# AMITY UNIVERSITY, UTTAR PRADESH AMITY INSTITUTE OF SPACE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

SUMMER INTERNSHIP AT IIT BOMBAY

**“LAMBERT GUIDANCE FOR MISSILES AND SPACECRAFTS”
**

Submitted in partial fulfilment of Dual Degree (B.TECH AEROSPACE+M.TECH AVIONICS)

NAVUDAY SHARMA, A4717210001 JAYRAJ INAMDAR, A4717210010 PRITAM KUMAR PRATIHARI, A4717210016

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Words would not be sufficient to express the gratitude that we feel towards Prof HARI B. HABLANI, FACULTY, INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BOMBAY, and project guide, for guiding us, understanding our needs and being very considerate. We also thank him for his constant intellectual guidance and support. We also owe a debt of gratitude towards our faculty guide, Prof AK VERMA, FACULTY, AMITY INSTITUTE OF SPACE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Apart from his intellectual guidance and expert opinion, he gave us freedom and encouragement to think creatively and perform consistently. We thank each other for staying together through rough times and for showing immense interest in completion of the project. We would also thank our individual families for the constant support and encouragement, unconditionally at every phase. Last, but not the least, we thank the lord almighty for his blessings in our life.

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INDEX

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LIST OF FIGURES
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Rocket equation is also derived. The rocket equation is extended to the virtues of staging. It deals with orbital mechanics by deriving the orbit equation. during its boost phase. A simple to understand but numerically inefficient way of solving Lambert’s problem is derived. A numerical example is presented showing how the numerical solution to Lambert’s problem be implemented. A numerical example highlighting the similarities and differences between Lambert and GEM is presented. we discussed about lambert’s theorem and lambert’s problem for space crafts. A novel use of the secant method is demonstrated to speed up the solution to Lambert’s problem by more than two orders of magnitude. Finally gravity turn maneuver is introduced as the simplest possible steering method a booster can employ in traveling from its launched point to the desired destination. Chapter 2: Boosters This chapter shows how preliminary strategic booster sizing can be done with rocket equation. to its intended target. It also gives some information about the time equation and orbital transfer. Simplified booster sizing examples are presented in order to clarify the concepts. the concepts of lambert steering. given an initial flight path angle are developed using the polar coordinate system.ABSTRACT
Chapter 1: Strategic Considerations This chapter introduces strategic interceptor concepts from a tactical point of view. Chapter 4: Orbital Mechanics This chapter includes brief details about space flight. Key formulas for velocity and flight time for an impulsive ballistic missile to travel a fixed distance. Starting from the closed form solutions derived in chapter 1. Also lambert theorem is discussed in this chapter. Then it discusses about the peri-focal and celestial frames. is also derived and demonstrated. Another subset of Lambert steering known as general engineering management (GEM) steering. Comparisons between flat earth gravitational model and earth centered coordinate system are made. Cartesian Earth-centered coordinate system is used to confirm the results through MATLAB simulations. Chapter 3: Lambert Guidance Lambert Guidance introduces different phases of flight and is devoted to two body problem. It is then shown how the implemented solution can be modified with a simple feedback scheme to steer an interceptor. a polar coordinate system is also introduced so that important closed-form solutions can be derived. based on Newton’s law of universal gravitation is developed for strategic flight. Although strategic engagement simulation models are presented in the text in a Cartesian Earth-centered coordinate system.
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. In the end. A gravitational model. are also developed in this chapter.

