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Spatial Data warehouses
Group 4: Nipun Garg 4282567 Surabhi Mithal 4282643 http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~smithal/
Abstract The field of Spatial Data warehouses has been emerging since the past decade due to the need to analyze large volumes of spatial data. The data once stored in a spatial data warehouse has to be queried using spatial online analytical processing (SOLAP) systems. The research in field of spatial data warehouses has been on conceptual models, materialization of spatial indexes, aggregation operations and SOLAP. In this paper we give an overview of the core concepts in a spatial data warehouse and recent advancements in the field.
Spatial data warehouses aim at effective and efficient querying of spatial data. Spatial databases are suited for answering regular transactional queries where there is not a lot of historical component or aggregation. The class of queries that are needed to support the decision making process are difficult on spatial data bases. This gave a rise to the field of spatial data warehouses which is idea of combining the traditional data warehouses with spatial databases. Spatial data warehouses are based on the concepts of Data warehouses and additionally provide support to store, index, and aggregate and analyze spatial data . A data warehouse consists of facts and dimensions modeled in a star or snowflake schema. A data cube is a lattice of cuboids which represents hierarchies. The data cube may have cells which are pre computed for efficient query processing. Common OLAP operations include slicing, dicing, Roll up and Roll down. These concepts are extended to spatial data in a spatial data warehouse. Integration of spatial data and data cubes make many interesting spatial aggregation queries possible.
Figure 1: The Taxonomy of Spatial and Spatiotemporal data warehouse Figure 1 shows the relationship between spatial, spatiotemporal and a data warehouse.
EOS archives .The major characteristics of a spatial data warehouse include: • • • • Conceptual model: Star and snowflake schemas for spatial attributes. SOLAP: Client applications on spatial data warehouses . Aggregate operations: Various aggregation operations over hierarchies. Spatial Data Acquisition & Consolidation (ETL) Addition of Temporal features (Optional) Spatial Data warehouse (Spatial Data Marts and Metdata) Spatial Cubes Formation Presentation thorugh SOLAP tools Figure 2 shows the high level view of the various phases in implementation of a spatial data warehouse . Materialized spatial indexes: Extension of spatial Indexes to store aggregated spatial data. This is because of the popularity of spatial information such as maps created from the images/information received from satellites has increased tremendously. Efficient query processing: o Indices and materialized views o Joins and aggregations queries. Some examples of spatial data warehouse are the US census dataset. Spatial data warehouses have been an active topic of research in the past decade. Microsoft Terra server  and Spatial Eye . Spatially enable components: Spatial measures. Spatial OLAP operations: Operations like Roll up. These data sets are huge and have to be analyzed efficiently to make best use of the information gathered. spatial dimensions and spatial hierarchies. drill down extended to spatial predicates . The research in this field mostly focuses on: • • • • Spatial multidimensional models: Conceptual models for efficient representation of spatial data warehouses.
1. These involve spatial data which has to be analyzed over various dimensions on multiple resolutions. We have also analysed trends like spatiotemporal data warehouses and why they are gaining importance. There are many open research issues in spatial data warehouses and we have classified them and presented them in a consolidated manner. detection of environment changes and health monitoring. Forecasting. There exists some literature on overview of general concepts of spatial data warehouses    but we could not find a recent detailed survey which covers all the important aspects of a spatial data warehouse. . security. Reference book  explains the details of terms and terminologies of spatial databases. there is no recent survey paper in literature on spatial data warehouses. 1. Books  which explain in details the basic concepts of spatial and temporal data warehouses. Spatial data warehouses and SOLAP is widely gaining importance due to the capabilities it provides.Spatial data warehouses have a wide variety of application domains like Logistics. Online Encyclopedias like Wikipedia  are good source for basic level information and concepts. In  though some aspects of spatial and spatio temporal data warehouses are covered some important concepts like benchmarks and spatial OLAP tools are not discussed at length. To our knowledge. Contributions and Related work Related work on spatial data warehouses is in the form of: • • • • Journal papers and conference proceedings [1-45][48-52]: These are the basic resources for research in the field of spatial data warehousing and current trends.
