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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif


Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT608, Electrical Engineering
Mesh-Current Method (Loop Analysis)
Nodal analysis was developed by applying KCL at each non-reference
node.
Mesh-Current method is developed by applying KVL around
meshes in the circuit.
A mesh is a loop which doesn't contain any other loops within it.
Loop (mesh) analysis results in a system of linear equations which
must be solved for unknown currents.
Reduces the number of required equations to the number of meshes
Can be done systematically with little thinking
As usual, be careful writing mesh equations follow sign convention.
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT608, Electrical Engineering
Powerful analysis method which applies KVL to find unknown currents.
It is applicable to a circuit with no branches crossing each other.
no branches
Crossing
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT608, Electrical Engineering
Definitions
+
-
i
g
A
B
C
Essential Branch: Path between 2 essential nodes (without
crossing other essential nodes).
i
3
i
1
i
2
i
4
i
5
How many mesh-currents?
# of essential nodes Ne = 4
# of essential branches Be = 6
No. of Mesh-currents M = Be -(Ne-1)
- Enough equations to get unknowns
A mesh is a loop which does not contain any other loops within it.
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT608, Electrical Engineering
Steps of Mesh Analysis
Step1
Identify the number of
basic meshes.
Step 2
Assign a current to each mesh.
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT608, Electrical Engineering
Step 4
Solve the resulting system of linear equations.
As an example
V
1
+ I
1
R
1
+ (I
1
- I
2
) R
3
= 0
I
2
R
2 +
V
2
+ (I
2
-I
1
) R
3
= 0
Step 3
Apply KVL around each loop to get
an equation in terms of the loop currents.
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT608, Electrical Engineering
Example
Use mesh analysis to find the current i
o
Solution
We apply KVL to the three meshes
For mesh 1
For mesh 2
Divide by 2
Divide by 2
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT608, Electrical Engineering
For mesh 3
at node A
Divide by 2
By Substitution
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT608, Electrical Engineering
For Loop 1
-10 + 4i
1
+ 6(i
1
-i
2
) = 0
For Loop 2
(No need to write a loop equation)
Cases to be considered for Mesh Analysis
Case I
A current source exists only in one mesh
set i
2
= 5A and write a mesh equation for the other
mesh
i
2
= - 5A
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT608, Electrical Engineering
Case II
A current source exists between two meshes
Exclude this part
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT608, Electrical Engineering
a supermesh was created by
excluding the current source and any
elements connected in series with it,
A supermesh results when two meshes have a (dependent
or independent) current source in common.
Because mesh analysis applies KVLwe do not know the
voltage across a current source in advance.
Why???
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT608, Electrical Engineering
Applying KVL to the supermesh
i
1
i
2
Apply KCL to a node in the branch where the two meshes intersect.
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT608, Electrical Engineering
-75 + 5i
1
+ 20(i
1
-i
2
) = 0
10i
x
+ 20(i
2
-i
1
) + 4i
2
= 0
-75 + 5i
1
+ 20(i
1
-i
2
) = 0 (1)
10(i
1
-i
2
) + 20(i
2
-i
1
) + 4i
2
= 0 .(2)
i
2
= 5A
i
1
= 7A
Case III
Mesh with Dependent Sources
Solve for
I
x
i
x
= i
1
- i
2
Solve the two equations
then
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT608, Electrical Engineering
Example:
Use the mesh-current method to find i
o
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT608, Electrical Engineering
Solution
meshes 1 and 2 form a supermesh
meshes 2 and 3 form a supermesh
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT608, Electrical Engineering
Applying KVL to the larger supermesh,
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT608, Electrical Engineering
For the independent current source, we apply KCL to node P
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT608, Electrical Engineering
For the dependent current source, we apply KCL to node Q:
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Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT608, Electrical Engineering
Applying KVL in mesh 4,