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29 October 1997


Subject: Basic Noncommissioned Officer Course (BNCOC),

1. The BNCOC lesson WVBN22B, Tactical Communication has been removed from the curriculum due to the unavailability of Signal Operating Instructions (SOIS) in some regions. 2. The lesson is replaced with the following: a. WVBN-39B Applied Ethics.
b. WVBN-40B Soldier Dignity NOTE: This lesson is video dependent; TVT 21-222-708786 DA must be ordered 3. Please remove the Tactical Communication lesson from the 9lCMF Instructor and Student Packets, and replace with the attached.

4. Future reprints will incorporate the above changes.

J oyce L. GROSS Chief, Nonresident Instruction Branch







REFERENCES: NUMBER TITLE FM 22-100, Army Leadership (Draft) 1997

Buckingham, C. Ethics and the Senior Officer: Institutional Tensions, Parameters, Vol.XV, No.3 Kellog, D., The Importance of the Non-Toleration Clause and Codes of Conduct in the Ethical Education of US Military Cadets, papkellg/htm at www.duke.educ-Microsoft Internet Explorer. Maginnis, R., A Chasm of Values, Military Review, February 1993. Phillips, R., A Principle Within: Ethical Military Leadership, papphill.htm at www Internet Explorer. Reimer, D., Leadership for the 2lST Century: Empowerment, Environment and the Golden Rule, Military Review Article-Microsoft Internet Explorer. 1987. Sorley, L., Beyond Duty, Honor, Country, Military Review, April

Sorley, L., Doing Whats Right: Shaping the Armys Professional Environment, Parameters, March 1989. Torner, J., Teaching Military Ethics, Military Review, May 1993. Practical Ethics, dilnov.htm at Explorer.

United States Military Academy, Honor Education Reading Packet, August 1996 STUDENT STUDY ASSIGNMENT: INSTRUCTOR REQUIREMENTS: Supplementary Readings #1 and #2 Familiarize yourself with lesson plan None



Lesson Plan Supplementary Reading #1 and #2


CLASSROOM, TRAINING AREA, AND RANGE REQUIREMENTS: Classroom suitable for 1:16 instructor/student ratio.

LP WVBN-39B/WYAN-29B 0397

AMMUNITION REQUIREMENTS: None INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDANCE: This is an SGL taught lesson. It is not appropriate for student instruction. There are areas of controversy; keep the focus positive. Do not tell personal war stories. Time is sensitive so DO NOT get lost in current events. Hours are marked but teach at your own pace. End of hour one simply means you have taught 1/3 of the lesson, etc. PROPONENT RESIDENT LESSON PLAN APPROVAL: NAME RANK POSITION DATE PAULETTE H. DUNLAP CSM CMDT, AMEDD NCO ACADEMY Mar 97 SECTION II. INTRODUCTION

TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE (STATEMENT OF OBJECTIVE): INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Read the following terminal learning objective statement to the students: Identify values, problems and solutions for the command environment, and soldiers responsibilities to subordinates and peers and superiors lAW cited references. SAFETY REQUIREMENTS: None RISK ASSESSMENT LEVEL: Low ENVIRONMENTAL CONS IDERAT IONS: EVALUATION: CMF None

INSTRUCTIONAL LEAD IN: The question you might have had when you looked at the training schedule was, Why so many hours for ethics? Simply, ethical conduct is the foundation of leadership and nothing much matters if the Army doesnt have leaders of character. Ethics is the subject that attempts to provide directions for conduct. In some ways, teaching military ethics is a difficult job because of the time in which we live. We know many soldiers support ethical behavior however, many say, if pushed to the limit, ethics have little place in the real world. Well discuss that in a minute but first lets look at the ELOs. SECTION III. PRESENTATION
Enabling Learning Objectives (ELOs) 1. Define the terms ethics, values and ethical dilemma IAW cited references.

LP WVBN-39B/WYAN-29B 0397 2. Identify misconceptions in the study of ethics IAW cited references.

3. 4.

Identify the origins of values IAW cited references. Identify Army values IAW cited references.

5. Identify social trends/values and how they affect Army values IAW cited references. 6. Identify the Rules of Thumb and other guidelines for making ethical decisions IAW cited references. 7. Based on the Rules of Thumb, make ethical decisions IAW cited references.

8. Identify and describe ethical problems and solutions associated with the command environment IAW cited references. 9. Identify ethical considerations associated with subordinates, peers and superiors IAW cited references. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: In this class we will look at how we apply ethics in our everyday life. We will examine values, because they have an impact on ethical behavior; discuss our responsibility to provide an ethical environment, and talk about our responsibilities to our subordinates, peers and superiors. Definition: Ethics QUESTION: To begin, who can define ethics for us?

ANSWER: Ethics are principles or standards that guide professionals to do the moral or right thing-what ought to be done. SHOW VGT #1 SHOW VGT #2 (definition) Misconceptions About Ethics (misconceptions)

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Tell class that students often have misconceptions/incorrect ideas about the study of ethics. Address the points below: If an action is legal isnt it ethical? Something we need to understand is that legal and ethical behaviors are different. Yes, an action may be legal but unethical. 4 LP WVBN-39B/WYAN-29B 0397

For example, the development of a collecting powers of a loan shark help someone who profits from the is more than simply acting to the

software system to improve debt may be legal, but is it ethical to misery of others? Being a professional letter of the law.

Isnt military ethics about torturing prisoners of war for information and other wartime situations? No, most problems in military ethics are

straight forward problems in plain, everyday ethics. Most dilemmas have little to do with the adventure of seizing hills and performing other Rambo-like feats. Most problems in the real world of military ethics deal with telling the truth, filling out reports honestly or condemning sexual harassment. Ethics are fine and good in the classroom but they dont work in the real world. For any of you who believe this statement, lets simplify what the term means. Ethics means that honorable men and women do not lie, steal or cheat; rather they keep promises, do their reasonable best to carry out their responsibilities, try to treat others as they would like to be treated; and they attempt to set right their mistakes. You probably strive for these goals everyday, so ethics isnt some weird study which belongs in university classrooms. Finally, ethics are so complicated; there dont seem to be any right answers; We shouldnt waste our time. For sure, there are many gray areas and often decisions are difficult. However, in a very practical sense we know that unethical behavior, not technical/tactical incompetence, is what ruins careers. Since we make decisions every day that have ethical implications it is important to have an opportunity to think about these things. SHOW VGT #3 (values: family, peer, institutional) VALUES QUESTION: Our first step in understanding ethics starts with values. What are values, how do they effect ethics, and what are some examples? ANSWER: Values are principles, standards or qualities considered worthwhile or desirable. Values may lead to ethical or unethical behavior; they help define character. Examples: integrity, loyalty, courage, respect, faithfulness, freedom, self-reliance. Family Values QUESTION: Our values, a foundation for behavior, come from our family, institutions and peers. What are some value statements we might learn from our family? It is not enough that I succeed. Others must fail. 5 LP WVBN-39B/WYAN-29B 0397 Forgive your enemies but never forget their names. For the most part, people are good. Nice guys finish last. Forgiveness is important. It is possible to get all As and flunk life. ANSWER:

