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An Ancient History of the Turkic People and the Great Steppe A Handbook for Schoolchildren and Their Parents
Moscow This book is about the Turkic people, from its rise in the Altai Mountains and its spillover to the rest of the Eurasian continent. The touching narrative and thrilling legends relate about little-known facts of world history and the life as it really was for the ancient Turkis, their contribution to human civilization, their victories and setbacks. Nothing like this book has ever been published anywhere around the world. © © Murad Adji, 2002 St. George International Charity Foundation (Jargan), 2002
Introduction Who Makes a Nation? The Way We Speak Peering Through the Ages An Ivory Tower Discovery A Story Told by the Rocks A First Wave Rolls from the Altai First Light on the Ancient Altai The Spruce Festival Ancient Altai Artists A Miraculous Discovery Made by Chance How Mysterious the Scythians Really Were A Gift from Tengri The God of Heaven The Turkis in India The Turkis in Iran The Illustrious Khan Erke Bound for the Steppe The Great Migration of the Peoples Khan Aktash Idel The Caucasus The Turkis and Christianity The Cross on Europe's Temples The Turkis and the Byzantine Empire Emperor Constantine the Perfidious The Battle for the Don The Turkis in Europe Rome's Duplicity Europe Arose in the Altai Attila, the Turkic Ruler The Turkis as Priscus of Byzantium Saw Them Battling with Europe's United Army Attila's Death The New Desht-i-Kipchak Appendix
The Steppe is our Homeland… … and the Altai is our cradle Introduction Many people, in fact billions of them around the Earth, speak Turkic languages today, and have done so since the beginnings of history, from snow-swept Yakutia in Northeast Asia to temperate Central Europe, from chilly Siberia to torrid India, and even in a good many villages in Africa. The Turkic world is vast and diverse. Turks are its largest tribe. They are the title nation of Turkey, a big country in West Asia and a long-familiar name for the rest of the world for its distinct identity, ancient customs and traditions, and high and unique culture, a subject of a myriad of books and features. At the other end of the Turkic world, the Tofalars, numbering only a few hundred, are not someone you can tell much about. It's a sure bet they are hardly known to anyone beyond their dense Siberian forests and the couple of villages they call home town. But then, the Tofalars, perhaps, still speak the original, ancient Turkic tongue after many centuries of only occasional contacts with outside cultures that could distill their speech with borrowings. The Turkic world is great indeed, and thoroughly enigmatic, too. It is like a cut diamond, its every facet a nation - Azerbaijanis, Altaians, Balkarians, Bashkirs, Gagauzes, Kazakhs, Karaims, Karachais, Kyrgyz, Crimean Tatars, Kumyks, Volga Tatars, Tuvans, Turkmen, Uighurs, Uzbeks, Khakass, Chuvash, Shorians, Yakut - too many names to reel off in the same breath. Dozens of peoples live in the Turkic world - all alike and different at the same time. You can always tell where they belong, from the special sounds and undertones of their speech. Which means a word that is one thing in one place may be a completely different thing in another. This diversity of meaning makes the Turkic languages fathomless, on top of their simplicity and ancient heritage. They were not always that different, though. There was a time, too long ago, when all members of the Turkic race spoke one tongue that everyone understood in every corner of the Turkic world. Around two thousand years ago, they started for various reasons to move away from one another, geographically and linguistically, from their next of kin and their common tongue, developing their endemic dialects that were a closed book to outsiders. For a while, they were keenly aware of their common ancestry and remembered their shared language that they could still speak at bazaars and fairs drawing merchants from far away. Their common primeval language provided a framework for belles-lettres. Poets and story-tellers honed every word of their writings, so they could then caress the ear of the Turkic world at large. Besides, the common language was spoken by government officials mustering the troops or collecting taxes from their subjects. Large empires, from end to end, spoke and wrote Turkic. Is it only the language that makes one Turkic nation different from another? Is it the linguistic diversity that gives brilliance to the diamond we call the Turkic world? Everything is much more complex than it looks on the surface at times. Can you image, some communities on Earth are ignorant of their Turkic origins and will never believe you if you tell them who they are…. They were conquered, at one time or another, and forbidden, on pain of death, to speak their native tongue. They just forgot it clean, out of fear of reprisal. And with it their forefathers and all that had come before…. They were now people without memory or knowledge of their real past. This is the kind of thing that happened to people on our planet, though. Of course, these people have visages that look exactly like the faces of their ancestors (what the genes would then be good for?). Take the Austrians or Bavarians, Bulgarians or Bosnians, Magyars or Lithuanians, Poles or Saxons, Serbs or Ukrainians, Czechs or Croats, Burgundians or Catalans…. Nearly all of them blue-eyed and fair-haired (exact replicas of the ancient Turkic men and women), and all blissfully oblivious of their common roots. Doesn't that strike you? Many unsuspicious Americans, Britons, Armenians, Georgians, Spaniards, and Italians have Turkic blood flowing in their veins. And especially Iranians, Russians and French. They, too, wear the unspoiled faces of their ancient Turkic forerunners, and they, too, are dead sure they are anything but…. A sad enough story. It has been made that way, though - sad, or more accurately, broken before it could be written to the end. The Cossacks are what you can label an exception: a nation - yes and no, a tribe - depends on the way you look at it. If you will understand it, of course. Their true story lurks somewhere behind a veil
of cock-and-bull stories. What we have then, in the end, is that the Cossacks have contrived somehow to get lost on the crossroads of Time - they style themselves Slavs, and still remember much of their native Turkic tongue. Indeed, Turkic is palavered informally in some Cossack villages. True, they call it, with tongue in cheek, their kitchen-speak, not native language. I have pondered for many long years why the Turkic world is so little known to so many people on Earth. Was it by fluke or design? You will hardly find another language with as many nuances and dialects as the Turkic - really, people of common blood, common ancestors, common history speaking different languages and thinking differently of themselves. Why, indeed? I have stumbled on the answer in history, lost in the mist of times, and I am going to tell it in this book, "The Kipchaks: An Ancient History of the Turkic People." It will only be an initiation, to be followed up by two more books - "The Oguz: A Medieval History of the Turkic People" and "A New History of the Turkic People." Who Makes a Nation? Our planet is peopled by many different communities each calling itself a nation. How many are they really? No one knows for certain. Some sources put them at four thousand, and others cite twice this figure. It is difficult, if not impossible, to count them all. The reason is actually that we lack criteria for what is a nation. What and who is it, indeed? Here viewpoints diverge widely. People all look alike, until you stop to think more intently. Actually, they differ in many respects. Even in the way they look to the eye. African countries have predominantly black populations. China is populated by the so-called yellow-skinned race. And Europe is home to the white race. All of them - blacks, whites and yellow-skinned - share a single planet. They are different within as well as without - in disposition, behavioural patterns, world views and social habits. In short, all people are very similar in some ways and completely different in others. Frequently enough, the term "nation" is used to refer to the inhabitants of a country. For example, Azerbajanis live in Azerbaijan, or Georgians in Georgia, the Caucasus. Does this mean that the number of nations is equal to that of countries? Yes and no. A nation suggests people who speak the same language at home or on the street, who love the same songs, dances and festivals, wear similar clothing and eat identical food. They embrace a common religion and take pride in a common history. What is more important, though, is that they share an attachment to their homeland. This is a criterion a person or a nation measures up to. Each of us has a homeland, one and only. A major city like Baku, Azerbaijan's capital, is also home town for people who do not speak Azerbaijani or call it their mother tongue, or profess Islam. Are they - Russians, Jews or Georgians living in Azerbaijan - Azerbaijanis? They certainly are. A nation is more than the people living in a country. People may live in the same city or even in the same house, but follow different customs and life-styles. Are customs or traditions, then, a force that builds up nations? Again, the answer is yes and no. A nation is not a group of people living in the same place. An accidental group, no matter how large, cannot be regarded as a nation, unless it has a common history and common ancestors. A nation arises in a very long and arduous process spanning many centuries. It is a historical development driven by countless factors, many of them appearing completely out of place. Like a growing fruit, a nation needs a certain time to mature by its own rules no one has succeeded in formulating in black and white. At the dawn of human history, people learned to watch and size up one another. Gradually, they accumulated a store of knowledge about the life-styles and cultures of other peoples, their relationships among themselves and with others. In our days, that store of knowledge has developed into a science called ethnography (ethnos is Greek for a tribe or people), a science that analyses and compares human cultures. Ethnography did not come to be by accident. People had taken note, a very long time ago, that quarrels and fighting inside a country or between neighbouring countries are sparked off by differences. More often than not, differences arise because one community knows little or nothing about its neighbours' customs and life-styles. All people are hurt deeply by anyone offending their traditions. It would be foolish to expect them to behave differently. Ethnography is an important science precisely because it helps maintain the peace on our planet.
To escape death next time.they even made sounds sound differently in different languages. It was the Ancestral Land or Heavenly Kingdom even. ethnography is a science helping to look for ways to live in peace with yourself and with people around you. very strong and valiant. Peering Through the Ages Chinese chronicles are certainly a priceless source for ethnographers. drowned in the Flood that happened one day. that was the name they had for their. Clever they were. goes the legend. The Way We Speak Whichever way you look at it. That place was the Altai. At least. Tele was another name Chinese wise men had for the Altaians. A legend that has come down to us from a time when there was no science to give ready answers tells us how people came to speak different tongues. however. An . all the different nations came into being. People hear what you say. in the first place. the survivors started to build a tower in the city of Babel. all people spoke one language. so they could understand one another without going to the trouble of learning foreign words. The Chinese heard it from the Turkis themselves. The word Turki has been around from about that time as well. long ago. The most beautiful place on earth. When you smile at another person and wish him well on a holiday. Turkic was the language spoken here from time immemorial. Both will be equally pleased and forget any grievances they may have against one another. If we follow the legend. These differences between the Turkis. if your words convey what you mean. so they could wait out another Flood. or humiliate an Azerbaijani to utter Gamarjoba in greeting a Georgian. The ancient Turkis read a different meaning into the word. and to prevent people from conspiring to build another tower. Speech and writing are central to human existence. A legend is an invention. you both will live with a light heart. homeland. And they made do with this explanation for a long time. even the most well-intentioned of them. one tribe found itself in mountains overgrown with coniferous forests. they scattered the mortals around the earth. however. but it provided an explanation of why all tribes were different and why they did not understand one another. and our. the Altaians. the legend says. are prone to exaggerate. Every nation has its own language. Long. A word or a simple gesture is at times enough for your neighbour to smile back and hold out his hand to shake yours. In fact. It won't harm a Georgian to say Salam aleikum to an Azerbaijani. noted at the beginning of recorded history. and so. those fabled gods . in the language they now spoke. The gods were enraged and destroyed the tower. They could not be more right about their northern neighbours.fair-haired and blue-eyed. have survived to this day. for only those of them who were very much like the Chinese themselves in appearance . All but a tiny few were. Since that time of confusion of the tongues. which translated as "sturdy" or "strong" in their language. Pick whichever you want. This is a point noted by ethnographers as well. They are not to be taken fully on faith.black-haired and brown-eyed. of course. And then. and the dearest of all. who always struck foreigners with their exotic appearance . but misspelled it to make it pronounceable in Chinese. the Chinese put down in writing the word tiurk as tuchueh. and every one of its members speaks it and thinks in it the way an outsider never will. Really. like people. in a place where glistening streams emptied into bottomless crystal-clear lakes and where the sky was as high as high can be and clear as the clear itself. What is really "Altai"? Some translate it as Golden Mountains. a common practice for people speaking one language and borrowing a word from another language so it could be fit for their tongues. as high as the sky. The Chinese were probably the first strangers who heard it being spoken. Chronicles. the language they speak tells two nations apart. This is not exactly so.Knowing your neighbour can keep you out of the trouble's way. each tribe could only understand its own language. or any day. giving them different tongues.
the pride of the Yin and Chou dynasties. for lack of imagination or better examples. They paid no attention to tele looks because those people were little different from the Chinese. ruins of palaces. which legends conspicuously lacked. Ulugh Begh. lived in the ancient Altai. An Ivory Tower Discovery No matter how beautiful. so now we know how our ancestors looked. as far as comparing the Turkis to monkeys (the blue-eyed species living in southern China).were discovered here accidentally on deserted land plots in the 18th century. and sifting dust and sand for pottery shards in an attempt to reconstruct a picture of the time long past. My objective. To get these facts. Chinese chroniclers had different words for tele. and even very much so at times. interesting facts by themselves.enormous burial mounds. He reconstructed Turkic faces. however. tombstones. this does happen. Rumour was what the ancient Chinese chroniclers drew on. after remains of ancient cultures . who wanted exact facts. of all things." or else "invincible". Contemporary scientists have corroborated the Chinese chroniclers' astute observations. The celebrated anthropologist-turned-sculptor learned to reconstruct the faces and bodies of long-deceased people from their remaining skulls and bones. These are. But more about that later."strong" or "very strong. I saw him in the corner store last week. Who were the people that left these priceless cultural treasures? Who lived on these desolated lands? No answer could be given to these and many other questions for much of the intervening . It is a powerful tool in skilled hands. sometimes. Two faces of a single people? Believe me. And they put fable to the parchment. Chinese reports of the Turkis' distinct appearance. is first establishing how and when the Turkis turned up in the Altai. China had no choice but submit and pay tribute to the conquerors. something has changed. of course. peering into the faded outlines of ancient rock drawings. Ivan the Terrible.altogether honest person may at times exaggerate things monstrously not because of ill will.they had not seen people with such faces before. imprecise and foggy as they are.the Turkis had attacked and conquered Chinese lands. the Tower of Babel legend little suited the scientists. The Ancient Altai has drawn archaeologists' attention for almost three centuries. little has changed over the millennia. We do not take them to task for this . who ultimately became a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Thank God. if not at all. but through ignorance of details. was defeated by a Turkic army. people or origins of new place names. One chronicler went. Ethnographers. and fragments of sculptures in styles without parallel anywhere in the world . and deserted caves. completely extraneous for China's northern neighbour. They had their reasons for blowing things up immensely . Scientists who came here to investigate were in for another big surprise . As for exact facts. indeed. and so they focussed. All of them as good as new and still waiting to be researched in depth. in which ancient Turkis buried their royals. The huge Chinese army. And as we look at those faces we wonder again and again . Archaeology is a science that studies ancient cultures through remains to find out where and how people lived thousands of years ago. have an astounding precision. the other part of the Turkic people who lived in the eastern Altai. the ethnographers turned to archaeologists.that handsome man. though. for example. on the outward appearance of the Turkis whenever they set out to write about the strangers. Gerasimov made some of his famous sculptures from skulls found in mounds. How can these reports be verified? They say that fair-haired and blue-eyed people. in those Turkic faces. This is a probable explanation for the liberal use of tiurk . People of these outward characteristics were unknown to live in China at that time. Archaeologists are rummaging through ruined ancient cities. burials. This is another branch of the science called anthropology. One of them is Mikhail Gerasimov. His best portraits of ancients include the Russian czar. True enough. about the Turkis.some of the local rocks showed impressive drawings and mysterious characters drawn or carved by ancient artists. they knew very little. Many ancient chronicles contain curious facts about events. That was perhaps the Chinese way of accounting for the defeat. Sculptures fashioned by Mikhail Gerasimov. Particularly. Russian Admiral Ushakov and the great Turkic astronomer. He was unrivalled in treating the smallest details of heads and faces. Take. tuchueh or ding ling in Chinese. if he relies on hearsay or rumour. rely on different techniques to obtain the information they need.
even the Turkis. Scientists suddenly found their efforts being frustrated by politics and powerful people who wanted the truth to be concealed. where the oldest human settlements in Asia.the Ancient Altai was the Turkis' homeland and cradle of the Turkic people. their deftness and senses being their only expedients. Nor did anyone hasten to side with him. primitive tribes first came to the Altai about two hundred thousand years ago. This science offers enormous prospects and its greatest discoveries are yet to be made. it seemed. They loathe the truth. On that day. No one found courage or evidence to contest Professor Thomsen's findings. its "dead" race. The veil of secrecy appeared to be lifted in the 19th century already. So convincing and uncontestable they were. Professor Vilhelm Thomsen of Denmark was the first scholar to succeed in deciphering the baffling lines of rock lettering. Two hundred thousand years is quite a long time by human standards. so they made themselves understood by gestures and a few discordant sounds. Professor Thomsen succeeded where archeologists had failed. southeast of the Altai. Enough for traces of the . a sort of breeding ground for the bulk of humanity. The cloud of mystery continued to hang over the Ancient Altai.and found them to be plain Turkic. waiting for fresh findings to come. they have their own. existed and there was no one to write on the rocks for the simple reason that humans living in the Altai in those distant ages could not speak articulate words. For security reasons they lived high in the mountains or deep in dense forests where they had a higher chance to survive and hide from danger. And right they were. He announced his discovery in Denmark on December 15. but he was an accomplished linguist. to America and Europe. They only want to see politics everywhere. Indeed. people living in that distant past did not fare much better than animals they hunted or were preyed on. They appeared to miss the inscriptions immaculately interpreted by Professor Thomsen. Everything seemed to be in place now . It was as unexpected as it was astounding.centuries. Its inhabitants' traces were. all Mongoloids and Europoids. The brightest minds in archaeology had no inkling of where to look for an answer. but their profusion did not add clarity to the challenge. 1893. Judging by archaeological artifacts. Politicians had doubts. Their scenic beauty? Hardly ever. But that was actually not the case. twisted view of history. Chinese manuscripts found decades afterward also spoke about the Turkis who lived in the Ancient Altai. Unless we know exactly when and how the Turkis first settled in the Altai. A curious situation emerged: the report unveiled a scientific discovery that was not. in formal terms at any rate. to the world. They lacked weapons to defend themselves against predators or tools to make their life easier. They certainly had their own reasons to act the way they did. The Altai remained an enigmatic Treasure Island in the centre of Asia. They came from the region known today as Indochina. as we know them today. More probably. The invisible race kept its secrets locked up. Linguistics is generally concerned with the world's languages. we cannot claim to know anything much about the history of the Turkic people. It was a kind of the Promised Land. on the surface. But it has not said its last word yet. Archaeologists continued excavations until they went back in history to a time when no nations. revealing the principal secret of the Ancient Altai. Professor Thomsen presented his report to the Royal Danish Scientific Society. The Danish professor deciphered the mysterious rock inscriptions of the Altai's ancient inhabitants . Generations of European scientists have tried unsuccessfully for over a hundred years to unravel what they thought an unassailable puzzle of the Altai. in their own light at that. and multiplied as studies went on. Why did the ancients take to the Altai Mountains? Any answer would only be a guess. the mountains gave them safety and enough food game. cloaked in a fog of mystery. That was the age of brute primitive tribes that lived everywhere around the planet. A Story Told by the Rocks Do politicians need so much to have history told the way they want? Really. they gave up trying. dead and living alike. He was no archaeologist. He achieved his success routinely in the quiet setting of his workroom without ever going to the distant Altai. There is evidence of tracks left by primitive people leading from Indochina to the rest of Asia. deciding by consensus that the "dead" lettering belonged to a long-extinct race and was unreadable. Finally. in particular. It has made a weighty contribution to our knowledge about ancient Turkis. around a million years old. have been unearthed.
We owe this knowledge largely to the efforts of Alexei Okladnikov. as he was already known at the time. Okladnikov made a stupendous discovery. The only stone that fits this purpose is nephrite. And yet. however. knives. the area's central city. archaeologists are a strange breed. To get to the truth. he treated a stone with fire and water. A modern man put in a mountain setting would never accomplish the feat . He appeared to see through the thick rock mass. came to breathe in fresh air. They were keen enough to look for rocks they could use to make their stone tools and weapons. but Lady Luck smiled on him alone. He knew that neither the water stream nor winter frosts could give it its shape. it can. can this ever be? Yes. You have to see them relishing possession of a simple chunk of rock. Nowhere else but in the Altai. archaeologists sought counsel from physicists. This discovery showed that mountains were more than a convenient place to live in for the Altai's ancient inhabitants. after the nearby stream. did not chip off a stone with another stone. finally. As years went by. Really. Thousands had walked the riverside footpath every day before him.a swarm of archaeologists descended on its banks to dig it up. Some of the artifacts were totally unique. it was that proverbial Newtonian apple. what they looked like. They yielded stone axes. a rare and very strong greenish mineral with black streaks. And. A brass band struck up at nightfall every day. And each time they were amazed at archaeologists digging up a cave or some other thing at that late hour. Instead. it was named Ulalinskaya. where they lived. They were a hoard of useful minerals. Rather. True enough. And who else could lead them but Okladnikov himself. was deep in thought. they put on numberless experiments. without match around the world. Enthusing in the knowledge that the hand of another human being touched it many thousand years ago and feeling the warmth of that unknown hand. The Ulalinka immediately shot into prominence . Scientists overwhelmed with doubt argued long and heatedly over this possibility. geology started on its course in those distant mountain ranges. The pebble in his hand…. we know relatively much about them. you cannot expose every stone to alternating fire and water treatment. and young people flocked in to have a dance. His tools were. On this evidence we may assume that the Altaic tribes were the earliest geologists on the planet. Walking slowly one day along the footpath on the Ulalinka River bank in the public park in Gorno-Altaisk. To give an example. Could not be simpler. He was propelled to fame by accident. as it had for years already.first humans who settled in the Altai to be lost. they were stunned to learn. across ages. After it had been dug out and cleaned up. Or was it something else? Okladnikov was a born archaeologist and knew much about the science that was his calling. The cave. Stopping to pick it up. with nothing else to do at home. knowledge about the history and cultures of the Ancient Altai built up. Picking up that stone tool was more than a stroke of luck. and the primitive caveman lost no time putting it to good use. All about them was new and different from anything found at primitive sites elsewhere. Really. The Altaic craftsman. Together. arrowheads and spearheads crudely fashioned by primitive craftsmen. which game they hunted and what clothing they wore. an archaeologist of great talent and vigour. for example. the unconventional scientist. The fact is that primitive people living in the Ancient Altai could make their knives as sharp as a razor or even sharper. The pebble was actually a primitive man's tool that set him apart from beasts. More primitive living sites followed shortly. their stone knives and daggers were razor-sharp. one that made him a celebrity known to millions of people on Earth. raising the brows of archaeology gurus. We know. as was the general practice in that primitive world. Nephrite is relatively common in the Altai. what they did to scrape a living from their harsh surroundings. and older citizens. they hit on the answer. thanks to the archaeologists' persistence and luck. in condition to give an overworked digger a perfect shave. when high eye caught sight of a weird pebble among the myriad of others strewn over the place. How could the Altaic primitive man succeed where moderns fail? As simple as he was himself.he needs strong tools and highprecision machines. was the oldest primitive site in the Altai. they were to learn much later. A stone sharper than a razor. therefore. This could only be done by human hand. A First Wave Rolls from the Altai .
some of the native Altaic tribes migrated northwestward to the Ural Mountains. archaeologists sense from the artifacts they find a faster throbbing of life. if not centuries. and the floor was covered with dry grass or straw matting. nor a tree branch shelter. or manhole. the huts were actually smoke huts. He came out of the cave into broad daylight. The craftsmen took some of their handiworks as far as the Altai. Dwellings of the new type were built wherever their owners' preferences lay. and a hole was left in the roof above it to vent smoke from the interior. But. Change was presaged by metal artifacts (bronze. the opponents have very little to show for it. usually in a terrain that gave them some sort of advantage. we know of some ancient Altaic cities. Smoke huts were warm inside even in severe Altai winters. Man severed the umbilical cord that kept him tethered to nature. Little comfort from that. without exaggeration. My impression is that the city's residents had Altaic roots. if you could call them that. With logs available in quantity now. which is an alloy of copper and tin. Arkaim is the best-studied ancient city in the Urals. They look amazingly almost like accurate replicas of Altaic settlements. crawled by before this became a reality. the way you can manhandle the logs. More centuries were to elapse before they could rightly be called language and people could converse. It could hardly be called speech. A remarkable invention that brought primitive people into the wide-open world. if at all. His existence no longer depended on the whims of the weather. he could choose where to live. very little.they built smoke huts exactly as their forefathers did back in the Altai. man broke out of his primitive environment. An earth parapet was piled up around the hut. it was built five thousand years ago. We may safely assume that their prototypes existed in the Altai as well. It had no windows or doors. By all appearances. Now. without a doubt. when Altaic villages cropped up far from their homeland. The hut was accessed through an entrance. At about that time. We are not absolutely sure that those were Turkic tribes. changing in their way of life . the invention of Altaic tribes. In actual fact. The coming of metal signalled momentous changes in the life of the Altaic tribes. people gradually built up valleys with their log cabins. It was not yet a house. It was not the time yet. I regret to say.game hunting and fishing continued to provide livelihood. Altaic tribes only used a few dozen words that must have sounded like the chirping of a bird simple and easy. on its eastern side (a device that developed into a Turkic tradition for ages to come). thousands of years were to pass before people realised the advantages metal had over stone. clustered into villages. have been found deserted in the Urals. they have not been explored or researched. Usually. Stone arrowheads and spearheads continued to be used next to bronze ones for quite a long time. Animal hides were hanged up in the doorway for protection against cold and winds. and when it did finally it was a long stride forward. They saw in the Bronze Age in the Altai. succeeding to the Stone Age. People could now build warm dwellings from logs. To begin with. or even a few articulated words do not make human speech. the Turkic people was not yet in existence five thousand years ago. Altaic tribes migrating to the Urals transplanted their know-how to the new environment . Decades. Their traces are found now and again in our age. Nowhere else around the Earth did people build their dwellings from logs. Even their utensils and tools. or otherwise the hut was half-buried in the ground. nor was it a cave any more. they settled in places convenient to live and teeming with game. Cities. who lived in Arkaim? Who built it.you cannot move your cave to a new location. Just walls and a sloping roof. They sited their new villages and camps in forests and on riverbanks. For all the slow pace of prehistoric life. Uncoordinated sounds reinforced with gestures. This is where the difference between cave and smoke hut was . Again. was the first metal to benefit the primitive man). They were only the beginnings of conversational language. It was an octahedron in plan. in the first place? After so much debating. a bronze ax was greatly superior to a stone one in felling trees. Then. Fire burned in it day and night. A hearth was made in the centre of the hut. were no different from what they were down in the Altai. Coming down from rocky slopes. This was really a great watershed. A smelting furnace used to stand in nearly every yard. In the beginning. or wooden floor. and its inhabitants smelted bronze from copper and tin they mined nearby. Indeed.People lived in the Altai's caves for thousands upon long thousands of years. He could build his own dwelling. But exist they did. . At that time log cabins were. and much more else. as we understand it.
which translates "river". rivers and lakes can tell much about the native population . A reminder. for impregnable mountain slopes overgrown with forests.Migrants from the Altai settled in compact communities or colonies in the Urals. across uninhabited territories of Northern Europe.where the rivers sprang and flowed to. Karelians. They crossed turbulent rivers in search of grazing lands for their cattle.toponymy. some of them moved on to the west where the climate was milder and nature more bountiful. but with rudiments of a nation state or princedom) roamed far and near in search of the land where they could settle and lead a sedentary life for centuries to come. Another river descending from the whitetopped peaks was named the Biya. thousands of kilometres to the north. Most certainly. rivers were their only highways. and the effort deservedly merits a science status . people built up conversational skills and changed their life-styles. the Katun today. however. though. Altaic tribes followed beast trails. Completely unaware. the itinerant tribes lost touch with their common base and severed their ties with one another. Again. taiga. language were eventually estranged from one another (a Tower of Babel in fact. the next of kin of yesteryear now lived in isolation from the rest of the race. Vepsi. Don't expect every tribe to develop into a full-blown nation. the Altai's major river. as also were the Altaic tribes. without claims to the truth. The pristine Altai nature was giving in reluctantly. That one and only river that flowed past one's cave or village. Nation-building is an unpredictable process that takes many long centuries. they were preparing for events that were brewing in the beneficial conditions of local nature. so people started giving names to them. and several other Uralian cities rose to prominence. unknown to other tribes. alliances of tribes) ended up coalesced into peoples speaking different tongues with common Altaic roots. geography. Nearby tribes (to be more exact. Their road to glory was long and tortuous. while Ob is Turkic for "grandma". They related their routes to rivers and learned much about them . After centuries of wanderings. The Biya and the Katun roar down the mountain valleys to join in a wide and mighty river. Finns. Good-faith toponymists are very few and far between.they have to be profoundly knowledgeable in history. They all were katuns. The pioneers were climbing unassailable cliffs and chopping their way through impassable thickets. They had a special word. Each has gone through a centuries-long process of language evolution and custom-building. in small communities where everyone was someone's near or not so near relation. Few people know.its history and name-giving habits. for their science places stringent demands on people wishing to qualify . which flows as far as the Arctic Ocean. Mordvins. Meanwhile the Altaic tribes were busy discovering the surrounding world and developing new lands. the Turkis. Scattered by contingency and wanderlust across much of Northern Europe. And as they moved on and away. and Rus. rivers had no names to tell one from another in ancient times. speech was growing more complex. At most they suspect it comes from Siberia. untrodden roads. Shortly. Going to the roots of a name is as difficult a task as making a discovery in any other science. Komi. all these river names are of Turkic origin. Thence comes geography. separation and alienation took centuries to have its full effect. and how they behaved in different seasons. rather than in fable?). Biya translates as "lord" and Katun as "lady" from Turkic. Primitive people knew nothing about other rivers or even an inkling there could be any more. They could take accurate bearings on the Sun and read the stars for directions. Today. After all other rivers had been given names. It is only a guess. Each colony or tribal community (not yet a state. as different tribes developed new sounds and concocted new words to define new notions. In . linguistics and ethnography. the Altai stepped back into the shadows and humbly waited for its hour of glory to strike. these are the Udmurts. Instead of simple verbal communication accentuated by gestures and mimic. The names of mountains. if simple. festivals and life-styles that make up a national culture. First Light on the Ancient Altai My guess is that the Ural settlers who had not broken their links with the Altai and gone on an occasional visit to their ancient motherland were called a generic name. In fact. Altaic people made good travellers. had the privilege of retaining its original name (katun. It is still shown under this ancient name on all geographic maps of the world. where it originated. Mari. and every one of them has its own traditions. Taiga is today a household word on all continents and with every nation. Was it surprising then that people who used to speak a common. Sintasht. As Arkaim. the Ob. the river).
