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Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Storage Devices
Unit-4 Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Storage Devices Lesson plan
Topics Lecture numbers 1 1 1 1 1 2 2
Introduction – Types of Batteries , Characteristics of batteries& Primary Alkaline battery Secondary batteries- Lead Acid accumulator Nickel Cadmium battery & Lithium batteries Fuel cells- Hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells Solar cells and wind energy Nuclear energy - Fission and fusion reactions , Light water nuclear reactor , Breeder reactor
Material prepared by: Chemistry faculty
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Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Storage Devices
At the end of the lecture, Student will be able to • Define battery or Electro Chemical cell, Differentiate electrochemical cell from electrolytic cell and State the types of batteries. • State the characteristics batteries. • Explain the principle, working, applications and limitations of the following 1. The primary alkaline batteries 2. Lead Acid accumulator 3. Nickel –Cadmium battery 4. Lithium batteries and lithium –ion batteries 5. Fuel cells - Hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells. 6. Solar energy 7. Wind energy and 8. Nuclear energy: fusion reaction and fission reactions 9. The breeder reactor and light water nuclear reactor
Material prepared by: Chemistry faculty
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• • • • • • • • Material prepared by: Chemistry faculty Session No: < 0 > Page 3 of 21 . the Italian anatomist and physiologist Luigi Galvani created an electric circuit consisting of the frog’s leg (FL) and two different metals and published a report on ‘animal electricity’ in 1791. with an enhanced net emf. The Egyptians are said to have electroplated antimony onto copper over 4300 years ago. the battery was invented by Volta by piling voltaic cells over each other. In 1800. Italian physicist Alessandro Volta realized that cardboard soaked in salt water was a suitable replacement to frog’s moist tissues and the frog’s muscular response could be substituted by another form of electrical detection. also called Galvanic cell. 250 BC to 640 ADO. This voltaic pile gave a voltage of about 50 volts for a 32-cell pile. Chemistry Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Storage Devices Introduction Do you know? How old are the batteries? Prehistoric batteries: • It is believed that the Parthians who ruled Baghdad (circa 250 BC) used batteries to electroplate silver. • • In 1780. in a series.1 volts DC was used circa. He was able to spot electric current through this system.Engg. Clay jar with iron rod surrounded by copper cylinder filled with vinegar as an electrolytic solution produces 1.
Dr. after a battery of cannons. The box was filled with an electrolyte of brine. • • • Material prepared by: Chemistry faculty Session No: < 0 > Page 4 of 21 . William Cruickshank designed the first electric battery capable of mass production. Grooves in the box held the metal plates in position. Chemistry Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Storage Devices • Volta's experimentations at the French National Institute in November of 1800 in which Napoleon Bonaparte was present. batteries began to provide more reliable currents and were adopted for industrial use. or watered down acid.Engg. Benjamin Franklin coined the term “battery” to refer to an arrangement of multiple Leyden jars. Cruickshank arranged square sheets of copper soldered at their ends. intermixed with sheets of zinc of equal size. These sheets were placed into a long rectangular wooden box that was sealed with cement. developed in the end of 19th century. • • • Daniel cell (by John Frederic Daniell) in 1836. These fragile wet cells were replaced by dry cell batteries. • In 1802.
. Material prepared by: Chemistry faculty Session No: < 0 > Page 5 of 21 .. Chemistry Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Storage Devices BATTERIES NEVER DIE. The battery "remembers" the point where its recharging began and during subsequent use suffers a sudden drop in voltage at that point and the battery will be discharged fully...THEY ARE MURDERED!.... 2..Engg. Which batteries are called as “THE CELL OF FUTURE”? Lithium-ion batteries is the fastest growing and most promising battery chemistry because of its advantages over the other batteries are called as “THE CELL OF FUTURE”...by over charging and discharging • Batteries can also be subjected to premature death by: • • • • • • Over-charging Over-discharging Short circuiting Drawing more current than it was designed to produce Subjecting to extreme temperatures Subjecting to physical shock or vibrations 1. Why do mobile phones suffer by a sudden complete discharge? NiCd batteries suffer from a so-called "memory effect" if they are recharged before they have been fully discharged.