anti-tank. Ballistic missiles can vary widely in range and use.000 km or less Medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM): Range between 1. Missiles are generally categorized by their launch platform and intended target. Many weapons are designed to be launched from both surface and the air. and warhead. and are often divided into categories based on range. and a few are designed to attack either surface or air targets. anti-ship. flight system. surface-to-air missiles (anti-aircraft and antiballistic). all current designs have intercontinental range. Missiles have four system components: targeting and/or guidance.500 km Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM): Range greater than 5500 km Submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM): Launched from ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs). etc. while longer range ones are designed to spend some of their flight time above the atmosphere and are thus considered sub-orbital. these will either be surface (ground or water) or air. a missile is a self-propelled guided weapon system.PRE-REQUISITE
In a modern military. engine. air-to-air missiles. and anti-satellite missiles. referred to as just a rocket (weapon) . cruise.).500 km and 5.000 km and 3. Most weapons require some modification in order to be launched from the air or surface. such as adding boosters to the surface-launched version.
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. Various schemes are used by different countries to categorize the ranges of ballistic missiles:
Tactical ballistic missile: Range between about 150 km and 300 km Battlefield range ballistic missile (BRBM): Range less than 100 km Theatre ballistic missile (TBM): Range between 300 km and 3.500 km Short-range ballistic missile (SRBM): Range 1. or other type of engine. as opposed to an unguided self-propelled. Ballistic missile A ballistic missile is a missile that follows a ballistic flight path with the objective of delivering one or more warheads to a predetermined target. Shorter range ballistic missiles stay within the Earth's atmosphere. Missiles come in types adapted for different purposes: surface-to-surface and air-to-surface missiles (ballistic. In broadest terms. Non-self-propelled airborne explosive devices are generally referred to as shells and usually have a shorter range than missiles. and then sub-categorized by range and the exact target type (such as anti-tank or anti-ship).500 km Intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) or long-range ballistic missile (LRBM): Range between 3. All known existing missiles are designed to be propelled during powered flight by chemical reactions inside a rocket engine. jet engine.

Most modern designs support multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles. In the simulations done in MATLAB in the report. Intercontinental ballistic missile An Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) is a ballistic missile with a range of more than 5. Typically. SRBMs are part of the wider grouping of theatre ballistic missiles. In modern terminology. allowing a single missile to carry several warheads. and other targets behind the front lines.000 km or less. assembly areas. Tactical ballistic missiles are usually mobile to ensure survivability and quick deployment. Also note that the simulations are done in FPS UNITS. Warheads can include conventional high explosive. which includes any ballistic missile with a range of less than 3. these missiles would be used because of the short distances between some countries and their relative low cost and ease of configuration. They are usually capable of carrying nuclear weapons. In potential regional conflicts. chemical.Tactical Ballistic Missile: A Tactical Ballistic Missile is a ballistic missile designed for short-range battlefield use. Short-range ballistic missile: A Short-range Ballistic Missile (SRBM) is a ballistic missile with a range of about 1. range is less than 300 kilometers (190 mi). artillery. each of which can strike a different target.
INDIAN SRBM (PRITHVI)
INDIAN ICBM (AGNI-V)
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. biological.500 km. Typically tactical nuclear weapons are limited in their total yield compared to strategic rockets.400 mi) typically designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more nuclear warheads). as well as carrying a variety of warheads to target enemy facilities. or nuclear warheads. ICBM’s and SRBM’ s are considered.500 kilometers (3. Similarly other types of missiles have other agendas.

where speeds are less than 5000ft/s. given an initial flight-path angle. However. always in the downward direction. drag and the lift. Key formulas for velocity and flight time for an impulsive ballistic missile to travel a fixed distance.CHAPTER 1 Strategic Consideration
This section introduces strategic interceptor concepts from a tactical point of view. based on Newton’s law of universal gravitation. 1. In this mathematical model the gravitational acceleration is independent of altitude with value 32.1) Flat-Earth Constant Gravity Model:
1. missiles are designed based on the flatEarth constant-gravity model.
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. are developed using the polar coordinate system.mi. and ranges covered under 100 nautical miles(n.1. A gravitational model. Comparisons between a flat-Earth gravitational model and a strategic gravitational model are made.1) Flat-Earth Constant Gravity Model
In the tactical world.2ft/s2. Although strategic engagement simulation models are presented in the text in a Cartesian Earth-centered coordinate system. A Cartesian Earth-centered simulation is used to confirm the analytic results. is developed for strategic flight. altitudes under 100kft. The tactical missile inertial coordinate system is fixed to the surface of flat earth and is depicted in in FIG1. in the absence of thrust. the flat-Earth constant-gravity assumption is inaccurate. in the strategic world where speeds are near orbital and the distances covered are intercontinental (for ICBMs). For tactical interceptor missions.). a polar coordinate system is also introduced so that important closed-form solutions can be derived. the flat-Earth constant-gravity assumption is easy to understand.

