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S E C T I O N 27
10 Ways to Amplify Mechanical Movements 10 Ways to Amplify Mechanical Action
How to Damp Axial and Rotational Motion
27-2 27-4 27-6 27-8 27-10 27-12 27- 14 27- 16 27- 18 27-20 27-21 27-22 27-23
8 Snap-Action Devices
Make Diaphragms Work for You Control-Locks Thwart Vibration and Shock liquid level Mechanisms, Indicators and Controllers Liquid Level Indicators and Controllers Hangers Put Up by Hand Assemble Sheetmetal with Sheetmetal Devices for Indexing or Holding Mechanical Movements Slash Errors with Sensitive Balance Rotary Piston Engine
10 Ways to Amplify
How levers, membranes, cams, and gears are arranged to measure, weigh, gage, adjust, and govern.
HIGH AMPLIFICATION f o r simple measuring instruments is provided b y double lever acfion. Accuracy can be as high
PIVOTED LEVERS allow extremely sensitive action in compardtof-type memuring device shown here. The range, however, is sniall.
Corn t o l l o w e r 7
ULTRA-HIGH AMPLIFICATION, w i t h only one lever, is provided in the Hirth-Minimeter shown here. Again, thc range is siiinll.
Section through A - A
COR CLOSE ADJUSTMENT,
c l e c t r i c i l nie:isiiring i n s t r n tiicnts e m p l o j eccentric ciini\. l l e r c niovenient i s rcducrtl, nut ;iniplified.
MICROSCOPIC ADJUSTMENT is achieved liere 112 employing ;I large eccentric-c;iiit cotipled ((I :I worni-gear drive. Snioolli, f i i i e udjuslnienl result.
-le\cr providc wiiple mot rniriit of indicirttrr needle for snisll chiu~gcs in go\rrnor speed. .Creative Assemblies 27-3 f /ever or beum CAPSULE UNIT for gaspressure indicators should be provided with a compression spring to preload the membrane for more positive action. is extremely sensitive. GEARED quadrant are I J W ~ herc to give flie coniI)artator iiiaxiniuni sensitivity coinhitied with ruggedness. A the lever system. - 6 AMPLIFIED MEMBRANE MOVEMENT can be gained by the arrangement shown here. small chain-driven gear links gear m d p/nfon QUADRANT-GEAR AND PINION couplctt to an l. mounted on knife edges. Sfeelyord rod- LEVER ACTUATED \+eighscale needs no springs to niaiciVain balance. The lever system.
The return-spring takes out backlash. Knife edges provide frictionless pivots for lever.27-4 10 Ways to Amdifv Mechahical Actibn I Levers. ZElSS COMPARATOR is provided with a special lever to move the stylus clear of the work. Spring cenfer fines Moveme Curved lever spring ball measuring face Or 3 CURVED LEVER is so shaped and pivoted that the force exerted on the stylus rod. 5 “HOT-WIRE” AMMETER relies on the thermal expansion of a current-canying wire. and metal bands are arranged to give high velocity ratios for adjusting and measuring. Federico Strasser Ius Geared lever LEVER AND GEAR train amplify the microscope control-knob movement. wires. A steel ball greatly reduces friction. remains constant. hair. . A relatively large needle movement occurs. DfAL INDICATOR starts with rack and pinion amplified by gear train. and thus stylus pressure.
When humidity causes expansion of the hair. Small movement of contact sphere produces large needle movement. STEEL RIBBONS trans- mit movement without the slightest backlash. .Creative Assemblies 27-5 Sfeel HYGROMETER actuated by a hair. The movement is amplified by differences in diameter. METAL BAND is twisted and supported at each end. Suppoff bushing +b --+ \ . its movement is amplified by a lever. The rod makes the error much more apparent.hticromefer meosures movement of b i n response fo movement ACCURACY of YU'squares TORSIONAL deflection of can be checked with a device shown here. the short arm is transmitted with low friction to the longer arm for micrometer measurement.