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Ask students what family value statements they remember. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: Words such as honor, duty and courage are either supported or dismissed, depending on how those words are defined and acted out within the family. Peer Values INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: A second source of values is friends. Peer pressure is not limited to children on a playground. Peer values remain a life-long blessing and curse for those who seek to adhere to ethical principles Peer pressure can cut both ways. Peers can hold a soldier to the highest standards or lure that soldier into the gutter. Peers can coax one to honesty or derail one to dishonesty. Institutional Values INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: A third source of values is institutional. We claim the ethical standards of an institution and make them our own, or at least use them as a guideline. Some of the institutions which influence us are school, church, social organizations, the Army, or a political party. SHOW VGT #4 (moral compass) The institutional values we are interested in are the Army values. The Center for Army Leadership has revised leadership doctrine and have clarified the terms we use to express the Armys enduring values for the Century. The four Cs: commitment, courage, candor and competence remain useful principles, but the new values are more precise. QUESTION: The moral compass specifies Army values that capture the essence of some of the more important features of the Army. Who can tell us what service before self means? ANSWER: Service before self signifies the proper ordering of priorities. The welfare of the nation and the organization come before the individual. QUESTION: This value causes soldiers some problems in terms of just how far service before self goes. So, what would happen if we discarded this value, where is the problem with selfless service?
6 LP WVBN-39B/WYAN-29B 0397 ANSWER: If we discarded this value how could we expect people to be willing to sacrifice life, as we do in the military? How could we ask soldiers to work in dangerous situations? The combat scenario isnt really a problem; soldiers readily sacrifice self interest in combat. Where we see difficulty is with the peacetime mission.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: As soldiers, we are expected to put the welfare of the nation and the Army before ourselves, and this requirement can truly wear on us. But, there are good reasons for this requirement. Consider what would happen if soldiers could say: INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Have one student read statements below. Nope, I dont want to go to Korea, I have a family and I dont want to leave them. Sorry, Im not moving until my son graduates from high school. I dont care what you say, I dont do PT at 5 am and I dont work after 5pm. Private, Id really like to help you out with your problem, but I just dont have time. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: Obviously, if we place self interest first, the Army would no longer be able to defend the nation. Its important to remember that while the focus is on service to the nation, the idea also requires that soldiers properly take care of family and self. The Army does not and cannot expect you to sacrifice everything for service. QUESTION: Courage is the military virtue that enables us to conquer fear, danger, or adversity, no matter what the context happens to be (physical or moral) What else does courage include?

ANSWER: Courage also includes the notion of taking responsibility for decisions and actions. Courage involves the ability to look at ourselves, to confront new ideas, and to change. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: The military offers awards for courage in combat, in lifesaving and for taking dangerous physical risks above and beyond the call of duty. These we call heroes and that they are. Moral courage isnt as clearly rewarded. 7 LP WVBN-39B/WYAN-29B 0397 QUESTION: What two factors often cause us problems when we want to exercise moral courage, and how can we compare physical and moral courage? ANSWER: 1. The leader is required to stand against his or her peers. 2. The leader is required to risk career or advancement. The soldier who jumps on a grenade to save a buddy will receive a medal for that action, or the next-of-kin will receive it. The soldier who jumps on a moral grenade to save a buddy from behaviors that can destroy the person or the career may be thanked or criticized. That person

may be called a hero but then again, he may be call holier-than-thou, a squealer, or uptight. QUESTION: How can we reward moral courage in the Army?

ANSWER: By standing by soldiers who are determined to act ethically at the threat of rejection by peers. The purpose of honor is not to play a game of gotcha with people. Ethical leadership that loses sight of compassion or common sense ceases to be either ethical or leadership. Leaders should speak the truth, cultivate what is honest, but not lose sight of the people he leads. The slogan Take care of your people? is as old as the nation and we need to think about what it truly means. Leaders do not take care of their people either by covering for them or by hanging them out to dry. It is in the gray area between these two extremes that ethical leaders may exhibit moral courage. QUESTION: Respect is the regard and recognition of the absolute dignity that every human being possesses. What else do we mean by respect? ANSWER: Respect also indicates compassion and consideration of others. We must be sensitive to, and consider the feelings and needs of others. We must also be aware of the effect of our own behavior on them. Respect also involves the notion of fairness. QUESTION: What do we mean by Loyalty, and what is an example?

ANSWER: Loyalty, when correctly understood (in order, from the Constitution, to the U.S. Army, to the unit, to family/friends and finally to self), establishes the correct ordering of our commitments. We are faithful. We support lawful orders. We dont undermine decisions. 8 LP WVBN-39B/WYAN-29B 0397 Example: If I disagree with a course of action I should speak out But once the final decision is made, I should support that decision. In other words, I should be loyal. QUESTION: In a recent survey, soldiers said the quality they admire most in fellow soldiers is integrity. Integrity is a word which, like time, everyone can define until he is asked to. Lets give it a try. What is integrity? ANSWER: Integrity is soundness of moral principle; the character of uncorrupted virtue, especially in relation to truth and fair dealing, uprightness, honesty, and sincerity. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: Integrity is that quality which keeps us on the right course when an action is unethical, but it seems everyone is doing it. First of all, not everyone is doing it. Not every drill instructor at Aberdeen was involved in sexual misconduct. Not every general officer lies to

Congress. Unethical behavior is unethical behavior, whether or not it is done by one person or by dozens. Look at it this way. Do you really want to tell the JAG officer who is defending you at your court martial that the reason you stole 14 hockey sticks from the PX is because every single person in your unit was doing the same thing? You can see how ridiculous this line of reasoning is. QUESTION: The next value is duty. What do we mean by duty? ANSWER: Duty concerns purpose, mission, and objective. Soldiers are expected to achieve their mission; carry out orders, and serve, but we must achieve our mission honorably. The end does not justify the means. We may not sacrifice our principles for purpose. Furthermore, if a soldier elevates personal well-being beyond that of purpose, which is mission accomplishment, he or she is guilty of crass careerism that has no proper place in the military ethic. We often expect individuals to exceed their duty. After all, the nations highest award is the Medal of Honor, defined as an individual action above and beyond the call of duty. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Honor encircles all the other values that make up the public code for the Army. Honor and moral identity stand together. By moral identity we mean the soldier identifies with the Army values. 9

LP WVBN-39B/WYAN-29B 0397 QUESTION: We need to look more closely at Honor, so that it will not be just an abstract term. Honor circles all the other values because it is the Army principle. What is a principle and what exactly does honor mean for us? ANSWER: A principle is a basic truth, a rule or standard of good behavior, an essential quality. The soldiers first responsibility is to the Army principle which says that soldiers must obey all legal orders and disobey all illegal orders. The war crimes tribunals after World War II showed that blindly following orders is not acceptable. German officials were sentenced to life in prison for blindly following orders. We presume that orders are legal and ethical and therefore, binding. if however, a soldier receives an order that flies against all that soldier has learned to value, to take pride in, to believe in-the order is possibly wrong. Soldiers must ask themselves if their behavior would withstand the scrutiny of publicity. Would they feel comfortable and proud or feel guilt, shame or sorrow. In other words, what is honorable? Principle comes first.