How then could a mountain be sacred? On what merits? There's no one around to tell the answers. by and large. They shunned all mountains. The sinner was free. That baptism made the nation sturdy and hardy. to pick one he thought was the right measure of his sin. Here. Don't the old folk know anything about it. It translates variously to something like "Winter hut at the mouth in a gorge head. or more exactly water in general. and yet keep mum? . to be purposely shouted about. immediately after it came into this world. To give an example. The river. Sacrifices were offered to those mountain masters and false names were thought up for the mountains. Abai-Koby. into the boundless Eurasian steppe. one of the world's biggest rivers and a household name in Russia. however. When Turkis first came here. which it mostly owes to its immense remoteness from today's cross-currents. summer or winter. Name-giving. for I don't want to be visited by misfortune. few pitied the loss. Several Altaic tribes. it was expected to live healthy and strong. Arabian. the Sacred Lake. had a special place in the life of ancient Turkis. but the sacred ones. Moderns no long read much sense into the name of the world's deepest and cleanest lake. carries a different name and its true story is lost in history. though. so the evil spirits could be misled and get lost. Dowsing himself with a bucketful of bracing lake water was a matter of pride for a man. it is the birthplace of the Turkic nation. however. Today nobody knows where it comes from or what on earth it could actually mean. is a ritual reverently followed by each nation or tribe. "Turkic Place Names". A sinner . It was a vast country. or sanctuaries. which they considered their own. Not only in the case of Turkic names. everything there is to know. According to an ancient legend. Toponymy is surprisingly akin to a precise science. the bear being the patron of the place. If we go by the legend. The Turkis. It began with the birth of a child who was. the say-aloud names were. which is widely known in the Altai. and never tell it to me. If it survived the chilly bath. As a result. The obos were actually built from those atonement stones. dipped for a moment in the river's icy water. People seemed to have their good reasons to nurture this tradition. Persian and Greek names are. Locals say it in one breath. quite simply.doing this was a bad omen. no evil spirit has ever ventured there for lack of the exact address perhaps. the vast expanse known as Sakha (Yakutia) is a veritable preserve of the ancient Turkic world . Remember tiurk in Chinese meaning strong? Indeed.they reflect national traditions and have always been forcefully to the point. poison grazing grounds or dry up wells. Take the Yenisei. or the lofty Bai-Kol.many of them would come here from far afield . stretching far to the west. The river that is the Lena today used to be Ilin.it has been spared political catastrophes and cataclysms. A very old Altaic village used to stand in the upper reaches of the river. and atonement was sought there. Actually. The explanation is simple enough . in Turkic. for example. Mother River. were fond of giving names to mountains.short. jumbled and vague. trying to figure out what was actually what. They could make a flock suddenly incapacitated with a disease. springing east of Lake Baikal ridges. is an eye-opener.Kyzyy-Kyshtu-Ozok-Bazhy. or East River. The ancient Turkis deified the mountains. and if not. but keep it to yourself. so they could come here with sacrifices to propitiate their gods or atone their sins. or uluses. easy to identify as well.was to haul up to the very top a boulder as big as his sin was. if at all? Anyway. His book. like Obo-Ozy or Obo-Tu. Exactly why? Folk tradition had it that the souls of long-gone ancestors whiffed in here to sit in judgement on a sinner's fate. migrated to its riverside areas at a hard time back home. This is a Turkic mystery yet to be cracked. Actually. they called the river Anasu." What could that mean. Another great river. Turkic has been spoken here from an age lost in human memory. for the Turkis. toponymy gives a deep insight into the harmony of sounds making up the word. the Baikal. by and large. Or the tongue-twisting name of a mountain . you will see the geographic map in a different light. a mountain could have two or more names without ever knowing it. a cradle and home of the Turkic people. the Ancient Altai began with Bai-Kol and Sakha (Yakutia). though. but avoided saying them aloud . Little wonder. Eduard Murzaev was a true luminary in toponymy. which penetrates into many secrets of the Altai and Europe. obo is part of some mountain names in the Ancient Altai. we learn. translates as "Elder Brother's Ravine". It was the easternmost stream of the Ancient Altai. Indeed. After you read it. Chinese. evil spirits lived in the mountains. The ancient Turkis singled out some mountaintops for obos. True. this is Bear Gully. The rule was: call that hill whatever you like.
not a single time . after so much water under the bridge. for Erlik was his own brother. No game was hunted nearby either. People would come here in their thousands to celebrate festive events. went on into the early hours next day. Ulghen was the king of the holy spirits. then. when Day wins over Night and when the Sun lingers for a little while longer underground. an old man with a bushy grizzled beard. for they knew of no other clothing but the one they wore themselves. Everything began here and will end here. so people spoke in low whisper in its holy presence. who have these facts on record. It sits in the Centre of the World (Meru in Turkic). too. He appeared to mortals in no other garb but a rich red caftan.what else would you expect when Night is reeling in defeat.morning come. Not unlikely. or whatever. as ever. Khan Tengri and Kailasa. The sanctuaries are still there . Night always started slowly backing down. Ulghen seemed never to let people down. and festivals were held in its honour between three and four thousand years back. Ulghen's pet tree. he still wears that old garb and is the centre of year-end merrymaking. had long been held sacred by the Turkis. For their prayer to be heard where it was addressed.the way the ancient Turkis used to dress up their deity. did his bidding. and even put gifts next to it for good measure. For the ancient Turkis. They. If you have doubts. extolling him for the Sun being returned to them safe and shining as ever. which is "road" or "way" in Turkic. too. It was welcome in every home. Originally. The Sun and Moon. sitting on a gold throne in a gold underground palace with a gold gate. too. For some it is Christmas Tree. and Day comes out a proud winner. others celebrate it on New Year Eve. Ulghen and Erlik embodied the good and the ugly. It was the holy of holies of the Ancient Altai. That was their way of hoaxing the luminary back into this world. Really. The spruce was revered as a sacred tree by the ancient Turkis. It is difficult to establish the truth now. they brought the Spruce. Round dances are still done around the tree. has always capped the sacred mountain list. Tradition has it that Ulghen could change to a different person. Name-swapping regardless. The Spruce Festival The Altai is unrivalled for its spruces . the tree continues to be feted.the Borus. And then they religiously believed that once they made your fondest wish that night it would certainly be fulfilled. or Inderbais in Turkic. Is it so important now who was who and how then? Something is more important than that. but visited by the most devout few. or ol. the Three-Topped Mount. this is the name of the festival . in a place where deities and spirits took time out for a breather. who lived in the centre of the Earth. Ulghen. the festival was dedicated to Yer-su. Anything you did but pray was sin. All night they danced and chanted Korachun.Let-It-Go in old Turkic. Humans prayed to Ulghen. when the evilest of people can play good and generous. He presided over their gatherings. giving the Sun more time to stay in the sky with each passing day. fur-trimmed hat. The word is one of the countless Turkic borrowings in the Russian language (where it became yel). an occasion impatiently awaited by small children and adults alike. sometime. Merrymaking went on all night . In fact. Like a sharp-pointed arrowhead. Rivers and mountains were not alone in sharing the ancient Turkis' reverence among themselves. Indeed. ask the archaeologists. though. colour belt or felt high boots . Curiously.tall and slender. We witness this duality on December 25.The Uch-Sumer. The Spruce Festival arrived at the height of winter. with revellers forming a circle around the spruce. Many centuries later. Korachun. into their homes and decorated it with ribbons. This tradition lives on today. he brought gifts to people in his backpack. Not even a grass blade picked. Let Night go and Day stay on and grow longer. Next to Yer-su in order of seniority was Ulghen. at what is now December 25. has changed its name to Santa Claus. the symbol of evil as he was. who . it showed Ulghen the way to the surface and up. licking its wounds. The spruce was Ulghen's Tree that linked the daylight world of mortals with the underground world of deities and spirits. No one was more overjoyed than children. On that December day. when people everywhere worshipped no one but pagan gods. Roundelays. light and darkness. Few dancers ever give thought to such details as the caftan. The Spruce Festival was celebrated once every year. Why not Erlik. they identified the circle with the Sun.remembered by all. or Father Frost. More sacred summits would come in succession . Erlik. They all were challenged to a place in people's hearts by the Spruce.
No one has come up with a plausible explanation. It was as unpretentious and simple as the people it was intended for. we now know from scientists for sure. a horse boded war. A ram. the Hare. His brush was a sharp chisel that he used to cut dots. Taking guidance from this number. Really. More lines defined outlines of an object the artist wanted to tell the world about. as it was lived then. the things they talked about. for example. a mouse promised good harvest. they are scenes from everyday life. the Snow Leopard. the khan thought. so we have to accept the facts as they are. thousands of which have been found by archaeologists on rock faces. ancient Turkis knew how to count their sheep and horses. The khan. Untouched by anyone since they were first made in olden times. from the paintings and drawings. Legend apart. the ancient Altai populations could boast a calendar based on an animal cycle twelve years long. There must be some sense in this. Doesn't this remind you of your hand or both. they amaze the viewer because. This was promptly done. everyone knew exactly what happened when. the twelve-year calendar was prompted to some ancient gurus by the motion phases of the Sun and Moon. The drawing captured the life people led.scampered looking for him. This is precisely why we treasure rock art. You must certainly have an inner sense to grasp their message. Don't we owe the twelve-month year to the Altaians? Or twice twelve-hour halves to make the 24 hours we normally call day . and so on. who knows. No one could tell him when that was . Eventually. they had trouble measuring time at first. the khan decreed the year to be divided into twelve months and twelve major constellations in the night sky to be given names. with their five or ten fingers? The artist was certainly aware of what he was doing . Regret as we do. Turkic art originated between three and four thousand years ago. To coax him they sang and pleaded with him to give them happiness and well-being. to give each year the name of one of these lucky animals . like no other existing at the time. Why are we so cock-sure about that? Of course. Unbelievable as it sounds. A good idea. for a purpose unknown but to himself. No pigments or even charcoal were used by an ancient artist. the forces they feared and worshipped. ordered his tribesmen to corral whatever animals were around and to drive them into the river so they could swim across. Scenes drawn from life are especially precious to scientists . And yet. a bizarre way to see the world. Archaeologists were immensely surprised to see animal figures in rock drawings forming groups of five or ten. An artist picked subjects for his drawings as life unfolded them before him. in the first place. and no more than twelve animals managed to get to the other bank. We call it now the unique Turkic culture. Gradually they acquired a peculiar world outlook and a sizeable store of knowledge about the world. Scientists find the drawings in groups all across an enormous cliff face. The mystery is firmly locked up in the past. and a dragon represented the Sun. nothing to do with the khan or his zoo. we know very little about it. It appears that artists had a special preference for yellow or brownish-coloured rocks. which along with language made a nation out of a random and disorderly community.you only have to peer into the drawings to see the rocks come to life to tell the history as it was being made. . but was actually based on precise mathematical and astronomic calculations. so they are formed up into a line.the Cow. A local khan asked people around him to tell him about a war that had been fought in the area long before. a clever man he was. one next to another. How else would you explain ancient Turkic da ting such as this one: "… in the hour of the Horse on the Cow's day of the fifth month of the year of the Snow Leopard?" You won't believe it. A lion carried power and a tortoise eternity and calm. It had. welfare and happiness. A simple image could have a wealth of meaning and provoke a wave of sentiments and thoughts. they had animal names instead of plain hours and days. Ancient Altai Artists The ancient Turkis had a very keen eye for the world they lived in. stood for riches and prosperity.no matter how simple their math was. trying to understand what comes from where and why.one for the day and one for the night so they could square? Very likely. An old legend tells us how it came about. for every scratch or figure carries a meaning difficult to comprehend for modern humans. They were little afraid of Nature or the elements and boldly faced up to it. and rare is a scientist who has thoroughly studied it.the tribes had no measure for time or how a year could be divided into smaller time periods.
as we can gather from the bow he has slung behind his back and a leather quiver with a bunch of arrows sticking out of it at his side. oh… The sculptors were certainly successful in capturing the sitters' moods. The ancient stone carvers were all mostly inspired by female models. In one scene we see a man setting out on a hunt. Smacks of a petty boast." the Turkis could proudly say now. of course.he invented a smelting furnace to turn iron-containing rock into useful metal. it was no miracle at all. encounter with iron. or at least early. were the Altaians' hallmarks. comparable perhaps to the wheel only in the magnitude of the impact it produced.they were part of tribal spiritual culture. the Heavenly Metal. Their merriment is perpetuated on rock faces. someone awake in the dead of night saw a bright flash streaking across the sky and what appeared to be a star plunging to its death on the ground. add or subtract a few hundred years. ancient Altaians were cheerful folk. with between a hundred and two hundred generations separating us. Back then. the meteorite proved to be made of pure iron. The Turkis' early art was as amazing as it was inordinate.the figures were stubby and rough-hewn. the inquisitive Altai Turki. around three thousand years ago. They stand a way above all others. which is much more important for a researcher. for example. The artists' mood started. Strange if they wouldn't. They loved to wander and were moved by curiosity to learn more about nature and the mystery of the elements. or forget them the very minute you walk off. he could learn about their hunting habits. followed by a dog. The year of the Hare or Sheep presaged disaster or crop failure. Kings and gentry only were privileged to carry iron weapons. It gives him an insight into what real life was like then. In Ancient Egypt. fishes and birds were more than the artist's whim . their hands joined. Even such details as outlines of beasts. In fact. a kind of miracle occurred in the Altai. Thousands of them had bombarded the Earth. and they were a familiar sight in the Altai. They could only make very crude copies of the originals . so they could do their fiery dances. They also were different because they always wanted to see the world beyond the horizon. but really smelting iron was the Turkic nation's greatest secret that they long refused to share with other peoples. Indeed. They used to put on shows. All but one. The artist was certainly very attentive to detail. It was an event that was to happen. They are actually the portraits of our ancestors.Each animal-name year carried attributes everyone was well aware of. Each was a real stroke of genius. For example. Iron-making skills were handed down from one generation to the next. With dogs. Handsome faces stare at us from the depths of history. Around two and a half thousand years ago. You do not feel like turning away from them. iron meteorites were beaten into knives and swords so strong that they outpriced gold. did something more than anyone else could elsewhere . crescent-slit the way they are nowhere else. That was a large black meteorite. sooner or later. This was the ancient Turkis' first. while the Snow Leopard. Their cheekbones. Not because of its artistic merits. Rather because it portrayed everyday scenes of a very distant past. meteorites were not that rare in the ancient world. whose name was Temir. from father to son by word . Early human sculptures made their appearance in the Altai at around that time. "Face a club-wielding foe with an iron shield. And they still are today with all purebred Turkis. Skills and knowledge were all that people needed to make the inhospitable Altai their comfortable home. living in the mountains where winters were severely cold and summers suffocatingly hot. There are two or three inventions of similar consequences in the history of the human race. An inquisitive explorer could glean much information from ancient Altai drawings. Temir put iron within easy reach of everyone. More exactly. to a talented nation. even if the nation is no more. Many people spotted the cold motionless stone-like intruder and all walked away unconcerned. Temir. It never dies. fond of singing and dancing. a little too heavy and their eyes. destined to live to eternity. But their faces. A Miraculous Discovery Made by Chance Art was not the only thing that set the Turkis apart from other tribes or nations. No adjective would be too overstretched in describing their significance. Dog or Cow augured bumper crop and prosperity. Animals seemed to be stepping into the background. to be replaced with human figures. As far as we can judge from the drawings. Art is the soul of a nation. as also anywhere else. That was one of man's greatest inventions. to undergo significant change. who showed a more than momentous interest in the rock.
Metal makers and ironsmiths were always among the Turkis' most cherished treasures. And rightly so. Gheser was the first ever Prophet on Earth. in imperial Russia and later. to the Ancient Altai to teach the tribes to lead a righteous life. to Keder or even Khyzer. the Scythians had come to the European steppes from the East. This sealed the role of Tengri as the Altaians' kind patron god. Gheser is a wise guardian of life on Earth. They certainly could only come from the Altai Mountains. True. And discuss and explore them the scientists did. They became the strongest and richest nation in the world. the great scholar never spoke about Turkis in his writings and he had a different name for the Altaians. in the first place. without fear of repression. who they were. Curiously. or even be shot. and nowhere else. which is now his most common name among the Turkic people. A situation you never see in real life. they had iron in profusion. and very much so. so she could not learn secrets she was not supposed to know. A metal maker's son was forbidden to marry a girl from any family but another metal maker. his knowledge of worldwide geography was clearly limited. by accident or intent. Their living and burial sites could be unearthed and explored. where they came from or. however. What anyone could discuss. In his "History" he wrote about the life of this steppe race and its fetes and beliefs. when scholars learned about the Altai and the Turkis. Legends about Gheser sound like the echo of an age when happiness poured on the Altai Mountains and when the Earth had been cleared from demons and monsters. was the first European to tell the Western world about the Scythians. A keen person will hardly need any persuading to get the message. And he is now best remembered in association with Tengri. and a strong young man brimming with health and vigour to others. Ironsmiths' work was ranked on a par with the deeds of saints. the figure of Khyzer (Keder or even Kederles) is common among many nations of the world. Tengri translates as God of Heaven or the Eternal Blue Sky. the language the Scythians communicated in with one another. This period in the history of the Ancient Altai was thoroughly researched by Professor Sergei Rudenko. "Tengri. were the Scythians. True. no doubt about it. he did not know. Much time later. It was an age when the Altaians discovered iron ore in huge quantities and what they could make out of it and started building cities and villages. when they learned about the God of Heaven and when life was changing beyond recognition. A long way rather… But wherefrom. what is most important. Bulgaria and Hungary? Only to vanish in no time into the unknown. however. the Scythians. Tengri. traditions and fighting ability. The Greek writer. the God of Heaven. Amidst the reigning Bronze Age. According to Herodotus. Herodotus. Did the Scythians come from nowhere and speak a language no one knew anything about? As simple as that. Like. And even then they were not broadly publicised but were confined within a small circle of trusted families. The subject was a strong taboo. A scientist risking a mere mention of it could land in jail.of mouth. "Who was that clever guy who sold the idea to Temir?" wondered his kinfolk fondling in their hands the still warm glistening iron ingots Temir had produced out of ordinary chunks of rock (we know those were fragments of iron ore). who to some people is a bearded old man leaning on his staff. no one dared speak out or write the truth about it. did they just turn up suddenly in the steppes of modern Kazakhstan. Central Asian peoples have composed many legends about Gheser and his holy deeds. Since that time the Turkis have always sought protection and solace from him. he illuminated people on Tengri. Ukraine. The messenger of the God of Heaven. Gheser's name has been modified over the centuries. Gheser. a land the Greeks had never heard about. All these themes were under a harsh ban or rather a tacit covenant among researchers to avoid discussing them. in the Soviet Union. those that had links with the ancient culture of the Turkis and their god. for iron brought the Turkis prosperity they had never experienced before. Tengri sent his favorite son. They passed up some Scythian themes. the God of Heaven." they guessed. for example. they developed an . an outstanding archaeologist. so much of it that they could afford to make their kitchenware of it. Strangers were not allowed to come near them. southern Russia. An immortal hero. Uzbekistan. Professor Rudenko was neither forgetful nor careless. Even about their outward appearance and clothing. How Mysterious the Scythians Really Were At the time when Sergei Rudenko was digging out evidence of Turkic culture.
both of which had been their homeland from the beginnings of history. though . no less. Some tribes were upholding. Ulghen and Erlik). . who had overrun the Great Steppe and turned the free Turkic land into Russia's colony. everyone sees whatever he wants to see. the Scythians abandoned the Altai. The truth does not become a lie even if it is banned. All tribes called their patron spirits the Lord. whose protection they sought. they called themselves Scoltes. the sworn enemy of the Turkic people. It was a war of faiths. fish. deer. they were part of a race that had been and will be. bear. little is known about the background of their migration. or more exactly. Most probably. the supremacy of the old gods (Yer-Su. nor ever had. Iranians and Indians knew them as Sak (Shak). What is more. for one reason or another. wolf. too much blood had been spilled in the Altai at that time. two and half thousand years ago. Professor Rudenko found that the Scythians had lived in the Altai. you know. so outrageous the fabrication was. and the scholar had sovereign wrath turned against him. What did Slavs have to do with all that? They never lived in steppes. Certainly. with the faith of their ancestors in their hearts. he wanted to blot out the truth that the Turkis were native to Russia and Ukraine. as high-pitched quarrels grew into warfare.a waste of time. a homeland or culture. Indeed. According to Herodotus. but different tribes each had its own Lord . they were forest dwellers. that they were a Turkic people.doing so could certainly bring disaster on his head. an unfathomable receptacle of dreams and mysteries generating a rich spiritual culture? The ancient Turkis believed that patron spirits of their tribes held power over whether people lived in riches or in poverty. Their apprehensions were not devoid of reason. one that turned up suddenly and vanished just as unexpectedly without a trace. speaking and writing in a Turkic language. leaving it in full dignity. Science is yet to explain what forced the Scythians to forsake their homeland. though. His sensational idea was rejected by the country's rulers. and so on. He did not defy the ban. another lie was cooked up . like a meteorite in a blaze of fire. hated the idea. they spoke Persian. This is the main merit of his writings which are to be read between the lines (the practice followed by both writers and readers in times of artistic freedom suppression). a name derived from the ancient Turkic word sakla. while others were asserting the power of their new God of Heaven. And he now asserted that the Turkic people had not. whence they migrated to Europe. No one believed it. the Almighty Tengri. of all places? Was it sparked off by the emotions boiling in the Turkic nation's soul. the ignoramuses remain unconvinced by written evidence found in Scythian mounds scribbled in Turkic runes. however. To save face. From that time on the truth was no longer heard about the Turkis and Scythians. this fantasy has taken root and is very much alive in Russian historical science today. It was replaced by a vicious lie that was being implanted costs regardless. No. arms in hand. For now.apprehension that the Scythians were actually Turkis who had migrated from the Altai. After all these wrongdoings. rather. The old believers. Scholars that were soon coming to Russia from the West in droves were paid huge sums to speak and write about Scythians as Slavs and Turkis. the world was witness to a struggle between polytheistic paganism and a new. came from Persia and. as barbarous nomads.a swan. he provided an accurate account of the Turkis and their culture in his books. Nothing can make them change their mind. A Gift from Tengri Why did a religious argument arise in the Altai. those of their tribes who had been forced to leave their native lands forever. monotheistic religion. suggested some three hundred years ago that Scythians were directly related to Turkis. To much regret. because the Scythians and Turkis belonged to the same culture. The direct effect of his assertions was that Russian historians started referring to the Turkic people as "savage nomads" and "accursed Tatars". For the first time in human history. Fortunately. Looking for differences is like trying to find dissimilarities in twins . The Russian historian. Andrei Lyzlov.the Scythians. they were not a new tribal confederation. the Scyths (Scythians) (or Scoltes or Sacae) backed down and withdrew from the battlefield. It continues to beckon honest researchers. sure enough. if things ever came to that. Rather. Professor Rudenko was one of them. Appropriately. which translates as "save". Czar Peter the Great.
the ancient Turkis made their banners out of animal hides. Interestingly. Back to those mounds. Its opponents conceded defeat and retreated from the Altai. Archaeologists uncovered swords. The breads were . his most precious find was a horse bridle that he recovered from a mound hoard. they gave a severe beating to the Chinese emperor's crack armies? Their awesome strength made Chinese chroniclers look for an explanation. however. Without a doubt. The Altaians now knew that Tengri gave them unchallenged strength and skills. in the classical sources (or Scoltes). the Turkis worshiped the Serpent or Dragon. and the lizard was got.both had the same meaning and were pronounced identically. clearing the ground for momentous changes to start in the Altai inevitably under the impact of iron tools and implements. the Serpent was master of the underworld. next to modern widgets. and it provided a new type of transport and draft force that drove the Turkis forward on the road of progress. which they swapped for long flowing coats. This explains why the deities under its control (Yer-Su. And a different life. which they promptly found . he unearthed the evidence of the Altaians' art and skills he had been looking for. such as ploughing their crop fields. and made sacks and flour bins. that simple. A true and honest scientist. The Serpent was revered by all tribes by more than mere chance. This fable has survived from that distant past. His finds were much more valuable for they provided an insight into the life of the Turkis once they started using the advantages of iron. They cultivated rye and millet and stored the harvested grain in pottery jars. the serpent was maga or yilan.) A tribe's Lord was depicted on its banner. According to folk tradition. Professor Sergei Rudenko focused his research specifically on this period. I am not referring to the price of the gold and silver artifacts he found. Shortly they learned horse riding.And all together. the Chinese adopted elements of the Turkis' war gear. its leather and iron mouth bit completely intact. Allowing a banner to fall was considered bad luck. trousers. A life in the Iron Age. retrieving an enormous cache of fabulous treasures. Remember. The horse moved apart the boundaries of the Ancient Altai and opened up broad vistas for travel and conquest. came from quite another world. The Altaians had an instinct and real knack for inventions destined to become staples for all races and peoples. They had ovens to make round loaves of bread they called karavais (made by karavaichis. scimitars and daggers from them. Erlik and so on) lived underground.the tuchueh (strong). Doesn't sound grand? It must. legends of the Turkis' neighbours frequently refer to them as nagas. or serpent people. which was believed to be the repository of the patron spirit. For larger crop harvests. It was held that it was the forefather of humans and made people wise and knowledgeable. Their departure from the Altai in the 5th century BC laid the beginnings of the history of the Scythians. And more. Back in the 4th century BC. The new God was not to everybody's liking. It appears to be simple enough. What's so interesting about a bridle today? Few people know.an invincible horseman who could handle his warhorse the way no one else could and ride it across much of the world in triumph. or full-time bakers). The Altaians reaped their crops with iron sickles and threshed their sheaves with iron flail bars. and also stirrups and shirts of mail. or Sacae. And also iron crosses that Turkis used for ornaments. The Turkis' weapons were without match anywhere else in the antique world. in contrast to empty theories concocted on sovereign orders. it made a Turki warrior what he was to his contemporaries . Initially. Tengri. the dragon was lu. which was probably modified to Goths as the Turkis were henceforth known in Europe. and much more. which were then replaced with common or silk fabric. that the bridle was first made in the Altai and that it introduced a new culture we call Turkic Culture. Today too. the new God. a job no other people could do so well. loyal to their old faith and their underworld rulers. the tribe called Scyths. and tilting it was utter disgrace. too. So they departed. This was Professor Rudenko's great contribution to Turkic studies. however. He dug out a large cluster of mounds at Pazyryk in modern Kazakhstan. helmets and armour plates. where feasts are put on in its honour and its images can be seen in every conceivable place. though. the ancient Altaians did not distinguish between the words banner and spirit . so banners deserved a special treatment. He was the God of Heaven and Lord of the World for the Turkis. they built granaries and drying barns. too. (In ancient Turkic. in particular. Back then. He brought a different religion to people. Incidentally. the Serpent (or Dragon) is deeply venerated in Central Asia. The earliest forged iron ploughshares (forerunners of modern ploughs) on Earth were found in the Ancient Altai. he contributed archaeological discoveries to the treasure-trove of science. the Heaven. and more exactly for those of them who had lost faith in the old gods. Indeed. and people adulated them as rulers of the netherworld.