[ 5]. . .. .  .  . . .. . .   . .. . .   . .  .The below table Figure 2 shows the classification in terms of topics and research literature which exists for spatial data warehouses. Storage and Querying Selective Materialization Aggregation General Concepts and Issues Aggregation Operations Spatial OLAP ( SOLAP) General Concepts Tools for SOLAP Benchmark Extension of OLAP cubes Spatio-temporal DW General concepts and Issues Trajectory Data Warehousing  .  . Topic Conceptual Models Subcategory Spatial Multidimensional model Requirements of a conceptual model for SDW Mapping of Conceptual model to Physical schema Spatio Temporal model Indexing Subcategory Papers .  Materialized Spatiotemporal GIST Object-Based Pre Aggregation Geometric Aggregation Model . .    .  Table 1: Classification of topics & research literature .
Scope The scope of this paper is to study the broad concepts in a spatial data warehouse and the research needs. Algebraic and Holistic Big Cube Aggrregation operations Aggregation Operations Figure 3: Broad classification presented as hierarchy tree 1. the latest emerging trend in this field spatiotemporal data warehouse is explored. R*a tree Materialized aRtree GIST based Index aRB tree Spatiotemporal aHRB tree MultiDimER model Spatial Data warehouses Conceptual Model Other Multidiemnsional models 3 RDB tree Pre Aggregation Concepts Geometric Aggregation Aggregation Distribuive. Indices for spatial data warehouses. It also outlines the broad research areas in these topics. SOLAP and benchmarks. Materialization and Aggregation over hierarchies.2. In addition. . The paper discusses conceptual models.The broad classification in terms of concepts and algorithms is presented below in Figure 3.
aggregations and data cube. A topological relationship exists between different spatial levels. the current storage and indexing techniques for SDW are presented as well as future research needs are analyzed. measures and dimensions. In section 3. There are a conceptual models existing for relational and spatial data bases but they do not scale well to spatial data warehouses due to presence of hierarchies. Conceptual models for Spatial Data warehouses A conceptual model is a representation of the concepts and relationships between them . It allows representation of real word hierarchies  in the model.  proposes a multidimensional model where measures and dimension are modelled as complex objects. It is quite flexible in the sense that it does not require spatial dimensions to present for a spatial fact to exist. spatial hierarchies. Section 5 and 6 cover the SOLAP tools for efficiently querying spatial data warehouses and evaluation benchmarks in SDWs respectively. Organization The paper is organized in the following order: First we give a brief overview of conceptual models for spatial warehouses. In the model spatial dimensions are of 3 types with the following hierarchies: o Non-spatial. Focus will be on existing models. Finally. • Spatial dimensions: Extending the concept of dimensions in a Data warehouse. section 7 describes spatio-temporal data warehouses which are the latest trend. • Spatial Hierarchy A hierarchy which includes at least one spatial level. 2. MultiDimER model   is a conceptual model for spatial data warehouse which introduces concepts like spatial level. There have been various proposals for multidimensional models for spatial data warehouses. Section 4 describes the important concept of aggregation. .1. o Spatial-to-non-spatial. 2. It provides concepts of entity schema and entity instances and uses these to define hierarchies. The basic concepts in MultiDimER multidimensional model are: • Spatial Level Spatial levels are levels where spatial characteristics are stored. Existing models. spatial dimensions are dimensions that have at least one spatial hierarchy. spatial measures and spatial fact relationships.3. It is primarily for capturing requirements of the decision making users without worrying about the implementation details. aggregations.1.
