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We would expect such specializationto demarine. of those very peoples of the sea.fight with. in the midst of England'snaval wars paigns. And fromthe Athenians.88. and as a weapon to soldiers especially trained to serve on ship.no of naval specializationwould be expected doubt.the originof marines with that of warships. At the same time.88. --~ I' ~ - ~-~.--- --- "The Epibataehavelanded and have the situation well in hand. The Homeric heroes word for marine was epibates.modern times by the troop-carrying deating out of ships.4 The regular we speak of marines.stroyers that played so prominenta role in 18I This content downloaded from 65. I- 1- sa 111 Number 3 Volume 44 DECEMBER 1948 0 .' or those representedin combatwith with the Dutch.intended to fight on or fromthe decks the Vikings and the Homeric warriors.5 There are three ways to use a warship:as usually rowed. on board sea-power. But even such appeared warriorsare not what we usually meanwhen Corinth and Corcyra in 704. Charles F A MARINE be definedas a fighteron ship.I.3 The marines of modern times arerather a platform to fight on. as any Americanmarineor sailor will board. they are part of malice prepense against his neighbor was a the total naval establishmentof the nation.and triremenot to row but to fight. before the dawn of very quickly inform you. They are clearly distin._--- . The AmericanMarineCorps "peoples of the sea" in the murals of was formed at the very inception of the RamesesIII at Medinet Habu.' "----- S I i ---. although and river towns of Europein the ninth and marinesin our sense of the term must have as early as the naval battle between tenth centuries of our era. themselves. kindred. ing shipsespeciallydesigned Such were the soldiers who sailed on the this definitionappearedin the British Navy warshipsof Thutmose III in his Syrian cam. the ships they a meansof locomotionto get to the fight. 15 Aug 2013 12:36:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . or to makeup landing parties oper.guished from the sailorswho make up the is contemporary crew. as sailed. in of ships. fleet and in a A narrower definition would confine the velop first in a highly organized itself nation which term to regularlyorganizedfoot-soldiersservprimarily as a regarded marines under modern The first for war. for the first Stone Age man who put they are not merely infantry who happen to himself and his axe in a dug-out canoe with find themselves on a ship.42 on Thu. history.in 1664. which the define as one who sails in a and the Norsemen were land-fighters who lexicographers used ships to get to the scene of fighting. would be the hosts who sailed against Troy Among the ancients the highest degree in the armadaof Agamemnon.and the sea-soldiers their dragonships who terrorizedthe coastal are the main subject of this paper. who were the sea-power of Athens we would similarly classify the Vikings in parexcellence. The first theory is representedby board." The Marines of Athens John F.2 Such also Navy in I775.
bowmen and javelin men. Sometimes.notably the "Tokyo Express"of the Solomons' "Slot.stratiotides.whereasthe landlubberly Romansin their one real naval contest relied on the corvus(a combinationgrappling-iron and drawbridge)and the legionary soldier. In the expedition to Orneae in 416 there were 600 men on 30 ships. the triremes. CHARLES The per ship. a boarders'battle took place in a Norwegian fjord between HM destroyer Cossack and the Germanprison ship Altmarck. realizingthat fighting in so narrowa space would give little opportunity for maneuver.88. Sicilianexpedition. He adds rather patronizingly that "they were organized in the old manner. although they were not regularly assigned.Even so.1 the Pacific campaigns.10 Persian ships still had 30. 