QUESTION: In closing this discussion on Army values we must remember that these values are not just for chaplains and dogooders, they are functional values. Who can tell me what I mean by functional values? ANSWER: Values that work. These values have been applied since the days of George Washington and they have proven that they are successful and necessary. The Army could not be sustained without them. Social/Trends Values Versus Army Values INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: Now lets look at social/trends values versus Army values. Todays Army is not the one your grandfather experienced. In times past soldiers were easily integrated into the service; there was little difference between their personal values and those of the Army. Our culture changed during the 1960s when racism, the Kennedy and King assassinations, Vietnam, and the womens movement became a part of our national consciousness. We, in this class, have been affected by these events and may struggle with social values versus Army values. However, we are not new recruits and as professional soldiers, in a military career for some years, we have embraced Army values to one extent or another. SHOW VGTS #5 & #6 (social trends) Have 2 or 3 students read aloud. DO NOT go around the room. Time is sensitive. 10 LP WVBN-39B/WYAN-29B 0397 Army Values Social Trends/Values Selfless Service Distrust of institutions Courage Self-reliance Respect Less nationalistic Loyalty Less personal accountability Integrity Less self discipline Duty More self fulfillment Honor More self serving More avoidance of long term commitments Works to live Seeks leisure over work Candid if convenient and self promoting Acceptance of alternative views INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: As leaders we must know that integrating future recruits may be more difficult than in the past. The future recruits value system will be formed in a society that is becoming permissive in terms of right and wrong. His values may be fundamentally different from the Armys. It has been said that the Army is a mirror of American

society. The values a soldier possesses have been instilled since birth. Consider this opinion: SHOW VGT 7 Have a student read the quotation aloud. Allow class discussion. (He (the soldier) is what his home, his religion, his schooling and the moral code and ideals of his society have made him. The Army cannot unmake him.) INSTRUCTOR NOTE: After the discussion include the following teaching points which are not in the student SR. You may state the example in 2., below, in your own words, but you must state the comments in bold verbatim. 1. Some soldiers cant be unmade, just like there are some people who have to live in prison because they cant be unmade to live in society. The Army has special standards and not everyone deserves to be a member of it. 2. Large numbers of soldiers can be influenced. Sometimes an institution can fill a moral vacuum left by a dysfunctional family. Example: Consider the soldier who became deeply concerned about the outcome of cheating, to which he had admitted guilt. During most of his senior year of high school, he had lived with friends or in the street, since his parents had long since split from him and from one another; whereabouts unknown. 11
LP WVBN39B/WYAN--29B 0397 Some habits the soldier developed in order to survive in the street did not fit with the Army. He had been in the Army long enough to see that he truly wished to remain, but not yet long enough to shed the family values imparted to him by his morally derelict parents. When unit leaders were informed of the larger context for this soldiers actions they chose to hammer him for cheating. . . and retain him, much to the indignation of many of his uninformed peers. The soldier had no further trouble, graduated high in his class and is serving his country successfully today. Most important, he learned from his Army family two lessons that his family of origin never taught him: that honor matters and that mercy can be the companion of honor. END OF FIRST HOUR (approximately)

SHOW VGT #8 (rules of thumb) Ethical Decision Making Help QUESTION: In order to help us make ethical decisions the U.S. Military Academy, West Point has developed 3 rules of thumb we should consider when we face an ethical conflict. What are they?

1. Does this action attempt to deceive anyone or allow anyone to be deceived? 2. Does this action gain or allow the gain of a privilege or advantage to which I or someone else would not otherwise be entitled? 3. Would I be satisfied if I were on the receiving end of this action? QUESTION: What are some additional guidelines? ANSWER: l. What would the unit be like if everyone did this? 2. Can I do this and make the assumption that everyone can do the same thing? 3. If I had an audience and put out my idea would the audience say yes or no? INSTRUCTOR NOTE: If point 3 (the audience example), is confusing explain that this situation means wide public scrutiny. 12 LP WVBN-39B/WYAN-29B 0397 It means more than voicing an unpopular opinion. In Iaw, actions are evaluated against the standard of the reasonable man. In other words, would a reasonable man do this? Would reasonable men find this action ethical? INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: I want to stress the importance of keeping these rules in mind. I suggest you copy them on a 3 X 5 card and keep them as a handy reference for the future. Ethical Dilemmas SHOW VGT #9 (ethical dilemma graphic) QUESTION: Now that you have some tools to solve ethical dilemmas lets define ethical dilemma. Who can do that? ANSWER: Any dilemma usually involves a predicament in which we must make a decision on a course of action. In most cases this decision involves equally undesirable choices in which any solution appears to be unwanted (to the decision maker or to the person on the receiving end) There are easy and tough dilemmas. The tough dilemmas require leaders who can think and act on a principled level. Often, these decisions are so difficult because values conflict. Ones loyalty may be tested in a given situation. Should I be loyal to my boss, my subordinates, my principles, or the nation? Can I be loyal to all at the same time? Often, competing interests will test our courage. At what cost is any leader willing to accomplish a mission? These questions pose terribly difficult dilemmas when applied to real life. Practical Exercise INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Allow no more than 15 minutes for this exercise and discussion. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Have students turn in their SR to the practical exercise.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: I want you to read the ethical dilemma of The Drug Test. Keep the 3 rules of thumb in mind, and decide what you would do. The Drug Test You are a leader about to go to the National Training Center NTC). Your chain of command has emphasized how critical the rotation to the California desert is-the entire unit has trained extremely hard to do well. 13 LP WVBN-39B/WYAN-29B 0397 You have one soldier who has been to NTC three times and has led the way in the preparation of your squad/platoon. You consider his experience and leadership to be vital in the success of your unit in the upcoming training cycle. After a random unit-sweep urinalysis, the soldier comes to you and tells you that his marriage is under severe stress and that, last week, after getting drunk for the first time in his life, he used cocaine, also for the first time. He deeply regrets it. The results of the urinalysis turn out negative. What should you do about the soldiers confession?

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Ask the following questions, but do not allow discussion until the students have committed to a position. QUESTION: How many of you would report the incident? (show of hands)

How many of you would not report? INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: OK, now turn to the next page in your SR and well discuss some considerations that you might have thought of. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Allow discussion on the following considerations: 1. No matter how good a performer the soldier is and how critical he is to the upcoming training mission, the precedent of tolerating drug use is a bad one. If the soldier did use drugs, confessed it, and nothing happened, wont he be more likely to do it again when stress gets high? 2. You have no substantial evidence of actual drug use. Maybe the soldier wants to get out of the upcoming deployment because of his wife. 3. If your soldiers conclude that they cannot be open with you about their problems, they may not open up at all. The unit may suffer. 4. The Armys policy concerning drug use is zero tolerance. Can you justifiably violate Army policy? 5. Everyone makes mistakes. Maybe this will be enough of a scare that the soldier will never do drugs again. On the other hand, perhaps this was not the

first time he has used drugs. Maybe he is in danger of addiction and needs help. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following (not in the SR): In this case the leader did not report the incident. However, the consensus of the ethical experts is that he did the wrong thing. 14 LP WVBN- 3 9B/WYAN- 2 9B 0397 Leaders must support the Armys rules, for by not doing so they send a message to each member of their unit that we can decide what rules to follow and what rules not to follow. Further, the soldier probably needs help that the system can provide. The leader can speak in defense of the soldier, but he should report the incident.