city and Highway Segment are spatial dimensions as they have spatial hierarchies. Spatial Measures: Spatial measures are measures are either numerical values calculated using topological operators (Length in the figure below) or Geometries which can be aggregated with the hierarchies. Figure 4: MultidimER model for Highway maintenance  The MultidimER model in figure 4 has the following attributes. Figure 5 summarizes our classification: . The physical model is implemented in Oracle 10g spatial.• • o Fully spatial Spatial Fact Relationship: A Spatial fact relationship is fact relationship that requires a spatial join between two or more spatial dimensions. The paper discusses the implementation issues of schemas created using conceptual models. We have classified the requirements presented in  based on the area they belong to. An example for the spatial hierarchy here are City and State. Length is a spatial measure.  describes the mapping of the MultidimER conceptual model into a physical model. The basic requirements for the design of an effective multidimensional model for spatial data warehouses are described in . A Spatial level defined in MultidimER model corresponds to a table in a database. The relationships between levels are represented by many to one relationship between tables.
Indexing Indices form an important part of a data warehouse spatial or non spatial. the performance of queries. If the right index structures are built on columns of dimensions and facts. There have been some proposals  [   for extending the index structures which currently exist to suit the needs of a spatial data warehouse. Storage and Indexing 3.Simplicity •Easy Easy to understand but capturing all basic elements •Independence Independence in specification s and Implmentation Conceptual Model •Implementation Implementation independent •Flexible Flexible in terms of spatia and non spatial attributes Hierarchy •Multiple Multiple as well as Explicit •Handle Handle data with different granularities •Irregular Irregular spatial hierarchies supported Aggregation •Support Support for thematic & geometric aggregation •User User defined aggregates •Avoid Avoid incorrect aggregation •Dimenensionless Dimenensionless and measure less aggregation •Goespatial Goespatial aggregation Data •Handles Handles changes over time •OLAP OLAP operations including drill through and drill across •Handle Handle Uncertainity Figure 5: Requirements of a spatial multidimensional nsional model 3.1. especially ad hoc queries is greatly enhanced. .
The results also show that the extra space needed for storing the aggregated data is linear to the size of the structure. The aR tree  extends along the same idea of materialization of the index by extending R tree for spatial data warehouses.tree for efficient OLAP operations using materialization of the index structure. While R*a tree  highlights of concepts of storing aggregates in the index it does not consider spatial objects. a2 … a5) and the COUNT of spatial objects within them. 3. GIST provides 2 interfaces to extend. The search algorithm in GIST uses the predicate “Consistent” to find all the leaf nodes which are consistent with query predicate. Materialized Indexing R*a tree  extends the R*. The paper shows that storing aggregates in the inner nodes of the index tree will improve the response time of OLAP slice and dice queries as the number of accesses to the secondary memory will reduce. The example shown in Figure 6 depicts an aR tree which shows 5 MBRs (a1.1. Also.1. ` Figure 6: The aR tree  The advantages of this approach are: . A new state for this predicate is introduced called “Partial true”. describes the extension of the Generalized Index search tree [GIST] framework for efficient OLAP queries on a Spatial Data warehouse. aR tree stores the results of aggregation functions on all the objects stored by each MBR. a new search algorithm is proposed for efficient results during a OLAP query. A modified recursive range query algorithm is presented in the paper which uses this pre computation and highlights this will be quite useful in range queries. OLAP operations may need a specific hierarchy which is not defined at design time for spatial data. These are the Predicate and gist interfaces.
Figure 8 shows the structure of an aHRB tree. While the aR tree is considered quite effective for aggregation queries.B-tree (aRB-tree)  is an extended R tree which has a pointer to a B tree which stores historical aggregated data about the MBR. Figure 7: an aRB tree  The Aggregate Historical R-B-tree (aHRB)  combines the concept of aRB tree and Historical R tree [HR tree] for indexing of dynamic spatial dimensions. Spatio-temporal data warehouses need the integration of spatial and temporal structures for efficiency. This has been proposed for static spatial dimensions.2. Figure 7 shows the structure for an aRB tree. . Spatiotemporal Indices Most indexing approaches for spatial data warehouses focus on spatial    or temporal indexes  . This will give scope for selective materialization of the structure.• • aR tree defines a hierarchy among MBRs that forms a data cube lattice model. The aggregate R.  presents an implementation and exploration of aR-trees  for spatial data warehouses. the effectiveness it provides gets degraded when the number of dimensions is quite large .1. This idea can be extended to storing results of window queries or all other types of aggregate operators. The complexity is similar to the sequential scanning when the number of dimensions is significant. 3. Each time an update happens a new R tree is created at that timestamp. Each node stores the time span to indicate if it is valid or not and when was it valid in history. Other form of entries of a node is similar to the aRB tree.