14 hoplites and four archers. the fighting men were disposed through the whole fleet. the more skillful sea-faringpeoples have tended to use the ship as a weapon."7 Again before the battle in the GreatHarborof Syracusein 413. between the Persians and the revolting lonians.presumablyfour to a ship.i82 JOHN F. it was more like a land than a sea battle.Thucydides tells how both sides crowded their decks with hoplites.as we see from an inscription.15These we may classify as marines. and between the Athenian fleets rowed by the proletariat. between the pre-eminence phalanxin the classicalperiodand the hoplite franchisewe meet with so frequently in the fifth century.and the exof that city.however.88.This was certainly reached true in antiquity.19 were not servingas marines. for 60 which fighting ships. Quite frequently greater numbers sailed with the fleet.14 would mean II or 12 per ship. Fleet maneuvering its highest development among the fifthcenturyAthenians.16 Development of Marine Tactics and their employment depends largely on the philosophyof navaltactics of the belligerents.17Twelve years 1. the troops are carried in notably in the specialtransports.ooo on 60 ships. At other times. rather unskillfully. . embarked large numbers of infantry.Ioo soldierson a total of 134 In cases like these.6On the whole. Of course a warship might carry more troops than its regular complement of marines. the Athenians. It is only to be treme democracy This content downloaded from 65. At the battle of Lade in 494. the new and modernized Athenian squadroncarried only 18 OBvIoUSLY the number of marines required When the fleet sailed against Melos in 428. as late as 1941. we read that the Chian ships each carried 40 Fourteen years chosen infantry as marines.where we are told that of the Ioo Athenian ships. In his descriptionof the battle between CorinthandCorcyra atSybotain433. 15 Aug 2013 12:36:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .no doubt.powerand the perfection of fleet maneuveringthan it was later.520 troops. of course. 30 ships carried cusein 415 had 5. in addition. 400 archers. we have 700 marines. the less skillful as a platform. 40 were transports.There is certainly a connection between the chariotwarriorsof the Homeric poems and the aristocraticmonarchyof the of the heroic age. SocialStatus of Marines IT ISA TRUISM that the class that fights the battles of the state is likely to have socialand to its military political status corresponding importance.l3 On the expedition to Sicily in 415. it does appearthat it was greaterbefore the rise of Athenian sea. io seems to have been the standardnumber." and the host of LC's and LS's of the United States Navy. there were 2. and the ships thus became temporarily transports.8 Thoughancientauthorsarenot lavishwith data on the number of marines at various times.'2 and from several passages where we can divide the numberof infantryin a landing by the number of ships involved. The Athenian fleet which operated around the Peloponnesusin 431 carried. no final decision was reached until after the Napoleonic Wars when the developmentof longrange guns made boardingoperationsa practical impossibility. .18 The expedition against Syra- later againstthe sameisland.but were troops merely being transportedto the battlefield.9 later at Salamis. however.42 on Thu. In the Athenian fleet of the fifth and fourth centuries. As between the two other uses.
neither captain nor marine.But even in democratic Athens the marinesseem to be in some ways a privileged group. e.27 Someof these remarks.500 hoplites from the muster-rolls28 the 700 thetes epibatae of the 60 fighting But in the summer of 412. which can refer to social class.being merelypassengers I83 until the ship was in action.g.24 This is not at all surprisingin a state like Sparta whose social and economic system would permitno full citizento be a seaman.88. when half her empire was in revolt (and Athens thus cut off from her usual recruiting grounds for sailors) every available thete was needed for the rowing bench. 