SHOW VGT #10 (institutional pressures, zero defects, use of authority, exploitation) Institutional Pressures INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: Now we will look at the command environment and discuss its impact on ethical behavior. Each of us has the capacity to act admirably or lamentably. What brings out the best or the worst in us is often the organizational climate we work in. The Army defines an institutional pressure as a factor inherent in the organizational environment that influences moral reasoning and moral behavior. While there are legitimate pressures that produce positive results, there are also factors which can produce negative outcomes and unethical behavior. QUESTION: What are the institutional pressures, those built-in difficulties, which can lead to unethical behavior? ANSWER: Frequent change in policies, priorities, schedules, and procedures Failure to establish priorities Excessive demands (too much to do with given resources or time). Conflicting requirements Misassignment of personnel (assignments to positions for which a person lacks qualification) Failure to provide guidance Reprisals for whistle blowers

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: What this situation brings us down to is our need to build an environment in which soldiers are encouraged and enabled to live up to the highest standards of professionalism.


LP WVBN-39B/WYAN-29B 0397 Zero Defects INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: One of our problems today is what is called zero defects. Zero defects is an attitude or environment that means, make no mistakes, dont question decisions and, at all costs, dont be the bearer of bad news. Zero defects has occurred after other drawdowns, because when there are fewer positions competition for promotion becomes fierce. The current drawdown has been difficult for the Army. Since 1989 we have cut 450,000 people out of the force and this has been hard on soldiers and their families. Nevertheless, we remain trained and ready and have not repeated the mistakes of past drawdowns. After WWII the Secretary of the Army noted that the enormous turnover of personnel made effective unit training virtually impossible. This is certainly not our situation today. QUESTION: Now that the drawdown ends we must display positive, creative leadership, stamp out the zero defects mentality and create an environment where all soldiers can reach their full potential. The Chief of Staffs position is that zero defects can only be overcome by positive leadership. What does he say? ANSWER: The fear of delegating authority to subordinates is not a new phenomenon. The zero defects mentality-where a commander feels his command must be error-free is not new. But we must possess the moral courage to deny this damaging philosophy that says it is worse to report a mistake than it is to make one. This lack of moral courage in peacetime can have disastrous results in battle. Ethical Use of Authority QUESTION: In addition to sorting out zero defects, there is a built in institutional pressure we have to contend with called ethical use of authority. What do we mean by this term? ANSWER: The structure of our profession, even though essential, is the natural breeding ground for the unethical use of authority. The power and influence of a first sergeant is greater than that of a staff sergeant. The influence of a general officer is truly awesome. This fact requires a clear understanding of the meaning of rank. In the Army hierarchy there are various levels of responsibility. Each level of responsibility is assigned a degree of authority. Rank is simply a badge of the authority vested in a person to carry out a specific level of responsibility. When authority is used to fulfill responsibility it is used legitimately and ethically. 16

LP WVBN-39B/WYAN-29B 0397 When authority is used for purposes not directly associated with carrying out assigned responsibilities, it is being used illegitimately and unethically. As we go up in rank, those of lower grade tend more readily to assume that we are using our authority legitimately and ethically, because of the high regard with which juniors hold senior leaders. Think about that. Exploitation of Subordinates INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The following material is controversial. Do not get stuck. It is not necessary to agree with MG Buckinghams opinion about admired leaders. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: MG Clay Buckingham (USA, Ret.) says that one of the most widespread abuses of authority is the exploitation of subordinates. In other words, the quote, successful leader unquote, is the one who doesnt get ulcers, but gives ulcers; the one who is hard, unfeeling. QUESTION: Although these leaders are exploiters, they get a lot of attention. No doubt the people who admire such leaders dont work for them. You certainly may disagree with the general, but what does he say about these leaders, some people admire, and also what does he say about the people we pay too little attention to? ANSWER: We admire the leader with guts; the person who drives people hard, who has the reputation for firing subordinates, who goes for the jugular, who works his people long hours a day. We set these people up and idolize them. Even in industry. We like the kind of guy who moves in as the CEO and fires three-fourths of the vice presidents the first week. He gets things done! Hes got guts! Remember the television show Dallas and how we enjoyed seeing J.R. wheel-and-deal? But what about the cool-headed leader who takes a group of misfits and molds them into an effective highly-spirited team? What of the leader who sees the potential of a young soldier who is performing only marginally and through coaching and encouragement turns him into a first-rate performer? We seldom hear about these people. We dont hold them up as examples as much as we should. The higher we go, the more important it is to be careful that our impact on the lives and careers and families of our subordinates is positive and not negative. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: A final word about abuse of power. The higher we go, the easier it is to misuse authority. The checks that we had as junior leaders become less evident. 17

LP WVBN-39B/WYAN-29B 0397 We gradually begin to believe that we really dont need to seek the counsel of others. We begin to rationalize small personal indiscretions that we would never accept in a subordinate. What Can I Do? INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: Some of you may be thinking that you are helpless to do anything about the command environment. You may say, What do you mean foster a positive command environment. I have a boss who is zero defects and who works me 14 hours a day. What on earth do you think I can do? First, Ill challenge you not to be morally lazy and cop out by conveniently blaming someone else. Remember that trite old saying, If Im not part of the solution Im part of the problem. SHOW VGT #11 (solutions)

QUESTION: There are things we can do to enhance a climate of professionalism. What are some of the important ones? ANSWER: 1. Set an example in personal and professional conduct by demonstrating commitment to the highest standards and diligent effort to live up to those standards. 2. Communicate to all subordinates what your standards are, and that you expect them to live up to those standards as well. Be sure they understand what you mean, and what you expect; help them appreciate how that translates into day-to-day behavior. 3. Ensure that the professional environment (to the extent we have control over it) is supportive of ethical behavior and not supportive of behavior that is ethically flawed. This means ensuring that in all aspects of our leadership (evaluation of subordinates, competition with other units, methods of motivating subordinates, etc.) we operate in a way that encourages and rewards ethical behavior on the part of our subordinates and discourages unethical behavior. 4. Recognize that we have more control over the professional environment than we realize. If we communicate our commitment to high standards to our fellow soldiers, they will be more likely to respect those high. standards in dealing with us. 5. If we connect with like-minded peers, our joint commitment to high standards can improve the organizations professionalism. If we find unethical practices, and devise other-more acceptable-ways to get the mission accomplished, we can change undesirable patterns of behavior. If we are generous in recognizing highly professional performance, we can build new bonds of shared commitment to high standards. 18