Which is the world's largest wind turbine? Enercon E-126 . In winter season. cars have starting troubles in cold whether and can be recovered by warming the electrolyte.000 four-person households in Europe. Chemistry Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Storage Devices 3. which is enough to power about 5. The tower is 138 meters high (453 feet) and its walls are 45 centimeters (18 inches) thick. Battery becomes dead. Crews will install 91 wind turbines in the shallow waters of the North Sea. Where is the worlds largest wind farm? Denmark Building World's Largest Wind Farm Denmark is currently building the world's largest wind farm. 4. The electric energy produced will supply over 200.E-126 by German company Enercon is record-breaking. Rated at 6 megawatts. and it's expected to be finished in August of this year (2009). This is the Enercon E-126. the world's largest wind turbine that's currently being installed in Germany. with wings that measure 147 feet.Engg. Each windmill is nearly 375 feet high. the diameter of the rotor is 126 meters (413 feet) and the blades feature an improved trailing edge that boosts production.000 homes with constant power. This monster generates over 7 MW of Electricity. Material prepared by: Chemistry faculty Session No: < 0 > Page 6 of 21 . Why do cars have starting troubles in cold whether? At very low temperatures the electrolyte may freeze giving a lower voltage as ion movement is impeded. 5.
Chemistry Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Storage Devices 6. What are the two nuclear power stations in Tamilnadu? K The Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) KALPAKKAM Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant Material prepared by: Chemistry faculty Session No: < 0 > Page 7 of 21 .Engg.
Primary batteries (disposable batteries). Ex. Nickel-cadmium (NiCd). Chemistry Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Storage Devices CONTENT Energy Storage Devices Battery: Battery is one or more electrochemical cells. Common types of disposable batteries include zinc-carbon batteries and alkaline batteries 2. restoring their original composition. Primary batteries irreversibly transform chemical energy to electrical energy. Electrochemical cell or voltaic cell Types of Batteries There are two types of batteries: 1. by physically separating the components of the battery and only assemling them at the time of use. Such constructions are expensive but are found in applications like munitions. that is. Ex. which are designed to be used once and discarded when they are exhausted. which store chemical energy and make it available as electric current. Material prepared by: Chemistry faculty Session No: < 0 > Page 8 of 21 . which are designed to be recharged and used multiple.Engg. Reserve batteries achieve very long storage time (on the order of 10 years or more) without loss of capacity. Secondary batteries can be recharged. Nickel metal hydride (NiMH) and Lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells 3. Nickel-zinc (NiZn). H2-O2 fuel cell 4. Flow cell: Reactants.: Lead –acid betteries. which may be stored for years before use. products and electrolytes are continuously passing through the cell. they can have their chemical reactions reversed by supplying electrical energy to the cell. Secondary batteries (rechargeable batteries).
Chemistry Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Storage Devices Characteristics of Battery Voltage Current Capacity Charge-Discharge Storage density Power density Cycle life Shelf-life Self-discharge Tolerance to service condition: Temperature and vibration Battery Cells EODV Primary battery: DRY CELL (or) Leclanche’s cell Metal cap Metal bottom Net reaction 2MnO2(s) + 2NH4+ (aq) + Zn2+ (aq) + 2Cl.(aq) --Mn2O3 (s) + [Zn(NH3)2] Cl2 (s) + H2O Material prepared by: Chemistry faculty Session No: < 0 > Page 9 of 21 .Engg.
Engg. Zn dissolves in NH4Cl. which takes up electrons during discharging the cell Electrolytes: KOH solution The half-reactions are Net reaction: Zn (s) + 2MnO2 (s) +H2O (l) not too heavy Mn2O3 (s) + Zn(OH)2 (s) They are used in remote controls. flash lights. Anode: Zinc (can or container or cylinder) Cathode: Carbon (graphite) rod. Chemistry Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Storage Devices Electrolyte NH4Cl is acidic. even not in use. clocks. transistor. radios where the power drain is Material prepared by: Chemistry faculty Session No: < 0 > Page 10 of 21 . Alkaline Dry Cells Alkaline cells overcome some of the problems with carbon-zinc batteries by using alkaline potassium hydroxide in place of acidic ammonium chloride in the electrolyte. MnO2 is an oxidizing agent. This leads to self discharge and the cell run down slowly.
