Conscription of Hoplites in Classical Athens Author(s): Matthew R. Christ Source: The Classical Quarterly, New Series, Vol. 51, No.

2 (2001), pp. 398-422 Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Classical Association Stable URL: . Accessed: 15/08/2013 12:08
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in Great Classical 51.2 398-422(2001)Printed Britain Quarterly


OtAE) ydap Avspa• ypEVEvEo•JoV• rd0'AE/Lo• Waralways huntsout (S. fr.554 R) youngmen Although Attic funeral orations praise the citizen-soldiers of Athens for embracing the opportunity to serve their city, hoplite service was compulsory throughout the Classical period.' The divergence between civic ideology and practice alerts us here, as elsewhere, to possible tensions within the city. Conscription in Athens was, in fact, a sensitive matter-as it continues to be in modern democracies (Cohen, 1985). Its compulsory aspect existed in tension with the personal freedom normally enjoyed by individuals. Furthermore, in distributing among citizens the obligation to risk life on the battlefield, it raised questions of fairness and equity to which Athenians, as political equals, were acutely attuned. Athenian arrangements for conscription are thus significant for our understanding not only of military institutions but also of democratic citizenship. Curiously, this intriguing facet of Athenian democracy has not received much attention in its own right. Scholars address conscription in Athens infrequently and then only briefly as it pertains to other subjects, especially Athenian demography. This paper seeks to fill this gap by reconstructing how conscription worked in Athens and locating it within its evolving historical context. During the Classical period, Athenians used two different methods of conscription of which we know. At the time of the Peloponnesian War, the generals exercised considerable discretion in selecting whose names to post on the ten conscription lists (katalogoi), one for each tribe, that were compiled whenever a campaign was planned. By the mid-fourth century, however, the generals had begun keeping permanent records of potential hoplites by age-group and calling up entire groups to serve based exclusively on their age. Many questions remain unanswered concerning both systems and the transition between them. How exactly did the new arrangementdiffer from its predecessor? Was the transition gradual or abrupt? What were the motivations, practical and ideological, behind the change? What consequences did the reform have? I will argue that the reform was implemented all at once sometime in the period 386-366 B.C. While it was important as a military reform since it sped up mobilization of the Athenian army, it was also significant as a democratic reform that provided a firm institutional basis for citizens taking turns in the risky enterpriseof war. As such, I will suggest, it was consistent with other contemporary efforts to ensure that citizens carry out their civic duties equitably. CONSCRIPTION BY KATALOGOS As the hoplite phalanx grew in importance during the Archaic period, most Greek city-states probably made hoplite service mandatory for those who could afford armour and weapons. Whatever form conscription of hoplites took in Athens in this period, the reorganization of Athenians into ten tribes through the Cleisthenic
' Cavalry service was also by conscription: see esp. Bugh (1988), 52-5. Crews for the fleet were sometimes conscripted: see Amit (1965), 48-9; Jordan (1975), 101-3; Hansen (1985), 21-4; Rosivach (1985 [1992]), 41, with 56-7, n. 3; Gabrielsen (1994), 105-10, 248-9, n. 6.

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2. 14-23..11-12). 6. 48.4. and Ath.42 on Thu. Lys.2. the phasesof conscription by katalogos.C. by age-groups-though it altered fundamental aspects of its predecessor-probably did not change the specific practice in question. Ar.5. 18.84. 152-3.c. Per.101.C. places it in . (M.6Individuals might volunteer to serve for a variety of reasons. 18. 11.84. however.61.C. Plu.84. Some may have volunteered. 326-7).I drawprimarilyon evidence 7 In reconstructing was the periodbefore386 B. Conscription by katalogos involved several distinct phases: (i) compilation of lists of conscripts.24). This content downloaded from 65. 6..68-73. 74). (Thuc. claimaboutthesociological makesa similar Arist. n. of generals n. 6.84.4).C.5 The general or generals selected. n. in 480 B.4-5. this implies that hoplites were called up by katalogos in the wars of the Delian League (cf.(11. Av.L.2. 23. 15 Aug 2013 12:08:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .23-5.)in part because conscription EK Ka•-Tacoyov their had fallen disproportionately on the city's 'better men' and seriously reduced numbers (26. We must not. 16. once with 8Ld 4 D. The Assembly normally specified how many hoplites were to go on campaign and decided by vote which of the ten generals should lead it. which was carried out by Cleisthenic tribe as we shall see. While the first contemporary evidence for this type of conscription dates to the time of the Peloponnesian War.. see Gabrielsen (1994). 24-5. 1303a8-10 by impactof conscription katalogos in connection with the Peloponnesian War. see [Arist. id. (iii) granting of exemptions. lust for adventure. Rhodes. 11.31.7 On hoplites within the developingpolis.Pol.98. hoplites served within ten tribal contingents (Hdt.111.which the generals also administered. (1996). 1. Plu. conscription was still necessary (Thuc.on voluntarism of trierarchs. however. 2. Hamel. see Hamel (1998a).2Conscription by katalogos. 1364-9). 6.C. Henceforth. On see Manville(1990).CONSCRIPTION OF HOPLITES IN CLASSICAL ATHENS 399 reforms (508/7 B.4 The process of conscription was set in motion whenever the Assembly voted in favour of a military campaign. (Ka•raX-eat) who were conceivably hoplites. recounting a different version of this episode. 447 B. KcraAo'ywv. instituted arrangeI do so becausein my viewthe shiftto conscription mentsafter386 B. see Raaflaub(1997). 68. Onconscription the trierarchy.Pol. 86-7. see ibid. (ii) notification of conscripts. including patriotism.speaks of the generals enlisting marines. cf. and of Tolmides doing so in 456 enlisting (Ka•7a-e'as) B. because they reckoned that conscription was imminent and they would have a greater claim to honour as volunteers (D. as for the doomed expedition to Sicily in 415 B.S. Pritchett(1974).1). Onthe appointment and Veith (1928).cf.C.C.several later sources suggest it was operating before this. 11.since-as I arguebelow-conscriptionby age-groups concerning WhereI drawon evidenceconcerning sometimein the period386-366 B.4-5). Per. 26.. 69) collectsbibliography [1995].3).C.110-12. with 25.88.5 On the Assembly's authority over the number of hoplites. Even when enthusiasm ran high. cf. Eq. overestimate the willingness of Athenians to volunteer. Mag. of the Cleisthenic reforms.S. may have been initiated at this time. recorded in Troizen in the third century B. probably aided by the other generals. to commands.1. 162-3. 6.. The problematic 'Decree of Themistocles'.] Andrewes (1981). Thuc.C. Diodorus Siculus speaks of Myronides hoplites in 457 B. was/were responsible for assembling the force.4-5 describes the process thrice with forms of rJ-v Ka•ra-Ayw.15). 1998a. and they were probably conscripted as well on the basis of these tribes. (iv) muster.c.)probably altered how it was administered.1. or desire for a wage.88.(11.26.81.S. The Aristotelian AthenaionPoliteia asserts that democratic reform was possible in the aftermath of Ephialtes' reforms (462 B.4. see Kromayer 6 On hoplite volunteers. as they were for the otherwise compulsory trierarchy. 1981. Volunteers for hoplite service were welcome ( X. on themilitary dimension 26. Raaflaub(1992 Athenianhoplitesin the sixth centuryB.2. 6.

MacDowell (1994). however. Lys.21. R. Plu. id.88.6. 15. see Bugh (1988). Hansen. 15 Aug 2013 12:08:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 169-73.10. 12 persuaded by Dreher (1994.5. 31.6-7).34. H.S. 46. Plu.G 1.I am 8 For the generals' involvement.34. Hamel(1998a). This content downloaded from 65.84.4). D. 9. 21. Pax formuchof theclassical cf. 67.D. 158).88.Similarly.4.] Ath.7. 24-9).15.1. 11. Hansen (1985). see Lys. their participation in this process would place the generals remaining behind in a good position to carry out any further conscription called for later in the same year.81.15.4-5. MacDowell Forarchon cf. Camp (1992). Thompson and Wycherley (1972). 14.6. as strategos. however. 1970 = HCT IV.15. It is controversialhow long this period lasted: Throughoutthe period when one generalwas selectedfrom each tribe. 11.10 Collaboration among the generals.G. 256.4. 0o (1994). The fact that our sources often attribute the act of conscription to an individual general does not necessarily contradict this: a campaign's general(s) may have been primarily responsible for carrying out conscription even though aided by the other members of the board. n. 1994. 116-18. For other possible clues of collegial involvement. 13 Those following Hansen include Hornblower (1991)." If each general. 53-5.400 M. 157-60) suggests. 1. working from their shared office (the strategeion) in or near the Agora.16.85-7. n. 13. On these arrangements for the cavalry. 73. H.4-5. A. and that a central registerwould have made conscription much simpler.2. 9. would have been sensible. cf.24.4. Phoc. one for each tribe. On the supportingrole of taxiarchs. see Wycherley (1957). 9 Conscription cf. Lys.S. Each tribe's taxiarch was involved in compiling his tribe's list. and how later 'the ones with Ctesicles the archon' (9.2. katalogos ([Arist. those 'with Ctesicles' are most likely generals. though it is not clear whether this refers to the entire board or a subset sharing a joint-command. see Lys. however. While Hansen has persuaded many scholars. 10. 14. 1981.42 on Thu. 163. VH. 8.15. Phoc. 155).' Lysias 9 (For the Soldier) may provide evidence of collegial involvement: the speaker describes how he brought his claim for exemption before one of the generals (9. periodeachtribe's phylarch of the cavalry fromhis tribe(cf.12. 49.12 Furthermore. " On the strategeion. this would make the compilation of lists less cumbersome. the testimonia are not so ambiguous-their use of katalogos in 11.1. Ctesicles is probably the general who turned down his claim. supervised one tribe'slist of conscripts. Pol. In my view. 1999) has recently defended the position that there was a central register on the grounds that many of the ancient testimonia could refer to this.3-4. 264) argues that the generals could draw on a permanent. since they are ambiguous. 11. argues that the central register is 'a modern fabrication' (83) and that 'katalogos invariablydenotes a roster drawn up for a particularcampaign' (89) (cf. 1. central register (katalogos) of hoplites. naturallywould have supervised his tribe'sown list. with each of the ten supervising a tribal list (MacDowell. Poll. 174-7. however. 16. M.6) fined him when they heard that he was abusing them. Ael. who turned it down. assisted by a tribal taxiarch. H.5. Scholars have disputed what records were available for making lists of conscripts. Jones (1957. 1179-81.13 Burckhardt (1996.115.81.4. each general see Hamel(1998a) Aristotle's is attributedto individualgeneralsin X. CHRIST 1. 1994. assistedthe two hipparchs with lists of members probably wereelectedto help maintainthe cavalry ten katalogeis time. cf. Compilationof lists The first task of the generals was to compile lists (katalogoi) of conscripts. see X.15. n. Secretaries probably assisted in the process (MacDowell. Wycherley(1978). 158.2). Dover. The entire board of generals may have been active in compiling lists.see Ar.26.84. 166-7) that those 'with Ctesicles' are generals-not secretaries as MacDowell (1994.Lys.3-4. 1.26.