15 Aug 2013 12:36:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Before Salamisit is to the marines. he says that he was neither horsemannor hopWhen the lite.42 on Thu. Sailorsand Marines BUT WAS THERE any real distinction in economicclass between sailorsand marines? Specifically.31 The theory that marines were usually drawn from the hoplite class. are to be explained by the fact that every sailorhad a specificpost and a job to do.22 she undoubtedlydid so in the precedingcentury. Phoenicians and Egyptians. the Medes. If we take "best" in This content downloaded from 65.e.88.30 It seems obvious that the procedure in 415 before Athens had suffered any naval lossesand when she was preparing the mightiest armadain her history would be more normalthan that of 412 after the tremendous loss in ships and seafaringmen at Syracuse. which had suffered less severely and was not needed for other service at present. In the Persianfleet at the beginningof the fifth century the crews are madeup fromthe subject maritimestates which furnishedthe ships: lonians.Soo. the zeugitae. In 412.21 And if Spartacould furnish when her total populationhad citizenmarines fallento about I. the thetes."35The word for best is ji8XrLOTro. "This war" obviously means the ArchidamianWar. of course.25 When the orator Lysias is accusing an opponent of never having served the state. we know that the sailors of Athens were fromthe lowest propertyclass. Generallywe find that the marinehas the same status as the infantryman. fantryof the Empire. regularhoplites drawn from the catalog. whereasthe hoplite class. the libationsare made by the commandersand the marines. At least an Athenian speakerin 369 says that in a Spartanfleet the captainsand probablythe marineswould be but the sailorseither helots Lacedaemonians. But the marinesare the elite inthe Persiansthemselves. those referring to the eve of Salamisand the departurefor Sicily.not the sailors that Themistoclesmakeshis rallyingspeech.and the warriorcastes of Egypt.THE MARINES OF ATHENS expectedthat the status of the marinewould vary accordingto the military and political system of the individual city.26 Sicilianexpedition is about to leave Athens.Aristotle tells us that sailorsneed not be freemen. the Sacae. and that they controlthe ship.i.34 can scarcelybe based on these two passages.32 and that the use of thetes in 415 was unique33 or at least the first occasion. Sometimes an argument has been drawn fromThucydides'statementthat the marines who died in Aetolia in 426 were "the best men who fell in this war. or were they from the class above. which is appreciably higher than that of the commonsailor. but that marines will be.20 Roughly the same situation obtained in the Spartan fleet. There is other evidence that generallythe marines rated as more important than the sailors. Cilicians.29 nian naval fortunes were at their lowest ebb before Aegospotamoi. or mercenaries. or muster-roll? Two passagesseem to make it clear that the marines were thetes.Were the marinesthetes. In describingthe musterof the Athenian forces at Corcyrain 4I5. Leon and Diomedon sailedwith an Athenian fleetto Chios having on board marinesdrafted compulsorilyfrom the muster-rolls. would be free to hearspeechesandmakelibations. might well be draftedfor shipboardduty. when Atheships. Thucydides distinguishes clearly the from I.23 In many passages the marinesare bracketedwith the captains and officersas the elite of the ship. whereasthe marines. although the distinction is not so clear-cut.
no distinction would be made well have been a special group picked from between the two forces.88. to give us some idea of the role of the seaWhen. and that the fighting must have been Sailors Non-Combatants done by the marinesand such Ionian and isand oarsmennormallydid not land Greeksas hadjoined their countrymen.49 hoplites. but occasionally To the marines must also be assigned the and not infrequentlywere siege and captureof Sestos on the Hellespont they carriedarms40 of the in the following winter.The main River national in their armed fleet as all the Persian Eurymedon on land by troops disemwas action make manot did of fashion.50 used as