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D.1

Curvilinear coordinates

The distance between two points in Euclidean space takes the simplest form (1.14) in Cartesian coordinates. The geometry of concrete physical problems may, however, make nonCartesian coordinates more suitable as a basis for analysis, even if the distance function becomes more complicated. Since the new coordinates are nonlinear functions of the Cartesian coordinates, they dene in each point three intersecting curves that correspond to the local curvilinear coordinate axes going through the point. At a deeper level, it is often the symmetry of a physical problem that points to the most convenient choice of coordinates. Cartesian coordinates are well suited to problems with translational invariance, cylindrical coordinates for problems that are invariant under rotations around a xed axis, and spherical coordinates for problems that are invariant or partially invariant under arbitrary rotations. Elliptic and hyperbolic coordinates are also of importance but will not be discussed here (see [Batchelor 1967, p. 455]).

Cylindrical coordinates

z Oz e

In a at Euclidean space it is always most convenient to view curvilinear coordinate systems through the eyes of a particular global Cartesian coordinate systems. Thus, the relations between Cartesian coordinates x; y; z and cylindrical coordinates r; ; z are given by1 x D r cos ; p r D x2 C y2; y D r sin ; y D arctan ; x zDz zDz (D.1) (D.2)

T xu

Be

with the range of variation 0 r < 1, 0 < 2 , and 1 < z < 1. The two rst equations in both lines simply dene polar coordinates in the xy -plane. The last, z D z , is rather redundant but included to emphasize that this is a transformation in three-dimensional space.

texts use instead of as the conventional name for the polar angle in the plane. Similarly, the radial variable r is sometimes denoted by s to distinguish it from the spherical radial distance. Various arguments can be given one way or the other, but whats in a name? A polar angle by any name still works as sweet.

1 Some

d e d Or E r y d r ...... . . . . . . . . . . . ..................................d dr x

Cylindrical coordinates and basis vectors.

622

The curvilinear basis vectors are dened from the tangent vectors, obtained by differentiating the Cartesian position with respect to the cylindrical coordinates, @x D .cos ; sin ; 0/; (D.3a) @r 1 @x O D e D . sin ; cos ; 0/; (D.3b) r@ @x Oz D D .0; 0; 1/: (D.3c) e @z As may be directly veried, they are orthogonal and normalized everywhere, and thus dene a local curvilinear basis with an orientation that changes from place to place. An arbitrary vector eld may be resolved in this basis Or D e Or Ur C e O U Ce Oz Uz ; U De where the vector coordinates Or ; Ur D U e O ; U DU e Oz ; Uz D U e (D.5) (D.4)

The Cartesian line, surface and volume elements are easily resolved in the local basis, Or dr C e O rd C e Oz dz; d` D e Or r d dz C e O drdz C e Oz r d dr; dS D e d V D r d drdz (D.6) (D.7) (D.8)

The rst of these is simply obtained by differentiating through the cylindrical coordinates, d ` D d x D .@x =@r/ dr C .@x =@ / d C .@x =@z/ dz . The surface element d S is obtained from the cross products of the terms in d ` . The volume element d V is calculated from the volume product of the terms in d ` .

The derivatives with respect to the cylindrical coordinates are obtained by differentiation through the Cartesian coordinates, @ @x @ @y @ @ @ Or r ; D C D cos C sin De @r @r @x @r @y @x @y @ @x @ @y @ @ @ O D C D r sin C r cos D re @ @ @x @ @y @x @y @ ; @r 1 @ ; r@

r:

Thus the projections of the nabla operator r on the cylindrical basis become, Or r D rr D e O r De rD Oz r D rz D e @ : @z (D.9)

This is the fundamental equation which allows us to convert differential equations from Cartesian coordinates to cylindrical.

D. CURVILINEAR COORDINATES The only non-vanishing derivatives of the basis vectors are Or @e O ; De @ O @e D @ Or ; e (D.11)

623

These are all the tools necessary to convert from Cartesian to cylindrical coordinates.