When a campaign was voted. Pol. the Athenians captured such a list. 35-6. 324. 134. 1991. 16 On the nature of the lexiarchika grammateia. While the generals '4 For these figures. Dillon (1995). While it would have been useful for the generalsto receiveinformationfrom the demes This content downloaded from 65. 85. 14. see also Hansen (1985. 50.000-24. with Hansen's (1994). 23. track only of those who it "7 The city did not have a central registry of all disabled men.58-60). Bugh (1988). 56-8) would call for central record-keeping of some kind. 15. but quite another to keep track of the much larger group of potential hoplites in this way. At the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War. 8). n. 68-73) argues that the katalogoi listing trierarchswere ad hoc rather than permanent.6) to submit names of individuals eligible for service as indicated by the deme registers-the lexiarchika grammateia.4. 86-94).14 The bureaucratic challenge would have been formidable. Bugh (1988). 130.that the generals had recourse to a method of collecting names that was less onerous-at least for them. cf. kept received financial support from it because they were indigent and could not work: see [Arist. 55. n. 35-6. concerning the ages of those on the registers. cf. Rhodes (1981).88. for example. especially if they submitted screened lists. n. see Hansen (1985). 35-6. 274.27-31): see Jameson (1963). 399-400 and Whitehead (1986). the Athenians and their generals at this time may have been daunted by the difficulties involved in establishing and maintaining such records. 1988.42 on Thu. Dem. response " Although a permanent cavalry katalogos is not unambiguously attested before the late-fourth century (see above. a group with considerable turnover due to death or disability from natural causes or warfare. Dem. which the Syracusans had intended to use for 'determining and enrolling those who had come to military age'. as I will argue below. see Jameson (1980). The Syracusans may have kept a central list of citizens at this time: according to Plu. 20-1) argues that the lexiarchika grammateiadid not exclude the names of the disabled.] Ath. who is extrapolating from Thuc. see Hansen (1985). 55.5s It is quite plausible. they were in a position to make up their katalogoi for the current campaign. requiring the general's office to act throughout the year as a census bureau of sorts in addition to carrying out its numerous other duties: it was one thing to maintain a permanent katalogos of the 1000 members of the cavalry. 135. 57. see Rhodes (1988). 11). IG 13 138 (c.'6If the lists submitted by the demarchs also marked. Gabrielsen (1994. cf. While such lists ideally would provide an up-to-date picture of qualified individuals based on local knowledge. this could have saved the generals considerable trouble in drawing up the katalogoi. On IG IV 138.CONSCRIPTION OF HOPLITES IN CLASSICAL ATHENS 401 the singular. while it is true that a central register would have facilitated conscription. the administration of the city's long-term loan (katastasis) to recruits for purchasing mounts (see Bugh.6. there was some risk of abuse on the part of local officials (cf.13. as the Athenians may have done at this time. 570.C. they issued a call to the demarchs (cf. 2. Furthermore. n.'7 The demarchs may have submitted either complete lists with any annotations or shorter. therefore. 130. After the generals had received lists of names from the demes. Nic. n. 1988. 440 B. Sekunda (1992).000 potential hoplites. 15 Aug 2013 12:08:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Hansen (1985. The 'Decree of Themistocles' requires the generals to use these in manning the fleet (M. On Athenian demography. Whitehead (1986. Whitehead (1986). Sekunda (1992). 79. a register would have had to keep track of as many as 18. On their possible use in conscription. 130) is rightly sceptical of Effenterre's speculation that the deme registerswent so far as to list demesmen by age-groups for purposes of conscription (Effenterre. n. 1976. we have no evidence that the deme registers contained this information. screened lists of those actually able to serve. 130. 49. those who were permanently disabled. 35-6. 134.L. cf.6-7. does not even hint at the existence of a central register.88. 14-15 and Whitehead (1986).?)indicates that these registers identified members of the cavalry and probably also men liable to service as hoplites-'hoplites' is a restoration accepted by most scholars. Whitehead (1986).

20.16.3saysof thehighqualityof the hoplites selected to go on the Sicilian expedition.2. 11. D. that a single.295) is ~KKplEO. accurate ones. Pol. 85. when he succinctly lists the different troops going on the expedition. then combined them into a single roster for the campaign.3) and later refers to the KaraAo'yogrTE XPrqaros EKKPLOE'v: (6.5.4). is best taken as an adverb (cf.18 When the generals and their staff had exhausted what they knew of eligible hoplites personally or by report-as must often have been the case where large expeditions were involved (cf.1).whenKaraAEyw (1981.. he describes the Athenian hoplites thus selected by the shorthand EK Ka-raTdyov. just pointis thatthebesttroopswereselected as earlierin the samesectionhe assertsthat the city provided the best possiblepettyofficersfor to the lists thefleet. it can always be understood as referringto one of the ten tribal katalogoi generated for a specific campaign. Gabrielsen. Arist. n. whencasualtylistswerecompiled '~ Likewise. in progress.3. cf. hoplites conscripted in this way as EK KaTaAdo'yov Thucydidesnaturallyconveys the most preciseinformationabout the process of of katalogoi.8) derived from the fact that conscription was carried out through the tribal katalogos. 8. While it is natural to take katalogos as a tribal list when sources speak of a tribal taxiarch's responsibility for maintaining it (Lys.1. [Arist. Sekunda.115). the preparations whendescribing namelythe compilation conscription.85) assumes doesnot appearto be its selective character. 6. one for each of the ten tribes. 7. R. In my view.S. hassimplybeentransferred .e.19Consistent with this is the fact that Athenians do not seem to have used katalogos collectively of either a composite roster for a particular campaign or a permanent register.2. D. Thucydides does not imply by the use of the singular that Athenians. cf. KaTaAdEyw this conveys typeof conscription. 11. 2. as Hansen apparently does (1985. Andrewes is usedof this that.2.26. were free to select individuals they deemed especially capable (Thuc. cf. 3.31.which is frequently used to explain how a hoplite came to serve on a campaign. Hansen. LSJ E'K111.It is therefore probably nameon a katalogos.1985.88. i. 6. Pol.[B]1. nor is he new information at this late stage abouta centralregisterfromwhichthe providing 8 Thuc.Thucydides' (cf. they may have selected more or less randomly from among vigorous men. 1.i. he speaks first of the compilation of katalogoi (KaraAo'yovus E1TOLOOVrO: 6.XprarofL of thehoplitessoughtout.31. 8. 341).7.43.1.S. cf.31.4.42 on Thu. In KaTraGAdyO~ rd 8sE 7rE~8V fromthekatalogoi context. Loraux This content downloaded from 65. 243. having made the multiple katalogoi.v. 1303a8-10).24.22-3.84.e.50-1.6. since individuals were called up to serve and reported for muster by tribe (see below).2). 89). the generals. when Thucydides describes the Athenian preparations for the Sicilian expedition.64. theytook theform of triballists:see Bradeen Clairmont (1986). XPrIaTroL7 as '"honest" registers'. the tribal katalogos also probably lies behind the use of katalogos in other contexts as well. 26. 1994.later.48. A composite roster would have been considerablyless useful than the ten tribal katalogoi. 15 Aug 2013 12:08:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .26. In fact. campaign-specific roster was ever compiled from these katalogoi. an attribute on whichtheirnamesappeared. Our sources are clear that the generals made up lists (katalogoi) in the plural ( placean individual's andpostedaftera campaign. Because most expeditions required only a fraction of all eligible hoplites.When katalogos is used concretely..88. The prepositional phrase cK KaTraAdyou. 6. There is no reason to assume. Thus. (1983). CHRIST probably had to ensure that the same number of individuals was selected from each tribe so that each of the ten tribal contingents would be the same size (cf. Dover EPEXProi7 (1970= HCTIV. best usedin the activevoice to mean'select'until later(LSJs. (1969). r SE TrEO'V 6. they had broad discretion in selecting which hoplites to conscript from each tribe.84. 15.] Ath. Ka•TaAdyoLS mistaken in construing . 1992.3. 7.402 M. 15).4).1. aided by the tribal taxiarchs. translated simplyas 'enlist'. n. Poll.31.

Once the katalogoi were posted. 1369-72). 11. KaTEAE'yrV a7rpa7r. 1985.88. 1073-1142. 50.On the use of this mediumfor namesof crewmemberson whitened notices. e. Ach.555.20As no abstract noun had been coined to describe this system of conscription. The generals must have posted a notice in the same location specifying when and where conscripts were to present themselves for muster (cf.voted that the members of the Boule and demarchs should make katalogoi of their demesmen and list available sailors (Dem. Notification of conscripts After the generals had compiled the katalogoi for a campaign. Similarly.81. 1303a8-10.4.3 K-A.16).97-100. each list was probably written in charcoal on whitened wood.1.27-31). the generals probably kept a copy out of mischief's way in their office.. 242-3.1).c.Pol.see Pritchett (1971). Pax 1181-2)--the standard order was to bring 'provisions for three days'.K KaraAtoyou earlier is a concise Here. 1.4. the idea of any particularlist is remote and EK KaraAodyov means simply that the speaker on each occasion had been conscripted. (1978).and its mid-fourth-century successor in a different location. The standard practice was to post the ten katalogoi on noticeboards (Ar.88. later these conscripts are described as 'those who had come to the ships EK KaraAoyov'(50. D.7?q (Lys.53.we hear that Athenians in connection with a naval expedition in 362/1 B. cf. see Ar.] Ath. 450) attached to the base of the Eponymoi-the statues of the ten eponymous heroes of the tribes located in the Agora. 23. wayto describe conscription as out carried Hansen. 15 Aug 2013 12:08:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .see Shear(1970).42 on Thu. once it entered common usage Athenians may have taken it as without it veryclosely with to 'by(thesystem of) conscription' identifying equivalent the tribal katalogos.4). 3.3. Thuc. Ar. 2-3) suggeststhat K KaTraAoyov may refer to 'the system by which generals made up their own KardAoyot for particular expeditions' in Arist. cf. Mem.83-4.52-3. V.C. Ach.S. This content downloaded from 65. Av. 15. their next task was to notify conscripts.11. specified being of postingan individual's nameon a If &K KaraAoyovhas its originsin the practice tribal katalogos. by katalogoi (cf. Eq. Ath. asinThucydides.which was erectedc. [Arist. 32. 19. 1. which was used to refer to the ad hoc tribal list. it was natural for Athenians to stretch the concrete noun katalogos.The'Decree requires age-groups ([Arist.26. Ar. 14. 2. to designate this as 134. Pax 1180-1. Pol. to discourage individuals from erasing their own or others' names.see Rhodes(1981). temporary 24 Ar.48.5). the taxiarchs could adjust the katalogoi at any point in the processhence the comic complaint that the taxiarchs arbitrarily add some names and erase others 'two or three times' (Ar. 9.and(3 n.g. In this u7rparEUVd0EV0~ generalizing context.33.23 Because this medium was readily erasable (cf.Pax 311-12. Pol.4.Eub. 48.1).fr. For extendedparodyof a hoplite'sresponseto ordersto march.] 21 On the original monument. the same idea is frequently expressed verbally. 2) X.7.1. Thus Xenophon's Nicomachides laments that the Athenians did not elect him as general: 'I who have been worn down going on expeditions by conscription' (0g &K KraAoOdyoU KararOTPtlpatL) (Mem.6). the use of demecaptions see Reinmuth in the latefourthcentury: in ephebic inscriptions (1971). Camp(1992). each tribal katalogos was displayed below the corresponding tribal hero (Ar. . Pol. Wycherley 22 Cf. Pax 1183-4). Olson (1998).22 Like other temporary notices. the taxiarchs could delete names as exemptions were granted.1. of conscription 23 Thiswas the medium by initiallyusedfor listsunderthe laterarrangement to post the the generals of Themistocles' Ath. 197.4-5) and what to bring with them (cf.L. cf. 86).24 20 Andrewes (1981.CONSCRIPTION OF HOPLITES IN CLASSICAL ATHENS 403 katalogoi were compiled. [Arist.] tablets(M.21 Each list may have been subdivided by deme-the form in which lists came to the generals-to aid those consulting it. 430 B.