landingparties.47 In many accountsof naval expeditionswe Potidaeaor Delium or Amphilpolis.42 troops41 like Mycale at the mouth of the much describesthe crews of victory possibly exaggerating. of course. the statement36 an enemy vessel for no matter what class iron was used. unThe siege of Aegina In the melee doubtedly by marines.The descent on of boarders'battles.42 on Thu.The same is true the marineswere prominent. I would con.48 THESAILORS participatein the fighting. of course. these men belongedto. no hoplites the reputationof being largelymercenaries. rines of such seamen.44 peciallyreconstructed The tactics and armament of marines Landing Parties when used as landing parties calls for no conflict with the PelIN ATHENS'FIRST special comment. equipped by participated.since their employment barkedfromthe 2oo Athenian triremeswhen as soldiers was incidental and exceptional. with whom. for they fought like any in the middleof the fifth century other land troops.51 us were muchlike land battles. which Thucydides tells Halieis in 459 was a landing from ships. perhapsorganizedin tribes like the hoplites.184 J1OHNF. since it was conarms with by the commander provided as and light-armed ducted by the Athenian contingent from the employed expedition A few years later Cimon won a as or even Herodotus. and long-thrustingspears but the originallandingand investing of the againstenemy marinesand even the oarsmen town seems to have been made by marines. CHARLES is by a sort of armorbelt.javelins.39 could have been spared to serve with the fleet.45 use made marines the of maneuveringships. and reasonablyconjecturethat this was the case. But it is if we interpretit as are told that extra hoplites went along. The bulk The same custom exists in modern navies. of course.or may state and trained in shipboardfighting. who had Plataea campaignwas going on. course. The epibataewere probablya group of there are enough campaigns alone that marines the told about .to immobilize incomprehensible. the Persiansdeclined a sea battle. in Pamphylia. Even moreoften no mention is made of the size of the land force the whole corps of marines. like his citizen Athenian empire. Nevertheless andmakeup organization in which we are was. 15 Aug 2013 12:36:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . We aretold nothing aboutthe composition sailors. (458-7) requiredregularhoplites. It is part due to their being Athenian citizens in clearhowever that:at the very time when the greater measurethan the seamen.a ship was to sail. it was.43 fought This. in so far as the latter were not sheltered For Thucydides tells us that immediately This content downloaded from 65. it would not be supe. perfectlyunderstandable referringto military virtue.88. its trierarchwould soldiers in the building and defense of the draft his quota of marines.38 We can only conjecture what the exact andwe arethus unableto tell whetherregular of the MarineCorps hoplites were included or not. of arrows.37for they may once landed. samefleet. and.500oo-2. from the tribal rolls.in order to board.46When a grappling the sense of social status. oponnesians they were often brigaded. of these menwere of coursemarines.ooo thetes. of the force that landed from ships and destatus somewhat the that privileged jecture of the Athenian marinesmay have been in feated the Persians at Mycale in 479.although are occasionally Plutarchtells us that the ships had been eswhere partiesof blue-jackets to carrymoresoldiers. the marior to that of the regularhopliteswho fell at rines who operatedit.