+ 4H+ 2PbSO4 +2H2O Material prepared by: Chemistry faculty Session No: < 0 > Page 11 of 21 .4% H2SO4 at 25o C 6 cells are connected to produce 12v.Engg.+ 4H+ Charging Net reaction 2PbSO4 + 2H2O+ 2ePb + PbO2 + 2SO42. Chemistry Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Storage Devices Secondary batteries LEAD ACID BATTERIES (or) LEAD STORAGE CELL Lead-acid batteries.3 g/cm3 Separator: glass fibre separator permit ions not electrons Cell representation: Pb|PbSO4 | H2SO4 | PbO2| PbSO4 Voltage: 2v at a conc of 21. invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston are the oldest type of rechargeable battery.2 g/cm3 Discharging Net reaction Pb + PbO2 + 2SO42. H2SO4 (specific gravity 1.2 at 25o c) with density of 1. Density of the electrolyte should be = (or) >1. Anode: spongy lead (Pb) Cathode: a grid of lead-di-oxide (PbO2 packed on lead) Electrolyte: 21% dil. Cell reaction is reversible: The cell reaction can be made to precede both the directions by supplying or withdrawing the current.
They can be recovered its ability by warming the electrolyte. batteries become dead.Engg.2. the battery is to be recharge Starting trouble at Cold climate: At very low temperatures the electrolyte may freeze giving a lower voltage as ion movement is impeded.4 v Material prepared by: Chemistry faculty Session No: < 0 > Page 12 of 21 . Chemistry Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Storage Devices Specific gravity (SG) of H2SO4 is going below 1.rechargeable alkaline battery Cell reaction is reversible. Due voltage drop. Anode: Cadmium rod Cathode: NiO2 (or) NiO(OH) Electrolyte: alkaline KOH Cell représentation: Cd/Cd2+ | KOH | Ni4+ / Ni2+ (or) Cd/Cd2+ | KOH | Ni3+ / Ni2+ Net reaction Cd (s) + 2NiO2 (s)+ 2H2O -(or) Cd (s) + 2NiO(OH) (s)+ 2H2O -Charging Net reaction Cd(OH)2 (s) + 2Ni(OH)2 (s) Cd (s) + 2NiO2 (s)+ 2H2O Cd(OH)2(s) + 2Ni(OH)2 (s) Cd(OH)2 (s) + 2Ni(OH)2 (s) ---------NiO(OH) ---------(NiO2) The nominal output voltage for single cell is 1. Ni-Cd batteries Secondary batteries.
tend to develop dendrites which are thin. The battery "remembers" the point in its charge cycle where recharging began and during subsequent use suffers a sudden drop in voltage at that point. Overcharging: If the anode is overcharged. when not used regularly. Material prepared by: Chemistry faculty Session No: < 0 > Page 13 of 21 . conductive crystals which may penetrate the separator membrane between electrodes.Engg. oxygen gas is produced. Dendrites Dendritic shorting NiCd batteries. with seals that fail at high internal gas pressures. Memory effect: It is sometimes claimed that NiCd batteries suffer from a so-called "memory effect" if they are recharged before they have been fully discharged. This leads to internal short circuits and premature failure. NiCd cells are vented. 5. Chemistry Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Storage Devices Troubles in Ni-Cd batteries 1. long before the 800–1000 charge/discharge cycle life claimed by most vendors. as if the battery had been discharged. High cost 2. The sealing mechanism must allow gas to escape from inside the cell. and seal again properly when the gas is expelled. hydrogen gas is produced If the cathode is overcharged. 4. Toxicity due to Cd 3.
Lithium-ion batteries Li-ion batteries are a types of rechargeable battery In which lithium ions move between the anode and cathode. Depending on the design and chemical compounds used. The lithium ion moves from the anode to the cathode during discharge and from the cathode to the anode when charging. Chemistry Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Storage Devices Lithium batteries Lithium batteries are disposable (primary) batteries that have lithium metal or lithium compounds as an anode.5 V to about 3. over twice the voltage of an ordinary zinccarbon battery or alkaline cell battery. Lithium-ion batteries are common in portable consumer electronics because of their high energy-to-weight ratios. and slow self-discharge when not in use.Engg. lithium cells can produce voltages from 1.7 V. Material prepared by: Chemistry faculty Session No: < 0 > Page 14 of 21 . lack of memory effect.
they are currently one of the most popular types of battery for portable electronics. Lithium-ion batteries do not suffer from the memory effect They also have a low self-discharge rate of approximately 0. so generate very high voltage of 3 v Solid state battery: All constituents are solids . Lithium-ion batteries can be formed into a wide variety of shapes and sizes so as to efficiently fill available space in the devices they power. (Eo = very high oxidation potential).Engg. Chemistry Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Storage Devices Lithium batteries and Li-ion batteries are called as “THE CELL OF FUTURE” It has the greatest oxidation potential. so no leakage problems Lithium is the lightest of all metals.1% per month. The best energy-to-weight ratios – high Energy density Wh/Kg due to its light wt. Material prepared by: Chemistry faculty Session No: < 0 > Page 15 of 21 . compared with over 30% per month in common nickel metal hydride batteries.