Ar.20.13. Plu.6. 3.4.4. the age-range of eligibility for hoplite service may have been the same.13.88. H. summoned Athenians to check the katalogoi. Rhodes. On the diverse generalemergency usesof thesalpinx. Ar. cf.4-5.1991. 125) suggests.4. 18. presumably a delegate could represent him (cf. Plu. Pax 311-12. Gabrielsen (1994). as well as the practice of passing over the youngest and oldest hoplites for service abroad--Thucydides speaks of the 'oldest and youngest' as part of the home guard (2. 50). Hansen. F Jones. cf.3) and trierarchy(61. N.16-21. 97-100) would be present in the city to consult the posted notices (cf. 1985. G 6. 1. 9.1. n. Ach. 785b6-7 when he proposes that men be eligible for military service from the age of 20 up until 60 (i. 24.9. CHRIST The generals probably also took more active steps to ensure that individuals knew they had been conscripted so that there would be no excuse for failing to appear for service.2) or liturgies. Rhodes. 1083. Pax 1181-6). 53. which were also used for summoning citizens in emergencies (Bacchyl.Hansen(1985). inevitably they listed some individuals who believed that they qualified for release from service.1. cf. The first two age-groups undergoing the ephebeia.39.7.42 on Thu.27First. however. that Jones (163-4) is correct in believing that men between the ages of 40 and 49 were usually part of the home-guard. Sekunda (1992). 1999. 271) may be right that by the 'youngest' Thucydides means those aged 18 and 19. 271).29 a call to all citizensto appearwith armsin a 25 The number of soundings could distinguish froma call to men of hoplitestatusto consultthe katalogoi. Hansen. Jones (1957.the generals could not assume that hoplites who lived outside the city centre and up to a long day's walk from it (cf. (see MacDowell. cf. did not serve abroad and were kept separate from the others (Ath.4). a conscript could assert that he did not meet the basic criteria of age and wealth. Release from hoplite service could be granted on numerous grounds recognized by custom or statute. 18. be thinking of Sparta or Athens in Leg.4).25 3. may have announced that katalogoi had been posted and should be checked by those eligible for hoplite service (cf. 28 Men in their sixtieth year were called on to be diaitetai from 399/8 B. Grantingof exemptions While the generals probably found it expedient to incorporate some categories of exemptions into the lists they posted. seekingrelease 26 Thiswasalso the casewithindividuals 49. Dem.G 5. men over the age of 50 were probably not normally conscripted for service abroad (cf. 1. In Aristotle's time.4).88.404 M.50-53. Dem.e. Phoc.] Ath.5). cf. M. n.124). I doubt. 15 Aug 2013 12:08:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .94-5.45). If an individual could not come to the generals' office due to disability or absence abroad. however. 1988.see Krentz military (1991). 125. R. therefore. 100.including the choregia(56.346-8. In particular.72. 37. 2. The burden was on an individual to assert and prove his claim to exemption. 2. not necessarily Athens as Hansen (1985.267-73) and were presumably exemptduringtheirterm (Hansen.17. 163. In Sparta X. n. Aesch. 1988. Lys.28 Although the evidence for earlier practice is not clear. 24. D. fromcavalry service([Arist.c. through the age of 59: see below. 13. H. Another possibility is that trumpet-calls. 29 A. 42.1)-cf.S. 19. 85-90. Pol.45.Pol. H. 100). Phoc.26 The normal procedure for making a claim was to approach the generals at their office before the time of mustering (Lys. 1985. 1971. individuals aged 18-59 were eligible for hoplite service (Ath. this seems rather young for automatic posting to the home guard--cf. just as they summoned citizens to arms in emergencies (And. Heralds. 17). with 100. 1.169). Polyaen.Platothuscould for activeservicealsoextended for fortyyears: eligibility This content downloaded from 65. 27 Seeesp. X. Pol. And. Lyc.5 on the use of older soldiers in citizen armies. cf.

fromXenophon's wished'. 1990. and probably also choregoi(cf.4.347) believesthat 'those he cites(And.88.205.] Ath.G 6. 160).4. an individual had to be wealthy enough to afford hoplite equipment (cf.33 In some cases the generals may have allowed individuals exemption only temporarily. theydid. So too were tax-collectors (telonai) (Dem. wouldbe equipped that orphans surviving hoplitesmay frequently of deadhopliteswas often lost on on to theirsons. physical or mental. 63-5). and traders absenceabroadare not known. 15: see below). Metonand his son in Plu.17. including all 500 members of the Council (Lyc. 21. 9).]Ath. 51). by Sekunda [Arist. 71-2).Whilethe rulesgoverning groundsfor exemptionfrommilitaryservicejust as it was fromothercivic obligations(Dem.mercenaries. 21.2)--based on insufficient wealth.Sekunda (1992. butthe evidence in litigation' currently engaged in litigationmay have been grounds for release. abroad'made Ath.53). MacDowell. 59. this practice is attested for individuals before the Council seeking exemption from the whether theteseverbecameeligiblefor hopliteservice.5). Pol.16. The best evidence that a man could afford to serve as hoplite was that he or his father had served previously. 14. exiles.] had they so effortsto join the army.31 Individuals who met the basic requirementsfor hoplite service could seek exemption on numerous other grounds. Luc. 1.Rhodes(1981. 249a6-b2. 1985. exemptions (1967)discusses claims.000menis a suitably (1985. 2. 15 Aug 2013 12:08:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Pol. One clue that involvement is found in [Arist. directlyto this. 42. 13. In the fifth century.345-6)believes (1985. 21. chorus members (Dem.Sekundadrawsthis inference of Athensto join in the expedition Sparta(D. The generals may have required a claimant to swear an oath that he indeed qualified for exemption.butthis is morelikelyevidence supporting of Athenians abroad. fromservice.48-9. were exempt. however.seebelow. MacDowell. of panoplieson hoplites'orphansat the age of 18 ( was very likely underthis rubric. cf.27. 347-8) discussescleruchs.15. Athenians living or travelling abroad were probably exempt from service. normally exemptfromservice: On bogus in Athensand elsewhere.even if they could haveavoidedconscription considerable to send his sons to effortsin 362 B. with MacDowell. Pol.] Ath.14) and probably active trierarchs(Dem. which was expensive. Mx. 36. see the anecdotes downmightqualifyas a hardship: One'shouseburning concerning Hardship. Tim.16-17. function-namelyensuring Whereas to serveas hoplites.5: ephebeswerebarredfrommost litigationso they however.Pol.17)suggests 32 Hansen officals of whomthose of draft age would be exempted'.I amnot persuaded (348)thatAthenians 14.16.32 Members of the cavalry (Lys. however. 49. of the archai and other cautious estimate '1.Hansen s0 It is controversial.3.88. 39.n. Nic.5-6.4. Sekunda. cf.22)does not speak wereexempt. Many officeholders. 1989. Extraordinary personal hardship must sometimes have resulted in exemption. 1978.166.154)serveda practical.4) (Hansen. H. wouldnot havean 'excuseforbeingabsent' Absenceabroad. an individual seeking exemption probably had to convince the generals that his financial situation had changed dramatically. 385) were exempt. expecting them to join an expedition in progress later (Dem. with MacDowell.7-8and Alc.503)doubtsthis. 1990. In the fourth century. 1989). 17. 88-9. the equipment havepassedtheirequipment the battlefield (Hanson. [Arist. Exemption could be granted on the grounds of temporary or permanent disability.30 Because it was difficult to know precisely how wealthy a man was in Classical Athens (Gabrielsen. 49). medical Baldwin 3 Disability. Dem. thanof typicalbehaviour Xenophon's philolaconism This content downloaded from 65.In Sparta too officeholderswere seeX. 3' The city'spractice bestowing as wellas an ideological. two factors may have made hoplite service more accessible to the less wealthy: hoplites came to use less equipment and at some point the state began providing shield and spear ([Arist. 21. cf.13. Individualsjust back from a hoplite campaign could seek exemption (Lys. 39. 42.C.166).Aesch.42 on Thu.CONSCRIPTION OF HOPLITES IN CLASSICAL ATHENS 405 The amount of wealth required for hoplite service was less precise than the ageparameters for it (cf.37). 1986). it must have been hard to evaluate claims to exemption from hoplite service-or cavalry service (cf. MacDowell.Sekunda(1992. 9.