LP WVBN-39B/WYAN-29B 0397 6. And if, when necessary, we stand up to be counted by refusing to compromise our standards we set an example that seniors, peers, and subordinates can learn from. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: Without a doubt there are risks in such courses of action, especially if our command is not, at the moment, distinguishing itself in terms of professional behavior. No one can argue that adherence to ethical standards is free of risk, or even easy. It is just essential. REMOVE VGT #11 END OF SECOND HOUR (approximate) RELATIONSHIPS INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: Lets look at ethics another way. The central element in ethical situations appears to involve human relationships. In this part of class we will explore ethics in terms of the various relationships typical in military units. For our purposes, we will concentrate on relationships with superiors, peers and subordinates. We need to remember that relationships dont manage themselves. We must nurture and develop them. Relationships with Subordinates SHOW VGT #12 (topic headings) Be Candid QUESTION: To start off, lets talk about our relationship with subordinates. Candor is a quality we must develop, so who can describe this quality in relationship with subordinates? ANSWER: Candor means being straight and it is a two way street. Honesty is as important to a subordinate as it is to a superior. We must spend time with soldiers talking with them face-to-face about their performance. Everyone wants feedback. We need to tell soldiers when they make mistakes and then coach them to succeed. Listen INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: We must also listen to soldiers. We will always learn from them. Here is an example: A battalion commander had a problem in recovery operations. It always took a excessively long time to refuel the vehicles after field operations. One day, the fuel truck driver told the commander how it could be done in one-fourth the time. He suggested that instead of having the fuel truck go through the motor pool, the vehicles should drive through a refueling station before going to the motor pool. The soldier closest to the issue solved a major problem. 19 LP WVBN-39B/WYAN-292 0397 Be Predictable INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: Leaders must help reduce stress in units. Many of our soldiers have back-to-back deployments and extended separations

from their families. On average, soldiers assigned to a TO&E now spend 138 days a year away from home. Some soldiers say they dont know what is going to happen two weeks out; they dont know if they are going to work on weekends or not. QUESTION: One way to reduce stress is by predictability. How can we be predictable? ANSWER: First, we must keep the training schedule in line with FM 25-100, Training the Force. This FM allows us to plan in advance. We should lock in training events four weeks in advance, and soldiers should know a month out if they are off on a weekend-and we must honor that commitment to them. Improved predictability must be a goal. QUESTION: by that? Discriminate Believe it or not, it is important to discriminate. What do we mean

ANSWER: In unit after unit we find leaders who cannot, or will not discriminate the more important tasks from those of lesser consequence. The average soldier knows what is or is not important, and there is no quicker way for a leader to lose the respect and support than to demand of them unstinting efforts on an unimportant task. The leader who does not use judgment and restraint in tasking his troops is acting in an exploitative, ethically flawed and unwise manner. SHOW VGT #13 (topic headings) Prioritize QUESTION: Now that we know not to waste a soldiers time on unimportant tasks, what about the many, many important tasks that require our attention. What do we do about those? ANSWER: We realize the normal condition is that there is not enough of anything-time, people, money, repair parts, whatever. Good leaders prioritize and accept responsibility for the consequences. This action takes moral courage because there will be someone higher up who points out an area where the unit has not done well, or has done nothing, on purpose, as a result of assigning a low priority to that job. 20 LP WVBN-39B/WYAN-29B 0397 Many leaders do OK in establishing priorities, the harder part comes when we have to stand up and be counted in terms of defending the results of having done so. Weak leaders are then sometimes tempted to blame subordinates for the priorities the leader himself dictated. Evaluate Fairly QUESTION: We must evaluate subordinates fairly. This rule seems simple, but in practice it is often ignored. What goes wrong, and how can we set things right?

ANSWER: A leader sets standards, collects information on how well things are going and then evaluates people based on their units performance. This notion is so flawed that it can lead to ethical shortcomings. Many things affect a unit beyond the leaders influence: strength of the unit; the experience and ability of the people assigned; the resources; the prior state of training before the leader took over; and so on. Yes, every leader evaluates readiness in terms of these outside factors. The point is, that during evaluations, the outside problems may be overlooked. We cannot just look at performance. Consequently, the ethical evaluation of subordinates should be based not on how well they do the job but how well they do it considering what they were

given to work with.

Be Careful with Promises QUESTION: What do we mean, be careful with promises? ANSWER: We should never promise anything we cannot deliver. Trust, and especially mutual trust, is at the heart of whatever it is that makes a unit more than just a collection of individuals located in the same spot. To be ethical we must be reliable in word and deed. Trust can break down quickly in a unit and it stays broken. In addition to simply keeping ones word on matters that we control, it is important not to make commitments on things that we cannot control. Cast Your Lot with the Unit QUESTION: The final point about dealing ethically with subordinates is that we should cast our lot with the unit. What does that mean?

LP WVBN-39B/WYAN-29B 0397 ANSWER: Link our own success with the unit. We prosper when the unit prospers. The leader who shifts blame for failure, to protect his own future will quickly earn the disrespect of his subordinates. Casting our lot with the unit also means we are willing to recognize problems and accept then as our own, including the responsibility for solving them or not solving them if an answer cannot be found. Much of the bitterness in the Army a decade ago stemmed from feelings on the part of many leaders that their seniors did not want to acknowledge, or be involved in trying to deal with some very difficult problems, including drug abuse and racial tension. Nevertheless, they were holding junior leaders accountable for failing to eliminate such problems. Such unwillingness to recognize and help deal with real problems is clearly unethical. Keep the Focus on Soldiers

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: In closing the discussion on our responsibility to subordinates, here is what General Reimer says, Leaders should take their guidance from the top but focus on their soldiers. If your focus is on soldiers, then you are doing the right thing. Focusing on the boss leads to the attitudes we are trying to stamp out today. Relationships with Peers SHOW VGT #14 (topic heading) INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: The next area of ethical responsibility concerns our relationships with our peers. Relationships with peers are at the heart of the satisfactions of service in any profession. Peers become life long friends and provide the bulk of support and encouragement. Their approval is, in many ways, the most important reward of service. For anyone aspiring to be a member of a profession, his most precious possession is his professional reputation and peer relationships are the principal basis for professional reputation. QUESTION: What do we mean by Encourage and Acknowledge the Accomplishments of Fellow Soldiers? ANSWER: This rule focuses attention on the unproductive, destructive nature of too much competition. Every leader is expected to do his best and to seek the highest level of responsibility he can attain. Ethical problems enter the picture when success is achieved by beating out the competition.