againsta demoralized The expeditionof 2oo ships sent by Athens in 459 to assist the Egyptian revolt against Persiacarriedno troops but marines.42 on Thu. as Plutarchtells us.67 were sent home.In the summerof 431 a fleet of 30 operated off Locris.and to them is due the credit of capturingMemphis and holdingit for nearlyfive years. and occasionalseizureof fortified posts and beachheadsfrom which more extensive campaignsinland could be organized. Athenian participationin the land fightingwas confinedto the marines who won a number of successes in landing operations:at Mylae and Locrisin 426.88.71 This content downloaded from 65.he ing a force of Acarnanians and Leucas finally Aetolia. where the Spartanslost the best part of a fleet of 60 and their admiralMindaros. although reinforcementswere soon brought In 428 Asopus in fromLemnosand Imbros. and full-dressnaval battles were few.56 an 429/8 by Phormio and 400 marines from the expedition into Acarnania in the winter of squadron at Naupactus on the Corinthian Gulf.52 The Athenians probablyhad 1oo ships. This is particularlytrue of the Archidamian War. the Athenians landed and besieged Aegina. giving a marine force of about iooo. and Messinain 425. 15 Aug 2013 12:36:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in 430/29 and 428."Both ended disastrously. It is improbablethat extra hoplites would have been carriedon ships which expected a naval engagementwith a fleet as efficient as the Aeginetan and largeenoughto lose 70 ships. Marines Alone THERE ARE SOME cases in which figures given make it clear that only marineswere involved. and they very probablyshould be assignedto the marines. from 431 to 421.69 "few Athenians"70 later mentioned as reand as departing ceiving a third of the spoil. for during that time the Athenian fleet had almost undisputed controlof the sea. strong enough to start preliminarysiege operations city. Such operationswere the naturaltask of marinesthen as now.losing nearly half his The shipsand survivingmarines contingent. Athenian strategy called for constant nuisanceraidson exposed points of the enemy coast.63 During the first Athenian expedition to Sicily in 427-23.57the voyage of Demosthenes in 424 throughthe CorinthianGulf. but chiefly for what the Athenians quaintly referredto as "silvercollecting.61At the time of Brasidas' seizureof Amphipolisin 424 it was the timely arrivalof Thucydides' eight ships and their marinesthat prevented the fall of Eion.58 In some other campaignsno forces other than marinesare mentioned or implied.65 Perhapsthe most elaboratemarineexpedition of the war was that conducted by Demosthenesin a squadronof 30 ships in 426.88.and gatherand other allies.55 Throughout the PeloponnesianWar the Athenian marineswere constantly employed. operated against where he met disaster. where he finally lost his life and part of his marine contingent.59 the revolt of Mitylene in 428 consisted of 40 ships. was chiefly a land battle between the marinesof Alcibiadesand those of Mindaros.53 Pericles' expedition to the Corinthian Gulf in 453 in which he attackedSicyon and joined the Achaeans in a campaignagainst Oeniadaewas a marinecampaignif the iooo troops54really sailed on ioo triremes. landing marines who seized Thronium and Atalante and defeated in pitched battle the field force of the LoThe first expedition sent to block crians. The following winter Demosthenes. partly to put down piracy.66 With his 300marinesas a nucleus. commandinga force of western allies.THE MARINES OF ATHENS after their naval victory off the island.64 The battle of Cyzicus in 410. and apparentlyno troops but marines.68 The only Athenian force specificallymenBut the tioned was a group of 60 archers. when he failed to get his 400 marinesand an army of allies to Boeotiain time for the Deliumcampaign. inflicted a catastrophicdefeat on the Ambraciotsand their Peloponnesianallies. These include a sweep of ioo triremes around the Peloponnese in 431.62 Ominously indicative of a common employment of marines in the fourth century were two small expeditions to Caria.60 raided aroundLaconiato Oeniadaeand Leucas.