we can integrate directly in the downrange and altitude directions to get the velocity from acceleration and position from velocity.Here the missile has velocity ‘V’ and is at flight-path angle ɣ with respect to the surface of the Earth. this model is only valid for lower altitudes. since the actual gravitational acceleration decrease with increase in altitude. The downrange component is denoted by 1. and the altitude component is denoted by 2. In this model.2ft/s2 in the downward direction regardless of the altitude. gravitational acceleration is always 32. The differential equations acting on the missile are: 𝑉̇1 = 0 𝑉̇2 = −𝑔 𝑅̇1 = 𝑉̇1 𝑅̇2 = 𝑉̇2 Where V is velocity and R is range.
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. Therefore. The initial conditions for velocity and position are given by 𝑉̇1 (0) = 𝑉̇𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛾 𝑉̇2 (0) = 𝑉̇𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛾 𝑅̇1 (0) = 𝑑𝑟 𝑅̇2 (0) = 𝑎𝑙𝑡 Since the coordinate system is inertial. The missile is at an initial location that is distance 𝑑𝑟 downrange from the origin of the coordinate system and at an altitude 𝑎𝑙𝑡 from the surface of the Earth. In addition the missile is in a constant-gravity field with acceleration level ‘g’.

In this system the Earth is non-rotating and the gravitational acceleration acting on the missile is toward the center of the Earth.2)
Earth-Centered Coordinate System:
1. Also actual gravitational acceleration decrease with increase in altitude.2) Earth-Centered Coordinate System
In general. and ‘𝑔𝑚’ is known as the gravitational parameter with the value 𝑔𝑚 = 1. According to Newton’s law of universal gravitation.
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. The radius of the Earth is denoted by ‘a’ in this figure. The missile has velocity ‘V’ with respect to a reference that is tangent to the Earth and perpendicular to ‘r’ (the line from center of Earth to missile). Newton’s law of universal gravitation can be expressed as 𝑟 = −𝑔𝑚𝑟 𝑟 3
Where ‘r’ is a vector form the center of the Earth to the second body. two bodies attract each other with a force that acts along a line connecting the two bodies.4077 × 1016 𝑓𝑡 3 /𝑠 2 For simulation purposes. If one of the bodies is the Earth and the mass of the second body is negligible compared to the Earth. Cartesian coordinates are required.2. a body in a gravitational field can be depicted in an Earth centered coordinate system shown in figure 1.1. The force is proportional to the product of the masses of the two bodies and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

From figure 1. The initial location of the missile can be expressed in vector notation as: 𝑟0 = 𝑥0 𝑖 + 𝑦0 𝑗 And the future location of the missile at any arbitrary time can be expressed as:
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. alt0 the initial missile altitude with respect to the surface of the Earth. 𝑎𝑙𝑡 = (𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 )0. with respect to the center of the Earth.5 − 𝑎 We can find the distance traveled along the surface of Earth from FIG. can be found from repeated integration of the preceding differential equation. and 𝜃0 the initial angular location of the missile with respect to the x axis. The instantaneous altitude of the missile can be found by finding the distance from the center of the Earth to the missile and then subtracting the Earth’s radius.3.5
𝑦 = −
where 𝑥 and 𝑦 are component distances from the center of the Earth to the body or missile. Velocity and position components. 1.2 the initial conditions for the preceding differential equation are: 𝑥(0) = (𝑎 + 𝑎𝑙𝑡0 ) 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃0 𝑦(0) = (𝑎 + 𝑎𝑙𝑡0 ) 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃0 𝑥(0) = 𝑉̇𝑐𝑜𝑠 ( 𝜋 − 𝛾 + 𝜃0 ) 2 𝜋 − 𝛾 + 𝜃0 ) 2
𝑦(0) = 𝑉̇ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 (
where 𝑉̇ is the initial missile velocity.𝑟 = 𝑥𝑖 + 𝑦𝑗 Now Newton’s law of gravitation in Cartesian coordinates are: 𝑥 = − 𝑔𝑚𝑥 (𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 )1. 𝛾 the angle the velocity vector makes with respect to the reference.5 𝑔𝑚𝑦 (𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 )1.

which is projected on the surface of a circular Earth is given by 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 = 𝑎𝜃
For comparitive purpose.
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.𝑟 = 𝑥𝑖 + 𝑦𝑗 The angle between the two vectors 𝑟0 and 𝑟 can be found from the defination of the vector dot product: 𝜃 = cos −1 𝑟0 ∙ 𝑟 |𝑟0 ||𝑟|
1. a simulation is done between flat-Earth constant-gravity model and Earth-centered coordinate system using Newton’s law of universal gravitation. In the Earth centered coordinate system.3) Total Distance Travelled
Therefore the distance traveled. the missile position is converted to a downrange and altitude so that a trajectory comparison can be made with flat-Earth model.