. SWlNGlNG VANES create increased wind drag as centrifugal force opens them to a larger radius. Sori& grip a ftachmenf - ROTATING VANES are resisted by the air a9 they revolve. CHECK VALVE in piston lets speed be controlled so that the piston moves faster in one direction than in the other. Make allowance for sudden stops by providing a spring. Frederico Strasser CI ADJUSTABLE BYPASS between the two sides of the piston controls speed at which fluid can flow when piston is moved. swinging-vane arrangements dissipate energy and govern speed.27-6 How to Damp Axial and Rotational Motion Fluid-friction devices include two hydraulic and two pneumatic actions.
of course. Forces differ for niotion into or against the wind. . Braking is directly proportiona1 to speed.circuit currenfs esfoblkh their own magnetic field - 'I LJ Magnet UI VANE AREA INCREASES when the spring-loaded vanes swing out. EDDY CURRENTS are induced in disk when it is moved through a magnetic field. Speed is fast in one direction. but greatly slowed in return direction. Vertical position. -. Sfafionory position Copper or aluminum disk R Closed. is necessary.Creative Assemblies 27-7 screw A PNEUMATIC CHECK VALVE acts i n manner similar to that of previous device. FLEXIBLE DIAPHRAGM controls short movements.
Noy Acfuofing force Preload force 1 Torsion ribbon bent as shown will turn "inside out" at A with a snap action when twisted at 6. is for air or liquid flow cutoff at a limiting velocity.. 3 Bowed spring . vane will snap shut (because of increased velocity) when pressure is ieduced below a certain value. Resef 2 Collapsing cylinder has elastic walls that may be deformed gradually until their stress changes from compressive to bending with the resultant collapse of the cylinder . .. Y 4 Flap vane Adjus fment will collapse into new shape when loaded as shown. .. Peter C. . the curved material stiffens the tape so that it can be held out as a cantilever until excessive weight causes it to collapse suddenly. "Push-pull" type of steel measuring tape illustrates this action.. With a regulating valve.. Design factors are ribbon width and thickness...27-8 8 Snap-Action Devices A further selection of basic arrangements for obtaining sudden motion after gradual buildup of force. and bend ongle..
. can t.... although a device like the lower one is quickly reset but restricted to temperature control. or atmosphere too corrosive. 6 Gravity-tips ... re B 8 W Overcentering leaf-spring . since the actuating force bears on the spring itself..Creative Assemblies 27-9 Fusible link Closed container. Sometimes spring action is combined with the thermostatic action of a bimetal strip to make the switch respond to heat or cold either for control purposes or as a safety feature. spring combined with pivoted contact-strip is one arrangement among many similar ones used in switches. 7 Overcentering tension . 5 Sacrificing link IS used generally where high heat or chemically corrosivc conditions would be hazardous -if temperature becomes too high. . aithough slower acting than most snap mechanisms. link will yield at whatever conditions it is designed for. Arrangement shown here i s somewhat unusual. once overbalanced. action i s also the basis for many ingenious snap-action switches used for electrical control. Usually the device is required to act only once.r called snap mechanisms because they require an accumulation of energy to trigger an automatic release.. Tippingtroughs used to spread sewage exemplify arrangement shown in A.. action is fast.
3 A balanced valve uses a fabric-elastomer diaphragm to hydrostatically balance the valve poppet as well as the valve head. Taplin A /nospheric ’ pressure connecfi Oil lnlef ‘Pressure possoge 2 Expansion compensator for liquid-filled systems handles thermal expansion of the liquid as well as any system losses. 7 Linear actuator converts gas or fluid pressure into a linear stroke without leakage or break-out friction effects. -Diaphragm Rubber dust S€Ol Spring 6 A force-balance load cell converts the weight or force of any object into an accurate reading at a remote point. Here’s a display of applications that simple fabric-elastomer diaphragms can handle economically and with a minimum of design problems John F.1 0 Make Diaphragms Work for You Diaphragms have more uses than you think.27. .