Figure 8: an aHRB tree  Another proposal for dynamic spatial dimension indexing is the aggregate 3 dimensional RB tree (3RDB-tree)  which improves on the limitation of the size of the tree for the aHRB tree. Selective materialization The selective materialization of a data cube has been studied in detail and techniques have been proposed for effectively choosing the set of cuboids to materialize . 100 A 50 B D 20 G 7 H 10 30 E C F 40 75 Figure 9: Example lattice with space cost for selective materialization  Figure 9 above shows the lattice model. The large R tree stores different version of all the regions in the same tree. which forms the key for selective materialization. The edge from node 1 to node 2 (from up to down) shows that the query for node 2 can be answered by the grouping done for node 1.2. . The greedy algorithm proposed in  gives the output as the selected nodes to materialize based on space cost minimization. It forms one large R tree for the whole history as opposed to the many small R trees created in aHRB tree. 3.
Aggregation over spatial data warehouses refers to computing of the aggregated operations on measures on the union of the areas which are considered for aggregation.3. An example is computing the total size of a union of a number of areas. Research needs The index structures discussed above focus on materialization of the index structure storing aggregations of spatial measures. the difference in the spatial case is that the computation cost. Aggregation Aggregation in data warehouses refers to the summarizing of the properties of data over particular dimensions of interest. Aggregation operations and techniques 4. Most of the existing work is limited to numerical aggregations and other simple operations.Though the problem of selective materialization extends naturally to spatial data cubes.1. 4. The methods proposed for selective materialization of spatial data cubes assume that there exists information about the access frequencies of a set of selected cuboids. The selective materialization is based on the relative access frequency of the sets of mergeable spatial regions. Aggregation operations for spatial and non spatial data . This is due to the computationally expensive joins and other operations for spatial data. The most commonly used of these are time and geographic location and applying an aggregation operation of interest to the measure/fact data. 3. 4. There is a need to study the materialization of indexes for supporting spatio temporal measures like the direction in which a movement is happening.1. The algorithms they propose assume that pre computation cuboids are already identified by algorithms in  or by minor extension to them. The index selection problem is widely known problem in the databases world. Methods need to be proposed which are independent of this assumption. In  a finer granularity approach is suggested for spatial data a cube which focuses on cell level materialization instead of cuboid level. The pre computation occurs if they are expected to be accessed frequently. The problem extends naturally to spatial data warehouses where efficiency of retrieval is of prime importance. The approach is called object based materialization and focuses on selecting a few spatial objects.1. If there is no materialization of the spatial data cubes the online computation becomes very time consuming.
Min. Min ( Base). MostFrequent. Rank. Nearest Neighbor. This is because of the problem of double counting while aggregation. MostFrequent. Agggregation concepts The operators presented in    work well with spatial objects but aggregation of spatial measures requires to consider the topological relationships existing between them. Table 3: Aggregate operations for BigCube  4. Standard Deviation. Table 2: Set of aggregate operations   describes the BigCube model for multidimensional spatial data. Max. FirstNonNullValue. Minimum Bounding Box. Orthogonal Centroid. Variance Concatenate. Spatial Intersection Gravity. Mass Geometric Intersection Holistic Median. Standard Max. The operations defined are listed in Table 3. Sum (Apex). Spatial Union Centroid. Type Big Cube Aggregate Operator Additive Semi Additive Count. Equi Partition.2. Equi Partition. Deviation. . Algebraic and Holistic  . Rank Nearest Neighbor Index. They define aggregation operations as additive. Center of Bounding Box. semi-additive and Non Additive and describe how these are incorporated in the multidimensional model. Average. Center of Mass Non Additive Median. MaxN() & Min N() Minimal.Aggregations functions for spatial data have been grouped into three categories Distributive. Convex .MaxN() & Min N() Hull. Data Type Set of numbers Set of Geometries Aggregate Operations Distributive Algebraic Count. Table 2 describes the grouping of the spatial aggregate operations based on three basic categories. A building listed as a bowling alley and discotheques would be counted twice under aggregation for entertainment . LastNonNullValue. Sum Average. Center of . Gravity and Center of Geometric union .