.mi. The above figure shows that the Flat-Earth model (valid for tactical missile) and the Earth-centered coordinate system model (valid for a strategic missile) yield the same missile trajectories. and the maximum altitude is about 12 n.3000 Ft/s INITIAL VELOCITY 45 DEG LAUNCH
12
EA RT H-CENT ERED M ODEL
10
Altitude (Nmi)
8
FLA T -EA RT H CONST A NT -GRA V IT Y M ODEL
6
4
2
0
0
5
10
15
20 25 30 Downrange (Nmi)
35
40
45
1.4) Both the gravitational model yield the same result when the missile velocity is small
Above simulation was done for an impulsive missile at 45 degrees initial launch angle and 3000 ft/s initial velocity.
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. The total range traveled in both cases is about 47 n.mi.

In this case the missile travels about 180 n.mi.mi. the flat-Earth approximation (i. constant gravity model) is fairly accurate. in above case.e. some differences in the resultant trajectories occur. However.
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.6000 Ft/s INITIAL VELOCITY 45 DEG LAUNCH
60
50
Altitude (Nmi)
40
FLA T -EA RT H CONST A NT -GRA V IT Y M ODEL EA RT H-CENT ERED M ODEL
30 20
10 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Downrange (Nmi) 140 160 180 200
1. As the speed is doubled. and the maximum altitude reached is about 50 n.5) Flat-Earth Model is still fairly accurate when missile speed is doubled
Again same simulation is carried out at same initial launch angle but initial speed of the impulsive missile is doubled(6000 ft/s). The correct answers are the one given by Earth-centered coordinate system.

12000 Ft/s INITIAL VELOCITY 45 DEG LAUNCH
400 350 300
Altitude (Nmi)
250 200 150 100
FLA T -EA RT H CONST A NT -GRA V IT Y M ODEL EA RT H-CENT ERED M ODEL
50 0
0
100
200
300
400 500 Downrange (Nmi)
600
700
800
1.6) Flat-Earth Model is not accurate when the missile speed is doubled further
The above figure shows that when the impulsive missile speed is again doubled to 12000 ft/s. In this case the distance traveled is more than 800 n. The missile actually travels much farther than the downrange indicated by flat-Earth model because the gravitational acceleration is reduced at the higher altitudes according to Newton’s law of universal gravitation.
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. the flat-Earth model yields large discrepancies in the resultant missile trajectory.mi.mi and the peak altitude is about 220 n.

7) Polar Coordinate System with missile in a gravity field
In the above figure. we can express its rate of change with respect to the polar angle 𝜃. However to get closed form solutions. The relationship between the inertial Earth-centered coordinate system and the moving coordinate system is depicted in FIG 1. Earthcentered coordinate system is extremely useful for simulation work because all integration can be done directly in the inertial frame. The new coordinate system has an i’ component along the distance vector and a j’component perpendicular to r. we have simulated tactical and strategic missile trajectories in flat-Earth constant gravity model and Earth-centered coordinate system.1.8.7 displays the polar coordinate system. FIG 1.
1. we have defined a moving coordinate system that has the missile at the origin. Differentiating the preceding expressions with respect to the polar angle yields
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. The differential equations representing Newton’s law of universal gravitation were first presented in ve ctor form and then converted for simulation purposes to an Earth-centered Cartesian coordinate system. it is more convenient to work analytically in a polar coordinate system. The relationship between the fixed and moving coordinate frames can be expressed mathematically as 𝑖’ = cos 𝜃𝑖 + sin 𝜃𝑗 𝑗’ = sin 𝜃𝑖 + cos 𝜃𝑗 Since the new coordinate system is moving.3)
Polar Coordinate Systems:
In previous sections.

