You are on page 1of 7

1Word cloud: A tag cloud is a visual representation for text data, typically used to depict keyword metadata (tags)

on websites, or to visualize free form text. Tags are usually single words, and the importance of each tag is shown with font size or color. This format is useful for quickly perceiving the most prominent terms and for locating a term alphabetically to determine its relative prominence. When used as website navigation aids, the terms are hyperlinked to items associated with the tag. Example:

Cloze test: A cloze test is an exercise, test, or assessment consisting of a portion of text with certain words removed where the participant is asked to replace the missing words. Cloze tests require the ability to understand context and vocabulary in order to identify the correct words or type of words that belong in the deleted passages of a text. This exercise is commonly administered for the assessment of native and second language learning and instruction. Examples: Today, I went to the ________ and bought some milk and eggs. I knew it was going to rain, but I forgot to take my ________, and ended up getting wet on the way ________. To digitize: It is the representation of an object, image, sound, document or a signal (usually an analog signal) by a discrete set of its points or samples. The result is called digital representation or, more specifically, a digital image, for the object, and digital form, for the signal. Strictly speaking, digitizing means simply capturing an analog signal in digital form. For a document the term means to trace the document image or capture the "corners" where the lines end or change direction. To Google: The transitive verb to google means using the Google search engine to obtain information on something or somebody on the World Wide Web. A neologism arising from the popularity and dominance of the eponymous search engine, the American Dialect Society chose it as the "most useful word of 2002."It was added to the Oxford English Dictionary on June 15, 2006, and to the eleventh edition of the Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary in July 2006.

Communicative competence: it is a term in linguistics which refers to a language user's grammatical knowledge of syntax, morphology, phonology and the like, as well as social knowledge about how and when to use utterances appropriately. The term was coined by Dell Hymes in 1966, reacting against the perceived inadequacy of Noam Chomsky's (1965) distinction between competence and performance. To address Chomsky's abstract notion of competence, Hymes undertook ethnographic exploration of communicative competence that included "communicative form and function in integral relation to each other". The approach pioneered by Hymes is now known as the ethnography of communication. Debate has occurred regarding linguistic competence and communicative competence in the second and foreign language teaching literature, and scholars have found communicative competence as a superior model of language following Hymes' opposition to Chomsky's linguistic competence. This opposition has been adopted by those who seek new directions toward a communicative era by taking for granted the basic motives and the appropriateness of this opposition behind the development of communicative competence.

2- E- learning

Web 2.0

3- My ideal b-learning phonetics course: im sure that in our university it is possible to have a b-learning course. I will use blended learning for phonetics and phonology. I think that it is a subject in which students need the internets help for improving their

knowledge about the subject. There are many websites where they can listen to dialogues, short stories and repeat it in order to improve their pronunciation, you know, pronunciation is very important in English, if they dont pronounce correctly the words the wont be intelligible.,, in these links students can read, listen to and repeat short conversations. this is other page, particularly I like this page, it is very useful to students, not only they can pronounce and listen to Word but also they are questioned about what they have read and listen to, so here they have to pay attention to the text and try to understand it., other site which can be used in phonetics and phonology, but Im not so sure about this website because it doesnt provide a good pronunciation of the specific word which students want to hear. If I would have to choose one of the links I have presented I chose, it is a good page that I will use as tasks for them, students can pronounce as many times as they want to in their house, besides they can check their answers. Talking about tools, i would use for example ...... as i mentioned before, i chose tools an websites which i think has to do with phonetics and phonology. I would emply this tool for recording dictations. I would record a short story or a pharagraph, my students will have to listen to the audi carefully and transcribe the the recording using the phonemic symbols acording to what they have heard and i would take it as a practical word or exercice task, then at the classroom we would check how they have trancribed the text.

5- Before we start describing a person we must what verbs and adjectives we have to use. Here there is a short video that explains what structures you should use. Go on with the description of our person, we must know the forms of the verb to be and to have got. These sites provide you, an explanation of its forms and also some exercises., Once, we have learnt the verbs form, we need to learn about the parts of the human body., besides this link I have chosen a picture which illustrates and show students the names of each part of our body.

Something that is very important in our task of describing a person is adjectives. Adjectives are essential in our description, they make it more complete., here there is a chart with the different adjectives which you can use.