to be passed on everybody. the heart of Turkic culture? Tengri was an invisible spirit inhabiting the Heaven. grew up and died next to his horse. It was the Judgement of God. the Creator of the world and all forms of life on Earth. The Turkis now went into battle with Bogh in their hearts and minds. Bogh (Bogdo or Boje). we call it the Russian oven today. Not in helpless fear. a word adopted and modified by Russians to izba). Now we know why the horse-riding Turkis needed those loose-fitting trousers and high-heeled boots more than any other nations. It only came to their minds in moments of desperation when they wanted to ask the Great Tengri Khan for something very important in their lives. The Turkis threw out their pagan gods and turned to Tengri . poverty and wealth all come from Tengri. Memories are short. Allah (or Ala) was the least frequent word used by ancient Turkis. with a high-standing brick oven inside. which are still remembered in our time. . He is the Lord and Judge. Hodai (or Kodai). the Lord." the ancient Altaians said to comfort themselves. young children to old adults. And took up every challenge with Bogh at their side. and their sumptuous brown bread made their meals luxurious. they looked differently from other peoples because of their national garments. Clothing and national cuisine are distinctive traits for an ethnographer. though. In its original sense. a horseriding race would certainly wear different garments and eat different foods from those of. Strangely. These words resounded in the Altai Mountains as long as two and a half thousand years ago. a tribe of fishermen. Allah could only be uttered while saying a prayer with hands held out in front of you and palms up to face the Great Blue Sky. Hodai (literally. really a warm and cozy place. So much was said in ancient legends. The Turkic people developed a habit of looking forward to Judgement Day. say. its Creator. Also. spears and super-power bows. You won't confuse it with anyone else's. forged iron ploughshares. could ride a horse in the Altai. "Good and evil.round. steel scimitars. of course. And were even buried together. Everyone. Some of them are illustrated on these pages. The word derived from the Turkic al (hand). in fact. And. Be Happy). Allah (or Ollo) or Gospodi (or Gozbodi). Even if they had. This was what the Turkis' faith in the Only God was based on. Their diet abounded in meat and sour milk products. as vast as the Heaven itself and as wide as the whole world. to look like small brown suns . Among the inventions the hardworking Turkis contributed to world civilization were iron sickles and axes. for people were sure that supreme justice existed in the world. Incidentally. Russians borrowed the Turkic word kirpech (oven clay) for brick. It invoked peace. Their smoke huts gave way to log cabins (isi binas. the latter name emphasising His supremacy in the Universe. which was the Turkis' main building material. The God of Heaven Who was then that Great Tengri.the Almighty in this world. To begin with. Little surprise. The ancient Turkis have preserved their identity of body build and complexion through the ages. Walking was a disgrace. and many more useful things. Religion was the supreme achievement of the Turkic people's spiritual culture.yeasted tasty wonders with a crunchy crust. All-powerful and Benevolent. The Turkis were unsurpassed in building their houses from bricks and logs. Hunger had become a thing of the past for the Altaians. they lacked the Turkis' knack with those weapons. objects other peoples had no need for.each in one's own tongue. God is protection and punishment. suggesting "giving and taking". To understand the wisdom and depth of faith in Tengri. Another form of address to God. emphasised the unique qualities of Tengri . Other peoples baked their loaves differently. A Turki. of course. all in one. they were the first to discover the advantages of saddles with stirrups. people were to embrace one simple truth God is one and He sees everything. The two were inseparable centaur-like. magnificent palaces and attic houses. You cannot conceal anything from Him. An infant was first taught to sit on a horse and then to walk. though. many other words were addressed to Tengri as well. wagons and carriages. daggers. calm and perfection. The age of plenty entered the ancient Turkis' homes as well. He was the Only God. The Turkis reverently called Him the Eternal Blue Sky or Tengri Khan. Bogh was the most frequent word on people's lips. And right they were. a warm place. king or slave.
They lived in a country far north of India. or even slightly earlier. those were not crosses and were named so by Europeans when they first learned about Tengri religion. though . The Sun and Moon were closely related to ancient Turkis (hence their twelve-year calendar). who had the Serpent as their forbear. Mahabharata. It is an account of real events which is told. The Chinese probably had their own ideas about the cult of the Heaven and tried to uphold them. Their clothing consisted of long robes (caftans or mantles) and peaked hoods. in a land where incalculable treasures and an iron cross lay buried in the ground. They are a Heavenly sign that marks off Turkic culture. however. So we now know what those "white wanderers" (a popular phrase for them) were . in a long-standing Indian tradition. They certainly had solid backgrounds for that communion. by word and deed. Metaphor aside.) Indian legends of nagas are a reminder of that distant past. the new religion was disseminated by Turkis themselves. and an Indian page opened in Turkic history two thousand and a half years ago. which were white for senior clergy and black for the rest of the priesthood. You can guess all right that ancient artists cut images of priests on Altai rocks. China sent back Turkic preachers from its borders. the cross is an intersection of two lines. The rules to be followed in prayer. half human and half serpentine. It was tattooed on foreheads and woven into designs and ornaments by artists. In actual fact. The Tengri sign was embroidered on battle banners and worn on a chain on the chest. The Turkis in India Tidings of Almighty God of Heaven and his affluent country flew from Altai mountaintops like a flock of birds to every corner of the world. the Hindus interpreted their Buddha in a way different from what Turkis made out their Tengri. They could assume either human or wholly serpentine form. and it was full of philosophical wisdom. The book is really a chronicle of Ancient India. Their White Wanderers made their way to other countries to spread the word of Tengri. A truly righteous man could ask for guidance in penetrating the inner sense of things. nagas were semidivine beings. It was all different in India.it had been an important element in Turkis' lives. literally.a reminder of time and perpetuity. gradually evolving into real works of art crafted by jewellers. It was shortly overrun by Turkic horsemen who put China to its knees by force. Skew crosses appeared in the Altai between three and four thousand years ago. along with a "skew" cross that was a sign of the underworld and old. nagas had human faces and long snake bodies. In Hindu mythology. performed by priests. a solar circle with four equally spaced rays radiating from it.preachers of the faith. Eventually. (Indian scholars approach their . Interest in Tengri caught on immediately. people in the country that styled itself the Celestial Empire learned about Tengri. faith in the first place. Literally.it could only be spoken by priests. No. The cross was not new to Turkic culture. As can be expected. They were very gentle and musical creatures who loved poetry. Turkic priests could be told from laymen by the way they dressed and behaved. It was an address one could say in a moment of truth. celebration or fasting were polished over the centuries. the culture of a people that had profound faith in the power of the Eternal Blue Sky. (In truth. underground gods. aji.Gospodi was the rarest of all . With a vengeance. with some of its pages devoted to the nagas and their mysterious northern land. the defensive Great Wall regardless. otherwise interpreted as grace of God emanating from a single centre. That distant land was known to Hindus as Shambhu (Benevolent). in fact. An ancient Hindu holy book. The Altai and India now shared a common spirituality. if you like). in legend form. It was all in the spirit of strong national tradition. the word means "seeing the light" or "eye opener". and their women were of striking beauty. and is. this is not a fairytale. Occasionally. and still they felt free to search for an eternal truth and have spiritual dialogues with one another. to convey a different message . to develop into a code of behaviour or rites. aji crosses were very crude and simple. According to legend. The Tengri sign shows no intersection. tells of the origins of religion and the evolution of spiritual culture. The Turkis chose a simple equal-armed cross. for a symbol of Tengri Khan. Get the difference? Sun rays. who used to give them a gold coat and adorn them with gems to please the eye and heart. a crescent was added to the Tengri sign (or cross. Semantically. however. or Shambhkala (Shining Fortress in Turkic).
Actually. How else could you explain the Buddha's blue Turkic-slit eyes? Was it a reflection of a long-forgotten epic? Such as one that unfolded two and half thousand years ago when strange horsemen rode into India from the North? They settled in India. Mongolia and Buriatia. one of its two major ruling families founded by King Ikshwaku. And more. Altaic tribes came to India to stay forever there rather than just hit and run. While we are on the subject of borrowings. with enough evidence about the Turkis who had arrived from the Altai. they were Sacae of the Turkic race. Theirs was certainly this case. who alone were capable of absorbing the message of text. but they are not like any other Christians around the world . Convincing evidence of this has been unearthed by archaeologists. Finally. It was commonly held that it was hidden in an inaccessible valley somewhere in Tibet. No one was aware at the time that belief in the God of Heaven had been brought to Tibet and India from the Altai.) The Hindus. while many of them were not even aware of much there was to know in the 19th century. at least fifty million of India's inhabitants profess faith in the God of Heaven. could be misguided.they have preserved for the Turkic race a sacred treasure that the Turkis have managed to forget. could turn into a naga. Many people failed in their attempts to reach that land. More proof is. The land of Shambhkala lay at the foot of Mount Sambyl-Taskhyl. let alone commoners. a philosopher. Hindus always praised the nagas for their fertile lands and copious crops. the Russian authorities drove Russian historical science into a corner. For all their high stature. that Buddha's teaching could be spread by the Turkis. Nikolai Roerich. They are neither Buddhists nor Moslems. we assume. This view was voiced by some major Orientalists in the 19th century. The name of Tengri was certainly known in India. Ayodhya. It was rumoured that monastics in possession of consummate knowledge lived in that land. available elsewhere. who migrated from the Altai. Besides. and was strongly endorsed by. In this way. Prajnyaparamita. of course. where he lived in the Aksu River Valley. traces its beginnings from the coming of the Altaians. It's human to err. for example. from the nagas. to become a new nation. By suppressing and distorting the Turkic nation's history. the Hindus did a great honour to Turkic culture . The city. originated among the Turkis. . the famous Indian cavalry. It will not be out of place here to emphasise again that Turkic influence on Indian culture was enormous at that time. too. we cannot share their view. nothing goes without leaving a trace. Traces of past events may at times surface suddenly in the least expected place. the core religion of Tibet. This is probably the only place in the world where the Turkis' creed survives in its undistilled form. Modern Tibetan Buddhism (or less formal. a nephew of the Sun. a republic in Russia. you will agree. About one in ten Indians or Pakistanis today has a family tree rooted in Turkic soil. In fact. Ikshwaku started building a city. Hindus called Buddha (his teaching was disseminated at exactly that time) Shakyamuni or the Turkic god. They are called Christians in India. among other leading public figures. which they wear on their chests and say their distinct prayers in front of it. India was ruled for a long time by the famous Sun Dynasty. Indian tradition goes.legends in all earnest. none other than Turkis taught Hindus how to plough their fields with iron ploughshares and reap their harvests with iron sickles. monasteries and blossoming forests. to India in the 5th century BC. They will accept no other sign but the Tengri cross. the famous Russian traveller and ethnographer. No one came anywhere near it. which still stands today. where earthly life touches the ultimate heavenly reason. It is highly probable. There. Once installed in power. especially if you look for something in a wrong place. A significant proportion. Nikolai Przhevalsky. According to Indian legends. the Shak. calling them absolutely reliable sources. of all places. Legends abounded about that enigmatic land. or Turkis. Indeed. an educationist. scientists knew almost nothing about the Altai and its ancient culture. This body of wisdom could only be read by the wisest of proselytizers. and Elena Blavatskaya. where recognized celebrities. in the catchment area of the Khan Tengri River. Lamaism). The old ploughs unearthed in the Altai and Indian and Pakistani legends appear to bring together the fragmented knowledge about ancient Turkis and fit in place many missing pieces of the jigsaw puzzle left by history. made no secret of the fact that they had borrowed their sacred texts. and struck deep root there. Buddha. to be the capital city of the Koshala (or Koshkala?) Kingdom.they have distinct religious rites and symbols. you will agree. a wall of icy mist concealed cities. Here is a good example. This is abundant evidence. has a museum dedicated to the Sun Dynasty.
with an undisguised connotation of palace. temples and beautiful residential houses. The river takes its name from the royal palace. for toponymy experts alone to explain. A sacred place indeed. an indication of the great influence Koshala had on that region. The scholar attempted in his book to go to the origins of the name of Tashqand. many times as large as it is today. are cloaked in mystery. It was broadly held that a man who happened to see Mount Kailasa would be happy for the rest of his life. struggling to assert faith in the God of Heaven. their members going on to become great generals.the Biisk and Nerchinsk routes. for India and the Altai were. Tashqand is habitually translated as "stone city". large regions in Iran continue to speak Turkic in our days. The Iranian page in Turkic history opened with the invasion of the Sacae (Shak). It looks like another Turkic place name. It must be something different. Iran occupied an enormous area. a huge single country. Or else they confided to their descendants about their ancestral Turkic roots. The Turkis in Iran India was not alone to be introduced to the God of Heaven. Kazakhstan. It took a very brave man to ride a horse over soaring cloud-high cliffs. many sides of which. the celebrated dynasties of maharajas of Udaipur. too. and at one time it was regarded as the capital city of Northern India. Take Hindustan. Arshak I. who founded the famous Arsacid dynasty in the 3rd century BC. With the arrival of Turkis. as also India itself. the map of India shows a lot of Turkic place names. only to experience an upsurge again. Nothing stands alone in life. You could see Altaic families among the Indian nobility. in fact. with its typically Turkic stan ending (Tatarstan. therefore. This fact is recorded in Iran's history books. Surprisingly. But all of them spoke Turkic. Nothing comes from nowhere and goes without a trace. During the rule of Sun Dynasty kings. Little surprise. as of Turkic history in general. that many of its ethnic groups and their legends live on within that country's modern boundaries. but he had no time left to complete his task. Pilgrims. numberless families resettled from the Altai to India. followed this road to see their relations or pray at sacred Mount Kailasa. which means "country" in Turkic. in all but in fact. The city has an eventful history. The destinies are now part of Indian legends and in genealogies of some Indian aristocrats. generation to generation. Migration continued for many centuries. or visit the city of Kashmir. Then came Tashkent (or Tashqand). with splendid palaces. . many cities and villages. Jodhpur and Jaipur rose from their Turkic roots in the Ancient Altai. a very old city that marked its two thousand years recently. Professor Eduard Murzaev knew much about the Turkic knack of giving names to cities. their memories of ancestors privileged to serve at the court of Azhi Dahaka. rivers and mountains. poets. Little wonder. He lived in the image of a serpent. both parts of which were linked by roads that can still be used today . its replicas that continue to be built in the Pamir Mountains and Tibet to this day. Ayodhya stood on the banks of the Sarayu (modern Ghaghara) River.Ayodhya alternated between prominence and decline. The surviving tales of Azhi Dahaka shed some light on that controversial event. Eventually. To give an example. Very long ago. The earliest road the Turkis built to reach India was the legendary Suspension Pass. Iranians continued to worship fire for centuries more. a redhead imposter from the Altai. the vast region in Northern India. it was a place where Tengri Khan himself rested from his chores. Ordinary Iranians rejected his faith . In fact. save for folklore and suspension bridges. No parts of it have survived. Why not? The city was the capital city of a powerful kingdom. Azhi Dahaka was. Iranian nobles were that country's sole class that embraced Tengri in secret and proudly related. who were on their way to India. After that regretful failure. because the Turkic word qand does mean a stone-built city already. from time to time. The name sends a Turkic message. Azhi Dahaka (Dahaka the Snake) was a foreign king who ruled Iran for a time. though. life was no longer calm or smooth in India. Turkic cavalry used suspension bridges to cross mountain streams and deep gorges on its way to India. the city fell into decay and neglect. According to legend. in fact. It was a cherished dream come true for a Turki to see Mount Kailasa. a mysterious road no one knows of today. This is not exactly so.you cannot force anything down anyone's throat if he cannot swallow it. Bashkortostan or Daghestan). "White Wanderers" walked as far as Iran. scholars or clerics.
they were the notorious Sacae. The founder of the Kushan Khanate. above all. "Abroad" gave the name "Tashqand" an entirely different undertone. is the pride of the Turkic world. His name. Taking the cue from their respective governments. The Kushan Khanate wielded awesome military power. In fact. French archaeologists digging at Dasht Navur (Dasht again?) uncovered remains of another Turkic city. used to lie in the very centre of Asia. which is today hidden behind a thick fog of ignorance. across the Suspension Pass in the unassailable Pamir Mountains. Azhi Dahaka's (or rather his proselytizers') failure did not stop the Turkis in their resolve . and even parts of China. they have been wrested out of their historical context and nonetheless remain a significant part of the Turkic world with a past beginning in the Ancient Altai. In fact. Their modern state. By all criteria. Some of them bear inscriptions in clear Turkic runes. and a cliff with similar runes nearby. trying to fend off the "savage nomads" (a staple name used for Turkis by modern historians) descending on the prostrate country from the north.It was found later that tashty or dashty was "abroad" in Turkic and that it came from Sanskrit. We certainly can time events using a different set of signs.Greeks. including Europe. were signs of their presence . including Maracanda. Tashqand was actually the first Turkic city in the area. Bactria. on the territory of modern Afghanistan. derived from Sumerqand). they are purebred Turanians [inhabitants of the Turan Plain]. for example. Why exactly "abroad"? We have an answer. Yes.what could you expect of a people torn from their roots and intermingling with other races for centuries? Hardly recognizable on language criteria. Iranian or Chinese surrogates. Uzbekistan. which all appeared to be concealed deliberately. they have not changed their Turkic looks or deviated from their Turkic life-styles. In cultural roots they are much closer to Iran. but exactly a city of stone buildings. and it is actually to blame for Alexander the Great's Macedonian armies being lured by its wealth. Gowerka. Persians and whoever happened to be near. Tashqand.iron artifacts and runes are dated to the same period.they sent their cavalry to make up for the failure in their earlier Iranian inroad. They had a cross on their banners and a new faith in their hearts. Its fame spread in all directions. Turkic runes and the "stone city in a foreign land". the language of Indian priests (more about that later). This time. but the Turkis. Who knows what it was in Turkic? Hardly anyone. For example. a predominant type of settlement in the Altai. Afghanistan. a short distance from Tashqand. but prefer to call themselves a Turkic people. The Turkis renamed the ancient Bactrian city Samarqand (probably. in the 1st century AD. . a message from long-gone ancestors. Kushan history is linked to whatever people comes to mind . was stamped on his coins. In plane language it translates as "a stone city in a foreign land". We know their Hindu. but never their Turkic originals. You won't say that about the Turkmen. The message was that it was not a town of log cabins. The Turkic world certainly has resident aliens speaking the host nation's language. is known as Guwishka. Bactria died off instantly politically. and they knew what they wanted when they invaded Bactria. Another Turkic city stood at Kara Tepe. Many objects dating to that period have been unearthed. near an iron ore deposit that drew the Turkis here. the direct descendants of settlers from the Altai. the weakened Bactrian state was embroiled in long wars. parts of India and Iran. The Uzbeks alone have earned this honour for their country. a part of the Persian Empire. who are different. They are quite a numerous species as well. The Uzbeks' brethren from that distant Kushan Period live in Afghanistan and Pakistan under the name of Pashtuns. Three hundred years after these devastating campaigns. A thriving nation is the strongest evidence in the case we are arguing. the Kushan Khanate. even the true names of its rulers. They do not speak pure Turkic. Very little truth is so far known about the legendary Kushan Khanate. But then their behavioural patterns are nowhere near those of the true Turkis. Pakistan. They confirm the hypothesis that Turkis started settling in this foreign land before the onset of the new era (AD).no one took any interest in iron but the Turkis. the Turkic armies matched up to their long-standing reputation. new forces burst out of the Altai to rewrite history again. towards India. The cache of artifacts uncovered there contained earthenware with ubiquitous inscriptions. It was built close to ancient Bactrian cities. Fighting for succession to the lifeless Bactria was brief and decisive. scientists close their eyes to this multiple evidence. A large and prosperous state. Turkic populations. and called the nearby iron-rich area the Iron Gate . Uzbeks in particular. by way of explanation. a part of the their army turned around to push. Their westward drive opened another Iranian page in Turkic history. of course . The wars cleared the stage for a new state. with Tashqand (Tashkent) as its capital city. and long years of warfare that followed on its territory finished it off economically as well as politically. Their business done. It controlled modern Central Asia.
Travellers to the Kushan Khanate were amazed at its flourishing cities. Iranians and Hindus living side by side for centuries have learned a lot from one another. which was stamped on his coins). people embraced it without hesitation. when the famous King Kanishka elevated the Turkic race to glory. The great Kushan melting pot gave the world some of its celebrated scholars. not sword. nor iron shirt of mail.under the Eternal Blue Sky. Living in harmony with one's neighbours produces changes hard to account for. Khan Erke. To Him alone Erke and the Turkic world owe a debt of gratitude for their spectacular victories. and nothing else. He could speak for hours. a people living in the Pamir Mountains. Everyone knew that even a hardened sinner could atone for all of his sins.do good wherever you can for the world to be kind to you. they are a very practical lot. even people's outward appearance. contributed to the high glory of Turkic culture. poets. giving them all it could in return. To their friends and foes alike. they remain Turkic at core with their unmistakable Turkic behavioural patterns. Their ruler was the true spokesman for his people. we know his real name . theirs was a new Turkic culture. The khan's nice speech and wise policies showed the indigenous population that the Turkic settlers valued kindness and generosity more than they did gold. But they remain unchanged inside from their Altaic kinsfolk . The most attractive side of the new creed was that you have your future in your own hands. Turkis. And. by controlling his own behaviour. Would you expect otherwise? The Turkic settlers in Central Asia could not escape their fate that made them different from their Altaic kinsfolk. and above all the word of God. using fine words and polished style that kept his listeners alert and thirsting for more. The area's fertile land was destined to yield rich crops of star-calibre philosophers and wise men.The Kyrgyz. and they were appropriately called Turkis-Oguz (oguz translates as "worldly wise"). God gives everyone his deserves . Khan Erke's principal gift to the East was faith in Tengri. and majestic temples. Faith in Tengri reinforced people's spirit and encouraged them to excel.you alone are accountable to God for your good and evil actions . and his people as well. His mission was made the easier thanks to his thorough knowledge of the rites. They certainly belong to the Turkic race. for example. a born philosopher and poet. Happily. The message of the new religion was simple enough . Word. This is really the only just Judgement . It was a grand occasion. too. the overwhelming majority of Turkis-Oguz are now brown-eyed and dark-haired. The Turkis. nor spear. He was given a chance and hope to cleanse himself any time in his life on Earth. Khan Erke was convinced that every human being could.Khan Erke (or Kanerka. and very festive. And the locals accepted him on faith. prayers and the teaching itself. The Illustrious Khan Erke The world first learned about the mighty Kushan Khanate in the 1st century AD. He made it unchallenged in the East. build paradise or hell for himself and his near and dear. was his main weapon. The rite was . Erke ascended to the Kushan throne in 78 AD and ruled for twenty-three years. No one. theologians and physicians who added glory to the East. unlike any other on Earth. In fact.hot-tempered and emotional. Their new faith was simple and wise. could blame anyone but himself for his misery and woes. Altaic culture borrowed the best it could take from the local Turan tribes. It gradually changes much of what seems unshakable. believed in the eternity of human soul and in their reincarnation after death. This truth being as simple as that. They never said the name of the God of Heaven in haste. They have always been like that boiling. the Turkic world and the human race as a whole. The Kushan Khanate was. More than anyone else before or after him. their poets reciting their verses to the accompaniment of bird chirping in paradisiacal gardens. are a case apart. For example. a real melting pot where Oriental cultures were fused into a distinct local culture. Cultural melting pots are amazing phenomena in human history. Turkis appeared to be endowed with unnatural talents and powers. Remember this and don't miss your chance. of course. a sagacious ruler and brilliant warlord.no less no more. perfidy or power over non-Turkic people. Even though they have borrowed a lot from Chinese culture." Khan Erke exhorted his subjects. Strangers were bewildered by the rite Turkis performed in the name of Tengri. Within its Kushan framework. Only this matters. he said. in scholarly opinion. On top of anything else. magnificent palaces with beautiful statues. "Seek salvation in your deeds.