49. Dem. Nic.2). 171-81.35 The generals had little choice but to honour exemptions that were unambiguously established by statute. II.with 18. Nonetheless. they had no reason to force service on the manifestly unfit: the rigours of service as hoplite and interdependence of the force demanded a high level of physical ability.36A possible strategy for the generals to adopt under questionable circumstances was to allow the exemption only if the claimant could provide a substitute.H. for example. While they had greater discretion in judging exemptions based on disabilities.42 on Thu.whenAeschines in his place(Dem. Plu.Antidosis provideda legal procedure reluctanttrierarchs and other liturgiststo formallytransfertheir obligationsto others:see Gabrielsen (1987)and Christ (1990). to trustHansen's datathan of exemption'. Leg. 1985.3. apparently Sophocles'Odysseus evadeservicein the Trojan Warin this way. with a holiday"-for they do not march forth to action' ('vdaos SELAolav Eop7"7'-oiv ydp in Athenianreflectionon dE7ropEUovTral d 7L7pav). They could call up many more individuals than needed. 19.16)concerning suggestion 3 Cf.124. with MacDowell.conscriptedhoplites in Athens were not routinelyallowed to provide as was common. Aesch. 17. and at least 20 per cent on the grounds of physical incapacity-to judge from comparative data from modem states. Feignedmadnessfiguresprominently Mainomenos treatedOdysseus' failedattemptto draft-evasion. 17-20) has estimated that some 5 per cent of individuals likely to be called up may have been exempt on the basis of office-holding or other service to the city.covering exemption I am moreinclined. Even in the latter case.5-6). substitutes 1975. 2000.2. off the lists.11.G 3.Pl. pretended expedition Alc.7-8. for othersto trierarchs sometimes Cohen.Ages. they had somehow to take into account the large number of exempt persons. According to Polyaenus. so they had good reason to list more conscripts than actually required. Pol. 13. the generals probably looked closely at claims of disability. A. since these could be fraudulent. 15 Aug 2013 12:08:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .347)argues 34 Sekunda all Lamian Warthat'therateof military mayhavebeenas lowas 8 percent. VH. in Ant. anticipating that a large number would prove exempt. 256). in the American CivilWar(Chambers.24. the trierarchic that one should summoriai (14. 1. however. comparative categories Sekunda'scalculationsbased on fragmentary in ephebicdocumentsand figurespreserved DiodorusSiculus(18.15. how. 87 B 57 D-K: ' "Illness cowards the proverb preserved provides 36 Note.] Ath. Meton allegedly Plu. for example officeholders. H. however. 1994. to bemadto win release fromthe Sicilian (Ael. The total number of individuals eligible for conscription on the basis of age and wealth but exempt on one of these grounds was probably considerable.Designated arranged privately for serve in their place on ship (Gabrielsen. 1025-8. Ph. when he was he protested to one of the generals that he had of theAthenian on the basisof his analysis mobilization forthe (1992.34When the generals compiled their katalogoi. R. 181). as was probably the case with those applying to officeholders. as was widely recognized.for example. 145-6). 138-40. 841-2. Hansen (1985. claimedhe was too sick to serveon an embassyto whichhe had 37 Cf. cf.94-5). horsesubstituted This content downloaded from 65. who was prosecuted for failure to pay a fine that the generals imposed on him for verbally abusing them after they denied his exemption claim.406 M.294-9(a fora man!). Ages. however.4.37 Just how hard it might be to win exemption is illustrated by the case of Lysias' client Polyaenus. As faras we know. the generals could not anticipate all who might claim exemption or who might not show up for service.124.the Councilsenthis brother cf.3-5 (all in connectionwith Agesilaus'recruitment another 878c5-d3(proposing thata manwho injures mustservein his place). beennamed.10. 23. Demosthenes' startwith2000namesif one seeks1200afterexemptions aregranted. or they could seek to produce higher-yield lists by leaving manifestly ineligible persons. 19. 9.88. Ag. CHRIST cavalry on the grounds of poverty or disability ([Arist.12. S. 13.2.88. X. Oursourcesspeakof substitution as an optionin a varietyof contexts: of cavalry).

4). he asserts. [Arist. Pol. 224-7.justified their action on the grounds that 'Polyaenushad not been in the city for less time than Callicrates' (9.88. H. Jameson (1980). Other Agoraof Hippodamus possible This content downloaded from 65.41The generals could also grant last-minute exemptions at this point.Anaceum: locations. 144 R). 144. may also have served this purpose on occasion. See Siewert (1982). of W R. who apparently had also been conscripted to serve in the current campaign (MacDowell.] Ath.The Pnyx. 3 Agora. Sudas. = v•l' could perhaps mean 'read off' (Hsch. Those found in the Piraeus may have been used for assembling citizens serving in the fleet: Gabrielsen (1994). 58-9. 1996]). The Agora. locations close to the city centre were probably favoured. Polyaen. 72.33.20). MA. Hsch. as one might have expected him to do if this had been an integral part of it.93. One advantage of mustering here was that the generals could make direct use of the katalogoi posted at the Eponymoi by having conscripts line up in front of their tribe's heroes to be checked off against each tribe's list.1. 142. 6.' While this is possible. Plu. 150-3.9.45. (A 234). MA. 24.X. Muster While almost any area of sufficient capacity could be used for mustering troops. cf. 15. 1. s.42 on Thu. M. 15. Phoc.10. presumably. Theseum: And. n.3-5.5).5) (MacDowell. v4tpw v 290).5: 'ApparentlyPolyaenus had complained that a man named Callicrates. cf. 210-11). is attested as a location for mustering hoplites and may have been used frequently. * The translation is that of H.15). had enjoyed a longer leave at home than himself. This.8.4 (but probably an error:see Rhodes. 9.2. s. And.2.1-2. 1994. 1. which served in emergencies as a collecting point for citizens in arms (And. 1930]. however. Ar. Lamb(Lysias[Cambridge.45 and Thuc.186)suggestsa different interpretation Polyaen. 1994. was probably used sometimes as a place of muster for hoplites setting out on expeditions.v.88.v. 1. Pnyx. Each tribe's taxiarch was responsible for marking down on his tribe's katalogos any no-shows (Poll. n. 155). s. perhaps that of the Assembly). 3. 9.v. 155). The Lyceum. 1981. with its large capacity and elevated platform (bema) from which generals could review the troops.45. 59.1.39 At muster the generals had to ensure that all conscripts not granted exemptions appeared for service. Phot. AiKELOV (A 1380).38 While the generals' argument may not have been flawlessCallicrates' presence on the katalogoi does not prove that they had fully met their obligation to seek conscripts first from among the astrateutoi-Polyaenus probably complied rather than face imprisonment (9.3-4 (Phocion apparently oversees the muster of troops from a bema. 282 and Siewert (1982). however. 1994. since many hoplites lived near the centre and the Agora was available for provisioning.v. Polyaenus makes no mention of Callicrates when describing his initial complaint to the general. Achaeans describing the 'conscription'of Greeks for the Trojan War is probably based on this phase of Athenian conscription: 'But do you on your chair who hold the tablets with the writing mark off (vYp ') any who has sworn the oath but is not present' (fr. in Piraeus: And. The generals. The horoi with names of tribes and trittyes found here may have been used when citizens assembled for mustering and other purposes: see Raubitschek (1956). Siewert (1982). 4. 15 Aug 2013 12:08:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . violated the generals'oath that 'they would enlist individuals who had not served' (-70ro.G 1. 1.45 (for cavalry). who had not been enlisted. cf. 1.21. Olson (1998).CONSCRIPTION OF HOPLITES IN CLASSICAL ATHENS 407 been called up within two months of returningfrom another military expedition (9. 156). 8. Pax 355-6. with 243. Thuc. a)aUU7Epov-POWV rd 7rv 7TapEaq7patLVOVTo ra•t'apXot avayeypa•cpevovg Lys. 13. Lyceum. 10.61. to judge from 38 0XovT4E 70 TOv K T70 KaTaAoyoU. this means that they darpare4'ov9S Ka'TAE6ELv had not served recently or perhaps within the swore to enlist first individuals who current year (MacDowell. (A 801).115: o0 IfvTrot oVO6pLaT•a A fragment from Sophocles' The Gathering of the Kal TOTO 7TapaacTLELV EKaAEEr70o). 10. Lloyd-Jones (Sophocles: Fragments [Cambridge.

CHRIST an anecdote concerning Phocion and the much-maligned orator Aristogeiton: when leaning on a staff Aristogeiton 'approached the place of muster (bv 8~ T Ka-raho'yp) and with both legs bandaged'.42 on Thu. summons see Lipsius(1905-15).3-4). KaraAo'ypas 'placeof muster'. 43 On indictment see Hamel (1998b). 10. H. 178)suggests thatthe Athenians mayhaveset out for Deliumin 424 their since'manyhoplitesin outlyingdemesmaynot havereceived withouta full contingent B.but cf. were heard later by a special jury composed of the soldiers who had gone out on the campaign in question (Lys. determine to march without a full contingent (D. 14. n. however. 15.S.88. cf. they could make last-minute efforts to fill their ranks.1-2). they might.5). The location maybe the Pnyx:see above. 39. 15. 9. cf. with the generals presiding (Lys. moreover.n. Dem. If the system worked. 39. 11. with 33. Lives VIII [Cambridge. andid. Jones(1957.58-60.6-7). If they had overestimated the yield. Conscription by katalogos was not designed to work with great speed: it must have been time-consuming to gather lists of eligible hoplites from the demes and then to select conscripts from these. 77. Plu. if so they wereprobably weresubject to atimia.17). 13-14. however. Athenians may have accepted this defect because normally speedy mobilization was not essential. (1985[1992]). Our sourcessometimes for draft-dodging.41 Once the generals knew how many conscripts had appeared for service. 362-85. 452-4.see Osborne(1987).278-81. Such cases. taxiarchs mean that undersome circumstances presided actingunderthe 180. Mor.5) until the army returned from campaign. thoughthis may not havebeen strictlyenforced: 72-4.17 characterize astrateiaas lipotaxion: tendentiously This may could receivechargesand 'bringthem into court'(eisagein).2. this left the generals Where military objectives warranted it. as far as we know they were not forced to cancel any expedition because of this. M. Conscription by katalogos appears to have worked relatively well. 15 Aug 2013 12:08:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . R. draft-dodgers (Lys.32-3. may have exercised their authority to 'bind'.MA. 1). 1919]) in translating7rc I follow B. 17. sufficient time to conscript troops. more individuals might appear than the Assembly had authorized and some would have to be sent home. (1990). Rosivach campaign 44 On the timingof the summer 53-5. ultimate authority see Dem. Under this system.5. Phocion cried out. 39. with MacDowell(1989).43 The postponement of such trials made sense not only because this kept the departing army from being delayed but because the returning army could efficiently judge these suits along with closely related ones alleging misbehaviour on campaign-abandoning the ranks or cowardice-over which they also had jurisdiction (Lys. 21. they may have needed to make some adjustments. in time'.C. Dem.81. Athens successfully fielded large hoplite forces during the Peloponnesian War. that is imprison."44 41 42 A. Perrin (Plutarch's This content downloaded from 65. Harrison. The generals remaining at home. M. it had two shortcomings: it was difficult to mobilize troops quickly.88. If the generals had underestimated the yield from the katalogoi. 1985. 14.42 Any conscript who failed to appear at muster was liable to indictment (graphe) for draft-dodging (astrateia) (Lys. of draft-evasion Individuals convicted of the generals. and the discretion exercised by the generals in selecting troops could appear arbitrary and unfair. 'Write down Aristogeiton too as lame and worthless' (Plu. however.4-6. suggeststhat taxiarchs overthe court(Careyand Reid. While the generals may sometimes have set out without full contingents. As long as the Assembly voted well in advance of the summer campaign season to launch an expedition. season. if pursued. 185f6-186a3).1971. 14.

