to keep importing countries well supplied with

50 | September - October 2013


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can certainly accommodate this without a strong price reaction. • Funds and other speculator s have recently had fewer reasons to invest in maize and other crop markets – indeed commodities per se – as opposed to rising stock markets. Their absence will be welcomed by consumers. • W i l l South American maize producers really sow smaller crops for harvest nex t spring as prices drop on world markets? It wouyld not surprise us if the region’s potential is being underrated yet again. . • The biggest barley crop in four years adds to the mix of abundant feed grain supply – up by over 6% in Europe. With maize, this will add to downward pressure on feedgrain prices. So will a larger sorghum crop, already helping to fill some of China’s feed impor t needs. side of the soya/oilmeal equation. Will it continue to buy such large amounts of US soyabeans as it has in the early weeks of the new season? Or will it try to delay purchases when possible to switch to cheaper Latin American suppliers? Although some analysts say China’s demand has been overrated, it continues to buy mega tonnages. • B i g E U a n d C I S r a p e s e e d & sunf lower seed and Canadian canola crops are helping to boost consumers’ global oilmeal choices beyond ‘k ing soya.’ • If the South Americans continue to expand sowings and get the right weather, soya costs may have further to fall.




• Just where will the US soyabean crop end up – 82m, 88m tonnes? Even the low figure does not necessarily spell a bull market amid the abundance of South American supply. • However, traders will want to s e e p r oof of this situation continuing – i.e. the next lat-Am crops up and running. • China will remain t o p i nf l u e n ce on the demand

• Over 26,000 industry leaders from over 110 countries • Over 1,100 exhibitors ranging from production to point of sale • Over 24+ acres of exhibit space • Exceptional educational programs scheduled for the entire week • One of the most affordable attendee registration fees in the world


The World’s Largest Annual Poultry, Feed, and Meat Technology Exposition

January 28 - 30, 2014 Georgia World Congress Center Atlanta, Georgia USA


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September - October 2013 | 51

29th – 31st October 13
Animal Farming Ukraine, Ukraine Contact: BTO Exhibitions B.V., Amalialaan 126-D, 3743 KJ Baarn, The Netherlands Tel: +31 35 544 89 81 Email: Web:


13th – 14th November 13
64th JTIC International, France Contact: Nelly Duprat Tel: +33 1 47 07 20 69 Email: Web:


19th – 24th January 14

29th October – 1st November 13
AgroExpoSiberia, Russia Contact: Nadja Mazko Tel: +49 6221 13 57 15 Email: Web:


16th – 17th November 13
IAOM 37th Annual Latin America District Conference, Peru Contact: Shannon Henson Tel: 913 338 3377 Email: Web:


24th Annual Practical Short Course on Feeds and Pet Food Extrusion, Texas Contact: Dr. Mian N. Riaz Tel: +979 845 2774 Email: Web: ShortCourses/feeds/scfeedspet.php


25th – 27th May 14

Australasian Milling conference 14, Australia Contact: Len Thomson Tel: +0417425007 Email: Web:


11th – 12th June 14
Cereals 2014, UK Contact: Rebecca Dawson Tel: +44 1788 892039 Email: Web: cfm/Link=1/t=m/goSection=1


28th – 30th January 14
International Production and Processing Expo (IPPE), Georgia Contact: Sarah Novak Tel:+1 703 558 3574 Email: Web:


5th – 8th November 13

24th Annual IAOM Mideast & Africa District conference and Expo, Tunisia Contact: Ms. Eva Mulyana Tel: +968 2471 2338 Email: Web:


26th – 28th November 13

12th – 14th November 13
TGDF Food Congress, Turkey Contact: Ali Resat Yilmazbilen Tel: +90 312 284 7778 Email: Web:


8th Food Proteins Course, The Netherlands Contact: Gerard Klein Essink Tel: +31 30 2252 060 Email: Web: staff-f3b0e5aa36194e71bce2fea9238b9e99.aspx


17th July 14

13th February 14
Ildex Thailand - on the move, Thailand Contact: Nalinrat Ananamnuaylap Tel: +662 670 0900 ext 118 Email: Web:


Ildex Thailand - on the move, Thailand Contact: Nalinrat Ananamnuaylap Tel: +662 670 0900 ext 118 Email: Web:


23rd – 25th September 14

21st November
Ildex Thailand (On the move), Thailand Contact: Nalinrat Ananamnuaylap Tel: +662 670 0900 ext. 118 Email: Web:


4th – 7th February 14

Cereals, Mixed Feed, Veterinary Exhibition, Russia Contact: Tatiana Sokolova Email: Web:


VIV China, China Contact: Anneke van Rooijen Tel: +31 30 295 2772 Fax: +31 30 295 2809 Mail: Web:


22nd – 25th February 14
GEAPS Exchange, Nebraska Contact: Rose Miller or Samantha Kukowski Tel: +1 952 928 4640 Email: Web:


15th – 17th October 14
Vietstock 2014 Expo & Forum, Vietnam Contact: UBM Tel: +84 8 5401 2718 Email: Web:


16th October 14

19th – 21st March 14
ILDEX Vietnam, Vietnam Contact: Nalinrat Ananamnuaylap Tel: +662 670 0900 ext 118 Email: Web:


Ildex Thailand – on the move, Thailand Contact: Nalinrat Ananamnuaylap Tel: +662 670 0900 ext 118 Email: Web:



11th – 13th March 15

8th – 10th April 14
FIAAP, VICTAM, GRAPAS Asia, Thailand Contact: Patricia Heimgartner Tel: +31 33 246 4404 Email: Web:


VIV Asia, Asia Contact: Leah Barsema Tel: +31 302 952 879 Email: Web:


23rd – 25th April 14

VIV India 2014, India Contact: Manuel Madani Tel: +31 30 295 2608 Email: Web:


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23rd – 24th April 14

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Second Global Milling Conference, India Contact: Manuel Madani Tel: +31 30 295 2608 Email: Web:


20th – 22nd May 14
VIV Europe 2014, The Netherlands Contact: Ruwan Berculo Tel: +31 3029 52879 Email: Web:



52 | September - October 2013


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Supporting the industry

2014 2013

Meet your customers at one of our global events
17 – 18 SEAFEX Conference - Dubai
MENA Seafood Summit in association with SEAFEX 2013 Conference organised by Roy Palmer and Roger Gilbert, communications director, Association of International Seafood Professionals) Opportunities: Stand space at SEAFEX - US$445 /m2 Sponsor of speaker at conference - US$1200



4 – 7 1st Russian Milling Conference - Moscow
Cereals, Mixed Feed and Veterinary Exhibition 2014 Roger Gilbert is co-organiser and co-chairman of the event Opportunities: Sponsor of speakers at conference - US$700 (must exhibit) Septiembre-Octubre 2013 - Moscow 4 – 7 1st Russian Aquaculture Conference Cereals, Mixed Feed and Veterinary Exhibition 2014 Roger Gilbert is co-organiser and chairman of the event Opportunities: Sponsor of speakers at conference - US$700 (must exhibit)



8 GRAPAS Conference - Bangkok
VICTAM Asia 2014 Roger Gilbert is the organiser and chairman of the conference Opportunities: Sponsor of speaker at conference - US$1000 (must exhibit)

Held as part of VIV India Summit Roger Gilbert is an organiser and chairman of the event Opportunities: For 6 keynote speakers at conference - free (must exhibit)

23 – 24 2nd Global Milling Conference - Bangalore
VIV India 2014 Venue, teas & co ees are sponsored by VIV Roger Gilbert is an organiser and chairman of the event Opportunities: Stand space - $1000 /3x2m stand Dinner sponsor - US$8000 Sponsor of speaker at conference - US$1000

VIV Europe Roger Gilbert is an organiser and chairman of the event Opportunities: For 6 keynote speakers at conference - free (must exhibit)

VIV China 2014 Roger Gilbert is an organiser and chairman of the event Opportunities: For 6 keynote speakers at conference - free (must exhibit)

VIV China 2014 Roger Gilbert is an organiser and chairman of the event Opportunities: For 6 keynote speakers at conference - free (must exhibit)

8th Food Proteins Course to focus on food applications
Amsterdam, the Netherlands and animal proteins that are currently available for food applications. The course offers a unique combination of lectures by industr y exper ts on the proper ties, processing, functionalities and applications of ten different plant and animal-based proteins: soy, wheat, pea, potato, canola, egg albumin, casein, whey and protein hydrolysates.
14:29 Page 1

24th Annual Practical Short Course on Feeds and Pet Food Extrusion


he 8th Food Proteins Course, incorporating a t h e m at ic fo c u s o n fo o d proteins takes place in the N e t he r l a nd s , N ove m b e r 26-28, 2013. The course will provide participants with a theoretical and pr actical overview of the vegetable


ext January will see the return of a feed-related shor t course run by Texas A&M University, USA. The 24th Annual Practical Short Course on Feeds and Pet Food Extrusion will cover a range of subjects including, designing new feed mills and selecting conveying, drying, grinding, conditioning and feed mixing equipment. Held from January 19-24, 2014, the course will include current