The same spatial object may be considered as a point in one application as a polygon in the other.3. geometric part. Research Needs The Multiple representation problem is widely known problem in spatial databases . algebraic and application part  4. The pre-processing of facts is done for computing their disjoint parts. . and the Classical OLAP or Application part each of which maintain separate hierarchies and interact with each other to answer queries. The drawback of the approach in  is that they do not address forms other than polygons. Figure 10 shows an example of the three parts. They propose the classification of topological relationships between spatial measures. Figure 10: Geometric. deals with this problem and describes the pre-aggregation of spatial measures. They define three parts namely algebraic part. In some other scenario 3 dimensional representation may be followed which considers the object as a cuboid or polyhedron.  describes a formal model for geometric aggregation. The preaggregation works if the spatial properties of the objects are distributive over some aggregate function. Figure 11 depicts the three different representations possible of the same spatial object which may be a building in this case.
Double Counting while Aggregation Double Counting means incorrect aggregation of measures due to some overlapping property. GIS tools are also helpful in analyzing spatial data but still are not good enough to make full utilization of spatio temporal datasets . The problem of double counting has been addressed in  considering topological relationships between spatial measures and only doing aggregations over objects which are disjoint thus avoiding the problems of incorrect aggregation. Business Objects and Oracle Express.Point Polygon Cuboid Figure 11: Multiple representation of the same object The multiple representation problem is particularly problematic in case of spatial data warehouses because of 2 major reasons . In this way it will be possible to have decision support tools that are . 5. Some of the examples include Cognos Powerplay. Spatial Online Analytical Processing (SOLAP) OLAP is an approach to swiftly answer multi-dimensional analytical (MDA) queries . 2. a new approach is to couple of OLAP and GIS functionalities. Therefore. It is a category of decision-support tools often used to provide access in an efficient and intuitive manner to a data warehouse. OLAP tools are not robust to analyze spatial and temporal data. Aggregation and Consolidation of data from different sources where a different representation is followed. An example would be the same park being used for a concert and a fair may be counted twice while aggregating the objects classified as entertainment. 1. This is still an open problem due to concepts of multiple representation and topological relationships when the objects are represented in 3 dimensions. SOLAP operations: While doing an operation like roll up and drill down over hierarchies same level may have different representation for the same object making it difficult to choose one.
1. Without a cartographic display. we have summarized the current available tools for SOLAP. OLAP tools lack an essential feature. or SOLAP. • Visual data selections or Integrated OLAP and GIS solutions (Geo cube. they can help in driving the historical data analysis. SOLAP tools can be divided in three different categories. These are called Spatial OLAP systems.2.   . which could help the completion of spatiotemporal exploration and analysis processes . 5. 5. Cognos. Data visualization facilitates better understanding of the structure of the data and helps in better decision making capabilities . Sovat). Knosys) which provide means for aggregation of data. . Maps and graphics do more than make data visible. • OLAP dominant (Business Objects.better adapted for spatio temporal exploration and analysis of data. • GIS dominant which focus on geometric operations. Concepts • • • • OLAP supports spatial data but it treats a spatial dimension as any other dimension and it does not pay attention to the cartographic component of the data. OLAP SOLAP GIS Figure 12: SOLAP is created by combining concepts/features of conventional OLAP &GIS This creates a need for SOLAP which has been defined in  as a visual platform built especially to support rapid and easy spatio temporal analysis and exploration of data following a multidimensional approach comprised of aggregation levels available in cartographic displays as well as in tabular and diagram. Tools for SOLAP In this section.