11 .Diuphragms .Creative Assemblies 27. 5 Double-acting pump has two diaphragms to give smooth and continuous flow of fluid to equipment at a safe working pressure. Piston Double-acting actuator provides for thrust in either direction by placing two diaphragm assemblies back to back. Damping amount is controlled by orifice size. . Diap n raynm 4 Regulating valve controls the value ot air pressure by means of a diaphragm-balanced valve and two control diaphragms. Diaphragm ' u+I Shaft 8 Shaft seal uses lubricant pressure to force the sidewall of the diaphragm to roll against the shaft and housing. 9 Damping mechanism prevents abrupt or sudden motion in a machine.
Another advantage is high torque capacity. Knurled knob is handy for constant use. w Clamp knob 2 FINGER springs into place between gear te h at turn of cam.. and eliminates need for tool. Bushing also mounts control to panel.SPLIT YOKE clamps on shaft when eccentric squeezes ends of yoke together.12 Vibration and Shock Frank William Control-Locked Thwart Critical adjustments stay put-safe against accidental turning or deliberate fiddling with them. a. But this design needs considerable space on panel. because knurled knob has tapered thread. Knurled Split I 3. Control shaft Hex nut-' . size of teeth limits positioning accuracy. so requires just one hole. hex nut turns a fault into an advantage. Although gear lock is ideally suited for right-angle drives. like knob. does away with tools. Although it takes a wrench to turn the nut. Lever. For controls adjusted infrequently. added difficulty guards against knobtwisters. but locks tighter and faster..SPLIT ' BUSHING tightens on control shaft. Wood JR.27.
. so it doesn’t need locking and unlocking. which means it takes two hands to make an adjustment. 5 .Creative Assemblies 27-13 4 . . . If clamp is not tight. Compressed lip both seals out dust and keeps molded locking nut from rotating. 6 . SPOT-BRAKE clamp is self-locking. one to hold the clamp open and one to turn the dial. CONSTANT D R A G of tapered collar on shaft makes control stiff. . T O N G U E slides in groove. clamps down on edge of dial. it can scratch the face.
27.4-Float and Pulley Indicator Fig. I Fig. bourdon tube.. The methods shown here are largely indicating methods or simple devices for automatic control of liquid level although they can conceivably be applied to control other conditions such as tem- 3 - perature a n d pressure.Operated Pilot Valve U Fig. 2. and means of using level changes for level control. transmission of indicated levels.: i t m a v b e ~ u d ~ pokted C.- <i----r 4 i r e connecfion fo gafvanometer in receiver F/ouf---.162.5-Pressure Dome Indicator- . The most pcpular devices employ floats or pressure measurement with instruments such as the U-tube manameter. Patent No. o r warnings of changes heyond set limits.14 Li uid level Mechanisms In icators and Controllers Means o f determining liquid level. and bellows. 1-Float and Lever. & Sfof for f i o a t -Ffoaf chamber counterweighf ann 1 Sfop for f/oaf movemen f--'-- .-'o by float in I/ tube) mercury - I M II /ndicafor or recorder--. fed or dece/erated movements ofplunger for any floaf movemen Fig.180 describes a method involving determination of change in air pressure when a measured volume nf air is introduced into a tank.i. have been accomplished by numerous mechanisms. or control of other conditions such a5 temperature and pressure. Methods using electric resistance of a column of liquid and measurement of pressure changes by means of piezo-electric crystals are not shown. detection of changes in liquid level.2-Float and CamOperated Pilot Valve flfi v v Bourdon tube sqpporfs magnefic core in resista7ce coils i Y (Magnefic core _.