GRAPASisland:Layout 1


practices for production of pet foods, preparing full-fat soy meal; recycling fisheries by-products, r aw a n i m a l p ro d u c t s , a nd secondary resources; extrusion of floating, sinking, and high fat feeds; spraying and coating fats, digests and preservatives; use of encapsulated ingredients and preparation of premixes, and least cost formulation will also be reviewed. Practical demonstrations of pet food, vacuum coating, and several others will take place on four major types of extruders - dry, interrupted flights, single and twin screw, using various shaping dies. Reservations are accepted on a first-come basis. extrusion

The stage is set for IPPE 2014
nternational Production and Processing Expo (IPPE), which takes place January 28-30, 2014, is expected to attract more than 26,000 attendees. The event is a collaboration of three shows: International Poultry Expo, International Feed Expo, and International Meat Expo and will once again be held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Sponsored by the U.S. Poultry & Egg Association (USPOULTRY), the American Feed Industry Association (AFIA), and the American Meat Institute (AMI), the expo represents the entire chain of protein production and processing. To secure your place at the next show, preregistration is available on the new IPPE website. A discounted price of US $50 is available until December 31, 2013. After this date, the registration fee will increase to US$70. A ‘ M e m b e r s t o At l ant a’ programme, which waives the preregistration up until December 31, 2013 is available for attendees from member firms of all three associations engaged in the production of poultry, eggs and meat for consumption, and feed and pet food manufacturers. Registration for IPPE includes entrance to the trade show exhibits and select education programme.

8 – 10 April 2014 . Bangkok International Trade & Exhibition Centre (BITEC), Bangkok, Thailand


Asia’s premier rice & flour milling and grain processing exhibition and conference

GRAPAS Asia 2014 is the only dedicated trade show and conference organised specifically for rice & flour milling, grain storage, preservation & processing, noodle, breakfast cereal and extruded snack production within the dynamic and growing regions of South & South East Asia.
New for 2014 Now including the first ASEAN Rice Summit Specialist conference The exhibition will be supported by its own specialist conference: The GRAPAS Conference 2014 Supported by The Thailand Convention and Exhibition Bureau Co-located with VICTAM Asia 2014 Contact details For visitor, exhibition stand space and conference information please visit:

54 | September - October 2013


&feed milling technology

SPACE 2013
A record number of visitors arrived in Rennes, France t his S e ptember to vis it SPACE 2013, the world’s second-largest international a g r i c u l t u r e t r a d e s h ow and this year ’s key date for European feed millers. Richard Sillett reports from the three-day event. awards. Companies well known to species, which cannot synthesise the Grain & Feed Milling Technology enzyme naturally. DSM estimates the readers including Alltech, DSM new product will make phosphates and INZO featured among the 25 percent more accessible 64 prizewinners, as selected by a compared to previous products. jury of trade journalists, technical Alltech received the innovation institutes, regional chambers of award for 37+, its new tool to agriculture, the French National help farmers identify mould and Institute for Agricultural Research mycotoxin contamination in (INRA) and the French Patent their animal feed. Alltech’s 37+ programme provides a readyOffice (INPI). DSM was honoured for its new to-use test kit, from which feed enzyme RONOZYME HiPhos. samples can be analysed and risk The Netherlands-based health and assessments of mycotoxin and nutrition giant has partnered with mould contamination can be made. biotech company Ronozyme to 37+, named after the 37 mycotoxins bring this new phytase to market. It it tests for, is part of Alltech’s fivepoint Mycotoxin Management is designed for use by monogastric VICTAMisland:Layout 1 30/8/13 14:22 Page 1 Programme, which provides continuing support to farms and feed mills in controlling and preventing mycotoxin outbreaks. “By not using the 37+ test kit, an inaccurate assessment of mycotoxin contamination is more likely. If the farmer has a more complete overview of the mycotoxin problem then they can manage it more effectively, the 37+ test kit allows them to do this,” said Emmanuel Landeau, technical manager for monogastric animals. The next edition of SPACE will be held in Rennes from September 16-19, 2014.