76 the generals sailed off leaving Demosthenes with five ships to hold the place. and which consisted of on a hostile shore. and included a signalvictory over a groupof Spartanmarines under Therimachus. Sicily.it is likely that this one did too.It seems very pect of 60 light-armed that Demosthenes also had under probable his commandthe 200 marines from the 20 ships of Aristoteles which were operatingin the sameregionat the time. were madewith largeforces.88. again We aretold that 40 ships underDemosthenes.77Demosthis numberby sending theneslaterdecreased two ships with a call for help to the fleet at At the time when the PeloponCorcyra. a grievousblow to Sparta.88. the winning a beach-head marines.85 It would be exaggerated. were despatched to Sicily under command of Sophoclesand Eurymedon. especially trained for this type of warfare. In 394 after their victory over the Peloponnesians off Cnidus.just as Cyrus a few years earlierhad hired Greekmercenaries to stiffen the armywith which he had warredupon his brother.the mercenaries were undoubtedly Greeks hired as marines to stiffen a fleet made up largely of oriental seamen. of course to claim as a marinecampaignevery Athenian expedition which made a landing in enemy territory.must have played a very important role. Demosthenes had armedhis sailors as best he could. Pharnabazusand Conon sailed among the islands expelling Spartan harmostsand garrisons.84 The expedition of Thrasybulusin 390/89 which restored Athenian control in the Hellespontand Lesboswas madewith a force of 400 marinesfrom 40 ships.had a few cavalryand 2.75especiallyas Thucydides makesit clear that it was ships that were needed in After Pylos hadbeenhastilyfortified.But it ended with the deathof Thrasybulus and a partof his forcein a landingat Aspendus. guarded the stockade.000 soldiers. it seems legitimateto credit that corps with the initial captureof Pylos.73 Marines at Pylos eventually involved all branches of the Athenianforcesin largenumbers. THE PYLOS-SPHACTERIA campaign in 425 This content downloaded from 65.but it seems likely that the originalseizureand defenseof Pylos was made largely by marines. 15 Aug 2013 12:36:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the rest.Cythera and Methone.42 on Thu.and the figuresagreewith the assumptionthat only marineswere present. and the raids on Thyrea and other places.These samemarinesseized Cythera.though probablyfew were from Athens. 800 of them marines.And it is worthy of note that the actions which really hurt Spartaand gave the Athenians the upper hand in this war were just suchcampaigns. and the light armed.that againstCythera. of which only 600 could have been marines. CHARLES The activities of the marinesin the Corinthian War of 395-86 can also be traced.79 for defensehe picked60 hoplites preparations to preventa landingat the one placewhere it could be expected. It is quite reasonablethat when the attack came he employedtwo thirds of his shock troops to beat off the landing.81 ter than Soosailorsarmedas skirmishers.80Probably Demostheneshad go hoplites under his command:the 40 Messeniansand the 5o marines from the ships.82In the next springthey sailed to Greece with a large fleet "having hired in addition a large mercenaryforce.I86 JOHN F.a job that must have been done by marines.87 But it is obvious that in any camin marinesmadeup roughlyonewhich paign third of the force.78 nesiansmade their first attack. for example."83 Since this was not for a land campaignbut merelyto raidthe enemyshore. Corcyra.Sinceno other soldiers arementioned.ooo hoplites. seem to play a more imwith Demosthenes72 portant role in the story than we would exarchers.86 The force that raided the Corinthiad and took Methone was madeup of 200 horsemen and 2. and had received a reinforcementof 40 MesseIn making his niansfroma passingprivateer. provided that he had held backthe marinesfrom the two ships sent to In additionhe had somethingbet. and as the earlier squadronto Sicily had carriednothing but marinesand seamen. The most striking Athenian successes of the ArchidamianWar. the capture of Sphacteria.74 No force of hoplites is mentioned.
