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• Sentence Structures  

S-LV-PN

oral exercise Basic Sentence Patterns Rhetorical Sentence Patterns • • 1. 2. 3. 4. Sample • • • • • • Jose Rizal’s The Monkey and The Turtle And yawned loudly enough to make everyone in class turn around In a few months, there will be a new UPLB Chancellor. planet of misfortune Until later Because Eng1 is taught in large class Phrase Clause Fragment Sentence • • The hysterical guide calmed down. Education all over the world is in a crisis. The responsibility is yours.

Most language teachers favor teaching the course in small class rather than in large class. • The project beneficiaries wrote the volunteers a letter of thanks. Suffering has made me wise.

Rhetorical Sentence Patterns

Review of Sentence Parts • Subject - simple subject - compound subject • Predicate - simple predicate - compound predicate • Complements - Predicate Nominative (PN) - Predicate Adjective (PA) - Direct Object (DO) - Indirect Object (IO) - Objective Complement (OC) • • Modifiers Connectors • • • Examples • Three children race against each other towards the pond. The sight of a pond, which provides a temporary relief against extreme drought, excite the children in the community. Water is life; drought is death.

Basic Sentence Patterns • • • • • S-IV S-TV-DO S-TV-IO-DO S-TV-DO-OC S-LV-PA

Using black and white photography for a more dramatic effect, the photographer captured a range of emotions—despair, optimism, hope, joy—in a single shot. Oral Exercise • Knowledge grows with exploration, adding new facts, correcting old beliefs. • The first requirement, clearly, is to learn how to think—not just aloud or in print, but privately. • Facts are to the scientists what words are to the poets. • For illustrative purposes, however, let us consider one form of art enjoyment which is virtually available to every normal human being, young or old, learned or simple, saint or sinner—reading. • The artistic adds to the sum of human wisdom, or our understanding of the human predicament. • At the very least, the way the film was made is tasteless. • Nothing prevents the artist from being an entertainer and nothing prevents the entertainer from being an artist. • Very destructive, Typhoon Falcon left many houses without roof.

*conjugation of verbs Examples: Active or Passive?  A cold compress was quickly applied to the wound.  How do we avoid pitfalls in writing? The Use of Active Voice  To make your sentence forceful.  How do we avoid pitfalls in writing?  For clear writing.  A passive verb is always a verb phrase made from a be plus the past participle of the transitive verb. Assignment  Answer Exercise A. Ex: Filipinos pay little attention to cheap but nutritious vegetables. (performer already known) Seventy housewives were interviewed regarding their daily lives. Try It!  They discussed their views with the President.  A speech on the effect of watching too much television and playing video games by children will be delivered in the symposium. Your answers will be discussed next meeting. P: He was reprimanded by the principal for encouraging students to join protest rallies. 2. The leaking faucet was repaired by her brother-in-law.  Above everything most people value individual expression in thought and behavior. The 2011 budget should be primarily used to implement programs that would benefit the poor. 154 of Dadulfalza’s Reading into Writing 1. (performer unknown) Transforming the Voice of the verb  ACTIVE: S TV DO  PASSIVE: DO TV S A: Carefully he removed the glass from the picture window.  Most action verbs can also be in the passive.  A speech on the effect of watching too much television and playing video games by children will be delivered in the symposium. P: Laura was mystified by the message.  Write your answers in one whole yellow pad. . 1. 3. Ex: He was convicted of murder. Has your friend returned the book? An anti-terrorism treaty has been concluded by ASEAN countries during the last summit. 4. Voluntary contributions fund the orphanage. Little attention is paid to cheap but nutritious vegetables by Filipinos. the glass from the picture window was removed by him.Transforming Active to Passive Voice Voice  is the form of a verb that shows whether the subject is performing the action  ACTIVE VOICE – subject is the doer of the action  PASSIVE VOICE – subject is the receiver of the action  Any action verb—may be transitive or intransitive— can be in the active voice.  Ray’s seeming indifference is misconstrued by her friends. use the active voice. A: The message mystified Laura. Exercise: Transform the voice of the verbs in the following sentences from active to passive or passive to active . omit needless words.  To point out the receiver of an action whenever the doer of the action is not important or not easily identified P: A cold compress was quickly applied to the wound. P: Carefully.  Ray’s seeming indifference is misconstrued by her friends. p.  The tense of the helping verb be determines the tense of the verb. p. A: (Her doctor) quickly applied a cold compress to the wound.  Above everything most people value individual expression in thought and behavior. Heavy rains delayed the flight from Manila to Mindanao. Her brother-in-law repaired the leaking faucet.  Carefully he removed the glass from the picture window. The Use of Passive Voice Ex: A: The principal reprimanded him for encouraging students to join protest rallies.  They discussed their views with the President. 153 and Exercise A.