he 27th running of the event, held from September 10-13, welcomed 114,591 visitors to Brittany, the heart of France’s livestock industry. The figure included over 12,000 foreign attendees, and French Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault. This was a six percent increase on 2012’s overall attendance figure, and visitors were accommodated by a further record 67,000 m² of exhibition space. The halls and concourses of the Rennes airport Parc Expo had an international character, with delegates from Asia and Africa attending on all four days. Many exhibitors were visiting the show not only to make contact with French and European customers, but also to secure a piece of the fast-growing North African milling industry. Foreign visitors also had the option of touring various local farms, feed mills and breeding centres. In an off-year for VIV Europe and EuroTier, all eyes in the feed world have been on SPACE, and Brittany’s farms and mills were an effective showcase for European technologies and practices. Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault led the French government’s official delegation to the event. They addressed show visitors as one part of a programme of discussions, forums and conferences which put SPACE at the heart of the global debate in farming. With more than 70 foreign journalists covering the event and 400 farmers presenting their livestock breeds to international buyers, it was a true crossroads of the agricultural world. Visitors were also introduced to new products and technologies through the show’s Innov’SPACE

8 – 10 April 2014 . Bangkok International Trade & Exhibition Centre (BITEC), Bangkok, Thailand

Asia’s largest exhibition and conferences for animal feed, aquafeed and petfood production

VICTAM Asia 2014 is the largest trade show within South and South East Asia for displaying the latest equipment and technology used in the production of animal feeds, aquafeeds and dry petfoods.
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&feed milling technology

September - October 2013 | 55


his unmissable event in the wheat-flour-bread calendar sees JTIC welcoming more than 1,000 participants on each of the two days of the Fair. From the four corners of the world, milling and cereal professionals come to Reims to discover what France and Europe has to offer in the way of equipment, ingredients, products, services and training. This year will be marked by numerous surprises on the theme of combinations and people in the industry working together. Organised by AEMIC, the alumni association for technical schools and companies in the cereal industry, JTIC is an opportunity to talk, discuss, meet, and learn in an unparalleled atmosphere. With companies developing, regulations evolving and climates changing, the wheatflour-bread industry is more than ever a focus of political, economic and social debate. JTIC conferences strive to provide accurate information on four topics:


chaired and led by Bernard Valluis at which operators, cereal professionals, and regulation and transport players will offer answers on strategic directions for industry professionals. Hot topics include opening up of highways to 44-tonne trucks, the eco-tax, food safety in transit and town centre traffic restrictions.

Cereal quality
This conference will focus on quality levers, genetics and variability in the expression of genetic results depending on year, climate, and immediate environment. Particular attention will be paid to the establishment of new recommended varieties to satisfy millers’ expectation.

by Industries des Céréales review. Participants are encouraged to submit a poster on the theme of bridging the gap between research and practice. At the end of the fair, two poster winners will be selected by a jury based on the following criteria: • The scientific character and originality of the subject • The understandability and quality of the presentation • The prospects for their usability in the short, medium and long term For more information about how this session is organised, authors can contact the

Sensitivity to gluten
Traditionally devoted to social and community issues, the last half-day will this year address gluten-intolerance claims. An essential structural ingredient of bread, gluten has been accused of all manner of maladies, and has come close to being stripped of all its beneficial virtues. More and more people are deciding to exclude it from their diet. AEMIC will be presenting a defence of gluten and explode the contemporary myth.

Cereal sustainability can be addressed at international or industry level (hard wheat in France, for example), and clearly also at individual company level. Some of the questions the session hopes to answer include: • What are the prospects for sustainable supply at international level? • How do we measure the sustainability of an industry? • What research projects are being conducted? • Is it possible to be both sustainable and competitive? Cereal operators, scientists, farmers and policy-makers will be there to present their approaches to this challenge.

A fair synonymous with innovation
This year, more than 100 suppliers of materials, ingredients and services are expected at the main exhibition stage in the centre of the conference hall. They will also be able to take advantage of workshops to present their latest innovations to the fair’s visitors. The ideal forum for innovation, to discover the new services, products and processes being applied in the industry, JTIC workshops are open to all participants and are always a key attraction. The products and services presented will go through a preselection process for their innovative character and their practical applications in the cereal industry. There will also be a poster session organised

Road transport
The logistics of road transport is essential to cereal industry operators and is subject to numerous regulatory changes. A conference
56 | September - October 2013

&feed milling technology

publishers of the journal at

AEMIC is the alumni association for technical schools in the cereal industry. It was created in 1925 with the aim of developing and maintaining professional and friendly links between the various players in the cereal industry, and to promote the sector in France and abroad by communicating information about its products, occupations and training. It currently has nearly 3,000 contacts, 750 of whom are active members. Jean-Marie Poncey is its president. The new edition of the AEMIC directory will be released at the 64th JTIC and distributed free to charge to all association members.