which drew many theologians from around the East. in a way completely different from divine services. it meant "facing the Heaven". a Jew by the name of Joshua studied in the Altai. It was a great reign indeed. too. this birthplace of the Turkic race bore this lofty epithet for over a thousand years. so little wonder their Altai was paradise come true for other Oriental races and its inhabitants got the name of Aryans. Later on. and the horse riders themselves were the stuff of endless legends. We can only guess what it felt like in those thrilling moments. And pray people did. Prayers were said outside a temple. they were built as reminders of those sacred mountains back home. or more specifically. The choir fervently intoned a sacred melody.) It was general custom to burn incense before prayer. Mahayana).) People came here from afar to find out more about Turkic culture. you always see the equal-armed cross of Tengri. regarded as the key spiritual centres in the East. They were lost in doubt and depressed. The Turkis prayed to subdued singing. evil forces could not abide by the smell of incense (the incense-burning ritual was called qadyt in ancient Turkic. eventually evolving into architectural features. that bells really existed (some evidence of them has been unearthed). along with several theological centres across the Kushan Khanate. then a province of the Roman Empire. however. Judging by their remains. On his return to Palestine. therefore. They gave recognition to Tengri and His teaching that expanded the content of Buddhism (which evolved into the well-known version of Buddhism. except for the clergy. about Tengri crosses and ruined Turkic cities and temples that existed in the Kushan period. (Incidentally. For this he was called Jesus Christ (Isa). called vajra in the East. Actually. Incense burners (censers) were used for this purpose. we know fairly much. We can only guess about the confusion that overwhelmed people who refused to accept Tengri. very little is known as yet about the destinies of various cultural traditions or why some were superseded by others. Things were different with other peoples. tormented by their own powerlessness. following the example of Moses (Moshe or Mousa). We certainly know. No one could enter a temple. had a temple in Kashmir to worship their own god. For these reasons the Altai and. the Turkis adopted this practice. though. benefiting enormously the Turkic world as a whole. After all. Whatever side of Turkic culture you take. . from the archaeologists' digs. What kind of bells were they? How did the bell towers look? No one can give the answers after so many centuries. by implication. Happily. in praise of the God of Heaven. Could it probably be the Golden Temple that is still a major attraction in Kashmir? Khan Erke devoted much of his time and effort to the promotion of his creed and culture. (To our regret again. During the reign of Khan Erke. "our songs"). A school of arts was opened in Gandhara for foreigners. Yirmaz (literally. His words are recorded in the Apocalypse. The Turkis had everything neat and tidy. iron tools and weapons.in ancient Turkic. In the beginning. temples were not large. cities awoke to the melodious peels of bells summoning the congregation to morning prayer. or "God Blessed". They wouldn't hang back more than that anyway. Appropriately enough. His reign is deeply impressed on the memory of Oriental nations. Joshua brought news of horsemen in the service of the God of Heaven. for they were not allowed to breathe inside the sanctuary. all year round. No one in the pagan world had ever witnessed so much grandeur and splendour or imagined it could be that way. too. Khan Erke did not spare himself to propagate his faith. The Turkic word for bell (kolokol) probably comes from that remote age . for Khan Erke transformed Kashmir into a holy city and a centre of pilgrimage. According to an ancient Altaic legend. the Kushan Khanate were. Priests from India and Tibet were frequent guests at the Kushan khan's court. the Christians' earliest religious book. from the root verb "repel" or "scare off"). who were qualified. Like it was back in the Altai when people congregated for prayer at the feet of sacred mountains.really. some later geographical maps label the Altai as Paradise . an excellent army and general affluence in the country were strong indications of the high mission of Turkic culture. "praying to the Heaven". At one time.ceremonious and leisurely. under the open sky of Tengri. Buddhists held their Fourth Assembly in Kashmir. and Turkic was heard there day and night. Not unlike Shambhkala in India. Altaic pilgrims. a "Divine Witness". An indirect reference to this is contained in the Koran. Their congregations swarmed their temples. very little is known about them. that is. a promised land sought out by people in other lands.people from a world completely unfamiliar to them. Pagans took the Turkis for what we now call extraterrestrials . and only for a few brief moments.
towards the vast expanses far beyond. Tibet and Mongolia. For example. the Urals and Ancient Altai. All this was done so rapidly that no one had time to regret. What happened next was that cities and villages were put up in the steppe. Crops were. They were certainly right. they settled in the mountains. so there was no water for cattle or vegetable gardens. There is no telling where you are or where you go. towards a better future with lush grazing grounds and rich croplands. Alkei Margulan's research and book notwithstanding. Its more accurate translation gives "crowded". now as a trademark to be worn by all settlers. Not that they had striking architecture or dazzling splendour. Finally. the mountains dwellers had always dreaded the steppe. Central Asia and. among other places. Between hope and fear. but never in the steppe. Fortunately. Another source of the label is the name of a very old Turkic tribe. The Turkis had nowhere to go but across the steppe. of course. or more correctly the Fourth Assembly. a Kazakh archaeologist and member of the Academy of Sciences. led the way from the Altai.only flat land all around under the blazing sun in the sky. much remains obscure . therefore. signalled the birth of a new school of Buddhism. A little background will help explain what actually happened. It probably. Primitive tribes. I don't remember if any historian has written anything about that.going or staying. at times. Shortly he drove into the steppe to see the deserted cities firsthand. They certainly had on their side the necessary wherewithal . Their flourishing land gradually evolved into a new Turkic khanate. The East's greatest enlightener. Now forgotten by all but a few curious archaeologists. some other peoples have fond memories of him. never settled in the inhospitable steppe. The Turkis were torn between two options . but few people could physically live on it. In actual fact. No one pressured the Turkis . The steppe offered plenty of fertile land. He could discern from high altitude ruined buildings overgrown with grass and sanded over. He did what he humanly could. fully oblivious of their illustrious khan. it takes a strong and self-assured tribe to pull up stakes and face the steppe rigours. And they had the old label immediately attached to them . It was a brave decision to be exposed to the forces reigning in the steppe. a few families took off and moved on into the unknown. These plates. quite often of hurricane force. Its cities amid the steppe were like bright stars in the dark sky. mountains are not the best place for crop farming and good living. The Altai has a more rigorous climate than Central Asia.The text of Mahayana was engraved on copper plates that immediately became (and still are) a sacred dogma of Buddhism in China. You can hardly survive in the steppe unless you are adequately prepared for life in the wilderness. and shared his findings in a book. Nor can you walk barefoot.they up and went on their own free will. roads were laid. The Altaic khans were looking to the steppe beyond with hope and misgiving. tend to blow for weeks on end. which meant no fuel for the hearth or logs for houses and barns. Rivers were scarce there. The steppe is clean-stripped of prominent feature to take your bearings on . A strong race they really were. bridges thrown across rivers. hope won over fear. Evading the steppe. One way or another. a long time before. and irrigation canals dug. The Turkis are. or just for drinking. Winds. A snowstorm could snow over your village right up to housetops within a few hours in winter. They had a different purpose to be there.kypchak (Kipchaks). Bound for the Steppe The rise of the Kushan Khanate in the 2nd century AD appeared to have awakened the Altai or rather shaken it out of its slumber. which came to be known later as the Land of Seven Rivers. Finally. the sagacious Khan Erke knew how to make friends and allies. on seashores and in forests. and everyone who followed it were given its name.the subject is too .iron tools and weapons unrivalled in the world and a rich experience of life in India. As chance would have it. "The steppe is a land of gloom. undemanding though they were. however. and his name is cited in a prayer. for any long time. which was later named "Tibet Buddhism" or "Lamaism". It was devoid of trees. he spotted them from an airliner window. Kipchak was more than a settler. As everywhere. He has been consecrated as a saint by the Buddhists. your shoes will be in tatters from coarse grass after a long walk in the steppe. Settlers had always been called kypchaks there since the time when Turkis first started out for India. of course. First. significantly lower." gossiped old folk. In our day these cities have been explored by Alkei Margulan.
In sheer numbers and impact. too much for that time. They had it the hard way. but the wagon is still very much here with us. of course) dashed up and down the steppe leaving a thick trail of dust in the wake. Like this one: How did the Kipchaks move across the steppe? A simple question. moving towards and across Europe. it was the peopling of an uninhabited part of our planet. The Great Migration of the Peoples The Turkic people's settlement in the steppe was a significant event in human history. kibitkas. too.indeed. a change of habitat. The Turkis. Chinese relied on buffalos. It was a great improvement on the wagon or dray. a terrain man had never ventured into. without a doubt. A lighter vehicle. Wheeled transport. Three hundred years is a good deal of time. It is much. The first. Next were a hansom and brougham. just as bricks. It began in the Altai in the 2nd century AD. Which one exactly? Didn't I say the Turkis had plenty of horses? A horse will not carry much in addition to its rider. Great migration was certainly on a bigger scale with more far-reaching consequences . you will have much to take along. such as exodus to India. (Leaving aside a few small settlements. In rainy weather water trickles down the tiny hairs in droplets falling to the ground. of course. Iran and Central Asia. . predictably. Let's look inside a felt-top kibitka. if there was one. but they knew what they wanted. its complexity notwithstanding. Its importance is too large to be overestimated . Felt does not soak up water. a little town fortress bristling with defences against a surprise attack. so they now had warm small huts to weather the cold winters. it deserves to be studied in more detail. should the family be on the road. turning them into comfortable moving homes. if you will. The Turkis had their dear horses.imagine people beginning to develop the steppe. Fine felt hat-making is still a widespread industry in our days.it was too shallow and inconsequential. surmounted by a sumavar to boil water or cook meals. How then will it carry provisions or materials you will need to build and keep a house? Embarking on a long one-way journey. None but Turkis could process wool so fine. But really. With a carriage to take you wherever you want. The Kipchaks made only an unhurried and cautious advance. however. They added a closed cover to their open wagons. Felt is. Compare that number with the twenty to thirty kilometres people could make a day.vast for one man to cope with it single-handed. The Turkis made felt into a building material. Felting was made into beautiful rugs (arbabashes) for use inside wagons and for making warm boots. was introduced by the Turkis. At the time we are on.you could have two or three horses hitched to it to race you across the steppe. Iranians depended on donkeys. a trademark of the Turkic people. because necessity is the mother of invention. And a speedy improvement. With enough horses to go around. log cabins and felt were. so there must be a way to make things easier. passengers.) Scientists are yet to answer many questions. so they had to make most of what they had. you need good roads and staging posts to have a rest and change horses. so it was natural for a spate of important inventions to be made during this period to help cope with hardship and inspire confidence in their slow trek across barren steppes. This property of felt cloth led to the appearance of felt cloaks for the horsemen and their horses. For more convenience. And coaches. Coaches could deliver mail at an amazing speed of two or even three hundred kilometres a day. too. Hindus had their powerful elephants. which kept homes warm in winter and cool in summer. mail and. And so does the exodus of Scythian tribes to the steppe . carriage. A group of kibitkas were always arranged in a circle at nightfall. The Turkis. troikas (a Russian word. of course. Now you know who it was that thought up the wagon and carriage. came later. too . Sheep wool could be processed into fine cloth fit for making clothing and hats. A few generations were to grow up on each new tract of land won from nature before next ones were strong and populous enough to move on. The discovery and settlement of Europeans in America was probably next in importance to civilisation. they lined the kibitkas with felt inside. The steppe in the Land of Seven Rivers holds the honour of being the birthplace of coach service. they pale next to that GREAT migration. it is hard to answer .you won't go far or carry much in the steppe. where it ended on the western fringes of the continent three hundred years later. to carry parcels. were not new to mass-scale relocations. The Turkis were then the speediest race on Earth. We do not know the name of the inventor. Arabs transported their heavy loads on camels. There was a felt arbabash on the floor. so simply and so fast.
Actually. A tent-like brick structure was put up on the top of a mound as a token of the ancient mountaintop boulder monument. Quite unexpectedly. New generations came and went far from the mountains. of which they knew by hearsay only. The soul being immortal. the settlers continued to bury their dead as their forefathers had done back in the Altai.burial frame (or mortuary house). . typically on top of a mountain. each mound was a feat of ancient engineering that can tell a lot about the ancients' technical skills. a heap of dry firewood smeared with animal fat was lighted up nearby. So now. There must be a profound philosophical sense in this burial ritual. For some time after moving into the steppe. Nearby the Kipchaks honoured the dead and prayed to Tenrgri. Was it all because the Kipchaks wanted their mounds to remind them of the sacred Mount Kailasa? Or was there another. more practical reason? If our guess is right. which are used extensively today by almost all European cultures. they reasoned. It was perhaps this nostalgia that led the more recent Turkic generations to build kurgans (or mounds). A platform. and mounds were piled up over them and capped with monuments similar to the ancient send-off stones for vultures to feast on. The mounds marked their borders for neighbours to think twice before crossing into mound-dotted terrain. where you could only pray. ancient Altaians actually interred their dead in the ground. nothing was left on the send-off rock but a few reddish black spots and bones. Then. The dead could only be buried in the ground. A hollow hole was then dug in the ground and a log frame was half-buried inside.Sumavar is the simplest and most practicable thing man has ever thought up. An underground passage led into the burial room from beyond the mound for priests to come to perform services. however. however. it flitted into another human being or animal. As a result. but not quite the same. They built mounds where khans or famous generals were buried. A rough log room containing a dead body was enclosed within a mound. but were built according to a plan. like huge milestones. To give them that role. Accordingly. mountain dwellers followed a different burial rite. the Kipchaks built them along roads. whenever we see a mound we take it for a sign of Turkic presence. it is of pure Turkic stock. job. The tradition caught on quickly. a slaughtered horse and killed slaves were placed next to the corpse. where the Kipchaks kept the remains of their saints and near. mounds served as reference points a wanderer could see from a far distance. daily necessities. they developed a new approach fit for the steppe. Now it is called a Russian samovar. since the times of the Great Migration of the Peoples. Turkic lands looked now completely different. to be always a reminder of their Altaic roots. at one time or another. A dead body wrapped in white cloth was taken to a sacred site. a kind of "house" for the dead. The steppe was different in nature. Ancient Altaic tribes did not inter their dead in the ground . Burial frames were forerunners of coffins. Archaeologists digging up one mound after another made a striking discovery. The Turkis sincerely believed that death was the beginning of new life. underground passages were only made under mounds built over the graves of dignitaries or saints. With mounds all around. The dead body. they held. Boundary markers was not the only role mounds played. on a high flat rock. Soon. was a sacrifice for the sake of new life. was levelled in front of the mound entrance. and the mountains lived on in people's hearts and dreams. in the way sacred mountains had been centuries before. but were not allowed to talk. tools. not inside. On certain occasions. mounds acquired a new function by the 3rd century. which they prayed. Those were none other than churches. when the mound became an open-air temple. Strangely. The ancient Altaic traditions survived. they adored the mountains just as their distant ancestors did. Those steppe hillocks were not piled up haphazardly. haram ("forbidden"). though. we clearly see why churches appeared in the steppes by the 4th century. Prayer ground and brick monument on mound top…. if not impossible. The steppe gave the Turkic nation many benefits and taught it lots of useful things. Mortuary houses were built for the nobility. It is not that the old was thrown away to give way to the new.digging a grave in rocky ground or permafrost was a hard. That was the way it was in the Altai. weapons. tiny replicas of those majestic ranges. and from that time on steppe cemeteries were sites along "milestoned" high roads. The rising column of smoke attracted vultures from around the place for that celebration of the dead. The place was sacred. Gradually. as also the troika (no Turkic equivalent for the word is known). Actually. In the steppes the Kipchaks seemed to be doing the same. as we call them now. or kilisas (from Mount Kailasa). According to archaeologists. and food provisions. Archaeologists have a name for these tombs . The ancestors' traditions were strictly observed.
to tell one builder from another. Thousands of buildings were put up from these bricks from end to end of the steppe. Archaeologists have found traces of ancient buildings in the Volga (Idel) drainage area. After a while. Symbols and legend were given on them in clear lines so they could be easily recognized at a distance . A really practical choice. How else could they get their buildings so nice and neat? And they certainly made some calculations to see how many bricks they might need and where to place them. for example. Who could think the ordinary steppe mounds.The tent style that followed the outlines of the sacred mountain has entrenched in church architecture since the early kilisas. The Sun Deer was yet another sign of Tengri. and stopped at the water edge spellbound by a spectacle they had not seen for long. so a brick could nicely fit into a mason's palm. Despite their different shape. Deer Stones provided travellers with information they might need on the road. This was. No. They are not there for the taking. Khan Aktash The galloping horsemen were clearly surprised when they saw a wide river suddenly coming into view. in Kazakhstan and Daghestan. the first encounter between East and West. to which straw was added for strength. who was the first eastern ruler to see the West at close range. Roadside stones. After they had their bricks made to measure.on top of mounds or over the graves of their dead celebrities. the river raced across the North Caucasus steppes. An ordinary brick of furnace-baked clay can tell a lot to an inquiring archaeologist. or could be. the Turkis and Europeans. The Idel's old watercourse has survived. They named it the Idel (the Volga of today. for they all had been built from mud blocks.a sort of modern . Russians continued to call it the Itil in the 10th and 11th centuries). The Idel emptied into the Caspian Sea about three hundred kilometres south of the point where the Volga does today. The Turkis made a step of enormous magnitude towards reconciliation between East and West. They pitched a camp routinely and sent out scouts in all directions. swerving towards the sea a short distance from the Caucasus Range. Some bricks bore a tamgha. with some kind of plan or design before their eyes.26-27 centimetres long and 5-6 centimetres thick. on the Don. Some other signs of the Great Migration of the Turkic people have been preserved almost intact. Half-length made width. in the Ural and Altai mountains. looking very much like big heaps of earth. That was enough for the archaeologists to identify their Turkic style of steppe architecture. Ancient cities. Only the true brickwork foundations have come through. or the mason's seal.26 to 27 centimetres. they fitted into the same measure . They were led across those boundaries by Khan Aktash. but time left nothing in the way of ancient living sites. the builders could proceed. Little wonder. they seem to have spilled over the place and dissolved in mud. The new state they established on new lands was a kind of bridge linking the separated parts of the ancient world in one Eurasia.71 metre) and sazhen (equivalent to 2. the returning scouts reported seeing local people speaking an unknown language. In a broad sweeping meander. It added yet another distinctive touch to Turkic spiritual culture. as some scholars would have it. Five generations came and went before the Kipchaks closed in on the Caucasus and the borders of the Roman Empire. predating the Turkic cross by a long period of time. The houses were warm in winter. but did not last long. Square bricks were also used occasionally.13 metres) .arshin (equivalent to 0. Those were actually used in Russia for centuries after. For lack of any other name archaeologists have dubbed them "deer stones". it was an advance and dissemination of the Great Altaic culture across much of Eurasia.going back to the Altai. Clay was washed out of the building blocks by rain and damaged by frost. The river was really great. some of them . there is enough field-work to be done there. It was certainly an outstanding historical event of itself. We do not know now who lived on its banks first reached by the Turkic cavalry. From that time on the Kipchaks were building their churches on high ground . We learned about the Turkis' measures of length from brick dimensions. between Lake Baikal and Western Europe. All of the Turkis' bricks had standard dimensions . The builders actually used several measures of length. with a deer figure cut on each of them. Even though much has been destroyed. for example. of course. We cannot tell with certainty who those Europeans were. in Ukraine and in Central Europe. But the main measure was the brick itself. Rather. contained so much useful information? The Great Migration of the Peoples was not a relocation of hungry and ragged hordes.
Development of new lands could only end in the emergence of new states. rather than "steppe" in ancient Turkic. Some researchers are striking out in this direction exactly.Desht-iKipchak. and is totally out of tune with Turkic tradition. you start from the Turkic tash (or dash). Too indefinite. you get tashta (or dashta). Steppe dwellers have no word more genial than isitep now. so no stranger unfamiliar with the old Turkic tradition of helping travellers could read them. It is commonly translated today as the Steppe of Kipchaks (that is. Others are probing into an Iranian equivalent (at least one is thoroughly explored). Poetry had been in the Turkis' blood. and nothing to go to the left for. some people will see it as more precise. Our doubts are reinforced by the fact that it was "foreign land". Tatars say he was one of them. but an inscription on a Deer Stone. bears the famous khan's name. It was an outcrop of the Great Migration. a Tatar. the dearest of all. and the ruins of an old city built . If. Desht-i-Kipchak has a profound meaning. they have lost the sense of their common identity to an extent that they argue over priorities. villages. Centuries later. The Turkis composed poems and tales about their great trek westward. beginning in the 3rd century. for a khanate whose subjects were a united and determined nation. left. Bashkirs insist that Khan Aktash was kin to them. Really. named in honour of Uch-Sumer. And I have strong reasons for that. north. Now we have everything in its place. This translation explains very little. Some of their folklore has survived. Was he a Bashkir. Whatever the case. straight on. Idel Khan Aktash built cities. Turkis who settled in the steppe). It has changed immensely since it was first told. on that great river. a place of residence.a new home where they were comfortable and happy. wherever they happened to be in the steppe. homesteads and outposts in the steppe on both banks of the Idel. such as the ancient Tale of Aktash.in popular tradition . a sort of generic name. like Sumeru (modern Samara). for example. "rock" or "highland". were cut on large boulders or rocks. Khan Aktash established a state that had a name already ." No. back were otherwise read as south. which appears out of place here. This is our land. as they are divided today. Some of them are still very much alive today. he was a Turkic hero. north or south. The Kipchaks could now say with every reason: "The Altai is our cradle and the Steppe is our Homeland. Right.by Khan Aktash are those of his capital city. With a firm grip on the Idel. the Altai's sacred mountain. . which is "stone". from the Altaic times. "Turn right to come to a palace. each with its own name. which was Turkic for "shelter" or "protection". I believe. North Caucasus. No matter what claims Tatars. respectively. if you wish. but its core remains the same. Cities were established. Long messages. and continued to live on in the steppe.road map or sign. the idea was exactly that. boundaries and ruler. it was not folklore. Bashkirs or Kumyks may have on his glory.) "Desht-i-Kipchak" were the only appropriate words the Turkis migrating to the steppe to make it their new home could say . with a common khan and one country. Equipped with stone road map instructions. Not unlikely. Could then the steppe settlers call their new-found home something like "Kipchaks' abroad"? Hardly ever. the ancient Turkic word isitep will never make way for any other in a steppe dweller's heart. Bashkirs and Tatars were then all Kipchaks. (Turkic syntax apart. and Kumyks are certain he was a flesh and blood Kumyk. Inscriptions were made in Turkic runes. for a nation that had gone through endless hardship leaving a deep imprint on the Urals and Caucasus. however. even verses. The puzzle is resolved if we take a closer look at the short "i" squeezed into insignificance by its two much bigger neighbours. A large Turkic khanate ruled by Khan Aktash arose in the 3rd century. a Kumyk or what? All at once. It is what is actually left of the old isitep (sounds very much like "steppe"). a single nation with nothing to divide them. The Turkic white horse galloped up and down the Idel. a traveller could know where he was going and act accordingly. A river in Daghestan. He was a very vigorous and enterprising ruler. We have very strong doubts about Desht or Dasht. east and west. The modern Kumyks. which leads us to "foreign land sheltering the Kipchaks". fine and clear. at will." The phrase "Desht-i-Kipchak" may certainly be interpreted differently.
A foothold on the Idel had been won at a cost of occasional bloodshed and lives lost. In the meanwhile. Khan Aktash fought his way to the Caucasus. who have remained loyal to the ancient Turkic faith. too.a hill. in fact the first Turkic city in the North Caucasus. Desht-i-Kipchak resumed its customary peacetime chores . Their inhabitants were the descendants of Turkic families that had left the Altai in protest against Tengri's faith. Bulgar. held in deep respect by the Kumyks for its venerable age. Endirei. the Turkis had heard about Europe and the Roman Empire. Not surprisingly. Europe was showing ever more hostility.they recognized Tengri. raising an impassible barrier across the road to Iran and the Roman Empire. The city was famous for its sacred tree. Khan Aktash was short of soldiers to hold on to the areas he had overrun. such as Chelyaba (modern Chelyabinsk). without a hope of ever resuming its advance. he laid one more city. Advance across the steppes ground to a halt here. It was a new land and a new culture for these eastern steppe dwellers. and where the Turkic cavalry did reach the river. Permyaks and other peoples in the modern Volga area and the Urals. Taghil. One of them was Hamrin. On reaching a major mountain stream. The Kipchaks did not. and a fortress they could not take in front. Oka and Aghidel. Khan Aktash returned to the Idel humiliated. Simbir (modern Simbirsk). judging by its Turkic name. and the Turkis had to give more thought to their exposed flanks. Komi. Khan Aktash's forces marched past Scythian settlements. "yellow mountain" (modern Saratov) was built on a sand hill. Well into the second half of the 3rd century on the planet. a sea at left. ran into stiff resistance from the Alans. They had ridden against a blind wall. people feasted. the . but only briefly. with one notable exception . which offered natural defences far better than the best of fortresses. Unless they acted promptly. and in the Ural region. The land of the Chuvash is a veritable museum and a treasure-store of the Turkic world. for example. And. which was famous in the early Middle Ages already. they would have been forced back across the Idel. raised children and mourned the death of their relations and friends. Another surviving city. The Turkic cavalry. They could have a respite in the mountains. encroach on other tribes' land rights. In short. the future capital city of the Khazar Khanate. Actually. The wall gave safety to the city. they were closely related. because it was totally unknown to them. calm descended on the Turkic world. or a "lone grave". got married. especially the Caucasus. smelting iron and raising crops and cattle. Not the wall exactly. putting a seal of title on the Idel as a Turkic river. And income. Seminder. A high stone wall ran down from the city towards the seashore. a very strong and warlike tribe that had Roman legionaries back down when they attempted an incursion into the Alans' lands. all coming from their common Altaic roots. however.building new towns. Derbent was a dependable outpost of the Western world and an impregnable fortress perched on a mountaintop. with nowhere to go. their life had regained its leisurely pace.in cash or goods. but rather its gate that was only opened to merchant caravans for a toll . Mari. the gate was closed to the Turkic horsemen. They are modern Chuvash. and Europe as a whole. The Caucasus The land beyond the Derbent gate beckoned the Kipchaks.with rocky cliffs at right. vegetation or whatever: they never threw words around without a purpose. that is. and were good neighbours to the Udmurts. next to the Aktash River. but had never seen them.The place must have reminded the nostalgic Turkis about that distant sanctuary . Indeed the high wall was so thick that a cart could be driven along its top.the Kama. Next. Mordvins. The Alans effectively blocked the Turkis' advance towards the Don. and occasional remnants of brick walls and earthen ramparts. patiently waiting to be sorted out. arose next to the burial place of a holy man. It was not all smooth going. all of them bearing Turkic names. of course. Of course. From this long-lost city the Great Migration spearheaded southward. More cities were built on the Idel's tributaries . Facing the ruins across the river is a Kumyk village. a city inhabited by Turkic and other races. they were not even permitted to bathe their horses or restock their water supplies. Kurgan (translated as "mound") and many more. As before. Sarytau. Now. A cosmopolitan city. literally . they entrusted their fate to the Heaven. Turkic settlements were established and new cities built in the part of the Caucasus under their control. however. The Turkic cavalry was stopped at the walls of Derbent. whom they call Ego Tura. Khan Aktash built a city. A few mounds are all that remains of it now. Descending downstream.
This tree of life is as eternal as God himself. The Caucasus had certainly played a major role in world politics. the Kipchaks had their eyes set on Europe and the Middle East. accordingly. in the 3rd century. in the shade of the world tree. and the sacred Tengri Khan tree still grows on its fringe as a reminder of the place's glorious past. the Creator. begins to see the essence of the world and to comprehend the way it works. Eventually. Good intentions. In the distant 3rd century. The tree of their future memories? Great events were brewing in the world back then. with the Turkis standing by. by learning it. the town of Gyanja. No one was more happy about the arrival of the Kipchaks than Armenians who were fighting a losing war with Iran across the Caucasus Range. are sent by Heavens and they will not go unfulfilled. The tree trunk extends through the mid-world inhabited by humans and animals. It was certainly not a sacred tree of a kind typically adulated by pagans. The war ended there and then. No point is made of this significant episode. with the Turkis at its cradle." says an old wisdom. the Kipchaks sought counsel from Tengri? Surrounded as they were by enemies? Churches were shortly built in Hamrin. the Middle Ages. Armenian ruler Hosrow I seemed to pick the right ally. the Kipchaks were destined to become the main player and the moving force of the events. claiming the right to stay forever there. A new Europe was born. The Kumyks living here and beyond do not remember or know much about the tree. No. it was perhaps the only place in the Western world where iron was made and used on a significant scale. however. Today it is the site of a village called Kayakent. it showed the strength of cavalry. they sent ambassadors to Hamrin. They were the first nation in Europe to recognize the Kipchaks for what they were worth and applied every effort to get Derbent open its gate to the Kipchak cavalry. The allies each achieved their aims . because of its scarcity it was prized more than gold. the village of Kypchak. It shot deep roots in the new land and was firmly integrated into the culture of the Caucasus and Europe as a whole. Look at Gusary. the tree remained the city's main sanctuary. The Turkis' arrival in the Caucasus was an unprecedented event in world history. the fortress gate opened by itself. According to legend. this is an occasion when Tengri was to be addressed as Hodai. the tree of life is a channel for spirits and thoughts to flow from one world to the other. A modern name. The world tree has branches reaching up to the sky and belonging to God and birds. no part left for them at first. Also. the Turkis kept alive a legend of a world tree embodying everything created by Great Tengri. you won't believe it. a new type of army of horsemen that was a force everybody was to reckon with. Or another. They needed a strong ally and. we are certainly in for many more. the Turkic world spilled over into the Caucasus.Tengri Khan tree.) The world tree concept is a full-scale science that gives ultimate knowledge to a man who. Whatever went on around. Could it be that Hamrin was a city of wise men and philosophers? Was it possible that here. The Caucasus tensely waited for the political battle lines suddenly to spring into action and set global events in motion to change history and the world itself. A good illustration of this is provided by what followed next in the history of the Caucasus and Europe as a whole. Above all. followed many decades later by mosques. And. into the Serpent's kingdom. One is. and so. After many amazing discoveries. but they have a very deep respect for that tree growing in Kayakent. They began on the other side of the Derbent wall. without an effort on the Kipchaks' part. "What Tengri says will be.Armenia wrested itself out of Iranian control and the Kipchaks became masters of Derbent and the entire western Caspian seaboard. The roots of the tree go deep down into the underworld. Modern Azerbaijan has many signs refreshing memories of those times. for example.from their new vantage ground. it was in the Carpathian . (True. however. it probably derives from the Turkic prophet Gheser. It has a regular urban plan. and indicated the future routes and horizons of the Great Migration of the Peoples . It was a nexus of conflicting interests of Iran and the Roman Empire. iron was not smelted here because of its very poor quality. which was mentioned in almost every history of the Caucasus at the time. a boundary between two worlds. This Europe had sort of passed from infancy to adolescence. and you cannot see as you will never be able to see God. or nearly so. they say. The world tree gives humans the knowledge they need. (Incidentally. Memories of the Great Migration of the Peoples can even be found in little-known towns and villages lost in the countryside. standing as it does at the watershed between East and West. Europeans call this science philosophy. The Kipchaks delivered a smashing defeat on the enemy whose troops fled in terror. In fact. by historians. where bloodshed had been going on for centuries. The Turkis' arrival in Europe drew a line under antiquity and opened a new page.