8) Relationship between fixed and moving coordinate system
Taking the derivative of the previous equation yields 𝑟 = 𝑟 Now substituting value of
𝑑𝑖′ 𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝑖′ + 𝑟 𝑖’ 𝑑𝑡
in above equation.𝑑𝑖′ = − sin 𝜃𝑖 + cos 𝜃𝑗 𝑑𝜃 𝑑𝑗′ = cos 𝜃𝑖 − sin 𝜃𝑗 𝑑𝜃 Now the rate of change of the new coordinate system as a function of time would be 𝑑𝑖′ 𝑑𝜃 𝑑𝑖′ = = −𝜃𝑗’ 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝜃 𝑑𝑗′ 𝑑𝜃 𝑑𝑗′ = = −𝜃𝑖’ 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝜃 The distance vector r can be expressed in the moving coordinate system as 𝑟 = 𝑟𝑖’
1. we get 𝑟 = 𝑟𝜃𝑗’ + 𝑟 𝑖’
Taking another derivative gives. 𝑟 = (𝑟 − 𝑟 𝜃 2 )𝑖’ + (𝑟𝜃 + 2𝑟𝜃)𝑗’
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.

𝑟(0) = 𝑎 𝑎𝑙𝑡 𝜃(0) = 0 𝑟(0) = 𝑉̇ sin 𝛾 𝑔𝑚 = 0 𝑟 2
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. 𝑟 2 𝜃 = (𝑎 + 𝑎𝑙𝑡) 𝑉̇ cos 𝛾 Where the initial conditions are. the preceding vector differential equation can be expressed as the following two scalar differential equations: − 𝑔𝑚 = 𝑟 − 𝑟𝜃 2 𝑟 2
0 = 𝑟𝜃 + 2𝑟𝜃 Since.We know that gravitational acceleration is along i’ and there is no acceleration along j’. 𝑑(𝑟 2 𝜃) =0 𝑑𝑡 Integrating yields a constant of integration that must be a moment arm times a tangential velocity. or 𝑟 2 𝜃 = (𝑎 + 𝑎𝑙𝑡) 𝑉̇ cos 𝛾 In summary. the differential equations describing a missile in a gravity field can be expressed in polar coordinates as 𝑟 − 𝑟𝜃 2 + And. 𝑑 2 (𝑟 𝜃) = 𝑟 2 𝜃 + 2𝑟𝑟𝜃 𝑑𝑡 Therefore. Therefore.

In other words. let us define constants r0 and p such that 𝑟(0) = 𝑎 𝑎𝑙𝑡
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. A impulsive missile with an initial velocity of 24.24000 Ft/s INITIAL VELOCITY 45 DEG LAUNCH
1800 1600 1400
CA RT ESIA N
Altitude (Nmi)
1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Downrange (Nmi) 3500 4000
POLA R
1. and reached at an altitude of 1700 n.4) Closed Form Solution
In this section we will solve the previously derived differential equations of the Newton’s law of universal gravitation expressed in polar coordinates. 𝑟 − 𝑟𝜃 2 + 𝑔𝑚 = 0 𝑟 2
𝑟 2 𝜃 = (𝑎 + 𝑎𝑙𝑡) 𝑉̇ cos 𝛾 For convenience.mi. 1.9) Polar and Earth-centered gravity field equations yield identical trajectories
A simulation is shown to demonstrate that both polar and cartesian Earth-centered differential equations are equivalent.000 ft/s was launched from the surface of the Earth at an angle of 45 degree with respect to the reference. we seek to find closed-form solutions of the polar differential equations.mi. Downrange covered by the misslile is approximately 4500 n.