France cereal industry facts
• France produces 68 million tons of cereals a year, making the country the largest cereal producer in Europe. • This figure includes 35.7 million tons of soft wheat. 47 percent is consumed domestically while the remaining 57 percent is exported. • France produces 5.7 million tons of wheat for human food including 4.8 million tons for flour production. • There are 422 mills in France with a turnover of 1.8 billion euros and 6,000 employees. These mills produce 4.37 million tons of flour, of which, 65 percent is used in the baking industry. • The baking industry is made up of 32,379 companies with an annual turnover of 16.81 billion euros and almost 200,000 employees. • In 2012, JTIC played host to 2,000 delegates over two days. International professionals from 28 countries attended, representing 10 percent of the total visitors. • There were 111 exhibitors, including 14 foreign companies. • 2010 figures - From: ANMF / Passion Céréales / FEBPF / Alliance 7 / FranceAgrimer More Information: Website:

Jobs and training
Every year at JTIC, AEMIC organises a job fair accessible free of charge for all employers in the industry. In contrast to the national trend, the French cereal industry offers a dynamic job market with real career opportunities. The only problem is generally matching up recruiters’ needs with job seekers’ requirements. The role of the AEMIC is to offer the right people, at the right time, for available vacancies. As part of the association’s ongoing placement / recruitment activities, the job fair encourages companies to get together with candidates.

Social activities
In addition to the bar area, which is always a great success, new social spaces will also be accessible for visitors to punctuate their time with some relaxing moments. However, the social highlight of the event is without doubt the gala evening. The 2012 evening at Mumm and the tribute to Fabien Pelous set a high precedent so the 2013 event is eagerly anticipated. The organisers haven’t revealed the exact details but promise lots of surprises, emotion and conviviality for all participants.


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September - October 2013 | 57

Livestock Asia


rain and Feed Milling Technology’s Tuti Tan and Tom Blacker headed to Kuala Lumpur for Livestock Asia 2013, September 24-26, 2013. The show was the second Livestock Asia event organised by UBM for all kinds of the agribusiness, feed, health, processing, storage and manufacturing industry. It has been going for 20 years and is centred

Indolivestock 2014
P l a n s for I nd o L i ve s t oc k 2014 are already underway. We sat down with Mr Didit Siswodwiatmoko to hear more about what to expect. There is a usual move of venue to Jakarta for the west Indonesian market, whereas the 2013 event in Bali served the east Indonesian market. He expects 400 companies to exhibit at IndoLivestock 2014 with regional pavilions expanding to new regions: there was a new Korean pavillion for instance at 2013 that is returning next year. Since the 2013 Indo Livestock, he has been to other events like SPACE in Rennes, France and Livestock Asia, Malaysia – developed markets with companies that could tap into the growing market of Indonesia. Going forward, Siswodwiatmoko is full of confidence for the show in Jakarta next year from June 18-20, 2014.

on agriculture technology. Since 2011, the number of companies exhibiting has expanded by 15 percent, the visitor numbers also increased by 21 percent over the first two days. For the full three days the halls of the Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre, located next door to the world famous twin towers were truly alive with the hubbub of this great show. The opening ceremony began with a speech by Tan Sri Dato’ Dr Ahmad Mustaffa Babjee, chairman, UBM Southeast Asia. There were interesting notes of thanks to the Malaysian Feed Millers Association and other partners of Livestock Asia at the Opening Ceremony. However, as time went on it began to become clear that this event was not just a national event but

wanted to include an international and regional focus. All speakers mentioned the part of all to play in feeding nine billion by 2050, with an additional note of being ready for that by 2020 which is an interesting new addendum to the well-known phrase in feed and food sustainability circles. He challenged all to feed nine billion people by 2050 in a borderless world, with proper nutrition for all, not just a few. YB Dato’ Sri Ismail Sabri bin Yaakob, director general of the department of Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture and AgroBased Industry, Malaysia, was next to take to the stage and spoke and relayed some interesting aims, facts and ambitions. He said that Malaysia’s agribusiness is growing 10 percent annually with a total worth of 7 billion RM (Two billion

US$) - poultry, meat and eggs make up the majority of this. Malaysia is trying to be more independent in food production and to build it into their developed economy by 2020. He added that adding 150,000 in the sector by 2020 is another aim. When coupled with the building of feed mills and other projects that are assisted by the government and the new National Agriculture Food Policy underscores their planning approach to helping the industry. The use of idle land, and genetically modified technologies are both expanding with scales of production. Value chains and supply chains were highlighted for meeting at Livestock Asia. He concluded by wishing Livestock Asia well and that it should continue for many more years ahead for the one goal, progress. In the show itself, there was lots

