The Athenian Cavalry in the Peloponnesian War and at Amphipolis Author(s): J.

MacInnes Source: The Classical Review, Vol. 25, No. 7 (Nov., 1911), pp. 193-195 Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Classical Association Stable URL: . Accessed: 15/08/2013 12:18
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68.000 light-armed. why were cavalry not sent to Sicily at the outset. in 424 against the Megarians. consisting of 2. 250 horsemen arrived.42 on Thu. 94). 79)In 425 against the Corinthians they employed 2. and in 414 B.100 hoplites and a single horse transport with 30 horsemen (VI.C. of which N This content downloaded from 65. 10. Nicias informed the Athenians of their inferiority in cavalry (Thuc. 70). 1. 42).000 cavalry.C. 22).The Classical NOVEMBER 1911 Review ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTIONS THE ATHENIAN CAVALRY IN THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR AND AT AMPHIPOLIS. 13). It is true that cavalry were needed to make descents upon Decelea (VII.000 hoplites and 600 cavalry (IV. 20.200 (VI. Athens had 7. 13. 27). But NO. VOL. the Athenians were grievously harassed by the Syracusan cavalry. 300 cavalry were protecting Delium. Yet when further reinforcements of 5. and they will find none here. 66. it comprised 5. 15 Aug 2013 12:18:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . During the siege of Syracuse. 74.88. 6. 93. as they did. 93). 68) . VI. 42). 94). to which. 43). as far as I know. attention has not been directed.88. the generals sent home for money and cavalry (VI. Before the Sicilian expedition was resolved upon. who had 7.000 hoplites. which amounted to 1.' When the expedition did start. In 430 B. CCXXI.C. 4. expecting to procure horses on the spot (VI. XXV. AN interesting feature of the Peloponnesian War as recorded by Thucydides. In 429 Athens sent an expedition against the Chalcidians of Thrace. 37 Athenagoras is represented as saying in Syracuse: ' I know that they will not bring cavalry with them.000 hoplites for foreign service and 1.000 hoplites and a large number of irregulars. At the end of 415 B. So well known was this weakness that in VI.With local additions the Athenian cavalry now amounted to 650.armed troops were sent from Athens.000 hoplites and 200 cavalry (II.000 hoplites and numerous light . at Delium in the same year against the Boeotians. in which their defeat was due to the Boeotian cavalry (IV. These are the cavalry contingents as given by Thucydides up to the time of the Sicilian expedition: In 431 the Athenian forces numbered B.000 hoplites and 300 cavalry (II. especially in the Sicilian expedition. no cavalry were added (VII. is the treatment by the Athenians of their cavalry. for presumably they could not then have supported cavalry from 431 to 421. 13). but perhaps the Athenians could spare none for the battle. even if it could be shown that the need of them to act against Decelea was greater than the need of them against Syracuse. before danger from Decelea was apprehended ? It was not because the Athenians were without means of training men or horses.C. Pericles invaded the Peloponnesus with 4. 56). but still these were too few against the Syracusans (VII. 20. 4. Excluding the forces of Cleon at Amphipolis.200 cavalry (II.000 hoplites and 200 cavalry (IV.

cavalry were unsuitable for wing.42 on light-armed. According to Thucydides.000 hoplites and numerous light-armed in 73 .ooo hoplites and 1. When the unexpected may be that Athens expected trouble attack came. 42 we read of 2. and were supported by their experienced and courageous his allies in 48 ships. His order to check the depression.both wings at Delium (IV. '6 Thucydides applied pre- went forth in Ioo ships (II. critics have distant operations had so many cavalry pointed to the statement that the feet in proportion to foot. 67).000ooo hoplites and 300 in 416 they sent to cavalry (V.2 to be no mention of any cavalry force The result of this insubordination is well known. To prove his ignorance and cowardice we have only the biassed statements of Thucydides and Aristophanes. proval a most unfair and disloyal opinion. 56). drew comparisons cavalry was on the left (IV. Now it is almost certain that on the it was disastrous.2oo Athenian hoplites. and all the remainder at the Assinarus for the reinforcements from native princes. there seems astuteness. But not sufficient to explain the pheno. I. 25). reflecting how Mantinea the Athenians were on the left ignorant and cowardly Cleon was. When Cleon determined Brasidas (IV. At Solygea in 425 the Athenian at their inaction. ch. off and instantly fled. how wing. the left broke so many aristocratically-inclined iwrwrek. III.' Here Boeotian cavalry also was placed on Thucydides quotes with obvious ap. tightness of packing varied. 46.88. by analogy with modern days.300 light-armed in 134. 2). Obviously the (Aristoph. They remembered they had followed Cleonfrom home. See on this point Holm's History of Greece. 7). says Thucydides. 42 of 5. 8. It will be noticed that no other force sent from Athens for Thucydides' account. 7). when he was so imprudent as to I. and 300 Hellenic Athenians. 93).00oo hoplites and 200 horse in 80 ships. For while both was left 'Cleon to hesitated wing was stationed the cavalry. the Lacedemonian cavalry was how unwillingly placed on both wings (V. 15 Aug 2013 12:18:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and numerous allies1 ( hoplites and 300 cavalry This force was packed into 30 ships. 25 of 2. he ordered the expedition was the recovery of his forces to retire slowly on the left Amphipolis. cp. 60). Consider now the exceptional case of Cleon noticed this murmuring. I. the right wing on which from Macedonian cavalry (cp.000 hoplites. 43-4). 640). LEXXovLKLCOV This content downloaded from 65. at between the generals. in VIII. 'The soldiers. which attribute to him such contradictory qualities as ignorance and (VII. in their last efforts in Sicily they lost 70 horse before Syracuse (VII. It engage. the ponent. But it face round. though judice to the actions of Nicias. 51). Birds. n. with ignorance and ill-breeding arising from want of a ' liberal education. and in Cleon's force at Amphipolis in 422. generals soon compelled to do what Brasidas ex. how would Nicias' weakness have come out ! Cleon is too often credited.194 THE CLASSICAL REVIEW I shall speak presently. 6). n.would have to be on one wing or the pected' (V. for (i) in the previous year monian or Athenian cavalry in the N icias had acted without cavalry against engagement. In Book VIII. Among other strange features of cavalry (V. 43 of 5. went out 'to have a look at the place' (Ica'ra forces showed unusual proportions: eav) . ii. The fact that of many horses and men about to sally Brasidas also had 300 cavalry is in itself forth were visible under the gate. in VI. (2) if the object of to retreat. which he had required of them in accordance with the terms of their alliance. 75). cowardice and recklessness. ch. 3 I read aXoXi.' But we have no proof that Nicias or Alcibiades were better trained than Cleon. 129) mention is made of either Lacedemenon. xxviii. Cleon and he being killed.II.500 hoplites and I. (see ch. Cleon and the hoplites had been staWhatever the reason for the presence of tioned stood its ground.3 wherethe country around and for a siege upon he caused his own right wing to such as might be anticipated. march past the gates of Amphipolis. we find that in 418 the Athenians sent a reinforcement to Argos of . 300 Athenian cavalry. more than Brasidas made a sortie and routed the i. in VI. Brasidas had 2.88. Methone 'cavalry of their own' (VI. Cleon was justified in waiting 2 If had the same 1 Pericles' force of 4. 61). They appeared to linger. In IV. disgusted other.