LP WVBN-39B/WYAN--29B 0397 Be aware that the first problem after anyone is promoted is to find some help. If, in the course of getting there, you have alienated your peers through destructive competition; and damaged your reputation, help is going to be hard to find. If you are generous in recognizing and acknowledging the achievements of peers you will find a far more rewarding stance than those who have begrudged and envied the successes of their peers. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: We must remember that the professional environment is not now and never will be ideal. Some who do not deserve to do so will prosper, while others who have earned advancement will sometimes find themselves disappointed. However, it is the essence of ethical conduct to adhere to standards no matter the outcome. Relationships with Superiors SHOW VGT # 15 (topic headings) QUESTION: The Army makes enormous demands on military leaders. But, there are also great opportunities for the follower to exert ethical

leadership in the relationship. What is the first point we should remember about dealing with a superior? ANSWER: Give a superior every bit of loyalty to which he is entitled.

This point does not mean that only an able superior deserves the loyalty of his subordinates. Probably an inept commander needs loyalty more (and will be more grateful for it). We must assume that every leader is behaving ethically and is doing the best job he can do. Loyalty from subordinates requires that they do not undercut him, either to their own subordinates or to others inside or outside the organization. It requires us to do all in our power to compensate for his shortcomings and to teach him gracefully those things he needs to know to be more effective in his job. We must attempt to carry out his instructions, at the same time working diplomatically to help shape those instructions to ensure that they will be as appropriate as possible. It is easy and rewarding to be loyal to an outstanding leader who sets the example in every respect, but it is no less important to give loyalty to less able superiors entrusted with leadership. Where the line is drawn, however, is at the bounds of ethical conduct. This point was lost on many of those involved with the Watergate affair. 23
LP WVBN-39B/WYAN-29B 0397 They failed to realize that one never has an obligation, out of loyalty, to aid a superior in unethical behavior, or to cover up for him if he is unethical. Actually, we are obliged, in such cases, to look to our own ethical conduct and do what is necessary and appropriate in the situation. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: Theres an old saying, Bad news does not improve with age, that relates to our next point, Inform superiors when you do not or cannot carry out their orders. Someone explain what this means. ANSWER: Superiors are entitled to assume obedience on the part of their subordinates. Most vigorous soldiers like to operate on a long leash, getting mission-type orders rather than detailed instructions and being left to get the job done without being over- supervised. The price of this privilege, and it has an essential ethical element, is accountability to the superior who provides such an operational climate. Superiors keep aware of what is going on by a variety of means. One of the most important is what they are told by subordinates.

When a subordinate earns his leaders trust by showing that he can be relied on to report fairly, completely and on time, he will become the most valued source of information for that leader. Remember, the subordinate seeking to improve his appearance by withholding bad news or reporting incompletely will find (usually too late and to his regret) that he has lost something more valuable-his leaders trust. QUESTION: What is the best means of protecting ourselves against being pressured to perform dishonorable acts, and what is an example? ANSWER: Establish our ethical stance early on in a new assignment.

This action may also inspire, and instruct a weak superior who might otherwise be tempted to compromise his own ethical standards. Every superior can remember when some petty dishonesty was expected of him; a situation which would be to his (supposed) advantage if he cut a few corners in terms of his personal integrity. 24

LP WVBN-39B/WYAN-29B 0397 Examples range through certifying the destruction of classified materials without witnessing, to signing for inventories that have not been conducted. Example: One officer assigned to inspect expended rounds on the rifle range was told by his company commander to just sign the certificates and get in the jeep, as he was in a hurry. The lieutenant declined to make the certification without completing the inspection which he proceeded to carry out. For his trouble he got to walk the 5 miles back to the company area. But he was never again asked to do anything dishonest by that commander who, in fact, boosted the younger officer ahead of others to take over the command when the commander was reassigned. QUESTION: Most pressures to compromise our integrity are subtle but occasionally we may receive an order to do something we believe to be dishonest or illegal. What do we do? ANSWER: Deal directly with Questionable orders. Some soldiers find that an effective technique is to talk the matter over quietly and privately with the person who issued the order, explaining why it would be improper to carry it out and requesting that it be withdrawn. If possible, suggest an alternative solution that is not ethically flawed. If the superior persists it can be effective to ask for the order in writing. In some cases, this request will be enough to get the superior to change his mind, while, in other cases, the written order can be the basis for further discussion with higher level leaders or staff advisers.

QUESTION: What do we mean Never bet the future where integritv is concerned? ANSWER: Some leaders, unhappy with what they view as dishonest or unprofessional practices rationalize that they will not object because it could jeopardize their own further progress. They tell themselves, when they get to a high enough position to really have some influence, then they will bring about reform. This is an insidious approach, with the result nearly always being that the person who takes it wakes up one day to find that he can no longer remember the values he once sought to advance. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: The material we just discussed is very challenging. There is a lot of encouragement to speak up, when speaking up is difficult. Although we do not have time to discuss it in class I want you to read SR #2, if you havent already. Its a reading from West Point which is titled, Are You a Moral Wimp? I think youll enjoy it. 25 LP WVBN-39B/WYAN-29B 0397 SHOW VGT #17 (do you love me?) Do You Love Me? INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: Now we are going to revisit one of the thorniest ethical problems. How can I be loyal to the Army and also support my fellow soldiers? This conflict requires some guidelines. Our fellow soldiers are living, breathing important parts of our lives and we have feelings about them. Many of us also have feelings about the Army when we see the flag waving, but the notion may be more vague than those we have about our fellowman. In our personal relationships we must recognize the pressure to go along with what we know to be wrong and our fear of disapproval. These pressures are typically subtle and the issues are so gardenvariety they dont get our attention. We would be totally alert to an ethical dilemma if we were asked to lie to the commander. But, some things just dont jump out and flash, ETHICS PROBLEM. We want to be well thought of, to be pleasant and helpful so whats a little bending of the rules (or breaking a little rule)? Ill just do my buddy a favor. QUESTION: There are a couple of problems here. What are they?

ANSWER: First, there is a reason for the rule (although we may not know it) ; the rule serves a purpose.
Second, when we break a rule, no matter how small, we send the message that it is acceptable to break rules. It is frequently so much easier to be the good

guy, to give a pal a break, than to follow the book. Remember the question earlier in the lesson, What if everyone did this? We wouldnt have any rules. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: We must remember that if our actions are based on the affection of peers we have a too desperate need to be loved. QUESTION: And it also helps to remember what Vice Admiral James Stockdale had to say about the relationship between the two. What did he say? ANSWER: The man who needs to be loved is an extortionists dream. That man will do anything to avoid face-to-face unpleasantness; often he will sell his soul for praise. He can be had.

SHOW VGT # 17 (moral compass) 26 LP WVBN-39B/WYAN- 29B 0397 SECTION IV. SUMMARY INSTRUCTOR NOTE: State the following: In closing, we need to remember that principles and not feelings must guide our decisions. Tough leadership decisions do not always have happy endings. You may not always be rewarded for integrity and candor. The point is that you have to live with yourself and before you can gain the respect of others, you must respect yourself.