eligiblefor militaryservice[i. CONSCRIPTION BY AGE-GROUPS The Aristotelian Athenaion Politeia digresses from its treatment of arbitrators to describe the system of conscription operating at the time of its composition (c. After considering the features of the new system and the evidence concerning the date of its inception. Eq. with 1099-1101). regardless of age. Ar. H. 3. Behind this hyperbole lies an important reality. for example. Av. While Athenians used conscription by katalogos for a long time. It was thus almost inevitable under this system of selective conscription that some younger men remained behind while older men served.94. quotedat this article's recruitment opening.e. and Euripideseach wrote a Philoctetesexploring the problematic of the titlehero. cf. 1989. 1989). if the individual had already been listed. Aeschylus.4. 330 B. 'recruitment' This content downloaded from 65. with Storey.14. 2. Another source of friction was the impression that the generals gave preferential treatment to their friends and influential persons: indeed.1. There may be some truth to the common claim that politicians evaded military service (e.n.). or. V. Smp. whicharesometimes applied Mainomenos (see above.CONSCRIPTION OF HOPLITES IN CLASSICAL ATHENS 409 hoplites (Thuc. While the generals must have drafted younger men frequently since they were especially likely to be vigorous (D.46 Aristophanes often alludes to astrateia and Eupolis apparently focused on it in his Astrateutoi (cf.5-6.91. It is against this backdrop of suspicions and concerns that we should read the frequent treatmentof draft-evasion in Attic drama: tragedians treated the problem of astrateia in connection with the Trojan War. to ensure a good mix of veterans within the ranks. Euripides. Eup. 598-614.2) or all able-bodied men (Thuc. 554 R. sometime in the period 386-366 B.2. 15 Aug 2013 12:08:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 15.22.): Men who are fifty-nine years old serve as arbitrators. Skyrioi(basedon Achilles' 46 Sophocles. fr.they altered fundamentally how conscription was carried out. 683a N2 Suppl. In fact.88.1) could be called upon to take the field en masse. fr. Cleonymus: Ar. 3. Ach. 18-59 'and trava-rpa'ru.84. the apparentpopularity of the Sophocles'Skyrioitreated difficultiessurrounding tragediesconcernedwith recruiting: of Neoptolemus(fr. 11. Athenians were concerned about it and the threat it posed to the city.31. the generals must sometimes have selected an 'older'-relatively speaking at least-man over a younger and less experienced one.Whilethe eponymousheroesof the tribesare ten in involving thereare forty-twoassignedto the age-groups number. whose elections they could help secure.One possible complaint was that young men were passed over while 'old men' served (And. 4.178)pointsout the flexibility to leviesthatareclearlylessthanfull as in Thuc. M. Eq. Jones(1957. 35 K-A): given their close relationships with generals. they could draft any man they deemed fit. 15. 1369-72)--a safer branch of service. cf. 1114-21. it lay within the generals' authority not to put an individual on the katalogoi in the first place.45 A further problem with conscription by katalogos was that the generals' discretion in selecting hoplites could lead to the impression of inequitable treatment-a sensitive matter within Athenian democracy. D.4).26.S. 36).Odysseus famous cross-dressing dodge-see esp.C.31. 4.g. to strike his name from the list on the grounds. of the terms7rav8s~ed 45 A.45. cf.S. Lys.88. Ar. Peisander: X. Cf. that he was qualified to serve in the cavalry (Lys. from this tragedy). Whatever the actual level of draft-dodging. 2.42 on Thu. I will attempt to place it in its historic context by exploring the military and ideological considerations behind its introduction. 1369-72. cf. is clear from the arrangements archonsand eponymous heroes. they were in an excellent position to ask for and receive preferential treatment. Sophocles. Ar.

cf. Pol. 2.49Consistent with this are three references to call-up by age-group from (probably) those aged twenty to some upper limit: Dem. 53. ephebes'namesare inscribedon a bronzestele. and removing the entire list of the oldest age-group. 1981. The monument of the Eponymoi was the natural place to post this notice.C.4.C. whose members had passed beyond the age of eligibility. Pol. were probably in the same area. bases for triangular bronze stelai have been found in this vicinity (Stroud.17. The eponymic designation of the retiring hoplites was then availablefor reassignment to the incoming eighteen year olds.Pol. 42.2. 61.Formerly. probably provided their names to the generals. H. see X.2 of a call-up to the •errapaKovr7a. 172). Lac. the generals could now initiate conscription simply by posting a notice in the vicinity of the whitened boards or bronze stelai that stated the years called upon to serve (Ath. the Council.theypost a noticethat expeditions: indicates by archons and eponymous heroes the range of age-groups that must serve Lt'vog 8EL UtparTEEUaLat). Aesch. hero of the age-groupthat had served as arbitrators in the previousyear.7). Arist. out by age-ranges: wascarried 49In Spartatoo conscription This content downloaded from 65.theirnameswerewrittenon whitenedtablets yearolds]. 18. Pol.1). 335/4 B. 53. R.C. 592) suggests c. .10. Individuals were listed by age-group and probably also by tribe within each age-group to facilitate consulting the list at the time of conscription and at muster.4-5 speaks of an unsuccessful call-up in 352/1 B.678-9). the whitened boards. Thphr. 53. 3.] generals 47 The practice attestedin the mid-fourth (see Rhodes. with Rhodes.4.1-2. . cf. Char. Ath.6). 53.S. andthe eponymous andabovethemthearchonin officewhentheywereenrolled (ypactpa-re•a). The shift to the more expensive and durable medium of bronze suggests that beyond their practical function these stelai were meant to be striking monuments to the city's hoplite forces.4 indicates that the current practice was to devote a bronze stele to each age-group but that previously whitened tablets had been used. once this This meant striking was done each year's generals had only to keep these lists current.133 of a decree in 347/6 B. which was responsible for reviewing the lists of new ephebes submitted annually by the demes (Ath. D.410 M.10. 15 Aug 2013 12:08:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . to particular of assigning Ath.88. Pol. Pol.S.. 7) (7rpoypdcovuat drd pXOV70So tTwvcOU tuXpt The system described here diverges conspicuously from conscription by katalogos (cf. however. While a considerable effort must have been requiredinitially to gather the names and ages of all eligible hoplites so as to construct lists organized by age-group. The bronze stelai were located 'next to these' (Ath.48 Because lists of eligible hoplites in each age-group were centrally posted.88.4).25. Their predecessors.1. may haveled to one general centuryB. 26. 49-57). They also use the eponymousheroesin connectionwith military whenever they sendmen of a certainage on an expedition. Ath.42 on Thu.G 6. 18. XpL 7rvOwv KaL (53.7 suggests that the normal practice was to call up all those between two ages. forkeeping having responsibility primary reformof the ephebeia that this shift may haveaccompanied 48 Rhodes(1981. 1972.47 from them individuals who had died or become physically unfit for service. CHRIST whenephebes wereenrolled.2.whichis first posts ([Arist. whichis set up in front of the Bouleuterion beside the Eponymoi. Now. 11. 1979.'wherehoplites continued to gather by tribe (D.of men aged up to forty-five for a naval expedition. 1303a8-10) in maintaining permanent lists of men eligible for service as hoplites and in carrying out conscription solely on the basis of membership in an age-group.for conscription up to the age of forty (reading with Dilts) for a naval expedition. listsupdated. Pol.c. The new system not only kept track of the names of all eligible hoplites but also posted these near the Eponymoi.

the generals were free to consider age. they obscure an important feature of this system.S.3-4. which kept track of men by age and conscripted them solely on this basis with others in their age-group: there is no convincing evidence this probably means is introduced "oIn eachof thesethreecasesthe upperage-limit by ~pdXpL: thatconscription e. a lottery would have been problematic in this context. This rotation among age-groups would ensure fair turn-taking within a given year and even over a period of years if. 47.263). in explaining succinctly how the system worked. In such cases.g.Car. who couldrowthemselves areprobably (cf. they probably took care to avoid sending the youngest and least experienced age-groups by themselves.348-51.g.2. of hopliteswhoseimmediate D. For the use of 'through age 39' (see Hansen. however.53Under conscription by katalogos.CONSCRIPTION OF HOPLITES IN CLASSICAL ATHENS 411 age of forty of hoplites for the Lamian War. While the new system probably retained some features of the earlier one-for example.16. conflatethe two arrangements.Thuc.1985. in conscription.5.n.Rosivach. however. 1985.Effenterre (1976). an example belowthatAesch.38-9).1985[1992]. are the exception rather than the rule in Athenian military history.4-5 and Aesch.15-16.100. 1984. hoplites. Hansen.soBecause these call-ups involved mass mobilization of about half the age-groups. those hearing of the call-up by word of mouth-for example. Jones(1957). The Athenaion Politeia does not rule this out. along with other factors.133speakof navalexpeditions. not to enlist eligible men over a certain age (cf. First. This feature of conscription by katalogos should not be confused. 3.17 as evidenceof the use of the lot for determiningwhich age-groupswould be mobilized:in this passageA~~tSrefers to a legal not a military lottery.18. To achieve a desirable mix of ages that ensured the presence of veterans. 89). see also Plu. for this might lead to an unhappy preponderance of younger or older men.88.42 on Thu. Hansen.the possibility that age-groups were selected entirely by lot. 126contraRuschenbusch. they could enlist different age-groups.1985. the generals could probably call upon multiple age-ranges at the same time-for example. as this would be inconsistent with the use of age-ranges. with the later arrangement. Kromayer A. when the next small-scale expedition was planned.88. 54-5) to the locationsin questionand then carryout the landoperations task is to serveas a landforce. The Athenaion Politeia does rule out. age-ranges the individuals calledup Whileboth Dem. 39.19-20 K-A. the generals could now call up a small number of age-groups to serve and then. 79) is mistaken in takingDem.2.1. in selecting troops and could choose.1992. manthe fleetmentioned latertheymayhavehelped butcf. the generals kept track of which age-groups had served recently.24. Apollod. the generals only needed a fraction of eligible hoplites-a few thousand or less-to man an expedition. it focuses on the most straightforward use of it where only a single age-range is posted. 18. Mass mobilizations. in the outlying demes-might well receive garbled information since a list of random numbers could easily be confused in transmission. of turn-taking on smallexpeditions. H. e. the random selection of age-groups might create confusion concerning those called up: while those consulting the notice-board in person could establish directly whether they were among the conscripted age-groups.163. plannedin each case. complaint " Scholarsfrequently and Veith(1928). 15 Aug 2013 12:08:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the way that exemptions were handled-the features highlighted here distinguish the two arrangements clearly from one another. the age-ranges 20-22 and 30-32.3. Phoc.2speaksof conscription in the samepassage(Sekunda. This content downloaded from 65.10. as is likely. Second.5' When the generals were calling up a small number of age-groups for service. namely how it allows for equitable turn-taking by age-groups on smaller-scale expeditions. conscription 'upto age40' means stopped justshortof the upperage-limit.168provides 5' I argue 52 Tritle(1988. M. in fact.52 Although Athenians were fond of lotteries. normally. however.3-5.