Expressions involving only a single nabla factor, such as gradient of a scalar r S , divergence of a vector r U , and the curl r U , are fairly simple to evaluate by resolving the vector quantities into the curvilinear basis and making use of (D.11) . In many practical cases, the task is eased by symmetry assumptions. In laminar pipe ow (section 15.4 on page 248) the Oz , and the divergence initial assumption is that the velocity eld is of the form v D vz .r/e O r rr e Oz vz D 0, because of the orthogonality of the basis. The vanishes trivially, r v D e Oz vz D 0, because vz only depends on advective acceleration also vanishes, .v r /v D vz rz e r . Notice that we in such calculations treat the nablas as operators acting on everything to the right of their position. This notation avoids many parentheses. Now follows a list of various combinations of a single nabla and various elds, derived by such methods. The three basic rst order expressions are the gradient, divergence and curl, Or rS D e r U D r 1 @S @S @S O Oz Ce Ce ; @r r@ @z (D.12) (D.13) @Uz @r Oz Ce @U @r 1 @Ur U C r @ r : (D.14) The tensor gradient is also very useful. In dyadic notation (see appendix B), we have Or e Or rU D e @Ur @U @Uz Or e O Or e Oz Ce Ce @r @r @r 1 @Ur U 1 @U Ur 1 @Uz O e Or O e O O e Oz Ce Ce C Ce r @ r r @ r r @ Oz e Or Ce @Ur @U @Uz Oz e O Oz e Oz Ce Ce @z @z @z (D.15)

In solid and uid mechanics it is used for calculating the stress tensor. The dot product with the vector U from the left becomes, Or .U r /U D e U @Ur @Ur @Ur Ur C C Uz @r r @ @z U2 r !

(D.16)

624

PHYSICS OF CONTINUOUS MATTER Finally, the divergence of a full-edged tensor eld becomes (also in dyadic notation) Or r T De O Ce Oz Ce @Trr 1 @T C @r r @ 1 @T @Tr C @r r @ @Trz 1 @T C @r r @

z r

@Tzr Trr C @z r

T r

(D.17)

This is used in formulating the equations of motion for continuum physics, although it is normally not necessary.

Expressions involving two nabla factors also turn up everywhere in continuum physics. They can of course be derived by combinations of rst order expressions, but it is useful to list them in their full glory. The Laplacian of a scalar eld is calculated from the divergence of the gradient, r 2 S D r .r S/, and becomes when the dust has settled, r 2S D 1 @2 S @2 S 1 @S @2 S C C C : 2 2 2 2 @r r @ @z r @r (D.18)

The Laplacian can also be applied to a vector eld, and may be calculated as the divergence of the gradient of the vector eld, r 2 S D r .r U /. It is somewhat more complicated, Or r 2U D e @2 Ur 1 @2 Ur @2 Ur 1 @Ur C C C 2 2 2 2 @r r @ @z r @r 2 @U r2 @ Ur r2

@2 U 1 @2 U @2 U 1 @U 2 @Ur O Ce C C C C 2 2 2 2 2 @r r @ @z r @r r @ 2 2 2 1 @ Uz @ Uz 1 @Uz @ Uz Oz C 2 C C Ce 2 2 2 @r r @ @z r @r Another second order expression is the gradient of a divergence, 1 @U Or r .r U / D e r2 @ 2 1 @ Ur 1 @2 U 1 @2 Uz 1 @Ur O Ce C 2 C C 2 r @ @r r @ 2 r @ @z r @ 2 2 2 @ Ur 1@ U @ Uz 1 @Ur Oz Ce C C C @z@r r @z@ @z 2 r @z Finally, the curl of curl satises the double-cross identity (B.62) r .r U / D r .r U / r 2U ; @2 Ur 1 @2 U @2 Uz 1 @Ur C C C 2 @r r @r@ @r@z r @r

U r2

(D.19)

Ur r2

(D.20)

(D.21)

D. CURVILINEAR COORDINATES

625

z Or e

D.2

Spherical coordinates

The analysis of spherical coordinates follows much the same pattern as cylindrical coordinates, but we repeat the arguments here to make this section self-contained. Spherical or polar coordinates consist of the radial distance r , the polar angle and the azimuthal angle . If the z -axis is chosen as the polar axis and the x -axis as the origin for the azimuthal angle, the transformation between spherical to Cartesian coordinates become, x D r sin cos ; p r D x2 C y2 C z2; y D r sin sin ; ; D arccos p x2 C y2 C z2 and 0 <2 . z z D r cos ; y D arctan x (D.22) (D.23)

.. ... ..... ........................... .. ..... .......................... ........... ........ .... ........ ....... .... ....... ...... .... ...... . ..... . . . ... .. .... . . . . . ... .... ... . . ... ... ... ... . . ... ... .. . ... ... .. . . ... .. .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .... . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. ........ . . . . . . . . . .. ...... . ... ... . . ... . . ....... . . . . ......... ... .. ........... ... .......... ... ............... .............. ... ... ........................................................... .. .... .. . . .... . ... .... ... ..... ..... ...... ...... ....... ....... ......... . . . . . . . . ............ . .......................................................