There were no visionaries among the Kipchaks. In 297. You can read this prophesy in the Apocalypse. however. The cross radiated bright light. one of Christians' most revered books. realised this.) Its poor quality regardless. did not know. Jews prayed to idols (teraphim) and pagan gods (elohim). Romans were unfamiliar with iron smelting practices. what was happening in Europe at the time. the Roman Empire would have never emerged from the Bronze Age. A miracle predicted by St. relating the prophetic words to what was happening around them. however. leaving the field to others to reap the harvest. They did remember well. Now wait. they returned to develop their side of the Caspian coast. Was it a sign of God? "The Turkis must be helped by their God of Heaven. Everything was turning out exactly as the man called Christ had said. The abandoned Transcaucasian field did not have to wait long for the reaper. Left without Caucasian iron. At the time. Gregory addressed his followers. The world politics that had been kept in balance here for centuries collapsed overnight. Glad to have helped their Armenian allies. hardly any European had as much as heard about the God of Heaven. The revolt in Armenia was duly crushed and its Christian leaders were thrown into jail. the Armenians were asking to be taught how to win. never to be born again. rising to the sky. Christian Bishop Gregoris was the first European to come to the Turkis to learn about the faith in Tengri so he could then teach it to his people. They spread Jesus Christ's prophetic words of horsemen who would liberate the world from Rome's rule. When the Turkis finished off the Iranian army in Transcaucasia. Bide your time and wait. At the time. had a vision of a fiery column. The success was utterly unexpected." the Armenians decided. They (both pagans and Christians) wanted to adopt faith in the God of Heaven who had made the Turkis invincible. News of it was carried far and wide by Christians.Mountains. the bottom fell suddenly out of the existing set-up. He was alone to sense a coming storm in that easy victory over the Persians. In fact. The Armenian's name was Gregoris. His Iranian campaign was quick and splendidly victorious. seizing the richest provinces from it. Victory was won much too easily. the Armenians held little faith in the salvational power of the cross . he wanted to follow the example of Gheser and Khan Erke. He was the Roman emperor Diocletian. and the Romans worshipped Jupiter. too. however. after he had seen the shining cross of Tengri in the sky. They were completely unaware of much of what was happening in Europe. Iran. With the whole of Europe lying at his feet. Gregory the Illuminator. Rome was enthusiastic. a crafty fox and leading politician of his age. he felt he could bid for the world at large. exactly like a lightning. so they used bronze to make armour for their legionaries. or even guess. There was talk of a new Golden Age dawning on the empire. Gregory. Doesn't the Holy Book tell us. This time. relied on Caucasian iron to meet its needs. of course. A Christian soothsayer. he was a grandson of St. Diocletian had all of Transcaucasia under his rule. with a cross on top of it. They withdrew back to their steppes from across the Caucasus Range without trying to benefit from their victory . Gregory. Very few people. Heathen polytheism . making Diocletian suspicious. and then fell upon the weakened Iran." St. "What Tengri says will be"? The Turkis and Christianity Why did the young Bishop Gregoris come to see the khan and what did he ask for? No. "The prophesy has been fulfilled. until a young Armenian priest who came to them told them all. The revolt in Armenia that soon followed gave him a foretaste of the catastrophe looming for the empire over the horizon. save for the most astute. was the message.they up and left. There was a complete match.Saint Gregory saw a similar cross in the sky. Gregoris made a low bow and asked. and he was only sixteen years old.they were still pagans. this time in Europe. That could change little. even for the emperor himself. however. It was looked to with hope. The Armenians gave the impression of being under a spell. it was a perennial bone of contention between competing powers. where Celts used very similar techniques. People would read every line time and again. Weren't those words why Armenians called the Saint Gregory the Illuminator? Victory was round the corner. The Turkis. for a meeting with the Kipchak king. in broken Turkic. waiting for a very important even to happen. Rumour about the Turkis' all-powerful God swept across Europe like wild fire. it was not military assistance. Deceptively easily. the cross-spangled banners the Kipchaks had fought under and were struck by coincidence .
put forward any hypotheses and make any guesses. Gheser is extolled in a prayer. Christians above all. The Kipchaks were on everybody's lips . just as iron was superior to bronze. in particular. Turkic priests took the spiritually pure Gregoris to Hamrin where he was initiated into the mystery of the World Tree.really an asset it lacked conspicuously. Tibetans. The Armenian bishop was. like a foot soldier does at a horseman. The Kipchaks' arrival at the boundaries of the Roman Empire and their brilliant victory over Iran impressed all. Gregoris was baptised in a lake. (The baptismal bath made a child tiurk. aryg. accepting Christ for the Son of the God of Heaven. These were the reasons that brought the teenage bishop to Derbent. They were awaiting the arrival of the horsemen on a mission from the God of Heaven. Today. This is an indisputable fact that is not covered up by Christian historians themselves. and did whatever they could to distance themselves from Rome on its deathbed. The Turkis used this gesture to ask the God of Heaven for protection and patronage. and they adopted this practice from the Kipchaks. denying them all and calling themselves atheists. initiation into the faith or. "We gave you Gheser. being unaware of the force of the cross. or basins to have Christians baptised. And they really were . Gheser. He was baptised there (ary-sili or ary-alkyn in Turkic) by immersion in water blessed by a priest holding a silver cross over it three times. who adhere to traditions of faith in Tengri. full of spiritual symbolism. The Kipchaks were to win inevitably. Gregoris told his hosts of Christ. (Bishop Gregoris was thus the first Christian who made the sign of the cross. whom he worshipped. which the Chinese translated as "strong" or "robust". still perform ary-alkyn and ary-sili rites. The use of water for baptism goes back to the Ancient Altai. Like prehistoric men with nothing else but wooden clubs. The Roman Empire was doomed. so say your prayers to God…. in particular. meant "pure" in spirit. The Armenians would not send Bishop Gregoris for nothing. You can say whatever and however you like about the collapse of the Roman Empire. It is completely wrong.they were too outlandish to go unnoticed.) Early Christians did not cross themselves. Roman troops had no arms to resist the Kipchaks. the first European to be admitted to the faith in Tengri. because they knew of other sons of Tengri. Heathen Europe looked at them bottom-up. Their iron armour and weapons made them look out of a different world in the Europeans' eyes. Tengri's covenants. In other words. raised again to the left shoulder and then the right shoulder. The horsemen did come. been incorporated in the Koran.from the bright world under the high sky of Tengri. introduction of baptism is ascribed to Christians or to some other creed. the two joined fingers signified allegiance to Heaven. And then. Early Christians could not use baptism for the simple reason that Europe first learned about the ritual with the arrival of Kipchaks. He was shown the Turkis' sacred texts. which is very brief and emotional. A simple example will emphasise the importance of iron. following an admission ceremony. in other words. In stark contrast to them Christians revered no gods. In fact. as far as can be judged by fragments. As added evidence. Baptisteries. the Turkic people's Prophet. They were probably the only Europeans who made the correct guess about the course of future events." This is phrase from Tengri's Testament. to express their relation to alliance with the West. a godly sign of reconciliation. fully at the mercy of the Kipchaks. in God who gave the Turkic people plenty of iron and an ability to make the most of it. A well-landed blow with an iron sword could cut a bronze one in two. That was the Turkis' own way. . lowered to the chest. It was applied to a person that had gone through a cleansing ceremony. All discussion would be a waste of time unless you consider this simple fact. therefore. Europe lost to the Turkis on all counts. if and when they cared to finish it off. Baptism originated in the Ancient Altai where newborn babies were dipped in ice-cold water before they entered into the realm of the Eternal Blue Sky. They were then lifted to the forehead. into the Turkic world. near the village of Kayakent. Aji or Lake Cross. Turkic Tengri stood for iron and Rome's Jupiter symbolised bronze.and dark barbarism were rampant across all of Europe. In Oriental symbolism. even if not dead yet. he was allowed to join together the thumb and fourth finger of his right hand. about Europe and persecution of Christians. Baptism with water is a key rite of the Tengri worship.) Another ancient Turkic word. which have. the principal of which was faith in God . The Turkis believed him. were first built in the 4th century. among people who cared for their bodily and spiritual purity.
"What Tengri says will be. New Christianity (patterned on the Turkic faith) promised them complete freedom from Roman rule. the inscriptions on the walls of old churches spoke up when the tamghas' owners were identified." It ends with the donor's tamgha. frightened by executions and banishment. Tengri's cross and Turkic spiritual culture were acclaimed and accepted everywhere. Researchers scratched their heads for a long time. or peculiar seals. Iveria and other countries allied with the Kipchaks. but took fright at the last minute. it is small and has brick walls. "Accept this gift for the monastic brotherhood. It was patterned on Turkic temples. the various peoples comprising the Roman Empire talked without fear about the helplessness of the old gods. it makes up Sura 108 of the Koran. Emperor Diocletian unleashed his notorious persecutions of new Christians. however. and trained preachers. (Incidentally. It was a signal beginning. Indeed. The school provided training to early Christian priests. people came here." In the end. The Armenian church accepted Tengri and adopted His cross. Turkis helped him to set up a Christian church in Derbent. It was unearthed by archaeologists by accident. The Cross on Europe's Temples Armenia and Albania (Caucasus). for example. Syria and Egypt were all looking forward to the arrival of the Kipchaks: the Great Migration of the Peoples continued over their territories. Every one of Turkic tribes (or tuhums) had one. The church building has survived to our days under layers of soil. even though the meaning of Gheser (Kawsar or Kewser) is not clear to all. followed by Iveria (modern Georgia). He was defeated without ever engaging the Turkis on the battlefield. he realised that he had lost to the Turkis. As they dug deeper. In desperation he abdicated and left the imperial palace. taught them to perform rites and conduct divine services. Besides. (Many years later. the Roman Empire gave way. Armenians borrowed the principles of divine service from the Turkis. An inscription in ancient Turkic in an Armenian church says. In response. The world's first Christian church was built in Derbent. (Previously. Now. the Caucasus remained for long Europe's proselytizing centre. God saved it from destruction after so many centuries. Again. Similar churches were soon built in Armenia. to learn knowledge and experience. On his departure exactly. No Christian was. At first.) The East still remembers these words. after a new country in the Caucasus. A wise politician. the greatest of earthly sins. Gregoris spent a long time learning the mysteries of divine service.) After centuries of silence. without war or catastrophe. The temple in Derbent exactly fulfilled this requirement. Rome saw light as well. initiated them in the mystery of faith. it was renamed Albanian Church. they realised they had uncovered an ancient temple buried in the ground intact. Gheser being probably one of its cities. that early theological school for the West. The seeds of Turkic culture sprouted into plentiful shoots on the barren soil of heathen Rome. as they were digging in the fortress under another project.(Today. however. Christians had no rite of their own and followed Judaic practices in synagogues. No one expected to find it there.) Armenians also were the first defectors from the old practices. They openly rejected Jupiter. They were tamghas. . Hundreds of people flocked to the new spiritual spring source from former Roman colonies. from foundation to dome. Their Turkic origins are suggested by signs their builders cut in the church walls. The new faith acquired growing numbers of followers instead. crushed Mercury's statues and smashed idols. Albania. which could not be entered by the parishioners. the tamgha laid the beginnings for European heraldry. Or rather it was the Great Migration of the Cultures. they mistook it for an old granary. It ceased to be so self-assured and believe in itself. The Kipchaks instituted a Patriarchal See for the benefit of people in those countries in Derbent. And more. causing ire and indignation in Rome. How else could Europeans learn about the God of Heaven? From that time on. an imaginative science studying symbols and genealogies. no one can defy the omnipotence of the God of Heaven. Turkis built their temples to resemble equal-armed crosses from a bird's-eye view. Emperor Diocletian wanted to convert to new Christianity. as they did to the Altai and the Kushan Khanate centuries before. At one time.) Armenia was the first country in Europe to have a new Christian church in 301. widespread among the Kipchaks. "What these unintelligible signs could mean?" The answer was very simple.
All he did was look up to the sky and say quietly: Tengri salg'an namusdan k'achmas ("What Tengri says will be"). head of the Armenian Church. 326. has been retained to our day. The words "Light comes from the East" have since acquired a more than simple physical meaning. A short phrase. When they did. Unfortunately. they succeeded in many of their designs. Its encounters with the Turkic world were infrequent and sporadic. St.This gift was given. change of name marked the end of an old life and beginning of a new life. From that very moment Bishop Gregoris was given a Turkic name. Armenia's authority was growing tremendously in those years. which was their favourite tool. they accused the young bishop of the fall. The Romans took advantage of public ignorance to brand the Kipchaks as villains and vicious and savage barbarians so as to scare off people and prolong their domination. giving him the title of katylic. among other donations. The tragic day of trial came. because. bears a mason's engraving of a horseman wearing a priest's clothing. As on numberless occasions before.the horse was galloping along the seashore and was very far to attempt to stop it. (A note must be made here that the Turkis attached tremendous importance to name changing and reincarnation of the soul since a very distant past. it speaks much about the peoples' destinies.the Tengri Cross was raised on that day over Europe's first few churches. Rome's rulers were afraid of hearing the truth about the Kipchaks and feared their arrival in Europe. The Turkis put him to a painful death. Gregoris had nothing to say in his defense. He sat on his horse in a Turkic fashion. in particular. Christian communities in Syria. The execution was promptly pronounced a martyred death and prayers were said to Tengri to make the soul of the hero and innocent victim the Kipchaks' patron. conducted service in the name of the God of Heaven and he knew the Kipchaks firsthand. A stone block in another church. The awe-struck judges did not immediately grasp the meaning of his last phrase. Europe knew very little about the East. The Holy Cross feast has always been a joyous occasion for celebrations in Armenia. Another puzzle to be unravelled? No. was a day for celebrations in Armenia . And right were the Armenians calling St. Bishop Gregoris was the only European to know the truth about the Turkic people and its culture. Armenia provided a conduit for European and Mediterranean culture to absorb the secular and spiritual treasures of the Turkic world. The Turkis conferred a high. He uttered no words for he had nothing to be sorry of. for it was a turning point in its history. This title. never to leave the Turkic world. the first true pastor of the Christian world. straight up. It was an ancient Altaic tradition to seek protection from a fallen hero. indeed very high. The Turkis accepted him into their community and said many prayers for Jargan's soul to be reincarnated in a newborn Turkic boy. on top of the highest . He lived in Derbent. Not without Iranian help. November 10. That was easy enough for them to do for Gregoris was a scion of a noble Iranian family.) Jargan was buried with high honours befitting a Turkic national hero. From that day on the Armenian people have been loyal to their newly acquired faith and the liberation mission of their cross. That went against the plans of the God of Heaven's haters lying in wait in Rome. they resorted to defamation. Gregory departed from Derbent riding a royal chariot under a cavalry convoy . by the Turkis to the Armenian people about seventeen hundred years ago to celebrate the Armenians' admission to the new faith.he was carrying with him an equal-armed cross. All facts were against him. which is "ally" or "initiated" in Turkic. modified to Catholicos over centuries (with the Greek ending "-os" added on later). near the chapel dedicated to Vachagan III the Blessed.he actually showed the road to the Turkis to his grandson and his people. Gregoris did not plead for mercy before death. Gregory the Illuminator. if we know that priests never used stirrups riding in the steppe. a man as recklessly desperate as the Kipchaks themselves. They tied the young man to the tail of a wild horse and the judges pronounced the sentence. He was like a Prophet whose dedicated service was reminiscent of Gheser's deeds. Simply. In spirit he became one of Turkis. it was too late . honour upon the head of the Armenian Church. Jargan ("recklessly desperate"). a Saint . as he had not at trial. Egypt and the Byzantine Empire kneeled before this God's servant. from the Turkic world. Really. Europeans called Gregoris an Evangelist. in Derbent's central square. Light comes from the East. a sacred symbol and sign of a new Europe. his legs down without stirrups. the stirrups being a prerogative of warriors. they were not allowed to use them.
attire and weapons were all invested with meaning.a water spring struck next to the grave. since no one knows when. But because of it very little truth is known about Desht-i-Kipchak and its people. that took to frequenting an Oriental city. The Turkic legend of Jargan was rejected in Rome. too. because of political. remained what they are . and ever-present mystery or rather a secret meaning to be gleaned between the lines. for that word was "God". That was not done by some frightened monk in an out-of-the-way monastery. It was more than folk legend that was changed. The Turkis.is a fairly frequent case as well. and about the fact that the Turkis stood at the sources of Christian culture that came into its own following the disintegration of the Roman Empire. however. In the end. Jri and dozens more. he has always remained a youthful guard of the life source.several persons combined in legends into one. and were he to forget a hero's name or any detail of the narration.guards and their families now lived there.elaborate phrases. A small chapel was put up on his grave. Rather. and quite understandably so. when politicians forced culture to serve their purposes. Name changes regardless. They never change because they are held . The warrior was given different names . for mystery lurks behind each line. of course. too. but by saying a prayer. Tatars and other Turkic nations do remember a story of an enormous Serpent. Keder or Kederles. The secrets of the holy place were closely guarded from generation to generation. The Turkic saint was first made over into a martyr and then a killer . apart from anything else. with a future as well as past. the truth that Rome fell under the blows of Turkic cavalry. as some details were added or told differently. The guards tended the spring and people continued to come here to pay their respects. All people saw that his word proved stronger than his sword. or Jirjis. These differences are nothing to be surprised at. a nation remembers the high points of its past. They took fright that its text could reveal the secret closely guarded by the Western church. Turkic legends are exactly like that .and posterity. The history of the Turkic people was maliciously altered. Pilgrims started coming to the grave from places far and near. Khan Aktash is one. is the ancestor of the Turkic race. He won over the Serpent. which. again to please politics . about the God of Heaven who had come to Europe from the Turkis. minutely detailed descriptions of subjects. Europeans had many different names for the warrior . Legends. This is the image in which St. a store of popular memories. every piece of folklore had a profound meaning for the contemporaries . Egory. George. he had no right to tell a legend. Roman bishops could not do otherwise. folk poems or folklore passed by word of mouth from generation to generation. The Turkis and the Byzantine Empire Different nations cherish memories of their history in different ways. A small village soon grew up nearby . and poems were not made to kill time. Ajdarkha.he was sat on a horse and sent to kill the Serpent. That legend evolved over centuries.facts. a warrior volunteered to deliver her. An insidious policy it was.Khyzr or Khyzr-Yilyas. fairy-tales. The ruler's daughter was no exception. Kumyks. seizing or extorting one thing or another.mountain there was at Derbent. they take the form of legends or tales. George (Jargan or Gregoris) is known today. with nothing else to do. In fact. The old legend has changed beyond recognition. and a church was built on the execution site.St. Georg. not with weapons. The legend has been known in Europe as well. Here we suddenly discover that culture is. When her turn came. His name. The Turkis treasured each and every one of their heroes like we do a precious gem. One person was different things for different peoples. Every effort was made to conceal the truth about the feat. Juri. Reading the information contained in legends is a task within reach of modern science. he captured the water spring and demanded to be provided with young girls as a condition for returning the spring to the city. A miracle occurred on the ninth day after burial . Even with insignificant details gone from its memory. religious or other reasons. Finally. In 494 they banned Christians from as much as mentioning the name of Gregoris (Jargan). remember well the episode that occurred at Derbent walls. A story-teller remembered dozens of legends. Facts have. Most frequently. culture makes a nation. and still do. Curative water spouted out of the ground on the very mountaintop where no springs had ever existed before. for this is the way human memory is made. The opposite . Azerbaijanis. This was part of a policy that the Western church had pursued towards the Kipchaks. A common occurrence in the history of nations. you know.
the empire broke in two . Never before had anyone attempted anything like that. This is a confirmed historical fact. Its victory was received as a sign of the Heavens. It is impossible to conceal that Constantine never accepted God and remained a heathen all his life. a small Kipchak force had no trouble defeating the Roman army. through Him. Europe first heard about God from those preachers. The public saw the will of God in the Kipchaks' victory over Maxentium. People came to learn. The Mediterranean was in the hands of Maxentius. Maxentius' army was dealt a devastating defeat at the Milvian Bridge in sight of the walls of invincible Rome in 312. The Turkic religion gave rise to Buddhism in the East and to new Christianity in the West. It looked as though the Greeks had overindulged them on drinks. Seven august claimants were fighting for the imperial throne. so they could be next to him and keep him in power. power. He went to great lengths to deceive the Kipchaks. the Kipchaks who had entered into an alliance with him on his insistence cleared the way to the throne for him. They seem to forget that there were no other teachers or bearers of faith in the God of Heaven around at that time. he came out for recognition of the new Christianity that had come from its birthplace in the Caucasus. Constantine had only his high title to show for his claim. in the wake of that victory. Townsfolk were now forced to go to church and pray to the new God of Heaven. Prayers were said on central squares of Greek cities on orders of Licinius. The Turkic cavalry won a battle. the Romans saw horsemen galloping under banners decorated with a cross (those were labarums) no one had ever seen before. One day. He expected to benefit from an alliance with the Kipchaks. The period of anarchy ended. Indeed. of course). The truth is this.Western and Eastern empires. Eventually. At the time. and His presence in the new places was added evidence of the Great Migration of the Peoples. The attack was sudden and daring. These facts cannot be denied or concealed. however. Maxentius was killed in the battle. A very shrewd politician. Actually. Constantine pampered them as best he could. Logic (a very clever science where proof goes) has helped reconstruct the events as they actually occurred and learn the whole truth. victory in which was ascribed to the Greeks. Turkic spiritual culture. the Roman Empire was all in turmoil: the old rule fell and no new one was in sight. he introduced a new calendar. "your god your rule" was the general opinion. as a believer in the new God and make the new faith and the Turkis serve his objectives. however.it will come out eventually. A heathen High Priest. Those traitors were later known as "foederati" (suggesting the treaty they had signed with the Greeks).together by logic. however. As they write history books. A Greek by the name of Constantine was among the seven august pretenders or emperors (rather. The balance of forces in Europe swung heavily in Constantine's favour. the Turkic way. Their aim was to commit a crime the like of which the world had never seen and the traces of which are carefully concealed to this day. He paid a high price for victory over the Romans and lavished gifts and promises on the victors. the real emperor. Following Licinius' example. some researchers overturn. Fighting under a crossemblazoned banner. not steal from the Turkis. at the least expected time. His army was stationed in Rome. Streets resounded with talk of the inability of old Roman gods to put things right. This is a fact no one is going to deny. therefore. by a mere coincidence. He stinted no efforts or money to keep the Turkic warriors at his side so they could serve him. Europeans did recognize God and." So they came to the Turkis in an attempt to steal the God of Heaven and impose their power on Europe. Constantine grasped at this chance to show himself off. Constantine's rival for power in the empire's East. only the Kipchaks. In the same year 312. They arrived with a purpose you wouldn't call well-intentioned. and nothing seemed to forebode trouble. Like his rivals. and Constantine hastened to proclaim himself emperor. Chaos descended on both. Tengri opened up differently to different peoples. The Greeks were the first Europeans to remember the old political axiom: "Your god your rule. The Greeks chose to conceal the truth. Really. For example. without an army and. Christian Greeks came to Derbent in 311. They ignore the old maxim that you cannot conceal the truth for long . . the Greeks had not a single soldier under their banners. pass up or conceal facts of history as politicians tell them. He was least of all interested in true faith and only cared for power. with a day-off on Sunday. Historians pass up for some reason the fact that they accepted it from Turkic priests. the Greeks invited Turkic priests to say prayers before congregation crowds to the Sole God (in Turkic. They accepted the faith in God under Constantine. claimants to the shaky throne of the Roman Empire). And stay behind they did.
a major presence in Eastern Europe for a millennium. the new empire was gaining strength with each passing year and turning. stinting no efforts or money to achieve his aim. they got indignant. isn't it carefully concealed to this day? The priests gathered at the Council of Nicaea failed to see through Emperor Constantine's design. Egypt. Constantinople. for God was spirit and man was flesh. Not one of them. pattern. Europe offered a replay of the Kushan Khanate scenario. Their relocation was.could there be a sillier thing? A sacrilege? The first to speak out in defence of Tengri was Bishop Arius of Alexandria. By appropriating Tengri for the needs of their church. The emperor told the Council to establish a Christian church on a Greek. Emperor Constantine. When they finally realised what was behind it. For example. that what he was. it was a close fusion of two cultures. or more exactly. The Council set a sole objective no one cared to disguise. He played generous with them and spared no efforts to have them on his side. Whatever the case. an unbaptised neophyte. equate man and God. interrupted Arius rudely. A real crime against the Turkic people. keeping a tight rein on the gullible Kipchaks. Really. a product of cooperation between two nations admitted to this day. however. Unless he did. He had toyed with that idea for years. its eastern component played a predominant role. it was not a free movement of free people . Arius was a very enlightened man. Which signified that they retained loyalty to the faith they had been taught by Turkic clerics at Derbent. rites and churches. for fear of divine punishment. Actually. part of the Great Migration of the Peoples. . or God's creation to be born and die by the will of God. equal-armed sun crosses.Please note a significant fact: until the year 325 the Greeks prayed to Tengri only and relied on Turkic books and prayers in church service. ever. they encroached upon Turkic prayers. According to experts. no one would have heard of the Byzantine Empire. In 324 Constantine laid a new capital. with churches erected in the name of Tengri. And again he turned to Turkic architects. and no one wanted to equate him with God. They defied Constantine's will and did not equate God and Christ. Signs of the Sun. was spoken in the Byzantine army for a long time afterward. Tengri and Christ were to become one person. Making God and man one . The treasures the Turkis had spent centuries to amass were now taken over by the Byzantine Empire and its Church. Was it right? What is more. for his empire. coins minted in the Byzantine Empire at the time bore the image of the Sun. (Doesn't it strike you how cheaply and smartly the Greeks bought the Kipchaks?) Constantine had no enemies now. Constantine's appetite was growing. The dissident bishops remained unconvinced. The Greeks thought that the name of Tengri they usurped would give them divine power. dubbed "soldiery". who presided at the Council. Syria. You could not. Three generations past. saying he was not there to be contradicted. of course. with Kipchaks' helping hand. of course. the Byzantine Empire was born. rejected Christ. as a challenge to Rome. They were given the best lands and their relocation costs were paid by the Byzantine treasury in gold to the khans of Desht-i-Kipchak. Emperor Constantine the Perfidious Rome's colony of yesteryear. Nothing to wonder about. Alliance with the Turkis gave it the weight to dictate its will to Egypt. The argument ended abruptly and pathetically. In real fact. the Kipchaks were behind the rise of the Byzantine Empire. And Constantine himself was generally known as the Sun cult follower. so they could build it in their own way. Under Constantine's design. And they needed the Council of Nicaea and the church itself for this purpose. Turkey) for the First Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church (General Council) that went down in history as the Council of Nicaea. Palestine and Rome itself. Syrian and several other churches. or rather a sole God. He was supported by bishops of the Armenian. Turkic. This fact is completely forgotten or ignored. In 325 he summoned all Christian priests to Nicaea (modern Iznik. though. Albanian (Caucasus). into a prosperous country. confident in his power of persuasion. Anyway. not Turkic. it helps explain some of the darker aspects of European history. with the only difference that the Byzantine Empire was ruled by a Greek rather than a Turki. A foxy trickster. he said. upon Turkic culture as a whole.the Kipchaks' services were bought for gold. Thousands of Kipchak families were induced to settle on Greek lands. a Byzantine culture sprouted in the new country.