4 distinguishes between the past use of whitened tablets for recording age-groups and the current use of bronze stelai for this. Andrewes as evidence thatmightbe adduced (1981..88.] ) I faceddangerwithsuch EmAKros7 r70o•• a crownon the spot andanother fromthe peopleon my return home. R.: of our city. If I am correct.C. citingthe KaAovULEv to the problematic natureof some of the sources 54 Hamel(1998a. Other sources suggest that the age-group system was operating for several decades before 330 B.)and Dem.c.1988)and beganhis ephebicserviceat the probably ageof 18. n. I foughtso wellthatI won praisefrommy officers.C. cf. 53.167-9.followingDilts'sTeubner In my view. Carey. it indicates that the system of conscription by age-groups operating c.42 on Thu. 88. 279.C. 2) suggests in addition: 'It perhaps accords with as if this that Aischines adds the qualification KaAovUk/. 330 B.15) as evidence of this feature of generals' oath KaTaAE"'ELV To70arTpaTE'rovU Andrewes the earlier system.C. I will call my fellowephebes(r70o auvcE0 two years.. which many scholars have accepted (e.taxiarchof the tribe Pandionis. (Harris. the system was in existence by 366 B. CHRIST of record-keeping of this sort or call-up by age-group under conscription by katalogos.167-9 allows us to take the reform back at least to 366 B.C. (1981. This content downloaded from 65. Andrewes (1981. preservedin Harp. Aeschines refers throughout this passage to conscription carried out by age-groups.<all> those involvingage-groups[and servicein turns](Ka' 7a expeditions <1rTcaag> E'v7TS TWVIOLS [Ka' ro-/L 'pEULv] Co8ou T rds 1roi WcAa is' 9'K '&aSoX~jS and in a mannerworthy honourably ?169I foughtin the battleof Mantineia [362B. 2.C.88.This is the most natural interpretation of the conscription involving age-ranges attested in Aesch.for couragethatI received I broughtthe news of the city's victory.had been in existence for some time. Hansen. to Euboea[357B.I wenton the expeditions cf. Rhodes.EOAhv mercenary troops on a mission to escort age-group (ETrd rc3v . I will consider it closely. 15 Aug 2013 12:08:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . OLt in his fourth book 2) points out that when Philochorus speaks of arpae-ra E'v -70L^ '7•WV" in connectionwith the (FGrH328 F 38. 74) calls attention of call-upby age-group in the fifth century. Aesch.. 9. ovarpardav 477v . 2. 327.1997]) dangerthat hadarisen.. 1985. 3. Whenwe fell into dangernearwhat is called(KaAoUvPl4 provisions vv) I also wentout on the other Nemeanravine.C.' -v as a reference under to turn-taking conscription bykatalogos.C. 3.133 (347/6 B.C.C.].C.the date of the first expedition that Aeschines mentions.]. 1981.C. In his On the Embassy Aeschines defends himself at length against Demosthenes' snipes at his military service: I becamea borderguardof this landfor ?167.. 390 B.andat the battle as one of theselecttroops(Ev of Tamynae [349/8B. 372 B. reportedhere how I had acted in the face of the accompanied text [Stuttgart and Leipzig. 151.26.s.54 Date of inception When Ath..4 (352/1 B.who me as envoy from the camp. that were the system less familiar to his hearers. Pol. ?168The first expeditionI went on involved'servicein turns'as it is called(rptfr-qv 8' I was with the other men of my E V roi9 pE4wt KaAoujLkV.6 Dindorf)-probably War-he is probably laterpractice withconscription of the Peloponnesian outbreak contrasting by katalogos. 2000.412 M.Because this problematic passage is critical both to dating the reform and understanding its nature. n.1AlKtwrwv)and Alcibiades' the to Phlius[366 B. This interpretation goes against Andrewes's reading (1981) of this passage.] ~AhOov). " Aeschines was bornc.85-6].g. in succession. (2.55 5ovU) and our officersas witnessesto this.and Menites.v.v). WhenI passedout of childhood[c.). 349/8B. 1-2) takes arpar Eav rT7)vE pepEat V 70'TOr (Lys.rlvto service Ev T70L ig pEatL. 219).

sometime service 'in turn'. including Ev. 9. 145c8.S. Prm.57 age-group.42 on Thu. 75).15). 1919]." Significant objections take it is odd to observes n. 219) suggests that 'Iv ro^S~ but thispractice is also unattested. cf.aaAEyev-ra 943a3-4).CONSCRIPTION OF HOPLITES IN CLASSICAL ATHENS 413 can be raisedto Andrewes's First.whilethis systemof conscription by katalogos conscription in these or similar in our sources. however. 18. probably levy supplemented by Alcibiades' would take their turn the othersas E'pEL late wrote the Laws in his career.17-23. suggests 'A man that conscription by katalogosand service'in turn'are distinctalternatives: in some must to serve in turn or called who has beenconscripted way up by katalogos i-v KaT performmilitary service'(arparEl'EaOaL q 7~v Iv JEpEL 1TLV .75. conscription seeX. (1998a. by katalogos. is nevercharacterized is mentionedfrequently citesin favourof his positionis the generals' terms.2.88. 287. n.he is probably case. 943a4)or in reference in themid-fourth (E'v century tE'pE rwvt: of this terminology Aesch. 15 Aug 2013 12:08:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . A passagein Plato'sLawssettingout rulesfor militaryservice. whenthe wholelevywasnot required. 15.G 7. Hamel. 59 While Plato does not follow Athenian law precisely here (cf.1'pEaL refers to [Cambridge. Plato drawson Athenian law in his treatmentof military rTEraypLEvov of Athenswhenhe speaksof these also thatfollows59 andis probably thinking offences to conscription he is alternative referring probably by r7vKa-raAEyv-tra arrangements: The latterhad to service iv tLVL'.88.58 to emphasize thatthisturn-taking thanthe singular rather /iEpEaL with identificationof iv 0roL-/LEpEaTL Further doubts concerningAndrewes's areraisedby the fact that.3. 2. Adams (The Speeches of Aeschines . MA.2 for expressions connoting 'turn-taking' formed from various prepositions. Ev 0rots/LEpEcrL KaAov/LE'v)qv Crpacrdav rdTv states that as a reference to conscription by katalogos.the underthis arrangement to the age-groupsystem. all by hoplites. 151. it appears earlier but in a different sense in Pl. In this naturalinterpretation is that Aeschinesis referring to the turn-taking 'in turns'. (1983). 385-6). 324-8).10. Plato the time the former by probablyreplaced beforehis deathin 347 B. This content downloaded from 65.other age-groups next time troops were needed. 1998b. call-upof entiretribalcontingents is unattested and cannot be inferred from the fact that tribal contingents were sometimes deployed in different locations: such deployments took place only after conscription from all tribes had been carried out. But the vague prescriptionto oath ro70vS arpaTrEVroU who have not yet gone on an expeditionfalls short of one men conscript(first) whichis to astrateutoi. appear literature. 1996. D.27.The only evidencethatAndrewes ~ KcLaAEELV (Lys. in combination with 1dpos in the singular. of onlypartof an age-group. as a precaution againstdraft-evasion.2. as far as I can tell. cf. proposalin and arealso not persuasive in my Hamel interpretation.47-8.since Aeschinesimmediately he went on an expeditionwith men of his age. with n. 33) take this as a reference Thispractice. See LSJ pipos 11. H.moreover. 2000. as is clear from D. C.whenhe speaksof service by referring entire age-groupsthat was possibleunderthe new systemas suggestedabove. 1991. Thompson 57 Onthisexpedition.S.The a full levy of troops-only a partial did not require expeditionto Phliusapparently with Aeschines' mercenaries. Lg.Kromayer of &v r70o 56 Otherinterpretations -pipEaL to the selective Veith(1928. sufficedon this occasion. in this sensebeforethis point in Greek 58 Ev T70o•L~ pErt does not.Aeschinesmay use the pluralin the phraseE'vr70o9 was by groups.In fact. he appears to be influenced strongly by it (see Saunders. whichwasledbyChares. conscription by age-group.variously of military The factthatwe onlybeginhearing expressed. to this period(E'v Pl. the reference mandating turn-taking mayindicatethat this clausewas includedin the oath primarily frequently pejorative.168) is in keepingwith the identification /'pEcaL: TO7L• withthisis Demosthenes' Consistent withthe newsystemof conscription. Indeed. Burckhardt.21.

C.88.v.Oneexplanation the that Aeschines as an attribute sinceit describes thoughtEv pgIp. Kal (cf.. If.g.whereas t^rr/oLS mechanismof the forty-twoeponymousheroes by which it was carriedout. -roi•Lp as a reference to the age-group its wayinto our text:it derives systemcouldexplainhowit found W froma marginal thatcorrectly linksthisphrasewithEv -rols LE'PieaL gloss on E'v -70 E'Wvtw•LotS sincebothreferto the samesystem. 7Twv4POLO9S KCa Tro' /E'pEarw. = 279.6' The form of the pE'peatL) KaL sp also may support the view that Aeschines phrase 4v 0rot^ ETrrowv. if Aeschines had meant to distinguish the two.Thiswouldalso provide emphasize that he did not go out on all expeditions aftercompleting his two yearsof ephebicservice.2. as he might have if they referred to different systems.c. 7.. as the lexicographers noted (e. R.60 this KaL TOL9S pEULVw. follows roi•9 Hamaker in bracketing Kat roi?9 leaving us with a referenceto conscription by pE'pEatw.4. Smyth. Aeschines has designated the new system. recognizable name in general use. -rot^s If we accept that Aeschines' Ev /cpepEac was under the age-group system.C. 7E.88.42 on Thu.pOLs Trotg is referringthrough two attributes to/PE•V a single method of conscription: the omission of a second &vcould make the two nouns '(whethersimilar or dissimilar in meaning) unite to form a complex' (Smyth.62 If we accept the entire phrase E'v0ro9wWovVtLOLsKatTroCs. This withDilts'sinsertion makesme uncomfortable of ircaarlaterin ?168whenAeschines possibility to his service refers in the period362-349/8 Aeschines B. 1667a). arparda conspicuous role of the forty-two eponymous heroes in the age-group system as described in Ath. in this age-group Elv roEsE7rwvvpotLs.Laterin the simplyindicatethat the prepositional passage Aeschinesuses the identicalform when namingthe Nemean ravine:assumingthat is not behind the repetition. Pol. cautiousin attributing this senseto KaAov/Etvr7v. mayhavebeenunfamiliar refer to thesystem wonder would firstwithEiv roi7 p^ig c aL and whyAeschines 62 Onemight thenlaterwith Iv -rog E~wrrwvItOL sinceit mightmakemoresenseto describe Kat iroiit~pEULV.2) is rightly 61 Andrewes phraseconstitutesa designation ('called').. he could have repeated the preposition and linked them with. my interpretation iepEaLV 'ipEaearlier TO•. This is true whether we reject or accept Kat' roi9 later in ?168 when-according to the /L EpEULV manuscripts-Aeschines characterizes his service on expeditions in the period 362as &v 349/8 B. and take the two components to be attributes of the same system of conscription as I have argued. however. CHRIST 349/8 B.: maywellbe makinghis claimto model calledup 'in turn' servicecarefully. system. we can avoid an unhappy consequence of Andrewes's ' If KaL of 'v in the passage is an intrusion. designation.lE'pEV as part of our text. 15 Aug 2013 12:08:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . as many have. that the Athenians should support Olynthus through an expedition in which 'all should serve in turn pl'pos) until all have taken part in the campaign' (2.C.167). is it firstby two attributes and laterin abbreviated manner byjust one of these.not thathe wenton everysingleexpedition This content downloaded from 65. A rhetorical motivation this feature first:becauseAeschines is defending mayalso lie behindhis highlighting himself againstDemosthenes' slur againsthis serviceas soldier ( this case Aeschinesmay be using it in the sense dittography 'so-called' as the Nemeanravine to somein his audience.sinceit could (1981.Consistent with this flexible nomenclature is its designation earlier in the passage by one of these phrases (E'v ro70 qualified by KaAovpErl7v taken in the sense 'so-called'. in his Teubneredition. is consistent with the v To70g•irwT)vtotS = Harp. s. for which there may have been no single.414 M. this means that all of the service he describes subsequently in his military autobiography was under the same system of conscription.31). by two of its attributes.e' wasmoresignificant the on whichthe new-oL^ Evr70To merelydescribes principle systemwas based. 53. he wants to a defenceagainstthepossiblecharge thathe served'in turn'. whenever assertingthat he went on successive expeditions undertheeponymic duringthis period.Dilts. In this case. Aeschines actually wrote cv -o0i 7rowvV4LoLs would still mean-according to my interpretation of Ev Tros0 E'pecaL earlier in ?168that he was conscripted by age-group in the period 362-349/8 B.C.6 Dindorf). (Kar7d service in 366 B. for example. 1667b).

