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Matthew 6:33 But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness; and all these things

shall be added unto you.

NURSING FACTS IN BRIEF

Applied Pharmcology
I. Drugs affecting the Eyes, Ears, and Nose. Glaucoma- Acetazolamide (Diamox) inhibits the aqueous humor production. - Pilocarpine (Pilocar). Rhinorrhea- Phenyleprine. Otitis Media- high dose of oral Amoxicillin. Allergic rhinitis- Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and Chlorphenyramine which are antihistamine. - Loratidine (Claritin), cetirizine HCl (Zyrtec). II. Drugs affecting the Central and Peripheral Nervous System Status Epilepticus- IV diazepam (Valium) or lorazepam (Ativan). - IV phenytoin (Dilantin) or Phenobarbital. - Valproic acid. Febrile seizure - IV or rectal diazepam (Valium). Cerebral edema - Mannitol by promoting osmotic diuresis. Mysathenia gravis - Pyridostigmine (Mestinon) inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity. Parkinsons Disease - Levodopa (L-dopa), acts as dopamine agonist. III. Drugs affecting the Cardiovascular System Patent ductus arteriosus- Indomethacin (Indocin), an NSAID. Congestive Heart Failure - Digoxin (Lanoxin), a cardiac glycoside that enhances the afterload. - Dopamine and Dobutamine, due to its Beta-1 adrenergic effect. Myocardial Infarction- Epinephrine (Adrenalin). - Morphine, a narcotic agent for severe pain. Ventricular fibrillation- Lidocaine. - Verapamil. Sinus Bradycardia- Atropine sulfate. Palpitation related to hyperthyroidismPropranolol (Inderal) by blocking B-1 adrenegic activity. Palpitation or hypertension with underlying COPD- Metoprolol (Neobloc). IV. Drugs affecting the Respiratory System Pulmonary Edema- Furosemide (Lasix). - Hydrochlorothiazide (Hydrodiuril). Status Asthmaticus/Anaphylactic shockEpinephrine (Adrenalin). Bronchial asthma- Isoproterenol (Isuprel), an adrenergic agent with Beta-2 effect. - Theophylline (Theodur), inhibits the slowreacting substance of anaphylaxis - Terbutaline (Bricanyl), Salmeterol (Seretide). - Ipatropium bromide (Combivent), an anticholinergic agent. Bronchospasm with cardiac diseaseMetaproterenol, Terbutaline, Salmeterol, Formoterol, and Albuterol. All are pure Beta-2 adrenergic agonist. Whooping cough- Codeine, a narcotic agent with antitussive activity. V. Drugs affecting the Gastrointestinal System Acute Pancreatitis and CholecystitisPropantheline bromide (Probanthine), an anticholinergic agent.- Morphine. Abdominal cramps related to diarrhea - Atropine sulfate. Nausea and vomiting- Metoclopromide (Plasil), Promethazine HCl (Phenergan), and Ondansetron (Zofran). All are antiemetic agents. Heartburn and gastritis- AlOH, MgOH, CaCO3, Na2CO3, antacids that neutralizes the acidity. - Omeprazole (Losec), Esomeprazole (Nexium), are proton-pump inhibitors. - Ranitidine (Zantac), Famotidine (Pepcid), are H2- receptor antagonists. Peptic Ulcer Disease- Sucralfate (Carafate) coats the ulcer-lining. PUD related to H. pylori infectionCombination of Bismuth, Amoxicillin, and Metronidazole. - Combination of Omeprazole, Amoxicillin, and Clarithromycin (most effective).

DR. CARL E. BALITA REVIEW CENTER TEL. NO. 735-4098/410-0250

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Constipation in patients with MI, stroke, postsurgical procedures- Lactulose. Irritable Bowel Syndrome- Psyllium (Metamucil). VI. Drugs affecting the Renal System Congestive Heart Failure- Furosemide (Lasix), a loop diuretic inhibiting sodium and chloride reabsorption. Nephrotic Syndrome- Furosemide (Lasix). Hyperaldosteronism- Spironolactone (Aldactone). VII. Drugs affecting the Endocrine System Diabetes Mellitus- Oral hypoglycaemic agents (Sulfonylureas). - Insulin. Hyperthyroidism- Methimazole and Propylthiouracil, antithyroid agents that prevents formation of T3 and T4. Hypothyroidism- Levothyroxine (Synthroid). Addisons Disease- Hydrocortisone (Solucortef). VIII. Antimicrobial Agents Bacterial Pneumonia in infants and children < 5 years old- Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (Augmentin). Bacterial Pneumonia in older children and adolescents- Erythromycin (communityacquired). - IV cefuroxime (hospital-acquired). Pulmonary Tuberculosis- Rifampicin (Rimactane), Isoniazid (INH), Pyrazinamide (PZA). Leprosy- Dapsone. Cholera- Tetracycline. Amebiasis- Metronidazole (Flagyl). Shigellosis- Cotrimoxazole (Bactrim). Inflammatory Bowel Diseases- Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine). Cirrhosis with Hepatic Coma- Neomycin. Osteomyelitis- Nafcillin, Clindamycin (Dalacin-C). IX. Antiparasitic Agents Enterobiasis (Pinworms) and Ascariasis (Roundworms) - Mebendazole. Malaria- Chloroquine, Primaquine, and Quinine.

X. Drugs affecting the Hematologic System Patients with history of MI or Stroke- Aspirin (Aspilet), an antiplatelet drug. Patients with Arrhythmia or those prone to Thromboembolism- Warfarin (Coumadin) and Heparin sodium. Pulmonary Embolism, Stroke, MI- Streptokinase and Urokinase, which dissolves blood clots. XI. Drugs that affect the Musculoskeletal System Rheumatoid Arthritis- Aspirin. Gout- Colchicine. - Allopurinol. XII. Drugs for Obstetrical Uses Uterine Atony- Oxytocin (Syntocinon). - Methylergonovine (Methergin). Preterm Labor- Terbutaline (Bricanyl). Preeclampsia- Hydralazine (Apresoline). - Methyldopa (Aldomet). Eclampsia- Magnesium sulfate. NOTES: ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________
Excellence can be attained if you care more than others think is wise,Risk more than others think is safe, Dream more than others think is practical, and Expect more than others think is possible. - 2 -

DR. CARL E. BALITA REVIEW CENTER TEL. NO. 735-4098/410-0250