in which "there is no god but God. while the elder sons rode off to develop new lands or took up army service. if Christ's name was first mentioned in the 2nd century (by the Greeks themselves)? A situation. Years before enrolment. the youngest son stayed behind to help his ageing parents. The Kipchaks. no girl would want to marry him. On conscription. Constantine was a politician with a deep sense of what he wanted. which was reviewed and rewritten time and again by none other than politicians. To vindicate themselves. A striking fact for those days. the river was not at the centre of the quarrel. a book of Christ's deeds and genealogy. He enjoyed special privileges so he could marry and have children of his own. the New Testament compilers did not bother much about niceties." runs an Oriental saying. they claimed. If. The last remaining man in a family wore two earrings. he rode his own horse and carried his own arms. The Alans were not their real enemies. the politicians. the Greeks attributed some of his deeds to Christ and borrowed some other details from Buddha's life story. of which the Turkis say. Anything. No exemptions were allowed. The whole thing has nothing to do with true faith. therefore. so the Kipchaks' concerns were very far from Greek intrigues. "Spit at the Sky and get the spittle in your face. He was well prepared for field service and knew many practical things about . The quarrel between the Alans and Turkis over the Don River went on for a long time. were records left by Christ's disciples." Again. So he exerted himself to the utmost to get noticed and wanted for a husband. They could forgive but never forget an affront. must end sometime. All men were required to serve in the army. It was only a pretext. forever. Albania (Caucasus). By an old Kipchak tradition. Besides. they came up with a New Testament. a boy was given a colt to tend. People there have always seen things their way and had their own ideas about values. with one side winning and the other losing. His status rose even higher if all his children were boys. so he would not be assigned to risky or dangerous duties. the Greeks got away with impunity. and whatever suitable land was in sight was on the western side of the river. Really. The Kipchaks were squeezed for land by the pressure of their growing population. But are other rivers made of sand and gravel? Again. Army service was an honourable and sacred duty. succeeded in composing a sacred book for the Christian world. The Battle for the Don The East has always followed its own rules." Anyway. That was their word for "water". They were manipulated by Romans and Greeks who secretly assisted the Alans in the clear hope that the Turkis would be content with remaining foederati. Egypt and Ethiopia. Syria. A child was taken care of as best his parents could so he could care for them when they grew old. and congregations in those countries continued to pray to Him alone. "Four children do not make a family. It was a brazen lie. Surprisingly. even long quarrels. the Alans. The Kipchaks multiplied rapidly for such reasons as affluent life in cities and villages and the ancient tradition of having many children and hard work to make households prosperous. A young man out of service was not allowed to marry. the Turkic khans seemed to overlook the Council of Nicaea." ran Kipchak wisdom. Actually. made war for advance into Europe. little concerned about religion. Some scholars hold that the Don got its name from the Alans. the quarrel was not over who could drink and how much of the Don's water. Desht-i-Kipchak had reasonable laws . When they learned about Gheser (Tengri's son). In the end.they seemed to be made for the benefit of the country's children and to be focused on concern for them. Army service was a strong incentive in Kipchak society. Very probable. "When two men fight one of them dies. He picked the right time to set up his own church. How and where could they find those records. Tensions boiled over between the Kipchaks and their neighbours. His images were portrayed on icons and churches were dedicated to Him. the young man was given an earring to wear on conscription into the army. a family had only one son. Iveria. as though they lived in a different world. It did not subside a bit after Khan Aktash's death.Tengri remained the true God in the Christian churches of Armenia. or obedient servants. In the distant age the Don marked Europe's easternmost boundary. for one reason or another. a man won a status in the community. which. Those were the mainsprings of politics at work. On the birth of a fifth (or perhaps seventh?) child.
made a cross of Tengri. This creation of the Great Steppe can only be appreciated by a person whose veins carry warm Turkic blood. They unleashed a torrent of screeching arrows on the enemy ranks. Now his cavalry moved on slowly towards the enemy.chopping down the fleeing foot soldiers. after a long search for a chink in the Alans' armour. Their soldiers were formed into a battle square. with a high degree of probability. They sent their heavy arrows for a kill. The massacre went on and on. It took a strong fellow to draw a longbow . Khan Balamir kissed the banner and addressed his troops with firm and confident words of vow and exhortation and. The buglers hooted the sound of an inevitable charge.army life. No other horseman could sit as firmly and gracefully as a Kipchak. The Alans were not aware of the Kipchaks' latest invention. The Turkis won a clear victory and returned home. But then the arrow had an awesome piercing power. Is it surprising then that cavalry was the chief fighting force of Desht-i-Kipchak? But all this was not enough to overpower the Alans. The military history of that period has regrettably received very little attention from scholars. when they were laid by the Kipchaks. the Kipchaks showed no sign of fatigue or mercy . The Alans' short straight swords and light bows were a strong deterrent for anyone. A Kipchak was born in the saddle. Screeching arrows were only a scare . A battle song was heard. In 372 the Kipchaks arrived again. as the Kumyks call it in their language. The Turkis' sabres were of little help against such enemy. nearly all old cities on the Don to exactly that period. except for paramilitary training alongside his peers. Evidently. They did not come back to the scene of the massacre for two years. rimmed with copper shields and bristling with long lances to take up the attackers. They had their own way of fighting on the battlefield. blessing his soldiers.a debilitating scare. a swooping demon. A flying arrow produced a blood-freezing sound. and every day brought new joys and pleasures. the Alans were superior to both Romans and Turkis.some 150 centimetres long . and so on. Back in the Altai. In fact. That was a good way to learn about life in the steppe. No creature on Earth was more dignified for them than the horse. they had a Don Terek. Longbow archers stepped in now. Khan Balamir set out with his army towards the Don. many other inventions were made and tricks thought up. They were acknowledged horse breeders and trainers. So much for the origin of the river name.screeching arrows. There were no festivals without horse racing and fancy riding. or Ana Don (Mother Don). Don Khotan. "don" is an old Turkic word for "billowing country". This tie-breaking invention was preceded by another . Here in Europe they only wanted to make a point that the river flows across a steppe dotted with hills and plateaus. A watershed of sorts.Turkic arrows just went through them and the wearers with ease.a boy always helped his father about house. Turkis always equated horse riding with art. As usually. with no time left for idling. Came the year 370. His horse was a continuation of his own self. Young braves went out of their way to please the seasoned elders. This was largely due to tradition . It halted at a distance from the enemy square. they promptly arranged their troops in a battle square poised for repulsing cavalry attacks. The Alans' copper breastplates were just as good as eggshells . In fact. Now he meant business. The Turkis in Europe . Really. the Kipchaks invented a heavy longbow. The Turkis were not in a hurry now. The ancient Tanais has since had its name changed to Don. Man and horse fused into one creature. now in their wagons to look for sites to build cities and villages. The hour struck for the Turkic cavalry to sweep the field. In warfare. both men and women were unsurpassed horse riders. and archers advanced forward. The Alans were skilful and hardy fighters. The regular ranks fell apart and panic broke out among the enemy troops. The Alans heard evil spirits swooshing over their heads and a swarm of witches riding on their brooms. following the ancient Turkic tradition. The Alans got really terrified. as though giving the earth time to soak up the blood and heal its wounds. bringing trouble in its wake. As hours seemed to have passed. like they had been on all previous occasions. The stalemate was finally ended when. Swords flew up and swooped on the hapless Alans. The river turned scarlet with so much blood shed.or shoot an arrow with a heavy iron tip. A very helpful invention they proved to be. Archaeologists have dug up evidence to date. and the ground was covered with a blanket of dead bodies. known by that name ever since in history the Turkic longbow.
blacksmith. It was. It took a horseman eight months to ride from Central Europe at the western border of the Great Steppe to the Ilin River in the east. (Add to them builder. to dig out artifacts at least fifteen hundred years old. too. a homeland for the Kipchaks. to be wondered at and admired. developed the steppe. No one dared put up a serious fight to the Kipchaks. at a meeting place between the steppe and woodland. We must take it. rather no man's. You could dismiss the Byzantine Empire out of hand . which is Turkic for "first" or "chief". All was not as easy as is said. too. or rather torn out. Each time the settlers were to start all over again . they dig out some ancient building foundations.rumour flew much faster than the cavalry or settlers' wagons. on orders of Peter the Great.) The Kipchaks must have been a very skilful nation to give new life to undeveloped lands. adding them to their enormous homeland. No one says or remembers how old the city is. Much smaller in scale than the great battle on the Don. the Turkic land was the largest of all states the world had ever seen. It was destined to become the capital of Desht-i-Kipchak and a major city in Europe. creating a new country. This garrison city. Local archaeologists alone are surprised. craftsman. at best two yurts. and take them for a godsend. in fact. Let us reconstruct some of it here.The chain of steppe cities and villages crept slowly farther away from the Altai as the vast country's boundary moved westward. Buruninezh (Voronezh). big and small. They never stopped longer than they needed to build cities and villages. Sword and plough. orchards. the Kipchaks built a city on a high bank of the Desna River. enduring severe winter cold and summer drought. on a dividing line between the Turkic world and Northern Europe. on which the Kipchaks depended for their supplies of arms and daily necessities. a key role in the Turkic world. as "guard city". land development was a lifelong process. Its importance was emphasised by rich iron ore deposits that gave the city a central role. even wine-maker and baker. Chelyaba (Chelyabinsk). Karachev was a city that awoke in the morning to the sounds of martial tunes. . lands. Tula is a city without a past. More cities and townships crowded around it. The city lies in a lovely spot. with no one to share their bewilderment. and develop croplands. Kursyk (modern Kursk). Tolu (modern Tula) was another key city built during the Great Migration of the Peoples and inhabited by craftsmen. river crossings. They pressed on and on. Skilled craftsmen and hard-working farmers rather than damned Tatars or warlike nomads. It was the seat of the Turkis' chief priest and his "white wanderers" (the name Kipchaks called their travelling preachers). is quite long . villages. Its toponymics only suggests that it was "ready for battle". warrior and shepherd…. a fact no one knows about. has a sad story to tell. The Turkic word tolum translates as "arms". a holy place for the Kipchaks. The list of cities. Their strength was well known in all of Europe . croplands and cities. Year in year out. The Roman Empire was in its heyday less than a quarter as large as Desht-i-Kipchak.Kipenzai (modern Penza). Shapashkar (Cheboksary). At least. arms makers and other skilled folk. therefore. weaver. Bulgar. Occasionally. armourer. Today the city is known as Briansk. A thousand years ago their ancestors who lived here spoke Turkic. The pioneers fought their way through impassable terrain. In area.roads. not asked why or wherefrom. dozens of cities. The townsfolk live in total ignorance of their city's history or their own origins. Developing new lands was a really formidable challenge. local subsoil is packed with wonders. which are the common labels attached to them. The Great Migration of the Peoples was not conquering other countries and turning their populations into slaves. In the 5th century. The Kipchaks settled on uninhabited or. of the steppe power. was an outpost protecting the approaches to Birinchi. its name translates so from Turkic. These were the symbols of the Great Migration of the Peoples. battle horse and sheep flock. We cannot say exactly what kind of city it was or what its residents did. The ancient city has no history to be proud of now. roads and bridges. in fact. metal smelters. earthenware shards. along with Kursk and Tula. No one can explain how they got to be there.it had an area of one yurt (region). cut off from its ancient history and living in a misty dream. even gold artifacts. in fact. canals and grazing grounds. Then there were certainly brushes with the enemy. They named it Birinchi (which evolved into Brjanecsk). Really. and coming through spring floods. like the Great Steppe and the Turkic nation. The city was the spiritual centre of the Great Steppe. And again. It was closed. Birinchi played an important.
the hills and plateaus the rivers wind their way around. Rome's Duplicity The Kipchaks' calm and peaceful ways struck terror in the hearts of Roman rulers. for example. Accordingly. Aksai is a good example . Today. Nearby is another city. All urban construction followed old Turkic blueprints. the Don delta. No civilians were in sight while the siege went on. Aksai. or maidan. it was not the sole trading city in the whole of Desht-i-Kipchak.the Don and the open steppe going back to the horizon. Kipchaks built fortress cities in the deltas of all major streams. though. Earthenware pipes were placed under the cobblestone streets. early Turkic settlements . (Moderns seem to know next to nothing about geographical discoveries. The underground halls had brick vaults and the connecting galleries revealed an ingenious concept. they were forced by circumstances to build two-tiered cities. if we take contemporaries on their word. The Greeks. The buildings were set on brickwork foundations and a central square. and still less about name giving. which the Greeks called Borysthenes. No.Doneper. an entirely different kind of self-protection. croplands. But it did this against its own free will. The Kipchaks followed a city siting code of their own. One thing we know for sure is that. New roads were laid from the Don as far as another river. we find Baltavar (Poltava).Cities in Desht-i-Kipchak were linked by roads and postal services. they said. the great Turkic warlord and eternal hero of the Great Steppe. But they were comfortable to live in . Builders never started work before proper calculations had been made. to pay tribute to Desht-i-Kipchak. Donester. and Turkic tradition. how else could they do all that? Passages were dug underground to connect large halls where provisions were laid in for people to sit out an enemy attack. We know it as the Dnieper today. What we are interested in here is that the Kipchaks appeared to have a fashion to add a prefix "don" to major rivers in Europe . their cities built by Kipchaks. The scouts moved stealthily across the untrodden steppe. Donai. "Coincidence" is their general consensus. we do not know as yet. Curious what "Dnieper" was in Turkic? Opinions differ and we will not go into them. as well as to watch out for enemy. Or else they encircled their cities with a log palisade or brick walls. though. Flow water was common as well. That was not the end of surprises. Everyone was afraid of the self-assured horsemen. mathematicians and designers? Or was there a learned man to guide all construction work? Wonder. at one time or another. Of course. being wide enough for two horsemen to pass by and providing ventilation and running water. too. was laid out for public gatherings (or meetings. Baltavar was a prosperous city (its name means "bountiful" in Turkic). and to do them harm at every opportunity. (What else could they do. How they did it. a major trading centre in those distant times. when their armies were beefed up with Kipchaks. It is still not clear how the Kipchaks managed to do this. and residential sites and give names to terrain features. It was a venue of auctions and fairs that brought merchants from across Turkic lands and foreign countries.broken down into blocks by wide streets. The first Turki to see the Alps (with most of Europe sprawled around them) was Attila. formerly a garrison that guarded. as a good place to build a city in. Turning away from the east southward. and their cornfields tended by Kipchaks?) Rome. were all praise for the Kipchaks and even volunteered. too. It took the Turkic spearhead two hundred years to advance from the Altai to Europe. in 312. Their cities looked simple and devoid of flashy splendour. The steppe dwellers' wagons were first sighted at the northern borders of the Roman (Western) Empire in the 380s. the place is known as Kobiak City. paid a tribute to the Kipchaks. I beg to disagree. A site was to be scenic and easy to support life. Foundations are signs that relate to archaeologists much about the design and outward appearance of old buildings. The explanation is simple enough . Spies were planted on them to keep a secret watch on their movements. if you like). They had a knack for city building. Khan Kobiak took a fancy to a high hill in the downstream Don. Archaeologists were amazed to find those underground cities almost the size of surface cities.) An advancing Turkic force sent scouts forward to look for grazing grounds. followed cautiously by settlers in their wagons. Are we to understand that the "nomads" had their own engineers. Actually. Why? Was it to do with cryptography? What kind of? Academics have not come up with an explanation as yet. Kipchak buildings turned out to be complex engineering structures. Everything looked decent on the outside.
Or washing their hands from a kumgan (jug) and wiping them against a towel before meals? Was it beastly. Things changed with the passage of time. The Kipchaks had it differently . Beautiful had a different meaning to a European than it did to a Kipchak. or nomads with "beastly table manners". which beasts certainly could not.) Kipchaks followed customs to the letter . Indeed. Rome had already sworn allegiance to Byzantium. And this made him immensely proud of it. Neither Romans nor Greeks knew the real steam bath.filth was a source of pestilence and diseases for steppe dwellers. and fleeced its newly acquired ally in trouble. This point was repeatedly made clear to children. A housewife would never start cooking before she swept the house clean. Rome began looking for ways to make the Kipchaks tame and compliant. Squalor was not tolerated. they speak of the Romans' moral standards. or ally. Both were to be spotlessly clean. Repulsive and inhumane as those trade-offs were.they fully relied on popular experience and wisdom as a way to avoid repeating mistakes their predecessors could have made. which every Kipchak always carried in a sheath next to his dagger? As simple as that. The Kipchaks bore their woes staunchly. At first. That was a Turkic invention. (For much the same reason. The steppe. Every Kipchak washed in the morning and evening. kept Arab boys so they could wipe their greasy hands against the boys' coarse bushy hair after repasts. inventing myths by way of explanation. Especially the Kipchaks who had sapped its erstwhile overwhelming power. When. Every single aspect of a custom had a clear meaning. taught them to keep themselves and their houses clean and tidy. and hated the whole world for its humiliation. to the Kipchaks. A family that had run out of gold had no other alternative than swap its children for dead dog meat Romans brought along. Severe drought struck Kipchak lands for two straight years. but it was the only chance to save them from death by starvation. and also before each meal and prayer. assisting themselves with a small knife. His courtiers. What did they mean "beastly table manner"? Holding a spoon or fork that Turkis used while eating. Incidentally. therefore. or savages. without any trappings attached. Food products were sold for gold only. for example. you were advised against covering your head with a blanket. Having lost in an open face-off. literally "mother of steam". Turkis sincerely believed that while they slept their souls left their bodies to travel around the world socialising and return a brief moment before they awoke. Roman spies first saw wagons Kipchak scouts were driving around in search of suitable . The newcomers ceased to look as fearful as they did at the start. An "ally" like that knew no restraints. were enraptured at his beard teeming with lice. Hunger decimated the steppe population. Romans were frightened at the prospect of living side by side with Kipchaks. the Romans were masters of backstage play. They could certainly rob the traders in desperation or keep them off limits. with its grime and dirt. Following the Byzantine example. There was a chance crafty Roman traders could not miss. They won the secret war in the end: they demonised the Turkis in the eyes of their descendants by portraying them as either inhumans. Slavs borrowed the word banya (steam bath) complete with its name from the Turkic: bu (steam) and ana (mother). Greek aristocrats. The famous Roman thermae (or public baths) were not a pleasure for all. It certainly pained parents to sell their children off to slavery. Did you know that nail clipping was a ritual to be observed religiously? A Turki could then tell you that his strength (or huut) was under his nail in daytime and at his hair roots at night. lest the soul fail to recognize you in sleep. The Byzantine Emperor Julian was a very handsome man. with a beard grey from crawling lice. A select few of the 300. What could people need wagons for? You won't answer unless you are dead certain. If a returning soul saw you were unwashed it shied away in fear. selling stale foodstuffs to the hungry families. Chance was on their side. or mistresses. Clean houses and bodies were entrenched in the Turkic way of life .000 Rome residents could afford a day in a "public bath". the Romans engaged in a secret war that went on for more than a century. All this disgrace occurred at a time when Rome embraced the Greek version of Christianity and pledged itself to be a katylik. so they engaged in guesswork and conjecture. Much in Kipchaks' life was muddle to Europeans. They endured hardship in silence. They made rounds of Kipchak localities.their baths were a daily must. They used hands. too? What was then the right way to eat? Europeans had never heard of a spoon or fork before they saw the "nomadic beasts".were built at approximately the same time. They did neither. All happened sooner than everybody expected. devastating their stores of provisions.
and the more personal aspects of Kipchaks' lives. The pure-blooded Greeks were. A force was named for its khan or its native yurt. That was an ancient Altaic tradition first recorded at the time of Turkic settlement in India. Notes penned by a Byzantine nobleman. not least. And a high fighting spirit besides. There was no force to challenge it in the world. And also such offensive names as Huns. for Attila had a half million horsemen behind his back. atamans. and so on. on the Don and even at Rome's walls. Passions ran really high at the time. therefore. The Turkis had an excellent army that had proved its worth in China. compelled to learn Turkic. who had appointed assistants. The Romans deliberately invented various insulting labels for the Kipchaks. a second was Savoia. this multitude of armed men was to be organised. The Greeks. Roman spies were puzzled on hearing the names of Attila's forces . fighting fame and respect. or "Huns" assembled by Attila. yes. the head of the yurt or ulus. So they put their trust in the force of precedent. an army is a cross-section of society . The army was broken down into forces. much farther than the wagons. we have to admit this with regret. and. have miraculously survived to tell the truth about the Great Migration of the Peoples. Don and a few other yurts. and they hastened to spread this news around the world. including those raised in the Yaik. Langobardi.Terings. a label stuck by scholars. An army does not arise out of thin air . It was to have a long fighting record and long-standing traditions. Priscus. were recruited from members of a particular tribe living in a yurt or ulus. the forces were divided up into regiments and companies of a hundred troops. who also accounted for a large share of the empire's population. In actual fact. To be exactly that. The Byzantine army was the exact opposite. "confederation of tribes". however. A nation without an army lacks identity and is doomed to be brought to its knees and become a source of slaves to serve other people. Roman rulers used to draft men of the lands they conquered into their legions. An awesome power. Byzantine chronicles for 438 and 439. and manageable. In reality. Do I need to repeat these old truths? I have another point to make. It was led by a khan. Ural. was a key actor in the drama played out in his lifetime. Burgundi. to Attila. the greater part of which was made up of Kipchaks. Mere mention of his name sent creeps down the spines of Europe's rulers. as we read in so many history books. Iran. for they were clearly reluctant to all their victors by their true name. He was a member of Europe's embassy that travelled to see Attila and plead for peace with the wrathful Turkic ruler. in turn. and occasionally joined cavalry troops . for .it is nurtured and cultivated for generations. could not other races be in the Kipchak army? Hence the "rabble". was spoken among the troops. saw the other side of it. the things were completely different. later additions to the Turkic state. One of Attila's forces was named Burgund. But that was still not enough. however. his army and the Great Migration of the Peoples in general. they reasoned. each ten thousand horsemen strong. and so on. but moulding them into a real fighting force could take more than a single generation of recruits. Goths and barbarians. Europe Arose in the Altai Attila was feared by everybody. The notes were spared the destruction suffered by all such documents at the hands of the Romans over centuries. some Alans served as auxiliaries. disciplined. They had never heard those names. for it creates an army protecting its people and defending its country's security. Turkic. the "soldiery" language. In turn. And rightly so. Each force had a battle banner that gave it a name. All soldiers were Turkis speaking a common language. No other tongues were tolerated in the army of Desht-i-Kipchak for the simple reason that it had enough recruits of Turkic roots. Why.they were too good fighters to be rejected.a reflection of all that is good in a nation's culture. about Attila. Attila had fifty forces in all. a third Tering. Priscus's notes contain valuable historical evidence because they come from a man who saw everything with his own eyes.sites. The latter. the only idea that could come to their minds was that the Kipchaks were nomads. economy. national set-up. It is that we have evidence to show that what Attila mustered under him was not a rabble of semi-savage tribes preying on Europe's backyard. Armed men can be banded together fast enough. the Kipchaks were only referred to as "rabble". Turkic. and more. A well-trained and strong army…. Raising a viable army is all hard work deserving high praise. True. From that time on. or tmas.
who lived in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Tengri. In those ancient times the Burgundians used runic lettering and were very much a part of Turkic culture. for example. for example.ornaments. Did modern Europe actually begin in Siberia? Was it Siberia that breathed a new life into stagnating Europe? Why not? The bulk of the continent's population originated in the Ancient Altai. it is an ingrained tradition no one stops to think about whys and wherefores. from a tribal yurt that is today an area bearing the old name. We certainly have more trust in documents written in the age of the Great Migration of the Peoples than we do in politically biased historians. By the time Attila began his reign in 435. Teutonic and other tribes. They were yurt forces that trace their origins back to the Altai. Cornelius Tacitus. There is no arguing about that. or Toulouse in France. Bronze swords and spears were extremely rare among them. Migrants always and everywhere seem to have a strange habit of giving the names of their native place to cities they build in the new lands. This "Germanic" tribe came to Europe from the shores of Lake Baikal. the iron horsemen. Those were primitive people. who all agreed that those tribes could not be molded into a first-rate army. too. Petersburg or Moscow (both in the United States) and so on. too. Taken all together. Tolu (Tula) in Central Russia. Nor were they passed up by other historians. Europeans settling in America or Australia. yes. The Roman historian. Toulouse. Before the arrival of the Kipchaks Central Europe was the ancient habitat of Frankish. It has survived through centuries. The modern Irkutsk Region in East Siberia has an area called Burgundu. as "Germanic tribes". A few exhibits are more convincing than a myriad of words. were another matter. Veneti. not imagined. roots of that "Germanic" tribe. The archaeologists' finds in the Ancient Altai leave no doubt about that. which means "hero" or "victor". Like those who thought up a myth about "Germanic tribes" allegedly brought together by Attila. now turned into a political realm where no one can tie the loose ends. had come from the Altai. Could they be the "Germanic" tribes that threw a challenge to Rome? Burgundi (Burgundians). national cuisine. Were there ever "Germanic tribes" in the first place? Those tribes came from the East as part of the Kipchak army. modern Burgundy itself. through the Roman politicians' efforts. Tacitus' accounts are reinforced by archaeology. Not a seasoned ethnographer. The Burgundians were Turkic through and through . or Burgundy. reported literally the following about the Huns and other "races" in Attila's army: except for their names. They. It would take many pages to attempt to tell about those roots.they just popped out of their mouths: New York. tolum. Terings (Thuringians) fought side by side with Burgundians in Attila's army. . Burgundy was created by the Kipchaks and has not changed its name for the past fifteen hundred years. Another tribe. where this tribe used to live in the distant past. always leads to another. even their visage. many peoples say Alman when they refer to Germany. and their names are derived from the same Turkic word. the Kipchak army had reached the centre of Europe and created a Burgund yurt. as you can learn in the museums of. The Kipchaks called their western lands in Central Europe Alman ("distant" or "farthest" in Turkic really they lay a great distance from the Altai). You certainly expect my new question: Did not the Turkis stand at the origins of this tradition? So we still have a yurt by the name of Tulun (Tolun) in the Altai. A line from a 572 document reads: "Meanwhile the Huns. they did not differ from one another. even though it is known. The Alps appear to derive their name from the Turkic word alp. household chattels. New Plymouth. however. these cities are merely road markers in the history of the Great Migration of the Peoples. who wore animal skins and had wooden javelins and clubs for their best battle weapons. we know. I will now attempt to reconstruct the long-forgotten facts. whom we normally call Turkis… " These are facts to be reckoned with. The Burgundians spoke Turkic and used runes in writing. they spoke a common language and worshipped a single god. for arms. did not ponder much about place names . Some other chronicles reported that the Huns descended from the Goths. Today. They were all founded by Attila's contemporaries and all were inhabited mostly by arms makers. Really.example. Available evidence is convincing enough. One lie. It certainly needs a profound historical investigation. was the capital city of the West European Kipchaks (Visigoths) between 419 and 508. Examples are indeed plentiful. where they had their tribal yurt (land). New England. left very detailed accounts of them. The real. St. We know that with certainty. at least for those who wish to know the truth.