WVBN-40B WYAN-30B 0397

COURSE TITLE(S) AMEDD Basic/Advanced Noncommissioned Officer Courses ADMINISTRATIVE DATA





WVBN-4 OB/WYAN-B 0397 REFERENCES: NUMBER TITLE FM 22-100 TC 22-9-1,2,3 Reimer, D. Address to the USMA Class of 1996 USMA Microsoft Internet Explorer NCO Article, 1996 STUDENT STUDY ASSIGNMENT: Read Supplementary Reading #2 INSTRUCTOR REQUIREMENTS: SGL led lesson. This lesson does not lend itself to student teaching because of the need to review the television tape. ADDITIONAL SUPPORT PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS: EQUIPMENT REQUIRED FOR INSTRUCTION: TV, VCR MATERIALS REQUIRED FOR THE INSTRUCTION: TVT Dignity and Respect for the Soldier TVT 21-222-708786 DA INSTRUCTOR MATERIALS: Lesson plan STUDENT MATERIAL: Supplementary Readings #1 and #2 CLASSROOM, TRAINING AREA, AND RANGE REQUIREMENTS: Classroom suitable for 1:16 instructor/student ratio. AMMUNITION REQUIREMENTS: None INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDANCE: You must thoroughly know the answers to the questions because if you do not you will not be able to ensure all points are covered. Secondly, MENTION TO STUDENTS that the tape refers None

to the 4 Cs: Candor, Courage, Competence, Commitment as the Army Values. These values have been revised but the 4 Cs are still useful principles. The Supplementary Reading #2 is attached to this lesson. Remind students at end of class to read it if they have not already done so. PROPONENT RESIDENT LESSON PLAN APPROVAL: NAME RANK POSITION PAULETTE H. DUNLAP CSM CMDT, AMEDD NCO ACADEMY DATE Mar 97

SECTION II. INTRODUCTION TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE (STATEMENT OF OBJECTIVE): INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Read the following terminal learning objective statement to the students. 2 WVBN-4OB/WYAN-3OB 0397 Recognize and correct situations that detract from the sense of self respect and dignity experienced by subordinates IAW FM 22-100, TC 22-91,2,3. SAFETY REQUIREMENTS: None RISK ASSESSMENT LEVEL: Low ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS: EVALUATION: None None

INSTRUCTIONAL LEAD IN: General Abrams once said, People are not in the Army, people are the Army. Young people who join the Army expect to contribute and become respected members of the Army team. The men and women who make up our organization are valuable They make it a great place to serve. However, approximately 50% of the new soldiers who leave the Army say they did not receive respect from their leaders. When soldiers enlist they sign a formal contract with the Army. The soldier agrees to serve for a number of years, and in return, the Army agrees to train the soldier in a military occupational specialty (MOS) In addition to a formal contract there is an informal one. The informal contract is rarely mentioned, but its there just the same. In this contract the Army expects certain things from the soldier and the soldier expects certain things from the Army. The Army expects soldiers to show courage, loyalty, respect, integrity, selfless service and honor and to do their duty. The soldier expects leaders who are competent, caring, professionals and who treat others

with respect and dignity. As leaders we have a responsibility to mediate the informal contract. We will normally be the first one the soldier turns to with his personal and professional problems. This responsibility is large, and one not to be taken lightly SECTION III. PRESENTATION INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Read all enabling learning objectives to students. 1. Identify and state corrections for communication problems that detract from the sense of dignity and respect felt by subordinates IAW cited references. 2. Identify and recommend corrections for training problems that detract from the sense of dignity and respect felt by subordinates IAW cited references. 3
WVBN-4OB/WYAN-3OB 0397 3. Identify and recommend corrections for instances of improper recognition that detract from the sense of dignity and respect experienced by subordinates IAW cited references. 4. Identify techniques to overcome situations of unprofessional leadership that detract from the sense of dignity and respect experienced by subordinates. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Advise students to take notes on the tape as soon as they see a point which illustrates the question. There are many points per question and if they dont jot down cue words they will miss many. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Situation #1 titled WASTED TIME (negative example). Show tape (5 minutes). Stop tape and continue with questions. Ensure all points are covered. Students do not have the answers in their SRs. QUESTION: What was wrong with Sergeant Solomons attitude toward his subordinates? ANSWER: Sergeant Solomon demonstrated no respect for his subordinates. Specific problems with his behavior were that he: 1. Spoke in a demeaning manner. 2. Didnt properly address soldiers by their name and rank. 3. Showed no interest in helping them to prepare for the layout inspection. 4. Failed to give them specific information about the exact time of the layout inspection. 5. Suggested that soldiers were incapable of good performance. 6. Publicly criticized a soldier for volunteering a suggestion. 7. Inappropriately accused a subordinate of smoking marijuana. 8. Treated subordinates as if they were immature or unruly. 9. Abused his rank by leaving the work area early for personal time.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Situation #2 titled LOUD AND CLEAR (positive example) Show tape (5 minutes) Follow previous instruction to continue discussion.

QUESTION: scene?

How did Sergeant Solomons attitude appear to be different in this

4 WVBN-4 OB/WYAN- 3 OB 0397 ANSWER: 1. 2. 3. 4. Sergeant Solomon showed interest in the soldiers by: Giving clear precise instructions about the layout inspection. Paying attention to the soldiers concerns. Encouraging them to look your best. Reminding them of previous problems-things they need to avoid this


5. Being available to help those who need it. 6. Listening to the subordinates suggestion and accepting it as a possibility. 7. Promising to forward the suggestion and to get a response by a specific time later in the day. 8. Presenting a challenge for their best performances by offering a pass to the soldier who out performs him. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Situation #3 titled DRAGG MOPP (negative example) Show tape 5 minutes. Continue discussion.


How did the sergeant show his lack of interest or disregard for the The sergeant showed his disregard by:

1. Reading the instructional material to them word-for-word. 2. Paying no attention to the soldiers who were his students. 3. Being self-oriented, rather than student-oriented. 4. Criticizing the students in a demeaning manner when they showed no interest in the class. 5. Expecting the class to show him respect without treating them with respect. 6. Ignoring valuable feedback that the soldiers could give him about the training and their equipment. 7. Discouraging student participation by showing no enthusiasm for the training.

8. Failing to do advance preparation for the class by putting out information on the equipment requirements for the class. 5 WVBN-40B/WYAN-30B 0397 9. Taking no responsibility for the soldiers who failed to attend the training classes. QUESTION: What were some of the outcomes of this disregard by the sergeant? ANSWER: Some of the outcomes of the sergeants training methods were that the students: 1. Became bored and lost interest in the training. 2. Entertained themselves by talking rather than listening. 3. Complained among themselves about conditions in the unit. 4. Did not have the proper equipment to participate in the training. 5. Lost respect for the sergeant and his rank, and became disgruntled with the Army in general. QUESTION: Based upon the conversation among the soldiers, what else might be wrong in this unit? ANSWER: Other possible problems in the unit are:

1. Training schedules not properly coordinated. 2. Work sections not uniformly allocating work tasks. 3. No accountability for soldier absence from training activities. 4. The appearance of preferential treatment. 5. Prime training time being wasted. 6. Communication problems between sections. 7. Low morale due to lack of concern by leaders. 8. Lack of professionalism among leaders in the unit. 9. No sense of unit training priorities. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Situation #4 titled MOPP BUDDIES (positive example) Show Tape (5 minutes). Discuss QUESTION: How did the sergeant show his respect for the soldiers in the class in this positive example? ANSWER: He showed his respect by:

1. Recognizing their knowledge about MOPP gear. 6

WVBN-4 OB/WYAN-3 OB 0397 2. He used the buddy system for the hands-on training during a preliminary walk-through before doing a critique. 3. Then he challenged the soldiers toward good performance by having them compete, offering a reward as an incentive. QUESTION: ANSWER: Why would the sergeant do the training this way?