Case study

Ottevanger in ASEAN region


esides conventional feedmills, Ottevanger also offers the unique concept of containerised feedmills. The container shaped structure is especially designed according to the dimensions of shipping containers. All main machines are preassembled in the frame in the Dutch facilities of Ottevanger. The container frame is to be used for shipping and is also the steel structure for the new feedmill. Erection time of the new feedmill is significantly shorter in respect

to conventional feedmills. Containerized feedmills does not need special buildings as the setup can be built inside a shed-shaped building. Some of the many benefits are: • High quality and durable equipment (made in Holland) • Modular and flexible setup • Pre-assembled and tested machines • Saving on shipment costs; • Short erection times • Savings on civil works and building. Over the last few decades, many complete projects, single equipment and expansions have been supplied to most of Asia-Pacific countries and even to New Zealand. In the Malaysian market, Ottevanger Milling Engineers is a well-known

supplier of feedmills, and has installed several feedmills in the last decades at Huat Lai, Chuan Hong, Lay Hong. Recently, a new 45 ton per hour feedmill has been installed at Huat Lai. The new grinding/mixing section will shortly be extended with a new pelleting section. Together with the Malaysian agent Poullive, Ottevanger participated in the recent Livestock Asia exhibition in Kuala Lumpur. Showing the continuous presence in the market is an important issue, maintaining contact with the esteemed customers, to follow and act on market trends, and to make the market aware that Ottevanger is around.

of interest from the region in the challenges and potential of Malaysian and ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) livestock, feed and technology. Our st and w a s on t he U K pavilion and we met new and loyal readers alike. The demand w as ins ati able for Gr ain & F e e d M i l l i n g Te c h n o l o g y ’s feed focuses, species-specific fe at ure s a nd p e o p l e p a ge s across the 1,0 0 0 copies we

distributed. This interest w a s m at c h e d by t h e ke e n millers who snapped up the 200 last copies of the current International Milling Directory. We took the opportunity to t alk more about the new 2 013 /14 e d i t io n w hic h is coming out very soon. On the business side of thing, we met companies from all sectors - manufacturing, health, feed and nutrient processing, storage

and more. New advertisers have agreed deals with us and we are positive of the outcomes for their media and market awareness by our reach. The next event is already planned

for September 21-23, 2015 at the same venue. We are hoping to expand our media partnership to deliver more for our customers and the industry so watch this space.

Tan Sri Dato’ Dr Ahmad Mustaffa Babjee, chairman, UBM
erendale Publishers sat with Tan Sri Dato’ Dr Ahmad Mustaffa Babjee, chairman, UBM, Southeast Asia at Livestock Asia to discuss his personal background, mission for feed and nutrition in today’s world and his predictions for the future. His background is as a vet and environmentalist. Nowadays, in addition to his role at UBM he is a senior fellow of the Academy of Sciences Malaysia (Akademi Sains Malaysia). He began by addressing his opinions of key topics for the region, “Feed is key in order to develop. There is competition for resources between humankind and animals. Feed conversion rates in the future can reach zero-waste [one day]”. GM modifications of feed should follow nature in its way with no waste. For example, using other chicken parts in the past was for an aesthetic not scientific recycling. The media and public perception should not be hinderances to the industry. There are perceptions of hormone stimulants in farmed chickens for example that linger


Mr M Ghandi, UBM


BM is a global company but in the last three years, UBM has chosen to invest in the ASEAN region with its 650 million people and average growth of six percent per annum. Infrastructure growth is strong in the ASEAN region and this matters for the formation of the ASEAN economic bloc in 2015. One economic region will be created by 2020. Livestock events, with Live s t ock A si a be ing t he regional focus, are critical to f ind solutions for t he challenges these factors in the region bring because people mean food, water and energy as basic needs of developing economies. The objectives to meet for Livestock Asia and other Livestock exhibitions and conferences in the region are to contribute to societies locally, highlight important and regulatory issues. For example,

the approver of technical products into the Thai market and the agribusiness associations of Sumatra attended Livestock Asia 2013. More generally in 2013, there were great new developments beyond the last Livestock Asia event. The Pioneer Award is to recognise and encourage farmers and innovators to achieve progress in their fields. The highest goal Ghandi set for Livestock Asia was for the exhibition to promote and fur t her intern ational investments that the ASEAN region members are starting to make in each other's economies in this sector. Gradually, this will aid the ASEAN region connect biannually and move closer to integration. Perendale Publishers is looking ahead with UBM South-East Asia to expand our media partnership and create more ways to be an effective partner in media coverage and more. We will keep you posted regularly about this exciting range of opportunities.