interpretation: 63Hansen'sinference. this would be a new list distinct from any existing lists of hoplites since it would include thetes as well as hoplites (cf.C. no new verb was coined to describe the new arrangement as far as we know.C.and good reason to believe the new arrangement was operating by this date. 1. 248)argues argument 6 Hansen thanby age-group.64 The names of thetes had to be gathered on lists based on the deme rolls-just as formerly the conscription of hoplites had been carried out-because they did not appear on the lists of hoplites organized by age-group posted in the Agora by this time. probably thetes (cf. we should abandon the idea that the two systems overlapped for some time. as was to havebeenprimarily a naval appears of epibatai eachship(50. service. Rhodes. makessenseonly if conscripts thatMantitheus' (1985. Hansen. 245. fromthe current willnot be put to suchclosescrutiny. since it will not be clear which of in the event of an expedition. 50.(cf. etc. Mantitheus' argument.8 (348 B. 3.Mantitheus sinceidentical namescouldcauseconfusionat leastinitially. In any case.6 (cf.C. perhapsin conjunction happenuntil afterthe battleof Chaeronea reforms of c.88. the other three pieces of evidence Hansen cites in favour of a mixed-system carry little weight.4-6)requiring thanhoplites. a smallcontingent normalin suchsituations accompanied did not 65 If thetes ever becameeligiblefor hopliteservice(see above.n. this probably with the ephebic (338 B. 327)..16) speaks of the compilation of katalogoi in 362/1 most of whom were B.C.4 in 354/3 B. 1985. accepting Andrewes's interpretation.63Once we take away this pivotal passage.65 Dem.88. 13. 16.). the two is 'the one conscripted' (0 KaTIELAEyLOE'voS) This need not be taken as a reference to conscription by katalogos. 39.] Ath. ( 'v -r70 E•TWVUr/o•os) r-TO-g pE'pE••v) Hansen (1985.n.25.c. rowed discussedabove(n. if r70os8' rrdp v' KacTrAoyov implies making a list of those of military age.C. 15 Aug 2013 12:08:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. n.C.10.C. however.g. KaraAE'yw was flexible-it was also used in speaking of conscription of men for the cavalry (e. 61. Since we have no compelling evidence of conscription of hoplites by katalogos after 366 B.1985.96). 86-7). 1981.66 2. Although Dem. Hansen.)that there will be great confusion if his half-brother continues usurping his name. Practical considerations also favour a clean transition between the two. 1985. by ages. Pol. This content downloaded from 65. the expeditiondescribedin Dem. 50. Aeschines could mean a la Andrewes that he served first by katalogos and later by age-group in the period362-349/8B.42 on Thu.this is specifically for conscription of sailors (vaorsaL). age-group whichis partof a long list of possibleconfusionsresulting maywell assumethat his assertion.). arrangements must have overlapped for some time. sinceunderthe latterarrangewerelisteddeme-by-deme on katalogoi rather of identical namecouldhavebeendistinguished fromone anotherby mentthe two half-brothers could still be valid underconscription theirdifferent however.1)-and therefore probably continued to be used under the age-group system to describe conscription. 30). Mantitheus protests in Dem.proposes paying all those of military age for military for their non-military services. Lys. 335/4 B. infers that the old and new 89). Once the names of from Andrewes's does not follownecessarily however. katalogos-namely that Aeschines was conscripted both under the age-group system and by katalogos (Kal in the period 362-349/8 B. and paying rovs 8' 6 r'Ep 7 v KaTraAOyOV The fact that this is a proposal makes the relation of its elements to the status quo uncertain. 50 sailorsrather one (50. 50) in whichhoplitesapparently 6 Unlike the navalexpeditions themselvesto distant locationsso as to fight on land.13) and of trierarchs ([Arist.Ober.110. 110. situation.CONSCRIPTION OF HOPLITES IN CLASSICAL ATHENS 415 interpretation of bIv LE'pEaearly in ?168 as a reference to conscription by -ro•.

000 hoplites in 377/6 B.157.C. system (Harp. SIGNIFICANCE OF REFORM Why did Athenians abandon conscription by katalogos and replace it with conscription by age-groups in the period 386-366 B.167. routine and does not seek special credit for it. 1985.9 (FortheSoldier). Athenians had good reason to seek both improvements at this time.71-9 and Reinmuth 68 For arguments see Raaflaub on the ephebeia.153)suggests.C. see esp.C.26. including reform of how hoplites were trained and conscripted. 1991. as he does treats his service as he above).67Although Diodorus Siculus speaks of the Athenian general Demophon conscripting (Ka-raM$aSg) 5.with 172.6. Ober. it is best to Ka-raAE'yc date the reform approximatelyto the period 386-366 B.2) and of the Athenians voting to conscript (Ka-raAt at) 20. the new arrangementprobably innovated in extending service to two years and in modifying the form of training during this period (cf. 148-9. 90-5).-Athenians further refined the ephebic = 126. 15 Aug 2013 12:08:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . increasing professionalization of Greek military forces. R. 494-5). its most striking features suggest that military and ideological considerations worked together to bring about the change. (15. we cannot rely on the precision of his terminology.C.How much farther back can it be dated? Conscription by katalogos was still operating at the start of the Corinthian War (Lys. It was probably during this period that Athenians made two years of military service and training obligatory for eighteen year olds of hoplite status.. Carey. An integral part of this was innovation in the military sphere. (1996).7).88. Aeschines suggests in his military autobiography that this was the normal arrangement by the with his fellow ephebes (2.C. including the rising use of mercenaries.169). 1989. 15. While an ephebic system of some sort was probably in place already in the late-fifth century.C. we have established that conscription by age-group dates back at least to 366 B. Rhodes. This content downloaded from 65.C.Athens sought to re-establish its power and prestige after its defeat in the Peloponnesian War and in the face of new threats from abroad. 14.Fora surveyof scholarship nn.123-38. CHRIST eligible conscripts were readily availableon the lists of the forty-two age-groups. (1962). 'E7TLKpad•r the Furthermore. quoted time he began his two years of service c.42 on Thu. 1981.416 M.5. there was no reason for the generals to create further work for themselves by sometimes generating the old-style katalogoi.(15.C.c. was operating by katalogos 67 Conscription Waras MacDowell dateto the Corinthian (1994. 141) and probably continued to be used throughout it (395-386 B. Military considerations In the first decades of the fourth century B. On balance then. Thus far. 372 B. later in the same excursus for his exceptional role as one of the epilektoi at Tamynae (2.may have made Athenians more conscious of whichmay in the timeof Lys.2 Dindorf) (Hansen.P616kidis in favourof an earlyephebeia. cf. cf.68 Concern over the city's military readiness in the aftermath of the Peloponnesian War was probably a primary motivation behind reform of the ephebeia.?While we do not know the circumstances in which the Assembly approved this reform. 89.29.000 hoplites in 378/7 B. it may have been using with reference to conscription by age-group. likewise after another great defeat-at Chaeronea in 338 B. (1971).).v. Even if Diodorus' source used these terms. The new system had two conspicuous advantages over its predecessor: it allowed speedier mobilization and was more equitable.88. s.

as the fourth century was. but also the epilektoi. 1985. notably. the fact that we do not hear of a single far-reaching reform may mean that one reform drew on the other in employing age-groups. in selecting individual conscripts. could garrison the expanding network of rural forts in Attica during their second year of service ([Arist. moreover. 1. 13-66). 53. in conscriptionwas the requirement. once these arrived. unpersuasive. On eliteforcesattested 7' Cf. as if the latter followed naturally upon the former. 56).CONSCRIPTION OF HOPLITES IN CLASSICAL ATHENS 417 the importance of having a better-trainedhoplite force. First. because lists organized by age-group were already at hand and conscription was by group.]Ath. This is apparent in Aeschines' military autobiography quoted above: the orator speaks of his service as border guard with his fellow ephebes-who were certainly of the same age as himself (cf. 28). 1985. 1989. a veteran force of dependable fighters'. we have no reason to believe that conscription by age-group lowered the and the newmethodof conscription. Pol. and/or unmotivated' (Tritle. Pol. reform of the ephebeia 9 On the possiblelink between see Hansen(1985).n.49)--and then immediately of conscription by age-group carried out several years later in which he served with men of his age (2.90-6. Ober.69 The new arrangementmust have speeded up considerably the process of conscription and thus mobilization. however. A specific motivation behind the reform.70 This view of conscription by age-group as an improvementover its predecessor and one well-suited to the city's changing circumstances is at odds with Tritle's negative assessment of it: 'Generals surely found in their ranks men called out for service who were physically unfit. Athenian efforts to improve the speed of mobilization may require little explanation: any measure to improve the city's military effectiveness may have been welcome. the generals had merely to choose which groups to conscript. Complementary to the city's efforts to improve the quality of its hoplites by modifying the ephebic system was its reform of conscription to allow speedier mobilization of troops.88. the generals could expect to command not only those age groups summoned. In an age of widespread military innovation in the Greek world.221-5.] Ath. to remedy the problem of 'low grade troops'. The ephebes. 42. Although this affinity could mean that the two reforms were instituted simultaneously.89 andOber(1985).7' thus (57) 'when an expeditionary force was called out.4-7 betweenthe use of age-groupsfor designating andconscripting arbitrators hoplites. This reading of the new system of conscription and its consequences is.4. close connectionin [Arist. 15 Aug 2013 12:08:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Ephebic reform may have been the earlier of the two: the need to keep track of ephebes entering their two years of mandatory service could have prompted special measures for recording the names of each ephebic class. which consisted of individuals of the same age. 97-9).2. when conscription by age-group was initiated.167-8). the epilektoi' analagous to those attested in some other Greek states. untrained. These reforms of ephebic service and conscription shared not only the goal of producing a more effective hoplite force but also.77-9. Athenians established 'a permanent elite force.42 on Thu.c.Tritle This content downloaded from 65. for using age-groups 70 Anotherpossible inspiration in theirsixtiethyearserveas arbitrators.88.see Pritchett (1974). however. outsideAthens. The generals no longer had to wait for lists to come in from the demes or spend time. (1988).(see above. thatAthenians Note the to keeptrackof at least olderAthenians this wouldmakeit necessary by age-group. startingin 399/8B. a reliance on age-groups. may have been the desire to provide for speedy response to enemy incursions into Attica so as to avoid the damage and humiliation such incursions had brought during the Peloponnesian War (Ober. it then built on this pre-existing arrangement.