𝑝 = (𝑎 + 𝑎𝑙𝑡) 𝑉̇ cos 𝛾 = 𝑟(0) 𝑉̇ cos 𝛾
In addition. First we know that from chain rule u varies with time according to 𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝜃 𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑢 𝑝 𝑑𝑢 = = 𝜃 = 2 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝜃 𝑑𝜃 𝑟 𝑑𝜃 An alternate way of seeing how u changes with respect to time is 𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑟 −1 𝑑𝑟 = = 2 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑟 𝑑𝑡 𝑟 𝑑𝑡 Equating both expressions yields. we can say that 𝑑𝑧 𝑑2 𝑟 −𝑝2 𝑑2 𝑢 = = 2 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 2 𝑟 𝑑𝜃 2 Substitution allows us to rewrite the second-order differential equation in range as 𝑟 − Simplification yields. 𝑑𝑟 𝑑𝑢 = −𝑝 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝜃 Next we define z to be 𝑧 = 𝑑𝑟 𝑑𝑡
Using the chain rule to see how z changes with respect to time yields 𝑑𝑧 𝑑𝜃 𝑑𝑧 𝑝 𝑑 𝑑𝑟 𝑝 𝑑 𝑑𝑢 = = 2 [ ] = 2 [−𝑝 ] 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝜃 𝑟 𝑑𝜃 𝑑𝑡 𝑟 𝑑𝜃 𝑑𝜃 Therefore. we will define an inverse range to be 𝑢 = 1 𝑟
The goal is to convert both polar differential equations to one second-order differential equation in terms of u.
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𝑟𝜃 2
𝑔𝑚 −𝑝2 𝑑2 𝑢 𝑝2 + 2 = 0 = 2 − 𝑟 4 + 𝑔𝑚𝑢2 𝑟 𝑟 𝑑𝜃 2 𝑟
.

After the complete algebra. 𝑢(0) = 1 1 = 𝑟(0) 𝑟0
The solution to the preceding second-order differential equation is. we obtain the complete solution in terms of u as
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.𝑑2 𝑢 𝑔𝑚 + 𝑢 = 2 2 𝑑𝜃 𝑝 Here a new constant is defined: 𝜆 = 𝑟0 𝑉̇ 2 𝑔𝑚
We can now summarize the transformed range polar differential equation to be 𝑑 2 𝑢 1 + 𝑢 = 2 𝑑𝜃 𝜆𝑟0 cos2 𝛾 The original initial conditions on the polar differential equations were. 𝑟(0) = 𝑟00 𝑟(0) = 𝑉̇ sin 𝛾 Since we already know that 𝑑𝑢 −1 −1 𝑑𝑟 = = 𝑑𝜃 𝑝 𝑟0 𝑉̇ cos 𝛾 𝑑𝑡 We can say that. 𝑑𝑢 −tan 𝛾 (0) = 𝑑𝜃 𝑟0 The other initial condition is simply. 𝑢 = 𝐴 sin 𝜃 + 𝐵 cos 𝜃 + 1 𝜆 𝑟0 cos2 𝛾
where A and B can be found from the initial conditions.

𝑢 = However since,

1 − cos 𝜃 cos(𝜃 + 𝛾) + 𝜆 cos 2 𝛾 cos 𝛾
𝑢

= The solution in terms of r becomes

1 𝑟
𝑟

0 1 − cos 𝜃 cos(𝜃 + 𝛾) = + 𝑟 𝜆 cos2 𝛾 cos 𝛾 Or more conveniently, 𝑟 = 𝑟0 𝜆 cos 2 𝛾 1 − cos 𝜃 + 𝜆 cos 𝛾 cos(𝜃 + 𝛾)

=
𝑟

0 𝜆 cos 2 𝛾 1 − 𝜆 sin 𝜃 cos 𝛾 sin 𝛾 − cos 𝜃(1 − 𝜆 cos 2 𝛾)

Thus, given missile altitude(r0), velocity(λ) and flight path angle λ, we find the missile location r as a function of the central angle 𝜃. The preceding closed form solution is also the equation of an ellipse in polar coordinate system. The equation of ellipse in polar form is given as, 𝑟 = 𝑎1 (1 − 𝑒 2 ) 1 − 𝑒 cos(𝜃 − 𝜔)

=
𝑎

1 (1 − 𝑒 2 ) 1 − 𝑒 sin 𝜃 sin 𝜔 − 𝑒 cos 𝜃 cos 𝜔

Where 𝑎1 is the semimajor axis, e is the eccentricity, and 𝜔 is the argument of apogee. The trajectory equation for an ellipse are equivalent if, 𝑒 sin 𝜔 = 𝜆 cos 𝛾 sin 𝛾 𝑒 cos 𝜔 = 1 − 𝜆cos2 γ

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On squaring and adding the above equations, we get an expression for eccentricity in terms of 𝜆, 𝑒 = [1 + 𝜆(𝜆 − 2)cos 2 γ]0.5 The trajectory equation yields a circle if e=0, an ellipse if 0<e<1, a parabola if e=1, and a hyperbola for e>1. If we set the flight path angle γ to zero, we can see that we get circular motion if 𝜆=1, elliptical motion for 0< 𝜆<2, parabolic motion for 𝜆=2, and hyprbolic motion for 𝜆>2. Since we can express the initial velocity in terms of 𝜆 as 𝜆𝑔𝑚 𝑉̇ = √ 𝑟0 We can determine the trajectory shape form the magnitude of velocity.