Please take a special note that about every ancient settlement in Northern Italy has a Turkic history. Venice. These countries were started by Attila. Latvia (too many names to continue) were all founded by the Kipchaks. until recently. Or take Turin in Northern Italy. literally. with the Savoia ulus. which worked hard to set the brothers against each other. it seems? Not exactly. Previously. Indeed. in Turkic at least. fine koumiss. an omission there make together a brazen lie. The mountains were named Attila's Alps. he walked back along the blood-spattered trail. "a mountain overgrown with a forest". there are too many malicious legends like this one. The ancient Turkic trades live on in our day. and deliciously smelling yogurt. heavy bows and arrows. and the city's history is closely bound up with the Great Migration of the Peoples. Czechia. Bulgaria. Actually. famous. but a close-knit country known to much of the world. A more precise name would be hard to find. they were placed at the foundations on which the Turkic people's history was built. blot out memories about it and. Croatia. a German Land. The Kipchaks brought Altaic larch logs over here to build the foundations that still support the old city. A hint here. Many more things are cross-linked in our lives than we can ever suspect. It was not. The Turings' yurt was established in Europe at the same time as the Burgund yurt. with only a few grains of truth left over. Europe's majestic mountains very much like the Altai. Serbia. Before the arrival of the Turkis. Not a coniferous. Attila was told about the sword by a cowherd. Romans were unsurpassed masters of this craft. of which Attila was made the nominal ruler. has a Turkic square. the Europeans called the area the Sarmatian Mountains. The Turkis gave the Carpathian and Balkan mountains the name we know them by today. Savoy. an old place in an old city. the craftsmen and metal makers who forged the world's best arms at the time in cities and encampments back in the Turkic hinterland. England. a derivation from Hemimont (Ancient Hemus). for its racing horses. Regret as we do. a "loose confederation" of tribes. account for their own weaknesses and failures. Extremely worried. Peace and accord between the ruling brothers was not to the liking of either Byzantium or Rome. He had led the spearhead of his nation to Europe and established himself at the foot of the Alps. It is a skill and craft. The magic sword had little to do with their setbacks. no matter how reprehensible. Whenever we speak out about the history of Europe. Attila was very young when he became a co-ruler. leaving numerous marks on the modern geographical map. The man saw a heifer in his herd limping. The name travelled across half of the world in the Turkis' wagons. Lithuania. fearless warriors. therefore. or Otztaler Alps today (Otztal is the Turkic leader's name distorted by the Europeans). Balkan in Turkic means. They seemed to have no end of lies to invent to hide the truth about the Turkic people. Hungary.Tering is the Turkic for deep or profound. The city owes its lasting fame to Turkicspeaking Kipchaks (Langobardi or Langobards). The true reasons have either been forgotten or distorted. remains in the memory as the chief reason for the Kipchaks' successes rather than the real reasons such as a powerful army. It emerged soon after Attila's resounding victory in 443 and was intended to vindicate the Romans for their defeats. iron weapons. the area is notoriously known for its devastating floods. In 434 Attila became a joint ruler. in this way. Saxony. only to find a sword sticking out of the ground. An innocent tale. Bavaria. Today it is Thuringia. its name was Hem or Em. He and Bleda ruled wisely and successfully for a time. Attila. The Carpathians have an unmistakably Turkic word root. so their quarrel could drain the Turkic state . Catalonia. He pulled it out and gave it to Attila as a gift. we will do well remembering the Great Migration of the Peoples. Yet it alone. together with his elder brother Bleda. the Turkic Ruler Deception is just as a part of human nature as any other. a chance that could not have been. for example. which means "overflowing" or "spilling over". who transformed an inconspicuous coastal settlement into a great sea power. an immense state whose government organisation was so much admired by the Chinese (volumes were written about it). of Desht-i-Kipchak. Austria. The sword was considered a symbol of divine choice in Europe. in one way or another: Kipchaks made up a large part of the local population. The Turings were certainly here. The legend about the Martian Sword is a good illustration of this. but exactly the deciduous forest of the kind this part of Southern Europe is famous for. Poland.
Poland. the brothers travelled back to the Turkic heartland on the Idel. Like rust corrodes iron. so were they .poisoning. The brothers survived several assassination attempts. the Turkis did not conquer a single country or nation over the centuries of the Great Migration of the Peoples. Christians were completely unaware that they were puppets with strings pulled by Western politicians. The Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire was paying an equal amount. Thank Tengri. The whole thing was rigged up with skilful hands. He and Bleda led their armies to the shores of the Baltic. The quarrel between the ruling brothers was ended with a stab of the dagger. they were unable to kill him. Cowardly devices as they were. the enemies opted for scheming . the Kipchak cavalry swept the Byzantine Empire's northern territories. The Kipchaks named a new price for future and withdrew. deceiving.he pleaded for an armistice and peace at any price. He crushed the Byzantine army. Byzantium stopped paying subsidies to the Kipchaks. Fearing a head-on confrontation they could lose. Retribution was quick and unavoidable.in fact. His horsemen quickly brought the Greeks to their senses. No matter how much his enemies plotted and fumed in impotent rage. gossip and slander seemed to appear from nowhere. This time they took no risks. bribing. Infection crept into Kipchaks' ranks.almost two and a half tons of gold. without a thought of war. They were content with settling on non-man's lands. slowly and unnoticed. giving it no chance of escape. but patience in weaving their plot was their main asset. They had no need for it. After a year-long respite. Attila pulled his army out of the Balkans. the followers of Tengri and had to pay a heavy price for that. With a foothold won in Northern Europe. Attila set to expanding his possessions in Northern Europe in 435. He made up with his brother and in 441 unleashed his full fury against the offender. Attila was forced to watch out for hostile moves from the early days of his rule. Attila is highly revered by all European nations with Turkic roots. In that secret war the Turkis proved the stronger as well. All strong and self-assured people are. Finally. The Kipchaks did not attempt an assault on it. with Roman and Greek Christians as their docile tools in spreading gossip and discord. The Greeks clearly needed a repeat lesson and they got it. Lithuania and Latvia.their treaty with the Kipchaks was to be kept in full and in time. he announced the terms for peace and demanded from Rome payment of three hundred kilograms of gold in annual subsidies. turning one brother against the other. The young rulers were too wise for them to be disposed of in this way. It was ready to pay any price to avoid war. Attila did not have to wait for long at Constantinople. charming beauties. in the Caucasus and the Altai. Having signed the treaty. Rome had no choice but agree.flattened to lifeless ruins.deadly and unfailing. they were very poor learners. Envy. Taking the emperor on his word. the Greeks seemed to have not learned the lesson. Apprehensive as they were. who alone were the Turkis' long-standing allies and kept up contacts with their rulers and clergy. They resumed scheming. who turned religion to their advantage. Cities were plunged into darkness . A germ of discord was sneaked into Desht-i-Kipchak. Attila was nicknamed the Scourge of God. The foederati. they found a helpful tool . It was certainly a fratricidal battle. The Byzantine emperor lost his head in despair . Attila was quick in seeing through the Greeks' design. This time Attila was rock-firm. Don and Yaik rivers. In a country as big as Desht-i-Kipchak the brothers had their hands full. He was born like that. the Greeks were up to their old tricks again. and expensive presents.of vitality and unity to be dealt with easily by the two Western powers. The Greeks promptly paid up the arrears in subsidies . And once again. like they did not for the whole of the empire. who were Kipchaks in Byzantine service and converted to Christianity. The Byzantine capital was at his mercy. Their message was clear . they could not interfere with the brothers' plans. which they developed and built up. Gloating about the recurring quarrels between the ruling brothers. their tools were Christians. Attila came to within striking distance of Constantinople.Christians. With road dust still unsettled in their wake.) Rome and Byzantium were scared of their neighbour's growing strength. poisoned arrows missed their targets and poison was made harmless by antidote. founding many cities along their trail in the modern Czech Republic. As a matter of record. were pitted against their brethren. Surely. Meeting the emperor of the Western Roman Empire at the city of Margus (Pozarevac) in the Balkans. Attila began his rule in a peaceful disposition. Like a wave of fire. killing secretly. (The brothers' visits were echoed in folklore . .
The Turkis as Priscus of Byzantium Saw Them By 449 the storm seemed to have subsided in Europe. With no time lost. In real fact.peace at any price. though. The tower house was really a smoke hut . And what are the Kipchaks doing? How do they take these crude distortions of their history? With serene calm. it gave the impression of soaring above the ground. the eye of an experienced spy (what Priscus actually was). Resigned to their utter defeat. Loathe to take immediate action and prone to leave things to be done on another day. and so on. where Queen Kreka lived and which Priscus first saw in the Kipchaks' capital.its cities were all wiped off the face of the earth. the sole ruler could use fork and knife at meals again (it is a Turkic tradition to refrain from using fork and knife in a family that has not avenged the death of its member). Doesn't it strike you that after so many attempts to poison him. Built of logs and decorated with carved window casings. Unfortunately. It is knowing long in advance that the truth will eventually win out. Priscus was particularly overwhelmed by Attila's palace. It was only customary Turkic hospitality .much higher and built somewhat differently. It was probably Preslav. Attila avenged the death of his brother. their elegant and simple attire. how they dressed and what meals they ate. The inquisitive Greek noted every small detail .Alone on the throne. The ruler's residence was encircled with a high enclosure adorned with dainty watchtowers. The dazed Greek entering the palace wondered how logs could be placed to make a building look round. Its pointed spires were thrust high into the sky. Kipchak women wore white shawls to church and on days of mourning. it looked more beautiful as though made of wooden lace. He was lost for words. in the Turkic tradition originating in the Ancient Altai. headed straight for his headquarters to plead for peace . Magnanimous and forgiving. it was anything but round. suggesting that the tower house was invented by the Greeks.refusing to receive guests was an unpardonable act for a Kipchak.what the Kipchaks did. A town of this type did not exist anywhere in Europe. We only know that the empire suffered a heavy damage . following the ancient tradition. its rays reflected in the fine craftwork of the building. Take them as they are." wrote Priscus. Its carved designs gave it a fairy-tale image. They gave a face to a nation. and many other things are a legacy of the Turkic nation built up over centuries. the Greeks withdrew from the Northern Balkans. The building was octagonal. it was not an outburst of magnanimity or generosity. The Greek emissary was dazed at the sight. becoming his merciful self again. The southern border of Desht-i-Kipchak moved very close to the Mediterranean and Constantinople. It shone in the sun. Invention of felt is now ascribed to the French. and multi-coloured ones. With Priscus in his . They wouldn't have sent a simpleton on that sensitive mission. Nothing escaped his eye. it was a new Turkic town in the centre of Europe that arose with the coming of the Turkis. Attila calmed down. taking out his wrath on the enemy for the rigged-up clash. Priscus stood there. the capital of ancient Bulgaria. Whatever it was. A smaller building. especially the kerchiefs (or rather shawls) with their long-stranded tassel fringes. Priscus was awed by the beauty of Turkic women. leaving them to the Turkis. Now it is called a Greek house. a delegation led by a Byzantine nobleman." Priscus wrote in his narrative. Shawls were first made by someone else. Not quite so in fact. almost nothing is known about Attila's next campaign against the Byzantine Empire in 447 and 448. transfixed by the sight of an unparalleled wooden wonder. He was all numb admiration. on holidays and ordinary days. Kipchaks always put felt rugs or mats on the floor of their houses. from the early smoke huts. Many centuries past they have remained Turkic at heart. or an old town in Bavaria. "we arrived in a large village where Attila's palace was situated. Soon. Priscus. All these. Attila asked Priscus to share a meal with him? No. all these ordinary things made Kipchak culture distinct in the European environment. Actually. "The floor of the room was covered with woollen mats for walking on. The emissary's report appears so clear that it only needs plain reading. as it appeared to Priscus. A house spun out of sun rays. Next to the king's palace stood the house of the queen. Take the tower house. "After crossing some rivers." Priscus does not give the name of the village. Exactly. Kreka. making it recognizable and unlike other nations. How did the war go on? What battles were fought where? All evidence has been obliterated.
house, Attila could not sit down to a meal without asking the Greek to join him. Skilful politicians, then and now, have always abused the Turkis' openness, decency and hospitality in an attempt to gain an advantage over them. The unsuspecting and credulous Turkis lightly revealed their weaknesses and exposed themselves to hazards - all to the detriment of Desht-i-Kipchak. There is no one to be blamed for that - they are made this way as a nation. And no one can change them, no matter how hard he may try. They have it in their genes. The Great Migration of the Peoples gave Turkis a good chance to change or scrap some of their very ancient traditions - Europe was a different environment, an alien culture and strange moral values. They did not, or did not even try. Their khans' short-sightedness cost the Kipchaks dearly. When in Rome do as the Romans do, ran the old wisdom. The Kipchaks failed in their efforts to force Europe to live their way. Instead, they were overwhelmed by the forces at work in their new home. … Back to Attila's feast room. It smelled of fresh wood. Broad benches were ranged along the walls. Heavy oak tables stood next to them. Attila sat at the head of his table. That was his place of honour (throne), tver in Turkic. It was screened with fine motley curtains. His elder son, Ellak, sat nearby on a step, his eyes lowered. Ellak did not touch any food, keen as always to do his father a service. Waiting on your father is a son's noble duty. It was a law, and inborn tradition, with the Kipchaks. Obeying a senior was indisputable, as also was a senior's duty, enshrined in the adat (code of honour), to protect a junior. The Kipchaks had an elaborate ritual to be followed at the table and around house. Before sitting down at the table, Priscus went on, they "said a prayer to God". The prayer was led by Father Orestes, an enigmatic personage in Europe's history. The prayer said, all sat down to meal. Father Orestes knew many European languages and, in fact, was a bright star of his time. He was a man of wondrous destiny. There are two theories about who he actually was. One says that he was Attila's confessor, according to the other he was the Turkic ruler's secretary and interpreter. He was born in Desht-i-Kipchak (more exactly, in modern Austria or Hungary). Was he a Kipchak? There is no evidence to the contrary, save that Roman historians claimed he was of Roman stock. Could Attila tolerate a foreigner as so close a counsel of his? Would he confide his thoughts and feelings to him? Would he send the priest as his ambassador to Constantinople? Never on earth. The confessor is a very close friend, confidant and mentor. Curiously, Father Orestes, like many of Attila's courtiers, made a brilliant career in Rome after their king's death. They were not the first Kipchaks to be accepted into the Roman fold - many Turkis had for some time already served at the imperial court and in the army and clergy. It was a dusky time, a time of plots, coups and treacherous murders - Roman society was in turmoil, inviting Kipchaks in desperation. Everybody who was somebody was looking for a snug place in society. Rome saw a replay of the Byzantine scenario with the coming of Kipchaks - cultures and races intermingled freely, until the Kipchaks made an attempt to seize power. The coup was led by the selfsame Father Orestes, now a Roman general and master of foederati soldiers. He put his little son, a very handsome child, Romulus, on the throne, adding a diminutive Augustulus to his name because of his young age. Born a Kipchak, Romulus Augustulus was the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire. On September 5, 476, he was deposed by another Kipchak, Odoacer, who formally put an end to the Western Roman Empire. The Kipchaks, who had argued too much over succession to the Roman throne, ended up without it. The destiny of the last Roman emperor's father, Orestes, took another, and quite unexpected, twist. According to the other theory, the Romans made him a Christian in 511, or thirty-five years after his death, and canonised him as St. Severin ("The Life of St. Severin" is a large volume full of discrepancies). Priscus's notes give a clear-headed person much, really overly much, food for thought. The events he described do not fit into the narrow confines of "official" history. How the meals proceeded at Attila's palace, what they drank, what they conversed about, whom they made a ridicule of, who wore what at meal - the Greek ambassador's account was fairly correct. As custom dictated, the meal ended with singing. The kind of singing that reaches deep into your heart, intoxicating you more than wine does. Singing was as much part of a Turki in the 5th century as it had been before and was to remain later. It goes with nature, like language. It persists in history. Musicians filed into the feast hall and immediately broke into an ecstatic melody, their hands dancing on the strings and their fiddles flying up and down. Priscus sat frozen to his seat. He heard music. Wonderful music. And strange instruments, the like of which the Greeks had never seen. (Those were the granddads and grandmas of the modern cello, violin, harp, balalaika and harmonica). A jester stepped out from behind the music band. His follies made the revellers double over with
laughter. Attila was laughing off his head together with everybody else. Was it a desire to mimic the great Attila that European kings and rulers eventually took to keeping jesters at court to amuse and entertain guests at balls and speak out the truth in their sovereigns' face with impunity? Moreover, jesters were a visible fixture at royal houses having Turkic roots only. Scots and Romans, for example, had no tradition of keeping jesters. And more, Priscus was struck by Attila's modesty. Clearly, his life-style was anything but royal. The clothing that great man wore and the food he ate were no different from those of the men around him. What made him out of the crowd was the admiring eyes all turned on the hero. He was revered immensely for what he was and what he did. Attila's courage and wisdom left no one unimpressed. For example, he was unmatched in game hunting. He used to hunt on horseback. Chasing wild boars, deer or bears, he wore his prey down and then finished it off with a blow of his mace or a stab of his poleax on the gallop. Falcon hunting was his tender love. Indeed, falconry had a special place at Attila's court, with falconers to look after these birds of prey, breed them and train for hunting. They also kept kites, but did not take them out hunting - these small-size hawks have too strong an instinct to ravage their kills before the hunter can retrieve them intact. Bear teasing was another favourite pastime with the Kipchaks. Some daredevils caught bears alive in the forest and brought them to Attila's capital in cages. Bear-fights were held in deep by the Turkis. A bear-fight followed approximately this scenario. A wild bear was let into a pen, and a brave soul with a bear spear or knife in hand stepped into the enclosure to the tumultuous shouts of the fans. The beast sensed his near end, but was unable to escape. After tossing and turning for a while, it lost patience and - the onlookers gasped in suspense - violently attacked his nemesis. The fighter, ready for the dash, sank his knife hilt-deep into the beast's heart. The audience exploded into wild applause. Or take belt wrestling, another way to show off gallantry for a Turki. It was actually a national play, very much in evidence on a feast day. The winner was rewarded with a ram - another ancient tradition. Finally, fistfights. A nice amusement it was. Neither rivalry nor sport. A sacred ritual that was in a Turki's blood. Every man could take a chance to test his mettle. Kipchaks were raised on fisticuffs from early childhood, toughening themselves in court or street fights. Quarrels were settled by challenging the offender to a fight. A face to face bout. Fist law had a special place in Kipchak society. It was respected and feared. It was enforced one on one or group against group. Fighting went on until first blood was drawn. It was a rule that was rigorously asserted. A breach of this rule could invite trouble, and even death on the spot for the offender. Relatives were not allowed to avenge the deserved death. The Kipchaks enjoyed life in many ways and had many feasts to prove it. After a victorious military campaign they indulged in a favourite play - with long curved sticks instead of sabres in their hands, mounted players were driving an enemy's head tied in a leather bag around a field. Really, an exalted celebration of victory. This savage play has survived to this day, and now it is called polo. (The English are its most ardent advocates, because their ancestors migrated to the British Isles together with Attila.) True, they don't cut off anyone's head to divert themselves, they use a wooden ball instead. They follow the ancient rules of the game, however. Like nations, traditions do not die. Memories do. Battling with Europe's United Army Attila was playing deliberately cool with Priscus's embassy. He made it a point to have each of his moves or gestures show how disgusted he was. Disgusted at the deception all around him. The great Kipchak knew politics was lying as best you can. For all that, he could not reconcile himself to this reprehensible practice that was a norm in Europe. His guts revolted against it. He lived by different rules and professed a different political culture. His moral standards were different, too. Every Kipchak grew up convinced that deception could not make man rich or bring anything but shame upon his head. As he talked to the embassy Attila knew that the Christian envoys were luring away his best troops, unashamedly and impudently. He ordered lists of the defectors to be drawn up and demanded from the Europeans that the traitors be turned over. The Europeans, however, denied any wrongdoing, with a hypocritical smile. The Kipchak king did not know much about negotiating skills. He was too upright to dally with politics. Attila said everything to the ambassadors' face. They took it for his weakness and made fun of
him. Actually, there was nothing much to talk about. Nothing could be clearer. The Europeans were weaning away his troops, his best military commanders. Attila was certainly resentful. But that was only half the trouble. The other half was that the defectors were fated to leave him, no matter how hard he tried to prevent their desertion. Nothing could - order, execution or fear - go against human nature, and the way communities shed surplus numbers. How do they do it, no one knows - it is an ethnographic mystery yet to be resolved. As a general rule, talents abandon their home countries, not because of a higher pay, but because they want power, prestige and career advancement. The power and careers they have long lost hope of getting at home. The Kipchaks hated Rome and made no secret of it. And yet they walked away lightly to serve a country not their own. Probably, they had their reasons and motivations. One defector, for example, wrote bluntly that he wanted to erase the name Roman from the world's memory and rebuild the Roman Empire as a Kipchak Empire. He noted sadly, however, that the Turkis had very bad laws. "I made up my mind then that I would rather labour to revive Rome's glory - which will never pass," by Turkic hands, he concluded. This tragedy - indeed, tragedy is the right word - haunted the Kipchaks. Population growth was detrimental to them. There were too many of them, even for the enormous Desht-i-Kipchak, which was bursting at the seams. The place became too crowded for its talented sons to fulfil their potential and to prosper. A tribe cannot have a hundred wizards or a thousand brilliant military commanders. Even if it does, their talent would be wasted in idleness. One truly wise counsel and one military commander of genius would do (a duo or trio would, but, God forbid, not a hundred or a thousand). It is like a hundred great poets - they would tire the listeners to death with their great verse. A surplus of talents that are unaccounted for is just as damaging to society as their shortage. This was a situation that the Kipchaks landed in under Attila. On the other extreme, the Romans and Greeks were starved of talent. Europe steeped in heathenism had long sunken hopelessly into senility and was desperately in need of a fresh blood transfusion to give it a new lease of life. Therefore, they welcomed defectors from Attila with open arms, giving them all comforts of life, often at the sacrifice of their own. Even humiliations, such as, for example, Rome's conversion to Greek Christianity in 380 on the Kipchaks' urging. Really, it was an act of desperation, as they knew the Kipchaks to be the Christians' allies. That was their only chance to have a foot in the Turkic world. The Kipchaks - those simple-hearted darlings of Fate - seemed to be engrossed by their own greatness and be only living for a day, oblivious of the world around them. One day or another, the defectors from Desht-i-Kipchak were to show that they had Kipchak blood flowing in their veins. First, they betrayed to the Romans an ancient Turkic custom (atalyk) of giving one's children into the care of other families. The Romans hastened to send Aetius, a scion of a celebrated Roman family, to Attila. Attila received Aetius like a younger brother of his and taught him everything he knew, as custom dictated. When time came for Aetius to go back home, he returned a wise and learned man. He went on to become a general and then commander of the Roman army. No one in the whole of the Western Empire knew the Kipchaks better than Aetius (a disciple of Attila himself). Now, Aetius started scheming, without sparing himself, to set Turkic rulers against one another and slander one in the eyes of another, lure the Kipchaks to his side and coax military commanders, clergy and ordinary people. He gave them good land and rich estates, titles and offices. He did all this because he discerned the talent tragedy of the Turkic nation before they could themselves. Aetius found a soft spot and was now pressing on it to give Rome an advantage. He pitted Kipchaks against Kipchaks on the battlefield. Who indeed was Aetius? He behaved too self-assuredly in the company of Kipchaks, like one of them. Little surprise, though. His father, a Turki by the name of Gaudentius, was magister equitum, "master" of the Roman cavalry, and his mother, Itala, was a born Roman, a "noble and rich woman", as contemporaries wrote about her. An evil genius was born of their marriage. Gaul (modern France) was, through Aetius's strenuous efforts, a real kingdom of defectors. It was settled by thousands of Kipchak families, and everything in the land bore a Turkic imprint. Even the name of its capital, Toulouse, which is a common Turkic word. Those were the traitors Attila wanted Priscus's embassy to turn over to him, little aware that you cannot turn a river back to its source. His was a demand that nobody could fulfil. Attila persisted, citing hundreds of names - in Toulouse (Tolosa) and other cities hiding the fugitives, but all in vain. The Kipchaks had a wonderful intelligence service. Their agents reported, for example, that the
They. Aetius was on a war-path. True. peering into the deep blue. Attila was suddenly assailed by dim forebodings. He who strives to victory is protected against arrows…. and even though he had been reluctant to accept them. Tengri's warriors returned to their camp late in the night." Worn down by doubts. "Defence is a sign of fear…. His joy was premature. Attila told the liars to get out and away. They were left no chance. It was clearly a rash move. which sounded more Turkic. another safe haven for fugitive Kipchaks. tired and beaming with delight. he said: "Retreat is worse than death [in battle]. too. half-finished and drained of will to fight on. he won the battle over himself at the moment. In the morning Attila magnanimously looked on as Aetius's army was pulling out of the battlefield.seeds of doubt had been planted in Attila's mind. his scouts reported that the Roman army had marched out to attack him. He had manoeuvred his troops to the Catalaunian Fields. Attila struck first. Tormented by doubts. Spurred on by their battle-cries. little aware of what was to happen centuries later. That was all Aetius had achieved. That was the price of pity shown on the battlefield. This time. suffered most. The sun stood at near noon. Finally. Aetius had anticipated it. boomed the great Kipchak and crossed his troops with his sabre. Grim forebodings attacked him again. and now he turned to a fortuneteller. At the first glimmer of dawn. though. He who whiles away time while Attila fights is dead already. The bitter taste of failure returned Attila to his usual composure.) Priscus and his companions denied everything Attila accused them of. Their commander's words heated up the Kipchaks' hearts. but Attila continued to be torn by doubts. Attila would now and again raise his eye to the sky. When the fortune-teller looked at the ram's blade. The night before the battle passed calm and quiet. (Place renaming is inevitable as migrants or settlers pronounce local names their own way to get them sound familiar. The fugitives knew that treason was the most heinous crime for a Kipchak . he recoiled in terror and predicted disaster. Attila was. inviting Attila to battle there. or rather their historians. as though looking for a sign from the Heaven. . Attila. and the whole of Gaul. A generous gesture the enemy did not deserve. A bright light of victory suddenly flared for the Kipchaks over the Catalaunian Fields. the terrain was not what you could call cavalry-friendly. accepted the unfavourable terms. In a moment the opposing armies were entangled in a deadly battle. The sun danced in the flashing Turkic sabres. Having run out of arguments in getting his way. (Not improbably. he made his steps towards his horse. however. At the first sight of cross-spangled banners and cavalry the settlers. Brave is he who strikes first…. The cities felt so secure against surprises that no preparations had been made to stand up to Attila. even the appearance of Turkic cities in Gaul. The traitors were put to trial that was short and just.he could atone any crime or offense but treason and cowardice. lost sleep in anticipation of judgement. His voice was drowned in a roaring Hurrah. the fortune-teller. of course. accepting them. But no sign came down. The attack petered out. which the thrashed Romans mistook for a weakness. Tutored by Attila himself. "Saryn k'ochchak" (Glory to the brave).) Victory had been given away to Aetius even before the battle began. battle lines were drawn." Those were the last words of his brief address. Probably. No one even moved to oppose it. he succumbed to his fate. ticked as a point won against Attila in the battle on the Catalaunian Fields. the battle against Europe's united army took a serious turn. he did this deliberately to mislead the enemy.Gaul city of Aurelianum was renamed Orleans. He rode up to his troops to address them with words he knew would carry his message. though. which is "Kill" or "Get 'em" in Turkic. He led his army against Rome. Meanwhile the situation was rapidly turning against the Kipchaks. invading Gaul and heading straight for Toulouse and Orleans. They miscalculated. had been bribed by Rome. Revenge is a great gift of nature…. His pure and lucid mind begot fine and honest words that sounded as clear as the swoosh of a flashing sabre. It suddenly appeared to him that the terms of battle had been imposed on him. The Turkic horsemen fell back. the Kipchak cavalry galloped into attack. Praise Tengri. razing to the ground North Italian cities inhabited by Turkis. but a few minutes of repentance. their enemies playing for time so Aetius could gather a large army from around Europe and strike a surprise blow. a famous plain in Champagne. A ram was slaughtered by tradition. He had long been tormented by suspicions of deceit. As Attila was meting out punishment in Orleans. Milan. It was a psychological victory .