ensuring that conscripts had a common core of experience and were thus not 'untrained'.169). 6. R. 8) need not imply that a standing and/or separate corps existed even by this time. was much more equitable than its predecessor. say nothing about this force being permanent.1 as evidenceof 'similar conductfor the Greeksduringthe Lamian War'. 16) cites for this is an anecdote in Plutarch concerning poor discipline among Athenian troops in 349/8 B. may have been superior to its predecessor in dealing with this challenge: by making conscription fairer (see below). with nn. n.17. 1989. this could be explained by their desire to gain an extra edge in battle rather than despair at the low quality of regular conscripts under conscription by age-group. Significantly. Ideological considerations While military concerns may have been the primary impetus behind the reform of conscription. Plu. which left selection of conscripts largely to the generals' discretion. with n. 54-5.42 on Thu. 12. 330 B. the fourth-centuryone. however. (Phoc. however. Hamel. 1974.C. Athenians. may simply reflect changing usage rather than institutional innovation. Inscriptions beginning c.3). 13. CHRIST quality of Athenian hoplite forces. 15 Aug 2013 12:08:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ephebic training was probably in place in some form from the inception of conscription by age-groups as argued above. 56. Conscription by age-group. epilektoi-this shift in terms.5). the reform's attention to equity suggests that concerns over fairness played an important role. 2. The new arrangement was manifestly fair in ensuring that individuals of the same age would always serve simultaneously. however. 5. Phoc. the Athenian use of epilektoi at the Battle of Tamynae (Aesch. The only evidence Tritle (1989. Since compulsion was integral to both systems. no longer would one man serve while a qualified individual of 72 Tritlecites D.168) and then immediately substantiates this by citing the expeditions he went on in the period 362-349/8 B. quoted above. This content downloaded from 65. 13). Tritle'sargument that Athenians responded to the alleged difficulties posed by the new system with the establishment of a permanent force of epilektoi is not that Tritle cites for such a force refers to compelling. the fact that his service as epilektos is included within this list suggests that he had already been conscripted by age-group before being selected to serve with the epilektoi. Second. and Aeschines in fact appears to rule this out: he generalizes that he served repeatedly under the age-group system (2. This is consistent with the well-establishedpractice in Athens of selecting forces to be used for special purposes from those already conscripted: the fifth-century convention was to label these forces logades.C. were probablyalso common when conscription by katalogos was in use.C.S. up-to-date register of potential conscripts.88. discipline was a challenge in citizen armies in general (see Pritchett.418 M. after all. however. with its reliance on age as the sole criterion for calling up men of hoplite status for service. 1998a. 2. Conscription by age-groups.232-45. 59-64). it may well have improved morale among the conscripted. 56. Moreover.169. both had to deal with the problem of 'unmotivated' soldiers. could have improved the speed of mobilization by a less dramatic reform of conscription by katalogos.honouring epilektoi or erected by them (adduced by Tritle. however. for example by maintaining a central. 18. Athenians had established a separate 61itecorps of epilektoi by this late date. which is noted by Tritle (1989.88. The two passages cited. If. they chose instead to speed up mobilization through a system that also distributed more fairly among citizens the obligation to risk life in battle. The only evidence before 330 B.(2.C.72 Disciplinary problems.

18.D. If the generals did not do this fairly. would be called up more frequently than their elders. While Athenian recourse to mercenariesat this time may have helped alleviate tensions concerning conscription somewhat. it is reasonable to ask why Athenians finally reformed conscription in this way after living for so long with the inequities of the earlier system. Financial hardship appears to have been widespread at this time (Strauss.2. 1996.CONSCRIPTION OF HOPLITES IN CLASSICAL ATHENS 419 identical age remained at home.Gabrielsen (1994).S. many of their fourth-century progeny may have been more sceptical concerning the benefits of foreign enterprises.): means. While this move toward fairness in conscription is consistent with the egalitarianism of Athenian democracy. 3. 55-7).for the payment of the war-tax 378/7 B. 74 On thesereforms.74 Demosthenes taps the spirit of egalitarianism behind both types of reform in summarizing how his proposed expedition to Olynthus should be carried out (349/8 'In sum.88.2-all discussed see esp. 9)-felt he was being called on to serve too soon after returning from a campaign.4-5. Individuals eligible for hoplite service were more likely to be called up to serve when a campaign was initiated. In roughly the same period in which Athenians acted to distribute the duty of hoplite service more equitably through 'turn-taking'.C. This egalitarian reform of conscription can be viewed as part of a broader trend to distribute the obligations of citizenship more equitably under the pressures of harder times.42 on Thu.c. and that all should go out on campaign in turn (KQa7 pi'pos) until you all have evidence.73the complaints about 'old men' serving under conscription by katalogos noted above suggest that this could be a sore point under the earlier arrangement. with its equitable features. By contrast.133. (eisphora). Furthermore.which refersto the conscriptionof youngerage-groups 7 The limitedempirical with consistent (Dem. 15 Aug 2013 12:08:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . under conscription by katalogos if an individual-like Lysias' client Polyaenus (Lys. he had little recourse if the generals dismissed his complaint. conscripts may have been more reluctant to go out on campaign.182-99.summoriaifor funding and carrying out trierarchies. Aesch. 139-40) and still needed a conscription system that would reduce tensions in these difficult circumstances. the new arrangement provided a mechanism for distributing the onus of military duty equitably among different age-groups when a full levy was not required:the generals could call up age-groups to serve 'in turn'. Service abroad may also have lost some of its allure due to the city's changing circumstances: whereas fifth-century Athenians had good reason to fight to preserve the empire from which so many of them benefited. 1974. and c. It was also fair in providing a mechanism for ensuring that younger men.104-10. financial pressureson the wealthy prompted reform of the way financial obligations were distributed among them. since the Peloponnesian War had seriously reduced Athenian manpower and thus the pool of eligible hoplites. In Athenians established tax-groups. the city was far from relying exclusively on mercenaries (Pritchett.As with the reform of conscription.88. At the same time. 2. Reform may have been in response to rising tensions concerning conscription in the decades following the city's defeat in the Peloponnesian War. This content downloaded from 65. who were more able to serve.C. abovein the text). the city probably had a dual purpose in making these changes: to ensure that institutions associated with the city's military efforts function efficiently and that individuals bear their civic responsibilities in a manifestly equitable way.each according to his B. Burckhardt. 357 B. I propose that all should pay the war-tax equitably. providedjust such a system.10. they risked the outcry of an entire age-group. Conscription by age-groups. 1987. this could make a conscript more anxious about his family's welfare during his absence and more conscious of their plight should he die in battle.summoriai.

Carey. A. Ec. London. R.with each doing his fair share rather than shouldering others' obligations. The Oratoryof Classical Greece 3. Ar.* Indiana University MATTHEW R. D. cf. C. anonymous BIBLIOGRAPHY Amit. CPh62. and K.88. A. The Dilemmas of Military Service.88. * I am grateful to thisjournal's referee forhelpfulcriticisms andsuggestions. 6. K. the Athenian reform of conscription in the period 386-366 B.420 M.(1969)'TheAtheniancasualty Bradeen. 2. Cancikand H. Austin. C. Ar. W. Aspekte der politischen und militarischen Rolle athenischer Biirger im Kriegswesen des 4. M. and R. Andrewes. Dover. 145-59. S. lists'.C. Cohen. (1999)'Katalogos'. G. (1995)'Payments AS 26. A. B. R..).). Collection Latomus 74. Dover. (1981) 'The hoplitekatalogos'. Christ. (1988) The Horsemen of Athens. however. (1965) Athens and the Sea. (1989) Lysias: Selected Speeches. trans. II (1975) Draftees or Volunteers.Oxford. while citizens should serve their city patriotically.: Public Burial in Athens during the Fifth and Fourth avoidance andantidosis in classicalAthens'. New York. 2. in H. M. Viewed in this light.C. C. Bugh.: A Study in Athenian Sea-power. Cambridge. J.J.. M. Bd. Lys. Ithaca. (edd. E. J. represents a significant innovation in establishing an institutional structure for distributing equitably the duty to serve on the battlefield. J. BAR International Series161. to the disabled at Athens:socialjusticeor fear of aristocratic Dillon. C. How Athens conscripted hoplites was critical not only for the success of its military but also for the way individuals of hoplite status-an l61ite within the larger citizen body-understood their relation to the city and their responsibilities as citizens. Classical Contributions:Studies in Honor of Malcolm Francis McGregor. NY. Chambers. The patriotic rhetoric of the epitaphioi called upon citizens to contribute unstintingly toward the common good (Thuc. Locust Valley. W. 1787-1973. 337. frommilitaryserviceat Athens'.they should do so equitably. J. W. Reid (edd. This content downloaded from 65. in G.TAPhA120. A.31. Gomme. Camp. cf. A. (1983) Patrios Nomos. Burckhardt. 651). CHRIST served' (2. Historia Einzelschriften 101. (1992) The Athenian Agora: Excavations in the Heart of Classical Athens. (1985) Citizens and Soldiers. (2000) Aeschines. patronage?'. accepted the fact that citizens were conscious of the relative sizes of their contributions to the city (cf. L. McCargar Andrewes. Clairmont. A. (1970) A Historical Commentaryon Thucydides4. Cambridge. Brussels-Berchem.1. J. 15 Aug 2013 12:08:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . A. (1996) Biirger und Soldaten.M. Carey. Jahrhundertsv. Carey. (edd.43. Pragmatic legislation.Oxford. P.A Documentary History of the Debate over Military Conscriptionin the United States. Chr. 1-3. Stuttgart. Stuttgart. Demosthenes thus suggests that.) (1985) Demosthenes: Selected Private Speeches. col. this reform sought to ensure that citizens contribute their fair share to civic life. Schneider L.13).B. CHRIST mrchrist@indiana. Baldwin. Princeton.42 on Thu. CQ 19. W. (1990)'Liturgy Centuries Partsi and ii. (1967)'Medicalgroundsfor exemptions 42-3. ed. 746-833) and it sought therefore to ensure equity among these. 147-69. R. 27-57. Der neuePauly: Enzyklopiidieder Antike [Altertum]. Like contemporary reform of how financial obligations were distributed among wealthy citizens. Shrimpton and D.

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