117--18. 5. Torr. 2. J. IxI. Plato Laches I83 D-i84 A mentions a long spear with a sickle on the end as unusual. J. Xenophon Hellenica i. 65. 3I.g. I93I) pp. 7 62 4. 34E. Beloch op. I96 ff. cit. 40 7. 25. Diodorus II. cit.I and ioI. 84.: "tapfersten". I. 67. I and 92. 49. 1912) fig.2. 59 2. 8. 353.cf. I 18 5. 12 CIA II. figures. of 2000ooo-3000. 2.Suidas. 114. I-2. Cant. 49. 2). Beloch. 32. Griechische Geschichte. I.Ancient Recordsof Egypt(Chicago. 15 2. and R. 49 Herodotus 9. 2. Beloch (op. 61 63 65 66 4 3. grecque2 [Paris. 25 and 28. 2. 2 and 76. 3 (Berlin." which does nothing to clear up the question of class.42 on Thu. lowing How and Wells Commentary on Herodotus 13 3. I. 5. or a victory. 32. 65PericlesI9. 43 7. 3) rejects both figures on the groundsthat no such numberof ships could have been stationed at Pagae. Xenophon Hellenica Mycale. 93. [Oxford. 24Xenophon Hellenicai. III. 8. 46. 472 and n. Diodorus ii. I. 3. 70. A cruiseof Ioo triremeswas not unusual. Bury. I. G. 107. 68 apyvpo)oyit. GriechischeGeschichte 3 (Gotha. 17-I8. I5-II4. tarch Pericles28. 27 marinesper ship. 14 6. 46 I. 43: (K KaraXoyov. 7 and Io2. 19 6. I gives the numberas 50. 3. 4.2. 67 3. epibatae. 27 6. 2. 2: iKKaraX6'yova va'YKoarovs. 15 Aug 2013 12:36:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 109. 4. The War at Sea (New York. 24. I88I) 236. 23. 26Lysias 6.88. 98. I80o) refers to "chosenbattalions. 8s. I-2. 99 and 103. 91. Diodorus II. 105. I. The 57-68. I84. 2. a discrepancythat Glotz (Histoire 9 Herodotus 6. raxeat. 26. Busolt op. I and 95. I9. The Aeginetans had won the prize of valor at Salamisonly i8 years before: Herodotus 8. I4. 334 n. I938] 93) explains by the addition of 10Plutarch ThemistoclesI4. 42 8. 04. 3-4. On protection for oarsmen. I59-60. 44 Cf. 460. Gall. I875) ad loc.) 2. to Plutarch Themistocles14. 22K. Diodorus I2. 54 I. 53 I. 83. I30. 44. 9 . C. 50Plutarch Cimon 12. 96. I. 7. bria3rTaL. fied. Cartault. 6. 43. i. 7-8. 94-98. the Plataea campaign. Glotz (apparentlyfol7. I-2. 89-95. 36 Poppo-Stahledition (Leipzig. 1899) 2. Diodorus 12. La triereathenienne (Paris. Ibid. Churchill. I. and the departurefrom Samos. . 187 1 Breasted. 2. 468. 83. But Thucydides' concise narrative does not say that they were a permanent squadron there. 3. Xenophon Hellenica 4. 46 7. 23 Politics I327 b. 17. 8 7. I895) p. Glotz' an averageof 24. 424: "the very finest men. 52 I. 7. 59 n. Paris in Daremberg-Saglio s. 30. 20 Herodotus 7.i875) ad loc. ber on the Athenian ships at Salamiswas i8 according 23. 3. 1927) p. 41 4. s. 2. 5.. a. 3. 78. 69. 28 6. 43. 3: ^croi U7! eLxov 5rXa. I. 69. 3. using Diodorus' Beloch's figures would give i84. 5S. Meyer. 131. 2. I. 17 that morehoplites would have been with the fleetduring 3. 1904) 872. 3. The World Crisis (New York. 25. 70 1. as 25o by I. 1. Sargentin CP 22 (1927) 274. 3 I. I. X. 2. I. 474. Hesychius. 3. 562. cit. I05. rigging. 3. Ancient Ships (Cambridge. 2. 25Herodotus 8. 1. 2. 2. 959." 39 I. I21. 32. 3. i.. 91. 16 6. 3. io6. 90. 2. I-2. 42. History of Greece (London. I23. 4. 6 Cf. 24.88. 3. Forschungen zur alten Geschichte (Halle.It mayhave been intended to cut enemy 5 E. 34. 8 603 3. XenophonHellenicaS. 9. 33P. 77.THE MARINES OF ATHENS NOTES (References are to Thucydides unless otherwise speci. 3. the British naval detachment at Antwerp in 1914: W. This content downloaded from 65. 7. 32.v. 69 Ibid. 32 A. 102. CaesarBell. 4: cf. 62. I2. 7 fleet is numberedas iio by Herod. 4. 3. Harpocration. The num. 3. 4 I. 8. 31. Classen's edition (Berlin. 3-4.i922) 282. 25. 1069: "tiichtigsten. 2. Crawley (Modern Library edition) translates "by far the best men". 454. 1 63. 308. 71 Ibid. 43. Busolt. 395-396) speaks of 6000 Greeks at 4. i6o. 31So G. 29 51Whether an Athenian defeat as in i. I. 28. It is certainly unlikely 7. 57 2. Diodorus II. B. I942) 48No figures are given for the Greek forces. I906) History of Egypt (New York. 2. 2 Breasted. the Athenian contingent between the musterat Aegina 11Herodotus 184. Busolt (3. 95. Herodotus 8. Plu." 38Jowett in his commentary(Oxford.andthey may simply have been at Pagaeon their way somewhere when the decision was madeto send them to the Corinthian Gulf. 3. 2. 10. 21 XenophonHellenica7.v. 1912] 2. 37J. 32.Cf.. I. 60-62. 4.