When Attila saw Ildico. he fell in love with her. The spectacle of a prostrated enemy never delighted him. the Turkis had populated half of . with Pope Leo at the head. almost ghastly spectacle . knowing about the Kipchaks' compassion. a beautiful girl no one knew where she had come from. not tears. Their wedding feast went on all night. Rome hoisted the Turkic sacred symbol aloft. The Empire's elite. Attila camped within a few days' march from Rome. Their king's death robbed them of will and determination. and embittered. that dreams come true sometimes. Attila's eldest son.were threatening Rome. There is no moral barrier to stop him. if not that? The Kipchaks went mad with grief. Not even the lie that pestilence was raging in Italy. which is on display in the Vatican City. we would be reluctant to accept his death as an accident. They rejoiced at Attila's death and made no effort to conceal their glee. Attila's burial place has never been found. A tent was pitched in the field for the king to lie in state. They waited until noon. he was a man with a tender and passionate heart. They pleaded with him to spare them and their city. It was a war waged by all against all (the grief made Kipchaks blind and robbed them of their senses). The invincible warrior was dead. Tribe fought tribe. It was a sign of trouble. A select troop of cavalry was detailed to make circles around the tent all night as a tribute to the greatest of Turkis. Attila was buried in the dead of night. Roman politicians. The war was over. A long period of internecine strife followed. When Ellak was killed in battle. Rather. A premeditated murder? Or what. It was not the opponents' entreaties that halted the Kipchaks' advance. supporting the weak and harming the strong. A half-subdued enemy is dangerous because in his thirst for revenge he can go to great lengths and to every unthinkable crime. The pope knelt in prayer in front of Attila. Alienating and dividing. slandering and rumour-mongering. preachers and legionaries knew what they could do next. The Kipchaks took it for the will of Heaven. His death was to be mourned with blood. A savage. Attila's Death He was outwitted. of course. above all. This scene is immortalised in Raphael's painting. The Great Migration of the Peoples came to a long period of mutual destruction: a nation of great numbers was killing itself. kindness and lenience. Slander was the tested weapon to fight the Turkis . Was it an accident? Not the least bit. were cropping off locks of hair and making deep cuts in their cheeks. however. It was Tengri's cross. as a gesture of submission to the power of Desht-i-Kipchak.funereal grief and unrestrained merriment going on side by side. The king's weapons and decorations that he never wore in life were buried with him. Really. Their next objective was to set Attila's successors against one another and wait until the Kipchaks wore themselves out by infighting. true to tradition. rode all the way up to see Attila.they would do the rest themselves. It happens. They broke the door and saw an appalling scene . the end was unexpected and even paradoxical. in the end. Everything was suspiciously quiet in the royal bedroom. Attila turned his horse around and headed back home.their beloved king lay in a pool of blood and the girl sat statue-like near him. however. In the morning his guards were alarmed when Attila failed to come out of his bedroom late into the day. all was not as bad for Turkic culture as it seemed. A strange rite.strong and proud under their unfurled banners . Ellak. was a legitimate heir to his father's throne. The Kipchak "losers" . As mourning descended on Kipchak lands there was jubilation among the Romans and Greeks. His body was placed into three coffins put into one another. Their men. They certainly played safe. Ellak was slandered. a sumptuous feast was celebrated at the tent. It was actually the cross that the Roman pontiff raised above his head. In a brazen and insidious way. The Turkis appeared to have risen against themselves. All cities and villages were in mourning. By the late 5th century. and. After the blood-washed mourning. The first coffin was made of gold. On the bottom line. They all went calmly into the netherworld to serve their master. If we remember that the Greeks had attempted to poison Attila before. That night. Everybody involved in the funeral was killed. the Byzantine Emperor Marcian in Constantinople saw Attila's broken bow in his dream.Before long. The ruler departing for the other world was to see that the affluence he had assured for his subjects did not end with his departure. Women put on their white robes and unclasped their hair to hang loose. Life continued. the second of silver and the third of iron. Brother killed brother.
lived the Turkis swept westward by the great waves of migration from the east. the Balkan countries. khan talau survived though much of the Middle Ages in Europe. between Turkic and non-Turkic cultures persisted far into the Middle Ages. and Turkis were the most populous nation in the world. where Turkis made up a sizable part of the population. in a circle drawn on the ground. another Turkic kaganate.) Under another election scenario. Who managed to pull off the trick best was made kagan (wasn't it Tengri who guided his staff?). The man was stripped of all property that could be carried off. Another kaganate. Next. Some Turkic lands styled themselves kingdoms living by Roman law. True. Still others were kaganates that remained faithful to Oriental culture.) Its fragments were scattered all across the bleeding land of Desht-i-Kipchak. part of Germany. Bohemia. worshiped different gods and professed different cultures. Alemannia. khan talau (plunder of the khan). at the end of the 5th century. Siberia was the name of the kaganate occupying the entire Altai steppe. were populated by Turkis who had migrated here from the Altai. as they did in Attila's time.modern France. Hungary. up to the Moskva River. Burgundy. Ukraine. A single nation gave birth to scores of other nations. Bavaria. According to whatever records survived. for example. Turkic. The rest of Europe addressed their prayer to crucified Christ. *** . A would-be ruler was seated on a white rug and carried on shoulders around a temple or any other sacred place (nine times along the solar circle). to parts of Southern Russia and Ukraine. This significant difference between Turkic and non-Turkic lands. Greater Bulgaria. Finally. It comprised lands lying farthest west of the Altai . And that was the chief product of the Great Migration of the Peoples. These lands. Lithuania. and Austria. A kagan was elected to rule the kaganate of Austrasia. The New Desht-i-Kipchak Like the Kushan Khanate before it. the khans (the modern electoral college) took turns throwing up a sacred staff so it could land. Luxembourg. and scores of other new Turkic states sprang up in Europe in the wake of its collapse. Turkic was more frequent than any other language in Eurasia. A string was then thrown around the kagan elect's neck and tightened until the victim lost consciousness. The half-strangulated pretender was asked: "How long can you be the kagan?" That was the khans' way of setting the ruler's term of office. No matter how different. For all their different allegiances and names. The kaganates were ruled by kagans. and it had a name. who were elected by khans from among the khans. kagan elections were played out on approximately the following scenario. Poland. were raided after election of a new pope. Austrasia. Sakha was the easternmost Turkic land. The kaganate of Bulgaria (simply Bulgaria) held lands on both banks of the Idel. its wide arc skirting the western seaboard of the Black Sea. who was shown as a lamb in pictures and paintings. they all had their roots in the Altai and one. One of them was the Visigothic Kingdom in Spain. its pointed end first. Here. The election was rounded up with wholesale plunder of the newly elected kagan. they had a horseman. and Croatia. banner and equal-armed cross for their sovereign symbols. The logic was that the khan was from now on provided for by the nation. too. Romania. parts of Spain and Southern Germany.Europe and all of Central Asia. too. from modern Bulgaria. (With dozens more appearing in Asia. from the Yaik River to Lake Baikal. came the Avaria kaganate (Avar Empire) on lands occupied today by the Czech Republic. Their subjects prayed to Tengri and worshipped the Eternal Blue Sky over their heads. in any case. The Khazar kaganate extended from the South Caucasus northward across the Don steppe. Switzerland. a lone star in the North with an identity setting it apart from other lands. that is a common heritage they are destined to share forever. the giant Desht-i-Kipchak flew apart. where Western church cellars. That was a tradition. a new Turkic state in Central Europe. after and east of Austrasia. (Curiously. Latvia. Belgium. lay south of Ukraine. took up most of the modern state of that name and part of Central Russia. they fought among themselves. blood flowing in their veins. But.
Approximately 3rd century BC. settled over successive centuries. 16th century. Minusinsk Depression. . 10th century. Earthenware. 2nd millennium BC. Minusinsk Depression. Pages 10-11 Craftsmen in Ancient Egypt. Denmark.Burial mask. Fragment of a relief (tracing). Ancient Turkic runes on a stele. We have tried to convey this message in this book. Pazyryk mounds. they will remain forever. 1st or 2nd century. 6th century BC. The art designer has reproduced museum exhibits here. 3rd millennium BC. As we judge. Pages 14-15 Ancient Turkic faces: . Pages 20-21 Bridle ornament. Applique on a felt rug. North Caucasus steppe. Ancient Turkic runic alphabet. Minusinsk Depression in Khakassia. Detail of a bowl (tracing). Approximately the 5th century BC. 1st century. Lena River bank. Pages 16-17 Horse rider. 1st millennium BC. Chinese picture of Ancient Turkis. 5th century BC. Rock drawing. Pages 22-23 Ritual rock charm drawings.Portrait of an unidentified person. the Altai. Pages 12-13 Museum hall. The Altai. without adding anything of his own. A tattoo fragment. 5th century BC. Terracotta. Khakassia. 5th century BC. China. List of Illustrations Page 9 Architecture of Old Europe. Approximately 1st millennium BC. Pages 18-19 Tattoo on a chieftain's body.M. 5th century BC. Vienna. Early 1st century. Vienna. the Altai. Left by the great nation. Bronze casting in Ancient Greece. .The Great Migration of the Peoples left indelible tracks on the face of Eurasia. Carved wood. Kyrgyzstan. Pazyryk mounds. Khalchayan. Khakassia. the Altai. Harness ornaments. Gerasimov's reconstruction from a skull found in the Kenkol burial. Carved wood. Pieter Bruegel's painting "The Tower of Babel". 5th century BC. Uibat. The same runes on the Great Elling Stone. Sakha (Yakutia). Seven Brothers mounds. Turkic warrior with a "screeching" banner. This map shows where and when Turkis. . Runic monument. Pazyryk mounds. Southern Siberia.M. the story of a nation can best be told by that nation and its culture only. . The Altai. Fragment of an ancient painting (tracing). forced out of the Ancient Altai by the overpopulation pressure. Bird.A Kushan ruler. Khakassia. Pazyryk mounds. Bronze. Uzbekistan.
Ukrainian steppe. Pages 26-27 Ancient stone sculpture. Early 1st century. 1st millennium BC. Eastern Kazakhstan.Pages 24-25 Ritual drawing of an elk female. The Altai. Ukrainian steppe. Rock drawings. Angara River area. Deer.I. Noinulin mounds. Spearhead. 5th century BC. 4th century. Ukrainian steppe. The Altai. the Altai. the Altai. The oldest stone tool found by Academician A. Rooster totem. Tribal rock charm drawing. Early 18th century. 2nd millennium BC. Pages 28-29 King's pole-ax. Funeral stone in Pabon-Ha. Pages 34-35 Ancient rock drawings and runic inscriptions. Pages 42-43 One of the numerous representations of Gheser. Pages 30-31 Chart illustrating the design of a steppe mound. An iron meteorite. A drawing of the Yenisei River by S. Minusinsk Depression. Khakassia. 2nd millennium BC. Minusinsk Depression. Stone stele. Okladnikov. Pages 36-37 Spruce. a tribal charm. 5th century BC. Embroidery. Carved wood. Spearhead inscribed with ancient Turkic runes. 4th century. Pages 32-33 Bowl. Portrait of an ancient Turki. Silver. Kelermes mound. 5th century BC. 200. Charm griffin. 1st millennium BC. Gold. Early 1st century. Sarcophagus with animal figures. Tibet. Pages 40-41 Metal smelting furnace.P. Carved wood. Northern Mongolia. Remezov. Bashadar mound. the Tree of Life. Sagyr area.000 years BC. 3rd millennium BC. Stone engraving. Tibet. 1st century. Pages 38-39 The famous stone idols sculpted by the ancient Turkis. Approximately the 5th century BC. 5th century BC. the Altai. Map. Pages 44-45 . the Altai. Pazyryk mounds. Carved wood. Pazyryk mounds. Carved wood. Southern Siberia. North Caucasus steppe. Museum collection in Vienna. Khakassia. Bashadar mound. Khakassia.
4th century BC. A tattoo fragment. Pages 58-59 Women in praying positions. The Altai. Detail of a comb. Noinulin mounds. King of the nagas. Orlatsky burial. A horseman fighting foot warriors. A warrior with a wolf standard (wolf-shaped banner). Pakistan. Silk embroidery. Warrior figures. Pages 46-47 Detail of an ornament. the Altai. India. . the Altai. Pages 48-49 Scenes of Turkis' life. Rock drawing. The eternal sign of Tengri. Approximately the late 4th century. Ukrainian steppe. Pazyryk mounds. 4th century BC. Bronze. Northern Mongolia. the Turkis' guardian. Iran. Found in a steppe mound in Daghestan. Ukraine. Pages 60-61 A deer head in a griffin's beak. Galloping horse. Pages 50-51 Dragon. 6th or 7th century. Pages 64-65 A she-naga. 5th century BC. Pages 52-53 Horse head ornament and saddle. Turkic preacher at a temple. Silver. Pazyryk mounds. 4th century BC. Gold. Solokha mound. The Great Wall of China. Turkic priests. Gold. Fragment of a tapestry. Shenxi Province museum. Low relief fragment. Fragment of an ancient low relief. 5th century BC. China. Detail of an amphora. Kul-Oba mound. Pages 54-55 Winged horse. Gregory's) feat. Gold. the Altai. Pazyryk mounds. Carved bone. Kul-Oba mound. gilt. Ancient rock drawing. Tolstaya Mogila (Thick Grave) mound. 4th century BC. 5th century BC. Gold. a ritual symbol. Pages 62-63 Suspension bridge in the Pamirs. Stone engraving. 5th century BC. or bird griffin. Fantastic animal. Pages 56-57 Symbolic representation of Jargan's (St. 4th century BC. 4th century BC.Vase. India. 1st millennium BC. Vase detail (tracing). Ukraine. 4th century BC. Stirrup. Chertomlyk mound. 2nd century. Ukraine. Early 1st century. 3rd century BC. Ukraine. the Altai. Khakassia. Low relief fragment. Terracotta. 3rd century BC. Turkic warrior. Carved wood. Pazyryk mounds. Daghestan.
Anikovsky treasure. Iran. Seven Brothers mounds. Surkh-Kotal. Detail of the Seven Rivers altar. 2nd century. Vajra (Tengri sign). Part of an inscription on the temple honouring Khan Erke (King Kanishka). Kazakhstan. Uzbekistan. Pages 78-79 Coin of Khan Erke (King Kanishka). Pages 72-73 "Kushan" runic script. Uzbekistan. Pages 76-77 Coin of Khan Erke (King Kanishka). Drinking horn in the shape of Capricorn. Stone. Khorezm. Afghanistan. Early 1st century. Horsemen. Pages 80-81 Buddhist sanctuary (Sita-Tara). 5th century BC. Statue of Khan Erke (King Kanishka). Stair of the temple in honour of Khan Erke (King Kanishka). Kazakhstan. Uzbekistan. Nagarjunikonda. Platter fragment. Noinulin mounds. Tilla-Tepe burial. North Caucasus steppe. Stone. Detail of a low relief. Gold. Tengri faith preacher. 2nd century. Arab-Ata Mausoleum. Silver. Interior. or "ancestors" of Turkic chimeras. Uzbekistan. Silver. Museum in Mathura. 2nd century. 5th century BC. India. Stone. 5th century BC. Detail of a palace low relief. Leather sown over with gold flakes. Afghanistan. Winged animals. reverse. Plan of the Tilla-Tepe burial.Pages 66-67 Ancient horsemen. Pages 68-69 Turkis laying siege to a pagan fortress. The illustration shows a side view of the "cross". Earthenware. Ruins of an ancient Turkic temple and fortress of Koi-Krylgan-kala. A typical specimen of Turkic architecture. Low relief fragment in Persepolis. Bronze. Pages 74-75 Head of a Turkic warrior. Northern Afghanistan. Red sandstone. India. 3rd century BC. A fragment of embroidery. . Airtam. Issyk mound. Amu-Darya treasure. Uzbekistan. 1st or 2nd century. 2nd century. Approximately 4th century BC. Airtam. Northern Mongolia. Approximately 4th century BC. with a dome on an octagonal brickwork building. Khalchayan. Bronze. Surkh-Kotal. the chief treasure of Buddhism. Pages 70-71 A khan's caftan (reconstruction). Fragment of a low relief. Early 1st century. Female lute player. Turkic warrior of the age of the Sak (Shak or Sacae). 2nd or 3rd century. Dagger in a gold sheath.
Kul-Oba mound. the forerunner of a buggy. Composition. Ukraine. Sword hilt. 4th century BC. the Altai. Griffin attack. Mongolia. Gold. Tolstaya Mogila mound. The Himalayas. Pages 88-89 Griffin attack. Pages 96-97 Horseman. Pazyryk mounds. Pazyryk mounds. beading. Iraq. Ukraine. Gold. a hrivna with horse rider figures. 4th century BC. Applique on felt. Kul-Oba mound. Pages 92-93 Khan (he or she?) on the throne. Deer stone. View of excavation of the fifth Pazyryk mound. Wood. Gold. Pazyryk mounds. Amu-Darya treasure. Ukraine. 5th century BC. Gold. 4th century BC. 5th century BC. Dancing woman. Ukraine. Oil lamp. Detail of a necklace. Winged lion with a serpentine tail. Dura-Europos. Mound excavation. Pages 82-83 Detail of a necklace. Fragment of an applique on felt. Chertomlyk mound. 2nd century. Ukraine. Pazyryk mounds. Drinking horn in the shape of a ram figure. Gold plaque. North Caucasus steppe.Vajra on top of the temple in the Buddhist Erdeni-Dzu Monastery. garnet insets. Chertomlyk mound. 5th century BC. Drawing. Pages 86-87 Kailasa. Wood. Page 98 Griffin attack. the Altai. Ukaine. Drawing made in 1864. enamel. North Caucasus. Jars on the seashore. 4th century BC. Gold. Dragon. the Altai. Silver. the Altai. Bolshaya Bliznitsa mound. Gold. Karyazh city. Pazyryk mounds. Sandstone. India. Detail of an ornament. Ornament. Bronze. the Altai. Tolstaya Mogila mound. 5th century BC. Platter table with detachable legs. 4th century BC. Drawing made in 1864. Chariot. the Altai. . 5th century BC. 5th century. Fragment of an appliqued felt rug. Mathura. Pages 84-85 Chariot. the ancient Turkis' sacred mountain. Pages 90-91 Mound excavation. An ornament. 5th century BC. 4th century BC. Pazyryk mounds. Pages 94-95 Horseman. Fragment of an appliqued felt rug.
Copper engraving. Early 4th century. Akhpat Monastery. Eichwald. Low relief. Derbent. Kirants Monastery built in the famous hip-roof style borrowed from the Kipchaks. Derbent. Turkey. Armenia. Armenia. 15th century. Daghestan. Stone. Paris. Daghestan. Early 4th century. Armenia. Armenia. Orta-Kapy stair. 7th century. From the Louvre collection. Western gate. Derbent. Stone. Citadel (Naryn-Kala). From the Apocalypse cycle. Khorezm. Four Horsemen. Iran. Drawing of a reconstruction. Pages 100-101 Chasing scene. Daghestan. Armenia. Pages 116-117 . 2nd century. Armenia. a container to keep relics. Pages 114-115 Ruins of a church. Wood engraving. Pages 104-105 Ahtamar Church of the Holy Cross. Derbent. Germany. Orta-Kapy gate. an example of Turkic church architecture . Page 108 Turkic horug (church gonfalon). Plan of the Echmiadzin Cathedral after renovation in the 5th and 7th centuries. Detail. Pages 110-111 Albrecht Durer. Derbent. 2nd century. Martin Schongauer. Pages 112-113 Plan of the Echmiadzin Cathedral. 15th century. Daghestan.Ruins of the ancient Turkic fortress of Teshik-Kala. An ancient Turkic temple after excavation. Water jet lion (copy). Reliquary. Stone. Pages 106-107 Ruins of an ancient temple. Plan of a temple in Garni built before the arrival of the Turkis. Pages 102-103 Derbent in 1796. The Carrying of the Cross. Armenia.the foundation is always cross-shaped. 1st millennium BC. The crosier of the Armenian Church Catholicos. Stone. an example of European architecture of that age. Drawing from a book by E. Symbolic presentation of a church as a gift from Turkis to a Christian community. Daghestan. The mason's low relief. Temple in Garni. Uzbekistan. Marble. Roman legionaries. Fragment of a low relief. Orta-Kapy gate.
Istanbul (Constantinople). Church of St. Pazyryk mounds. Horseman. Detail of an ancient mirror. Beginning of the Gothic style. Mosaic. Marble. Bronze. 5th century BC. Silver. Daghestan. Church of St. Probably. . one of the earliest churches in Europe patterned on Turkic architectural style. Church of St. Nimfei mounds.hip-roof style on an octagonal building. Carved wood. Rome. Mosaic. Vitalius. Bronze. Theodoric's Mausoleum. Woman with a jug. Page 118 Face of St. Kazakhstan. Northern Italy. Pages 130-131 Figure of a youth. Heavy Turkic-type bow. Djvari Church. Turkey. Pages 120-121 Sarcophagus with a scene showing Constantine's triumph. 5th and 6th centuries. 4th century. Fish. an example of Turkic. influence on Byzantine art. Ukraine. Mural. Ukraine. 5th century BC. Bronze. Nimfei mounds. Candleholder. called today Exaltation of the Cross. Vatican Museum. China. Sophia. Istanbul (Constantinople). Duel. Detail of the floor mosaic in the Grand Palace at Constantinople. Head of Emperor Constantine. Gold. Istanbul (Constantinople). Late 4th century. George. 4th century BC. Greece. Salonika. Istanbul (Constantinople). Pages 124-125 Priceless relics of the Church of St. a sign of sacrifice. George. Pink porphyry. Greece. Female figure. Ukraine. a specimen of Greek art.Acceptance of Tengri's life-giving sign (aji). 6th century. or "barbaric". the Altai. Rebuilt in the 6th century. Page 129 Figure of a youth. 6th century. 5th and 6th centuries. Archway. Ukraine. Northern Italy. Pages 122-123 Mosaic in the Grand Palace at Constantinople. 5th century BC. 4th century. interior. Detail of a vase. Ram in a wolf's maw. Ukraine. Salonika. Turkey. Bronze. Nimfei mounds. a specimen of Turkic architecture . 7th century. Ravenna. Ravenna. Detail of a candleholder. a sign of antiquity in Turkic spiritual culture. Detail of a candleholder. Turkey. Mtskheta. Turkey. Derbent. Rome. Pages 126-127 Besshatyr mounds. Georgia. 5th century BC. George. 4th century. Sophia. 5th century BC. Dome detail of the Church of St.
Northern Romania. Kekuvatsky mound. Detail of a vase. Earthenware. From the Hermitage collection. Horse ornament. Rome. Bronze. 5th century BC. Constanta Museum. Figure of an argali. Pages 134-135 Copper lamp. Bronze. Pazyryk mounds. Sentmiklos treasure. Khan's helmet. 4th century BC. Warriors leaving the battlefield. Austria. 3rd century BC. Ruins of an ancient European city. Romania. enamel. 4th century BC. Interior of a medieval castle. From Peter the Great's Siberian collection. Gold. Tuektin mound. a bridle ornament.Vessel. a typical example of Turkic influence on European culture. Gold. Kul-Oba mound. Seven Brothers mounds. Pages 132-133 Heavenly angels. Pages 138-139 Lion head. Detail of a bracelet. From Ukrainian mounds. North Caucasus steppe. gilt. From the Hermitage collection. Petersburg. Saber hilt with unmistakable Turkic symbols. Pages 140-141 Greek vase. Ukraine. St. Gold bowl. Female swan. bronze. Ukraine. enamel. Ukraine. Horn. Pages 146-147 Great Attila. . Romania. a symbol of wisdom. Ruins of an ancient city. Silver. Detail of a necklace. the Altai. the Altai. Bolshaya Bliznitsa mound. Russia. North Caucasus steppe. France. Gold. Column. Marble. Pages 148-149 Serpentine bracelet. messengers from the Altai. 5th century BC. Pazyryk mounds. Pages 142-143 Amazon. 4th century. Pages 136-137 The Capitoline she-wolf (after restoration). 4th century BC. Blue marble. Page 144 Old building with Tengri signs. Bronze. Silver. Kul-Oba mound. Details of Turkic ornaments. Kazakhstan. Marble. Wood. 5th century BC. enamel. Detail of a gold plaque (tracing). the Altai. Ukraine. 5th century BC. Serpent. Gold. Ancient shield. 4th century BC. Vessel. Fragment of a Greek statue leg.
a play of the handicraftsman's imagination. Fragment of an applique on a felt rug. 5th century BC. Pages 162-163 Bowl. 16th century. Gold. 3rd millennium BC. Pazyryk mounds. Daghestan. North Caucasus steppe. Decoration detail of an old house. Tomsk. Drinking horn. Detail. Ukraine. Paris. Wood. Bolshaya Bliznitsa mound. 4th century BC. Plaque. Karagodeuashkh. Gold. Seven Brothers mounds. gilt. Kelermes mound. Gold. 1154. The Altai. Fantastic lion. Gold. 4th century BC. Pages 154-155 Preparing for falcon hunting. Engraving. Pages 166-167 Al-Idrisi's world map. Siberia. Kul-Oba mound. Ukraine. Ukraine. Ivory. North Caucasus steppe. France. North Caucasus steppe. Gold. Pope Leo I meets Attila. Pages 152-153 Wood lace. Bronze. Wood. Gold. Peter the Great's Siberian collection. . or half animal half man. Bear. 5th century BC. Vatican. North Caucasus steppe. Fresco. Silver. Tracing. Pages 164-165 Two chimeras from a khan's sarcophagus. Pages 158 and 161 Raphael. 5th century BC. Page 175 Ornament. Gaimanova Mogila mound. Triangular plaque with figures. Kul-Oba mound. Sphinx. Face. 4th century BC. 4th century BC. North Caucasus steppe. 5th century BC.Quiver lining. "Stanza d'Eliodoro". Ukraine. Mosaic. Pages 156-157 Carved posts. Page 168 Louvre's interior. Pages 170-171 Map showing lands settled by Turkis. Siberia. Pages 150-151 Bridle ornament. Female dancer. Fraternization scene. the Altai. Carved wood. Samus burial. 4th century BC. 4th century BC. Bolshaya Bliznitsa mound. Melitopol mound. 4th century. Gold. Woman's perfidy. Fancy wood carving was the oldest Altaic handicraft. Ukraine.
Kul-Oba mound. 5th century BC. 5th century BC. enamel. the Altai. Back fly-leaf Arba-bash rug. 4th century BC. Horseman from legend. Coloured designs on felt. Felt. Gold. a sign of Turkis' unity. Ukrainian steppe. the Altai. Pazyryk mounds. Pazyryk mounds. .Cover Upper World Bird.