11 -Automatic Battery Filler Back Front Tank floor.-.10 -Refrigerant Balance indicufed b y /tghf reflecffon from menrsrus liquid >eve/ 5..-.- Fig. 8-Tank Roof Indicator Fig. 6-Float Control o f Discharge Tape visible through window Vapor-fighf covers -/ Creative Assemblies :---F/oafing frigerunf sdmpling reservoir 27-15 Double bdancing mechanism fUfs mercury swifcbes for u/arms when refri eranf i s be/ow eifher operufing or idle &e/s .-.7-U-Tube Manometer with Water Columns Sec+/ona/ view excepf for weigbfs and ffoaf Fig.50 Fig.-Groo ves Fig. I _-__---------. At-Pu//ey frome supporf Fig.9-Dip Stick Indica tor .
BUBBLER TYPE RECORDER measures height E. When liquid touches upper probe. relay operates and puinp stops. Switch can operate valve or pump. including those carrying solids. op-ociing switch c /-- . I m l Bubbler fixture &Air supply Either method can The Bristol Co. -. ELECTRICAL T Y P E LEVEL CONTROLLER. Gage measures pressure of air that displaces fluid. FLOAT-SWITCH T Y P E CONTROLLEX. Displacement o f needle from empty mark Is proportional to the amount of resistance introduced into this circuit. float actuates switch through horseshoe-shape arm. When liquid reaches predeter- mined level. DXAPHRAQM ACTUATED INDICATOR. terminal 3 for ourno-uo control f BELLOWS ACTUATED INDICATOR.16 Liquid Level Indicators and Controllers Thirteen different systems of operation are shown.27. Small amount of air is bled into submerged pipe. or carrying solid matter. Change in liquid level 'displaces transmitting bellows and pointer. AUTOMOTIVE TYPE LIQUID LEVEL INDICATOR. I I i L/.. Some of them are available in several modified forms. As liquid level in tank increases. Positions of probes determine duration of pump operation.51 Use terminol5 forpumpdown. Can be used with a n y kind of liquid. can be used with a 1 1 kinds of liquids. whether it be flowing. lower pmbe Provides relay holding cdrrent until liquid drops below It. Two bellows and connecting tubing are fllled with incompressible fluid. Each one represents at least one commercial instrument. Recorder can be mounted above or belnw the level of the tank or reservoir. turbulent. introducing an increasing amount of resistance into circuit that grounds the "F" coil.- To float in Minneapolis.Honeywell ion& ___-Indicator and tank U n i t are connected by a single wire. Through auxiliary contacts. brush contact on tank rheostat moves to the rlght. as required. .
Seal pots protect meter body. Applicable to liquids under pressure. Float pivots magnet 40 that upper pole attracts switch contact. element -_PA . MAGNETIC LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLER. Center line of the actuating element must conincide wlth the minimum level line if the gage i s to read zero when the liquid reaches the minlhum level. float rotates the a r m and the needle. magnetic Piston is drawn below the magnetic field. This opens contacts in tank and bimetals cool. Comparable type as far as simplicity I s concerned h a s needle connected through a right-angle a r m to float. . FLOAT TYPE RECORDER. float forces cam to bend tank bimetal. When tank is empty. direct-reading gage has dial calibruted to tank volume. When liquid level is normal. Mechanical or electric meter body can be used. but current and needle displacement are increased. contacts in tank unit just touch. With switch closed. Pump is actuated by switch. When level drops to predetermined level. Heoter wirerank Bimetal strip . r-7 t of ocfuofing. PRESSURE UAUE INDICATOR for open vessels. Pressure gouge e Seof required fw corrosive or viscous fluiUs Mimqoofis-HmRywrll Inexpensive. Cycle repeats about once per s e a As Hqutd level increases. common-to-right leg circuit of mercury switch is closed. As liquid level drops. closing circuit again.--- -Float 7 . Pressure of liquid head is imposed directly upon actuating element of pressure gage. Measuring element is mercury manometer. SWITCH ACTUATED LEVEL CONTROLLER. Action is simllar to previous case. Tank wall serves as other contact.Creative Assemblies 27-17 Recorder Counterweighf 'rope yoot float chamber Minmaplis Mneywell Pointer can be a t t w h e d to a calibrated float tape to give a n approximate hstantaneous indication of fluld level. BIMETALLIC TYPE INDICATOR. DIFFERENTIAL P R E S S U R E SYSTEM. heaters cause both bimetallic strips to bend. DIRECT READING FLOAT TYPE GAGE.