! O Be r rt t te O Ey r d d x

Curvilinear basis

The normalized tangent vectors along the directions of the spherical coordinate are, @x D .sin cos ; sin sin ; cos /; @r 1 @x O D e D .cos cos ; cos sin ; sin /; r @ 1 @x O D e D . sin ; cos ; 0/: r sin @ Or D e (D.24a) (D.24b) (D.24c)

They are orthogonal, such that an arbitrary vector eld may be resolved in these directions, Or Ur C e O U C e O U U De Oa U for a D r; ; . with Ua D e (D.25)

The Cartesian line, surface and volume elements are resolved in the local basis, Or dr C e O rd C e O r sin d ; d` D e Or r sin d d C e O r sin d dr C e O rdrd; dS D e d V D r sin drdd :

2 2

The rst of these only expresses the differential d ` D d x in terms of the differentials of the spherical coordinates, d x D .@x =@r/dr C .@x =@ /d C .@x =@ /d . The others are derived from cross products of the terms in d ` .

To nd the relation between the Cartesian and curvilinear gradient, we differentiate through the Cartesian coordinates @ @x Or r D rr ; D r De @r @r @ @x O r D r r ; D r D re @ @ @ @x O r D r sin r : D r D r sin e @ @

626

PHYSICS OF CONTINUOUS MATTER This allows us to resolve the nabla operator in the curvilinear basis O r rr C e O r C e O r De Or r De 1 @ @ @ 1 O O Ce Ce ; @r r @ r sin @ (D.29)

Finally, the non-vanishing derivatives of the basis vectors are Or @e O ; De @ O @e O ; D cos e @ O @e Or ; D e @ Or @e O ; D sin e @ (D.30a) O @e D @ Or sin e O : cos e (D.30b)

These are all the relations necessary for calculations in spherical coordinates.

The gradient, divergence and curl become, Or rS D e r U D r 1 @S 1 @S @S O Oz Ce Ce ; @r r @ r sin @ (D.31) (D.32)

(D.33)

The tensor gradient becomes Or e Or rU D e @U @U @Ur Or e O Or e O Ce Ce @r @r @r 1 @Ur U 1 @U Ur 1 @U O e Or O e O O e O Ce Ce C Ce r @ r r @ r r @ U U 1 @Ur 1 @U O e Or O e O Ce Ce r sin @ r r sin @ r tan 1 @U U Ur O e O Ce C C : r sin @ r tan r

(D.34)

Dotting from the left with U we get Or .U r /U D e @Ur U @Ur U @Ur Ur C C @r r @ r sin @

2 U r

U2 r

(D.35)

D. CURVILINEAR COORDINATES Finally, the left divergence of a tensor eld becomes, @Trr 1 @T r 1 @T r 2Trr T r T T Or r T De C C C C @r r @ r sin @ r r tan r r @Tr 1 @T 1 @T 2Tr T r T T O Ce C C C C C @r r @ r sin @ r r r tan r tan T T @Tr 1 @T 1 @T 2Tr T r O C C C C C C Ce @r r @ r sin @ r r r tan r tan (D.36)

627

The Laplacian of a scalar eld becomes r 2S D @2 S 1 @2 S 1 @2 S 2 @S 1 @S C C C C 2 : 2 2 2 2 2 2 @r r @ r @r r tan @ r sin @ (D.37)

The Laplacian of a vector eld becomes 2 1 @2 Ur 1 @ Ur @2 Ur 2 Or C C r U De @r 2 r 2 @ 2 r 2 sin2 @ 2 C O Ce 2 @Ur cot @Ur C 2 r @r r @ 2 @U r 2 @ @U 2 r 2 sin @ 2 Ur r2 U r 2 tan

1 @2 U 1 @2 U @2 U C 2 C 2 2 2 @r r @ r 2 sin @ 2 U 2 r sin2

U r 2 sin2

: (D.38)

Finally, the gradient of the divergence 2 @ Ur 1 @2 U 1 @2 U Or r .r U / D e C C 2 @r r @r@ r sin @r@ cot @U 2 @Ur C C r @r r @r O Ce 1 @U r 2 @ 1 @U 2 r sin @ 2Ur r2 U 2 r tan

O Ce

(D.39)

628

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