2 x5  x 4 y  x3 y 3  3x 2  12 y 7 Examples: Name the terms of these polynomials.OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS TYPES of Polynomials OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS Learning Objectives Upon completion you should be able to: Identify polynomials and non-polynomials. Perform the following operations on polynomials:  ADDITION  SUBTRACTION  MULTIPLICATION  DIVISION OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS  According to the number of terms     MONOMIAL – one term BINOMIAL – two terms TRINOMIAL – three terms MULTINOMIAL – more than three terms OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS Types of Polynomial POLYNOMIAL A POLYNOMIAL is an algebraic expression which involves  One or more variables that involve only NON-NEGATIVE integer exponents.  Identify each polynomial according to the number of terms: 1) x3 y 2 z 4 3) y 3  4 y 2  5 2) y8  x 4 4) x5  2 x 4 y  6 x3 y 2  4 x 2 y 3  y 5 OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS DEGREE of a Term OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS Identifying Polynomials   is the sum of the powers of all variables in the term. Example: Find the degree of the polynomial. Which of the following is a polynomial? 1) x 2  3 y 2 4) x 2  y 3 5) x3  2 x 2 Example: Find the degree of each term in the polynomial. 2) x  3 y 3 3) x y x y x5  x 4 y  x3 y 3  3x 2  12 y 7 OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS 6) x2 y 4  3 7 DEGREE of a Polynomial OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS TERM of a Polynomial   is the degree of the term with the highest degree in the polynomial. and  No variable in the denominator.  A constant or a product of a constant and a nonnegative-integral power(s) of variable(s) A term is separated from other terms by +. 1) x 2  3x  4 2) x 4  y 4 .

ADDITION of Polynomials RULE: Identify similar terms. 5 x 2 y 2  2 xy 3  4 x 2 y 2  xy 3 3 2 2 3 5 4) x  2 x y  6 x y  4 x y  y 5 4 OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS  x 2 y 2  3 xy 3 OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS TYPES of Polynomials According to the degree:  Addition of Polynomials CONSTANT – degree 0 LINEAR – degree 1 QUADRATIC – degree 2 7 x yz xy  x 3  x  3 x 2  x3 COLUMN Method RULE: Arrange similar terms in column.  Example: Add the polynomials below. 5 xy 2  7 x 2 y 3  4 x 2 y 2  2 x 2 y 2 OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS SIMILAR Terms  SUBTRACTION of Polynomials RULE: Same as the column method in adding polynomials.   CUBIC – degree 3 5x3  7 x 2  x  4 and 3x3  8x 2  3x  7. Example: Identify similar terms. add their numerical coefficients and affix common literal coefficients. then add.OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS Degree of a Polynomial Identify the degree of each polynomial. are terms that have the same literal coefficient. Example: Subtract the 2nd polynomial from the first one. OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS COEFFICIENTS A term is composed of  Numerical coefficient  Literal coefficient Addition of Polynomials COLUMN Method 5x3  7 x 2  x  4  3x 3  8 x 2  3x  7 8 x 3  x 2  4 x  11 Example: Identify the numerical and literal coefficients. 1) x3 y 2 z 4 2) y8  x 4 3) y  4y  5 3 2 Example: Simplify by adding similar terms. 3xy 2  7 xy 3  12 x 2 y 2  x 2 y 2 4 x3  7 x 2  2 x  4 3x3  8 x 2  3x  7 .

2 3 Examples: 1. Example: Multiply the polynomials below. 4 x3  7 x 2  2 x  4 8x2  7 Answer: 32x 5  56x 4  12x 3  17 x 2  14x  28 OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS x 2  5x  6 x 1 OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS DIVISION of Polynomials METHODS: Long Division and Synthetic Division SYNTHETIC DIVISION 1. then add similar terms. x  5x  6 x 1 2 2.  2 x  1 OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS MULTIPLICATION of Polynomials RULE: Multiply the polynomials term by term. OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS SYNTHETIC DIVISION Example: Perform the indicated operation using SYNTHETIC DIVISION.) 3x  2 x  6 x 1 3 2.OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS SUBTRACTION of Polynomials LONG DIVISION  12 x 1  3x 3  8 x 2  3x  7 x 3  15x 2  x 2  3  4 x3  7 x 2  2 x  4  MULTIPLICATION of Polynomials RULE: When multiplying a term by another term. Bring down the leading coefficient: . Write the coefficients ONLY inside an upside-down division symbol with a at the left side: Example: Perform the indicated operation. multiply their numerical coefficients and affix the product of their literal coefficients.)  3x 2  x 2 y 2   x 4 y 2 2 2 OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS LONG DIVISION Perform the indicated operation: 3x 3  7 x 2  x  1  x 2  1     Answer: 3x  7   2x 1 2x 1 or 3x  7  2 2 x 1 x 1 or 3x  7 r.