To install. Small end enters large slot first. then tilts over into smaller. EDGE HANGER doesn’t have to be sprung. but requires enough clearance above holes so that ends can be pushed down through. Kasper CLIP is most secure when tubing of right size helps keep it spread. RAMPS cam split end together as hanger is pushed into slot.27-18 Hangers Put Up by Hand No tools needed to install these hangers made of wire. Ends spread again when notches engage sheet. L. rod or bar-stock. close-fitting slot. hook one side over edge of slot and spring in other side. .
Spreading the ends wraps wire tightly around tubing to prevent vibration.or I-section or flat bar.19 LOOP hooks over bar and is held secure by short tail which snaps into hole drilled through the side. While tubes are in place hanger can’t come out. 8 END PIECE supports pipe between waUs of any thickness. First spring it over pipe. DOUBLE HANGER supports two tubes 8s they pass through divider.Creative Assemblies 27. then slide it along pipe into holes. COIL grips edges of T. .
ALIGNING PIECE slides up out of the way in long slot while butting sheets are being positioned. L. and provides positive location. Afterwards it slips down over lower sheet. but deeper cutout will lower them until they are flush or sunk. Here bars stick up above the top. ESS supports shelf between uprights. then bent over much like a staple. The ends of the clip are pushed through parallel slots.27-20 Assemble Sheetmetal with Sheetmetal These sheetmetal parts join sheetmetal quickly with the simplest of tools. CUP carries a bar on both sides of divider. By mating with notched edge it acts as a key to keep shelf from sliding back and forth. . Kasper SQUEEZE CLIP holds two overlapping sheets together.
S z= 2 COS a ROLLER RADIUS.)( 1 COSa ) -cOSa v AXIAL POSITIONING (INDEXINS) BY MEANS OF SPACED HOLES IN INDEX BASE \ Re foihihg Din Puf/ h o b to release RADIALLY ARRANGED DETENT HOLDS SLOTTED INDEX BASE IN . R = ( -ivy.Creative Assemblies 27-21 Devices for Indexing or Holding Mechanical Movements Louis Dodger detent / ! l . . ROLLER DETENT POSITIONS IN A NOTCH: Ntana 1-cos RISE.
27-22 Slashes Errors with Sensitive Balance SENSITIVITY OF BALANCE is independent of temperature fluctuations. preventing oscillation. The sum o f the raised weights is shown on the mechanical counter. . The complete total is displayed by the mechanical plus the optical system that projects through the reticle. The scale in effect weighs by sub- traction since it is balanced. the ring weights are lifted from the hanger. Their coefficient of expansion compensates for beam deflection caused by variations in temperature. two temperature-sensitive elements are riveted to aluminumalloy balance beam. bridging a slot which is directly over the balance point. which displays the first three digits. To keep the center of gravity constant. Enclosed in a cylindrical canister at the rear of the balance beam is a vane that damps its movement. The hanger at the front of the scale carries sets of ring weights which are lifted by camoperated levers. To weigh an unknown. when empty. The shafts on which the cams are mounted are connected to the mechanical readout. by all the ring weights resting on the hanger.
Inventor Robert Parrnley. . Draftsman Exploded drawing of engine illustrates the many standard mechanical components that are arranged to preform a function in a new way.Creative Assemblies 27-23 Rotary Piston Engine Warren Ogren.
27-24 End View of Rotary Piston Engi 25 \ i 1 . 3 Figure 2 7 c ut-Away View of Rotary Piston Engine 9 > Figure 3 41 42 .’ 1 I FIG.