And finally, some webs where you can practice.

6) A) I think that classes were in a lab or multimedia room where students just went to it, they sat down, replied the exercises and that was all, Im not sure how they knew what they have to do because the article claims that it wasnt necessary the involvement of a

teacher so, sometimes it was difficult to make tasks or exercises without instructions or the help of a teacher, but on the other hand it has something possible, students had to think and try to find how to make their tasks, the short phrase wrong-try-again presented a challenge to think and find methods in order to finish their questions. CALL didnt succeed because two principal reasons: 1) The lack of imagination and creativity in designing new and challenge exercises. 2) The high cost and maintenance of the computers. B) 1- Meaningful practice rather than mechanical practice 2- Receptive skills (listening and reading) before productive skills (speaking and writing). 3- Use of target language (little use of native language) 4- Implicit rather than explicit grammar. 5- Modeling instead of correction. 6- low-anxiety atmosphere. 1activities will focus on acquisition practice (using forms to communicate) rather learning practice (for themselves). 2grammar will always be implicit (built into the lesson or activity), though explicit grammar explanation will be available on a call-up basis. 3activities should require students to take a creative action in the target language (or produce a response based on comprehension of an utterance) rather than manipulating prefabricated language. 4activity feedback will not aim at correcting or evaluating each response: raise expectations for competence in communication, and lower expectations for structural accuracy. 5activity feedback will avoid telling students incorrect answers just as wrong: provide help by means of appropriate and well-formed models or give hints. 6activities and instructions should be written in the target language. CALL software should try to communicate with the learner without reverting to the students mother tongue, though some help or explanations can be made available on a call-up basis. 7activities should be flexible, not based on the principle that every stimulus has one and only response. 8CALL activities should allow students to explore the subject matter: there is no predetermined material of any sort, but rather an environment in which discoveries can be made. 9CALL activities should create a context in which using the target language feels natural (on screen: student(s) - machine interaction and off-screen: students- students/ teacher- students interaction). 10CALL software is not an electronic book (CALL activities will aim at doing things books can not). 11CALL software should be fun and attractive (try to avoid drill exercises or exams). C) 2#: Students get a better understanding and learning when learning processes and materials catch their attention, and this has to do with the progression they should receive. Sometimes the idea of navigating without any kind of consciousness trough complex learning can be a problem, but the way in which they design levels of help and feedbacks get a repercussion in their learning language to fell progress. Other important step which is not taken into account is the trialing of material with students before finishing the programs. Persons who have experience in designers and programmers

think this step is nor necessary but experience appears to tell us that we never will sure about the reaction of a student in relation with what we offer them. But when prototypes are trialed and trials are monitored, results amaze us. 3#: in this part we discuss which the role of assessment is. It is a space in the design of programs that we see on the material they offered. The authors of the paper challenge designers to explain what the difference is between an activity, an exercise and a test. Learners need exploring activities, examples, models, safe places where they can make mistakes and this justifies where CALL has a major role. Through tests students make, they would like to appreciate their progress but they only see a score, obviously students are happy to pass the test, but if the test was designed correctly, it means that they have failed a big part of the test. There are factors that make these problems possible, for example, many authoring systems favor the creation of discrete exercises and activities which are impossible to link these activities meaningful and coherent with branches and iterative loops. Tests were created for the benefit of teachers and; this purpose has to be the same for CALL routines, because of this MALTED created a Learning Management System to follow monitors students, with scoring, and also for giving feedbacks to the end user as well as the tutor. 6#: CALL must create programs that motivate learners; this motivation can be made when programs give them a good experience as well as content. Feedback should be intrinsic; it means that the input of a learner can result in some form of interactivity on the screen which will indicate the success of that input. There are many examples in this paper but we have to emphasize that these forms of interactivity are related with the real-life of learning a language. These feedbacks should be has a relation with linguistic or cultural explanation, or remedial loops. Then we see a rich environment which aids the sense of engagement and it motivates the student and provides a sense of progression.

#10: cognitive language theories stress the desire of a learner to reflect about the processes as well as the objective of any activity. CALL recommends that students and learners must take a brief moment before go to the next module to think and question not only his /her performance but also the way in which they have achieved the knowledge. To do this, it implies the use of some systems and complex programs.