the benchmark should be able to analyze the performance of operations such as spatial roll up and drill down.1. Before creating a detailed benchmark specification. Types of benchmarks There are 2 types of benchmarks: o Functional benchmarks – These are the standards to evaluate what functions a system can do. it is important to decide about the most crucial technical requirements of a data warehouse. Benchmarks for Spatial Data warehouses Benchmarking is to evaluate or check (something) by comparison with a standard. it is critical to assess the warehouse's performance. 6. o How well is the performance of your spatial data warehouse? o Does it need improvements or is it really good? To answer such questions. . o Performance benchmarks – These benchmarks helps to determine and compare how fast the system is. In order to evaluate how efficient these techniques are. Few are indices creation and materialized views. relative to an achievable "standard" or "benchmark. The benchmarks used for spatial data warehouses query processing should fit spatial data warehouse evaluation needs. different datasets with different properties are used. This helps in focusing the benchmark in those lines. In past few years several concepts are implemented to improve query processing over spatial data warehouses. Integrated Cognos Knosya Geo cube SOVAT Figure 13: An overview of Spatial OLAP tools 6.Figure 13 shows the classification of SOLAP tools into various categories. Also." Every benchmark should have well-defined success criteria. SOLAP TOOLS OLAP based Business Objects GIS based LGS Group Inc.
6. . containment range queries and enclosure range queries in the spatial predicate. However. Research Needs There is a need to research on developing benchmarks for the evaluation of: • • Spatial data such as lines. Overview of existing benchmarks for spatial data The following benchmarks exist for spatial data: Benchmark VESPA  Measuring performance by considering spatial joins  TPC-D Description/ Limitations Both of these benchmarks focus on the spatial predicate computation but not aimed at assessing the efficiency of SOLAP operations. But it does not support indices nor materialized views . TPC-H  TPCDS . polygons with holes and with islands. focuses on this problem by using predefined spatial hierarchies. This benchmark is more realistic then the previous ones. It is a performance benchmark. Table 3 : Various Benchmarks and their limitations Spadawn  is the considered very effective for spatial data warehouse benchmarking as it not only generates SDW datasets composed of points and polygons in spatial attributes but also supports evaluation of different types of spatial queries (SOLAP) that enable the performance evaluation of intersection range queries. Benchmark by Transaction Processing Performance Council for decision support systems.3. 6. However. It suppresses the schema issue with a snowflake schema. It extends the TPC-H to enable the analysis of historical trends and provides a set of predefined queries to run over its star schema. It enables the evaluation of spatial roll-up and drill-down operations. The SSB’s queries refer to descriptive locations of suppliers and customers. Helps to address the query processing performance on spatial rollup and drilldown operations. but is aimed at refreshing warehouse with new and changed data originating from the operational side of the business. its schema differs from the traditional star schema. Spatial data generation and SOLAP query processing. This provides individual queries that are not known in advance.2. the SSB does not hold spatial attributes nor stores maps that would enable multidimensional queries with spatial predicates. Star Schema Benchmark (SSB) Spadawan benchmark  Spatial data warehouse benchmark (Spadawan).