in the mind. People like the kampung chicken (local chicken) traditionally. Perceptions will have to keep up with the pace of change. Questions were then posed about regulation in Malaysia of the sector. Tan Sri said, “Regulation must adapt with products: for example, the level of additives in feeds.” He acknowledged regulation was better than other ASEAN countries. However, other challenges exist particularly around bureaucracy. The discussion then turned to what role aquaculture plays at Livestock Asia 2013 already, and what is his view on the regional scene notably saying, “the world is wrongly named ‘earth’…it should be renamed aquaterra”. Balancing land and water for food production should be a higher priority than it currently is to be sustainable in food production. Technology can be applied to both terrestrial and aquatic farming, which should be furthered by government help and access to technical knowhow. Sabah and Sarawak are two states of Malaysia, “best suited to mariculture and aquaculture. This can develop to the need for food in the future in a controlled way: hunting is not controlled, and farming is the future”.

The GFMT interview
Symaga specialises in the design, manufacture and supply of steel silos for storing cereals, oilseeds, grains and pellets, rice for the agriculture, agro-industry, biofuels and biomass industries. With more than 30 years' experience and over 15 million m³ of storage built worldwide, the company is one of the world’s leading storage experts. But Symaga is not just silos; the company is divided into four individual divisions. The Livestock Division focuses on farm silos and livestock equipment, the Agriculture Division, provides water tanks and vineyard posts, and the Steel department is dedicated to any steel work. In the Silos division, Symaga supplies a wide range of silos, flat bottom up to 25,000 m³ and hopper silos, reaching 12 m diameter with 45° hopper and 2,700 m³ capacity, completely galvanized and with double welded compression ring. Alice Neal spoke to Alfonso Garrido, sales director, about the family-run business. Garrido began his career at the company as a child helping out in the manufacturing department. He has an understanding of all aspects of the company, having spent time working in the logistics department and administration before joining the sales team three years ago. Despite having so much hands-on experience, Garrido understands the value of formal education and has a degree in business administration and speaks several European languages.
Alfonso Garrido sales director, Symaga, Spain

What have been the biggest changes to silos (both in terms of design and demand) since Symaga was founded in 1985? The biggest changes we have tackled are bigger capacities for our silos, and higher galvanization requirements. Customer requests are becoming more and more specific and specialized, so we need to improve our products to satisfy their needs. One of the biggest changes was silo designing according to new norms (EUROCODE); we had to design completely new products. Moreover, the technology on manufacturing silos has changed, so we have updated ourselves to be always competitive. What makes a Symaga silo special? A Symaga silo is manufactured with the best raw materials in the market, all of them certified from the top steel millers in Europe. Calculations make Symaga silos one of the strongest in the market, if not the most. Further, our production is automated, so that we can guarantee our quality is standardized. Moreover, we would like to remark that is not only the product, but also the service that makes a Symaga silo special. What new features are your customers asking for? Our customers are now asking for bigger capacities, and for new accessories. For this reason we have developed new products such as ventilated cone, full aeration floor and many others. What features do your silos have to withstand extreme temperatures and weather? We understand extreme situation as standard situation. For this reason, we updated the galvanization to Z600 as our standard. We are able to design our silos counting extreme factors, i.e., wind (200 km/h) and snow loads (300 kg/m²), and as seismic coefficient of 0.4. For extreme climatic condition, and to avoid the condensation which is one of the main headaches, we have developed accessories such a FOAM eave close.
60 | September - October 2013

What improvements do you expect to see in silo technology in the next few years? The improvements we expect are based on better raw materials (more structural quality, more galvanization for example), and new improvements in the production processes. Our stakeholder’s view of the business allows us to have good relationship with suppliers, customers, etc. to offer better products and services. Which areas are you targeting and why? Nowadays, we are targeting CIS countries, where we already have important presence, and also the Asian market and South America. The growth in these areas is becoming so huge at the moment, and the potential is even higher. Safety inside silos is an important issue, what safety features do Symaga silos have? Symaga can offer silos according to anti-explosion international safety regulations, ATEX. Moreover, all accessories such as ladder, temperature control, switch level controls etc are according to these regulations. Recently new accessories have been designed to increase security on silos, for example, eave handrails, closed catwalks, anti-slip catwalks. Security is a must in Symaga. What predictions do you have for the milling industry over the next 10 years? According to predictions, the population is growing. So, this means more people to be fed. For this reason, storage needs to be increased. Moreover, the global economy is increasing the trade, so storage need to be built at every stage, from farmer granaries, logistic areas (such as ports and trains) and agro-industries.