and therefore to some degree morally would be culpable. H. Translated by Gilbert Murray. reXLeTvratov 4' 7r' ov ov Xppv.Litt. in the Peace (421 8tKatoo-v•dv r 8vo-vTvxlav els 7 a &' a/e7a3aXXov XSnpalav caXXa aaprTav rvaC 7~CoV ev LE7aXy Kal 0 o U To70Lov70 In an essay appended to his edition of the Poetics. where the philosopher discusses the character of the ideal tragic hero.' This criticism makes somewhat lightly two large assumptions: (i) That Oedipus is'absolutely free from moral guilt '. This content downloaded from 65. Allen and Sons. that Thucydides got his account of the battle from one of the irr6rrF. is described as vvaov Bpaao-1a. one of those who are betraying Chalcidice'. and to put into his lips words which are an open confession of crime is to mar the whole effect of a great and almost stupendous work. we read: 'There will come along a rich man. o" IT1'oZ e ot dXplv XCOv. LL. that the Athenian democracy. I in the eyes of men 'Thou Light. as against Decelea. (2) that the idea of 'sin' is equivalent to that of 'crime.' says the reviewer. a 7r1E 0o0-t 'X 70)o70 hXXa /papov Madenaked.neveragain character of the ideal tragic hero should lie between the two extremes of perfect uprightness and utter villainy: eoT /t7' eappwcv 7e ape &j poY/7 8th .how fromsin my being grew. in 1. We must not be presented with the spectacle of virtuous men (robs d7ErrLIEgL dvSpa9) brought from prosperity to adversity. representative of young aristocratic Athens. J.X8 *atut v^v. .aO' e"cao-ra. THE Spectator for May 13. can cover. Butcher. In Wasps 288 (produced 422 B.C. 640 the charge is said to have been brought against any aristocrats among the allies 4 (povoZ Ta Bpao-''av . especially as used by Aristotle. aro-aat c Obv oV07r' Iavv. He finds Aristotelian authority for the use of the term qtapap? a in four distinct senses. contains a review of Professor Murray's new translation of the Oedipus Tyrannus. (2) An error due to ignorance of circumstances which might have been known. 475 Bdelycleon.) e poo-3. (i) An error due to unavoidable ignorance of circumstances.) 1. indignant at the insubordination and cowardice of the avoided using them afterwards lo•rev. and from moral guilt he is throughout absolutely free. Aristotle's Theoryof Poetry and Fine Art. pp. Second. The University of Manchester. May I behold thee. who saved themselves disgracefully.42 on Thu. The idea of "sin " essentially involves that of moral guilt.88.ov.' In his first assumption the critic seems to have ignored the important allusion 1 Oedipus. 15 Aug 2013 12:18:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .2 the late Professor Butcher has exhaustively discussed the possible range of meaning which the term Aptaprt'a.. MACINNES. King of Thebes.' In the view of Aristotle the o0/Epoy V o. or in conjunction with a democracy such as Argos.l in which exception is taken to his rendering of the above lines.1183-I185. 1911. xiii. In sin I weddedand in sin I slew. in unless operations very near Athens.. to the case of Oedipus in Aristotle's Poetics.8 (A defence of Professor Murray'stranslation of Sophocles' Oedipus Tyrannus. 310-15.D. 'destroys at once the entire interest of the drama. This latter inference finds support in Aristophanes. To their political fears they sacrificed even great military advantage. First. D.C. dbO. Both of these " classed as cases of . THE SIN OF OEDIPUS.' ' The attribution of sin to Oedipus. The fact of his freedom is the very thing that makes his fate so tragic. 11. London: Geo. c.).THE CLASSICAL REVIEW 195 Two inferences may be drawn. 2 By S. ' oi yp eeLvY•v Edo-~7.88. Second edition. his bias against Cleon kept him from moderating in a critical spirit the partisan account of his informant.

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