for instance. 7. Organization of Temporal data Two concepts of time are involved in temporal characteristic of geographic entities. While spatial data warehouses look at many types and dimensions of data including the spatial context. Challenges Many applications refer to moving objects and require spatio-temporal modeling for specific analysis. Spatio temporal data cubes are essential to support trajectory data. the decision making potential of such organizations grows manifold. This type of object motion defines a continue variation in space and time which makes it very difficult to handle such huge datasets. World time refers to the time when an entity change take place in reality whereas the system time means the time that records the entity change in database.• Additional SOLAP query types to analyze drill-across operations on extended SDW schemas.2. there is a need to include the temporal aspects as well.World time and System time . “How many objects visit a given area during a given time period?” This query includes both spatial component and time component. Introduction to Spatio.1.1. Trajectory data warehousing – Tools and techniques Trajectory data warehousing is a branch of spatiotemporal warehousing. spatial dimensions at different levels of granularity (point. containing.1. cell. 7. users might want to use only system time (eg GIS) or both (Data warehouses) which makes it even harder to model two types of time dimensions in the spatio temporal data warehouses. demographic data.temporal data warehouses Consider the query. like address. 7. Many fields deal with the data that has spatial information as well. location. This will allow applications to see hidden relationships and patterns in data.1. It should allow analysis along temporal dimensions. road) and thematic dimensions. 7. . Depending on the requirement. Trends: Spatiotemporal data warehouses Data warehousing applications are based on high-performance databases. 7. If we integrate the spatial component of the data with the data warehouse.2.
g. construction and querying a database with dynamic objects that change location. shape and size. shape and size. . o It enables the modeling. • The GeoPKDD trajectory data warehouse . Location-Based Services – LBS). either discretely or continuously in time. It is a system extension to Oracle 10g ORDBMS data management infrastructure for historical MODs. splitting the raw data according to some criteria.• • STAU: A spatio-temporal extension for the ORACLE DBMS. o Hermes provides spatio-temporal functionality to state-of-the-art Object-Relational DBMS (ORDBMS). location data is captured. o It is a robust framework that provides functionality for handling spatio-temporal data. and is forwarded to a trajectory stream manager.The prototype has been designed as an extension of STAU and it supports the demands of real time dynamic applications (e. It provides data management infrastructure for historical moving objects. Hermes :Hermes is a database engine for handling objects that change location. Figure 14: The GeoPKDD architecture  Description of the architecture • At the beginning. which does some preprocessing operations such as. Figure 14 below illustrates the GeoPKDD architecture. providing a trajectory identifier.GeoPKSS is a project which aims at extracting user-consumable forms of knowledge from large amounts of raw spatio temporal geographic data.
the MOD includes a relation MOD Trajectories with schema (Oid. Future Work Domain specific application of spatial data warehouses are much talked about the research literature . Summary Spatial data warehouses have been an active area for research over the last decade. Concepts like big data are evolving with a big chunk of spatial information to process. Trajectory warehousing is an important step in this. 3 Dimensional queries on spatial data warehouses may be helpful in domains like urban planning and Disaster management .• • • • These trajectories are then loaded into a moving object database (MOD). future research should focus on modeling. Owing to high scalability of this type of historical data. store and analyze. Future work in this direction would be classification of literature that exists in specific domain and identification of common concepts in each domain. Given the latest trends. trajectoryid. trajectory). 7. location-based services and traffic control management. such as mobile marketing. appropriate querying and Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) processes are applied to update the TDW with trajectory information. The trajectory data warehouse model mentioned is based on the classic star schema. aggregations and spatial OLAP. It is an invaluable field which has lot of scope. Other research directions we would like to include going ahead would be 3 Dimensional spatial objects in terms of spatial data warehouses. aggregation and indexing to improve efficiency in such warehouses. The topics include conceptual models. 8. In MOD. 9. and two spatial dimensions. MOD is managed by the Hermes system. storage and indexing. The survey we presented covers the broad topics of spatial data warehouses and overview of trends like spatio temporal data warehouses. This not only will give present a broad example of use of spatial data warehouses in a domain but also would give an idea of the core concepts which are applied in each domain. It has a standard temporal dimension. Basically. For some of the topics we have provided the areas . The topological relationships for 3 dimensional objects would include relationships like INSIDE. ANYINTERACT . Research needs The motivation of having spatio temporal data warehouses is to utilize valuable information that can be used for decision making purposes in applications. where trajectory is of type Moving Point.3. spatial data warehouses can be considered as a big part of the future research due to their capability to provide decision making users relevant and concise data.
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