:TiS2 Electrolyte: solid polymer with Li salts -. Material prepared by: Chemistry faculty Session No: < 0 > Page 16 of 21 .move from cathode to anode through external circuit Li ions move from cathode to anode through electrolyte and reduced on anode by taking the electrons Anode: Li+ + e.--Charging cell reaction By passing external current to the anode Cathode: LiTiS2 --TiS2--Li+ + TiS2TiS2 + eLiTiS2 (Li+ Ti3+S2 ) e. Chemistry Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Storage Devices Lithium batteries Lithium batteries have lithium metal or lithium compounds as an anode.--Li Overcharging and certain kinds of mistreatment may cause Li-ion batteries to explode.Engg. Solid state battery Rechargeable Anode: lithium metal Cathode: Transition metal oxides or sulphides Ex.permits only the passage of ions not the passage of electrons CELL REACTION: Net reaction: Li+ + TiS2.
such as ethylene carbonate. such as lithium cobalt oxide LiCoO2. lithium iron phosphate and lithium manganese oxide LiMn2O4. Material prepared by: Chemistry faculty Session No: < 0 > Page 17 of 21 . LiBF4 or LiClO4 in an organic solvent.Engg. acting as a carrier between the cathode and the anode when a battery passes an electric current through an external circuit. The separator is a polymer soaked in electrolyte between anode and cathode Intercalation – a reaction where (lithium) ions are reversibly removed or inserted into a host without a significant structural change to the host During the charge and discharge processes. Electrolyte is a polymer soaked lithium salt in an organic solvent Liquid electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries consist of lithium salts. such as LiPF6. lithium ions are inserted and extracted from interstitial space between atomic layers within the anode material of the battery. and back when charging. Anode is graphite Cathode is generally one of three materials: Li intercalated transition metal oxides with variable valences. A liquid electrolyte conducts lithium ions. Chemistry Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Storage Devices Lithium-ion batteries A lithium-ion battery (Li-ion battery or LIB) is a family of rechargeable battery types In which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge.
Chemistry Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Storage Devices Lithium ion battery: Ex: Graphite . and reduced from Co4+ to Li1-XCoO2 + LiXC6 Discharge Chemical Reactions Material prepared by: Chemistry faculty Session No: < 0 > Page 18 of 21 .Engg.Lithium cobalt oxide LiCoO2 battery. Anode: Graphite electrode Cathode: .Lithium cobalt oxide LiCoO2 Charge/Discharge Chemical Reactions Charging: Net reaction LiCoO2 + C6 ------Net reaction Li1-XCoO2 + LiXC6 ------Co3+ during discharge LiCoO2 + C6 Co in LiCoO2 being oxidized from Co3+ to Co4+ during charging.
the fuel required. During the combustion of fuel with O2. Types of Fuel Cells • • • • • • Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Alkaline Phosphoric Acid Direct Methanol Molten Carbonate Solid Oxide Material prepared by: Chemistry faculty Session No: < 0 > Page 19 of 21 . So chemical energy can be directly converted into electrical energy without production of heat Fuel Cells are classified primarily by the kind of electrolyte they employ.Engg. the kind of catalysts required. the temperature range in which the cell operates. and other factors. Chemistry Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Storage Devices Fuel cells A fuel cell is an electrochemical conversion device for producing electricity by converting the chemical energy of a fuel and oxygen into electrical energy. the oxidation of fuel liberate electrons (electrical energy). This determines the kind of chemical reactions that take place in the cell.
Engg. Chemistry Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Storage Devices Alkaline Fuel Cell: CELL REACTION Anode: 2H2(g) + 4OH-(aq) Cathode: O2 (g) + 2 H2O (l) + 4e. the electricity flows out of the cell. Material prepared by: Chemistry faculty Session No: < 0 > Page 20 of 21 .Net reaction: 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) 2 H2O (l) 4 OH-(aq) 4 H2O (l) + 4e- As long as there is a flow of chemicals into the cell.
Chemistry Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Storage Devices Material prepared by: Chemistry faculty Session No: < 0 > Page 21 of 21 .Engg.
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