An extended version of this interview is on the Global Miller blog at

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Cargill’s new global technology director
Cargill has appointed Dr Brooke Humphrey as its new global technology director for pork. For seven years, Humphrey worked as a professor at the University of Maryland and California Polytechnic State University. He joined Cargill in 2010 as a global technology leader, drawing on his expertise in nutritional immunology. In 2011, Humphrey took on the role of R&D director for pork, poultry, ruminant, aqua, pet, equine and modelling. “Brooke will excel in this new role,” said Dr Jason Shelton, global technology application director at Cargill. “The experience he brings from working with a multitude of businesses and species will help Dr Brooke Humphrey Cargill better serve our animal nutrition customers and partners.” Based at the innovation campus in Elk River, Minnesota, USA Humphrey added, “This is an exciting time for the global feed and nutrition industry. Through our 15 global Technical Application Centers, our researchers develop worldclass nutrition-based models and solutions that consistently return higher profits for our customers.”


Double appointment at UK feed firm
Kiotechagil, a feed additive and biosecurity company based in Nottinghamshire, UK, recently expanded its international team. Dr Luciano Sá joins Kiotechagil as a sales and technical consultant. With a PhD in animal science from the University of Viçosa, Brazil, Sá has a strong technical background in both monogastric and ruminant nutrition. Prior to his new role, Sá was the nutrition and formulation manager at Poli-Nutri Alimentos, a major feed and premix producer in Brazil. Dr Luciano Sá Rene Noteborn He is also the lead author of more than ten published papers and has had many articles published in scientific magazines. In his new role, Sá will provide technical and commercial support. Alongside Dr Sá, Rene Noteborn has joined Kiotechagil as the new sales manager for Europe. Rene also studied animal sciences at Wageningen Agricultural University, Holland. Most recently, he worked for feed and premix company, De Heus International, where he held several positions in account and product management. “I am really looking forward to working for and contributing to the growth of Kiotechagil. I see a particular opportunity to focus on the biosecurity aspects of meeting farmers’ needs,” said Noteborn.

R-Biopharm Rhône’s new customer service manager
R-Biopharm, Scottish manufacturer and diagnostic test kit exporter has appointed Jill Arnott to the key role of customer service manager. Arnott, who has been with the Glasgow-based company for two years as a senior member of the customer care team, will now be heading the department that oversees all aspects of order handling and delivery. Arnott has a distinguished track record in customer service, including working with the UK flag carrier British Airways. Her appointment will maintain a consistency of customer service strategies at R-Biopharm Rhône, which Jill Arnott recorded its best year last year with record figures for sales, profits and staff numbers. “We are delighted that Jill has picked up the baton in our customer service department. She gets on extremely well with people and takes a professional and personal interest in making problems disappear. She will be a great asset to a dedicated team,” said Simon Bevis, managing director.

From Kansas to Kenya: global accounts at Engrain
USA based enzyme development company Engrain recently promoted its current logistics specialist, Taylor McFall to global accounts sales manager. As a result of his promotion, McFall will be relocating from Manhattan, Kansas to Nairobi, Kenya where he will be responsible for logistics development, distribution, and inventory, as well as working to reinforce Engrain’s presence throughout the region. According to Engrain, having a manager on the ground will make it easier to serve local clients face-to-face. As Engrain’s clientele consists of flourmills and large-scale bakeries, McFall will be responsible for making sure Engrain’s local product warehouse, located in Mombasa, Kenya, fulfils the requirements and growing demands of local millers and bakers. With a bachelor’s degree in accounting from Kansas State University, McFall previously worked for the USDA Grain Marketing and Product Research Center as part of the Engineering Research Unit. Commenting on his new role, Mcfall said, “I’m excited to be able to gain this international experience, and share what I’ve learned with staff based at our headquarters in Manhattan, Kansas.”


by Marnie Snell

Six eyes strive for top quality. Increase consistent product quality of flour and semolina with the latest NIR technology. The Bühler NIR Multi Online Analyzer MYRG continuously monitors the quality of your raw material and finished products – only one spectrometer is needed to evaluate up to six different measuring points at the same time. The system not only offers a seamless analysis, but also locates any quality change in real-time, initiating adjustments without delay. We would be pleased to present you the various options and applications.

Bühler AG, Grain Milling, CH-9240 Uzwil, Switzerland, T +41 71 955 11 11, F +41 71 955 66 11,

NIR Multi Online Analyzer MYRG.
Multifunctional Monitoring of protein, moisture, ash and other ingredients in whole grain, semolina and flour. Real-time monitoring Corrective actions can be implemented in the ongoing production process, without waiting for laboratory analysis. Consistent product quality Supplies decisive information for smart control of the gluten, moisture, or ash contents. High efficiency One spectrometer evaluates up to six different measuring points simultaneously.

Innovations for a better world.

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