The sergeant used this method for training because:

1. By showing respect for the soldiers abilities he is letting them know that their previous training has value to them. 2. By using the buddy system all the soldiers are involved in a hands-on exercise. 3. The sergeant acknowledges that they may have forgotten some of the details by offering a walk-through method to refresh their memories about how to put on the MOPP gear. 4. The walk-through method prevents them from being embarrassed or singled out because of learning decay since their last experience with the gear. 5. By challenging them to do a good job and offering a reward, he is increasing their abilities. 6. This action enables the soldiers to train at the most beneficial level in positive atmosphere. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Situation #5 titled THE RIFLED EGO (negative example) Show tape (5 minutes). Discuss. QUESTION: What kind of message is the platoon sergeant sending to the platoon in general, and in particular to the inspected soldier? ANSWER: The sergeant demonstrated:

1. Complete disregard for his subordinates self respect. 2. Lack of tact. 3. Public humiliation. 4. As a result of the above actions, the subordinates will probably not seek help from the platoon sergeant.

QUESTION: What kind of climate seems to exist in this platoon, based upon the platoon leaders correction of the platoon sergeant?

WVEN-4OB/WYAN-3OB 0397 ANSWER: The climate seems to be one of self-interest among the leaders.

1. The lieutenants threat to the sergeant shows that he is more interested in his own career than the well-being of his subordinates. 2. Although the platoon leader appeared to be coming to the aid of the harassed subordinate, he revealed that his motivation was purely personal. 3. The lieutenant was attempting to coerce the platoon sergeant into treating the soldiers better because ill treatment would negatively reflect upon him. 4. The platoon leaders true motivation should have been to protect his soldiers from undue harassment and to show that they deserved respect. 5. The sergeant and the lieutenant show that there is not very much two-way communication for cohesion in this platoon. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Situation #6 titled A HELPING HAND (positive example) Show tape (5 minutes). Discuss. QUESTION: What did the platoon sergeants treatment of the private tell you about how he treats his platoon? ANSWER: 1. 2. 3. 4. The platoon sergeant demonstrated leadership by: Treatment with respect. Recognized soldiers difficulty. Provided opportunity to try again. Selected the most knowledgeable to lead.

QUESTION: What do the platoon leaders comments tell you about the command climate that probably exists in the company? ANSWER: The lieutenants positive comments about the platoon encourage the soldiers to take pride in themselves and keep up the good work. 1. He didnt interfere with the sergeants business. 2. The platoon leader treated the sergeant with dignity by praising him and asking him to come to the office later. 3. By asking him to come to the office later the lieutenant raised the sergeants status in front of the platoon.

8 WVBN-40B/WYAN-30B 0397 4. Later, when he gave the sergeant more positive feedback about the platoon he was giving the sergeant credit for doing a good job. 5. The platoon leader was publicly and privately recognizing the sergeant and the platoon for their accomplishments. 6. The command climate presented in the scenario showed professional leadership, proper recognition, mutual support and good communication. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Situation #7 titled WHATS GOOD FOR THE GEESE (negative example. Show tape (5 minutes). Discuss. QUESTION: What was wrong with the way the squad leader corrected the soldiers appearance? ANSWER: The squad leader showed a Do as I say, not as I do attitude by criticizing the soldiers appearance while he himself, displayed the same appearance problems. Specific examples are: 1. The sergeants uniform was as wrinkled as the privates uniform. In addition, the sergeant was in violation of the uniform code because his BDU jacket was not buttoned properly. 2. The overweight sergeant was criticizing the soldier for being overweight. 3. The sergeants boots were as dirty as the privates boots. 4. The squad leader violated the principle lead by example by not showing up for PT. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Situation #8 titled DO AS I DO . . . (positive example. Show tape (5 minutes) . Discuss. QUESTION: What indications are there in this scenario that good leadership behavior exists in this platoon? ANSWER: Indications of good leadership are:

1. The sergeants appearance was neat and proper when he addressed the private about the uniform problem. 2. The sergeant presented the problem with empathy and understanding, rather than in a demeaning manner.

3. The sergeant acknowledged that he is overweight when bringing up the subject with the private. He acknowledged that it is not easy to lose weight and volunteered to help the private with PT. WVBN-4 OB/WYAN-3OB 0397

4. The sergeant treated the soldier with dignity and understanding, rather than harassing him about a difficult problem. 5. The sergeant paved the way for leadership by example. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Situation #9 titled HEARING WITHOUT LISTENING (negative example) Show tape (5 minutes). Discuss. QUESTION: What are some of the behavioral problems that the sergeant displayed toward the young soldier? ANSWER: Examples of poor leadership behavior by the sergeant include:

1. Unprofessionally using the phone for a private conversation when the soldier came to see him. 2. Improperly recognizing the soldier by waving her into his office while continuing his phone conversation. 3. Being condescending by asking her to hand his coffee cup to him when it is within reach. 4. Failing to pay attention to the soldier while she was explaining the problem. 5. Doing paperwork to record CTT scores, before he forgets them. 6. Giving responses that are totally out of context with her concerns. 7. Pretending to listen when he obviously is not. 8. Presenting the image of someone who doesnt have the time to listen to her problems. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Situation #10 titled WHICH WAY TO KOREA? (positive example). Show tape (5 minutes). Discuss. QUESTION: What did the sergeant do to show that he was concerned and willing to support the soldier? ANSWER: The sergeant acted in a professional manner by: 1. Courteously ending his business conversation on the phone when the soldier appears at the door to his office. 2. Acknowledging that the soldier looks like she needs to talk. 3. Addressing the soldier by her name and rank in a proper manner.


WVBN-40B/WYAN-30B 0397

4. Sitting in a chair near her, rather than with the desk between them. 5. Listening to her concerns and responding in an appropriate way. 6. Acknowledging that she and her boyfriend have some important decisions to make. 7. offering to help her in finding all the options. 8. Making himself available whenever shes ready to discuss the situation. SECTION IV. SUMMARY INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Ask if students have any questions or final comments and then state the following: As noncommissioned officers we must be fully committed to treating our soldiers with dignity and respect. Respect is nonnegotiable and we must devote ourselves to being a role model in our leadership. Even if some of us are thick skinned and say none of the situations we just looked at would bother us, we must realize that our feelings cant always be the yardstick. We must give others the benefit of the doubt in regard to proper treatment; dignity and respect.