He describes the circumstances Ovid's relegatioand touches on some of the strangethings that he foundto report. 8. 7. AdelaideHahnof HunterCollege. 114. Similar suggestion by Arn..the samecruellady in the New Yorktheatre who was appearing just PLEASE TURN TOPAGE194 ANOTHER HOMERIC ECHO was detected in the SATURDAY EVENING POST of September 18 by ProfessorVirginia Moscrip of the University of Rochester. 8. 77 4.73Ibid. The officer made it clear that the draft bill of Moses was divinely ordered. Oxyrhynchia 83Xenophon Hellenica4. 25-30. and then was required to join with other Greeksin the Trojan War.88. C. Under such a violation.I2I-I32): "Not me. and he did his best to make a case against the crafty son of Laertes:"If Ulysses tried to pull a stunt like that nowadays. and to forward material to us suitably marked with the name of the periodical and the date of issue. 15 Aug 2013 12:36:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 2. declared an officer of Selective Service Headquarters in an interview published by UP September 30.talissesehalitusatris effundens ferebat. 78 4. 8.then I'll take me savin's. Though some may be included in the vbrrpecrias mentioned in Hellenica 2. 6. obviously impossible on so small a number of ships as 40. 4. 7.where "foreigncorrespondents longerwelcome. . 29. 0 We urge all our readers to appoint themselves special clipping bureaus for this department. 76 3.Dr. i. s. brother! I'm gonnafinishup the businesso' Bullwinkle an' that loggin' company. 8. The New York HERALD TRIBUNE of October I7 ULYSSES WAS the first draft dodger. If an item appears in a magazine that you do not wish to clip. IIS..I88 W.ooo.such as they is. as suggested by Lammert(PW s. she This content downloaded from 65."the writer of "Topicsof the of October30.Tomis "hadbeenvisitedby Medea. raoilapxos)on the evidence of XenophonHellenica i. 3. as officers of this name regularlycommandedthe tribal regiments. thereI'll settle!" AND NOW A VERGILIAN parallel.738-768. 8. or a fine of $io. I.He related how Ulysses feigned insanity but dropped the pretense when his infant son was placed in the path of his plow.. ad loc. 79 80 72Ibid. and Moses held the first draft registration. Ulysses would be liable to five years imprisonment.v. of titled Tristia. submitted by Professor E. send us the gist of the material on a penny postcard!---TheEditors. 4. or both. 864 We See by the Papers." that volumesof carbon dioxideemitted reported over Mammoth Hot Springsin Yellowstone NationalParkwere killingbirdsflyingover the springs. 6. 112. From the story "Tugboat Annie Races the Tide" by Norman Reilly Raine. 42. 3I. 30.239-241. I. These taxiarchs must have been naval officers of some kind. 82 Xenophon Hellenica4. 8.88. the implication would be that the bulk of the Athenian field force was with them. 2.42 on Thu.. Times"in the New YorkTIMES slyly suggeststhat there may be a revival of corinterestin the reportsof a formerBalkan wereaptly someof whosedispatches respondent. 35. several thousand at least. REFLECTING ON the dearth of news from Ruare no mania. it would constitute willful violation of the selective service act. 9. 53. II. 6. . 75 The mention of taxiarchshere might give the ima pressionthat regularinfantry were involved. 7. 81As Classen suggests. . 744. 4 9.Stahledition of Thucydides. 3. 4. But if the regularinfantry commanderswere with the fleet. 4. i-2. I. 2. faucibus superad convexa of the placein Sherefersalso to the description Lucretius. bodyaxesme what the oaris. 2. Hahncites Vergil. Io5. 3-4. Aen. on LakeAvernus: quam super haud ullae poterant impune volantes tendere iter pinnis. the wordsof Tiresias to quotesa speechrecalling Odysseus(Od. 84Ibid. though why he says the marines were "in der Regel 20 auf die Triere" is not clear. apud Poppo. 85 87 Ibid. an' stick a oar over me shoulder an'startwalkin' an'when someinland.
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