1.10) Simulation yields circular orbit when 𝜆 is unity

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1.11) Setting 𝜆=1.5 yields elliptical orbit

1.12) Setting 𝜆=2 results in parabolic trajectory for missile

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5)
HIT EQUATION:
We can get closed-form solutions from the trajectory equation. altitude. For the missile to travel a distance 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡.
𝑟0 𝑣 2 𝑔𝑚
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. missile will never hit earth because resultant velocity will exceed escape velocity (𝜆 = 2) and trajectory will not be elliptical.1. Substituting r= 𝑎 and 𝜃 = 𝜙 into trajectory equation solution yields.13) Setting 𝜆 to small results in orbit that intersects earth
1. 𝜆 = Solving for velocity. The missile hits the earth when r= 𝑎. given a flight-path angle (𝛾 ). 𝜙 = 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡/𝑎 Where 𝑎 is radius of the Earth. 𝑟0 1 − cos 𝜙 cos(𝜙 + 𝛾) = + 𝑎 𝜆 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝛾 cos 𝛾 We know that. total central angle 𝜙 is given by. which. For longer distance we require larger missile velocities. 𝑔𝑚(1 − cos 𝜙) 𝑣 = √ 𝑟 cos 𝛾 𝑟0 cos 𝛾 [( 0 𝑎 ) − cos(𝜙 + 𝛾)] This equation gives the velocity required to hit a target at a certain distance away from launch point. distance to be travelled (downrange on earth) will define the magnitude of missile velocity required. If initial 𝛾 is too large. given an initial missile flight path angle.

𝑟 2 𝑑𝜃 = 𝑟0 𝑉̇ cos 𝛾 𝑑𝑡
Cross multiplying terms to set up the integrals.5 tan 𝜙 (𝛾 + 𝜙) 1 − cos 𝜙 𝑉̇ cos 𝛾 2 cos 𝛾 cot 2 − sin 𝛾 (2 − 𝜆) [ 𝜆 ( − 1) 2 𝛾 + cos cos 𝛾 ] 𝜆 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜆 { ( )} Flight time increases smoothly and monotonically with increasing values of flight-path angle. From original gravity field differential equation in polar coordinates. a closeform solution for 𝑡𝐹 can be derived.
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.1. √2 − 1 𝑟0 tan 𝛾 (1 − cos 𝜙) + (1 − 𝜆) sin 𝜙 2 cos 𝛾 𝜆 −1 𝑡𝐹 = + 1.
𝜙 𝑡𝐹
∫ 𝑟 2 𝑑𝜃 = ∫ 𝑟0 𝑉̇ cos 𝛾 𝑑𝑡
0 0
Integration of the right-hand side of the equation and substitution of trajectory solution into left-hand side yields the integral
2 2 1 𝑟0 𝜆 𝑐𝑜𝑠 4 𝛾 𝑡𝐹 = ∫ 𝑑𝜃 𝑟0 𝑉̇ cos 𝛾 [1 − cos 𝜃 + 𝜆 cos 𝛾 𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜃 + 𝛾)]2 0 𝜙
After integration and algebra. Based on the trajectory equation solution for𝑟. we know that. the closed-form solution assuming 𝜆 < 2 for the flight time simplifies to.6)
FLIGHT TIME
Time to reach the target or time of flight 𝑡𝐹 .

and its final weight. The initial or total weight of the missile is denoted by WT. is the glide weight WG. The glide weight consist of missile structure. Figure 2. We can find the missile velocity after all the propellant is consumed from basic physics.1 shows a typical weight and thrust profile for a boost-coast missile. In addition. electronics and warhead. if the missile is launched from the ground.1) Boost-Coast Thrust Weight Profile
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. the thrust is assumed to be constant. While propellant is being consumed.1) Rocket Equation:
A tactical missile gets up to speed by burning propellant. with magnitude T. it needs more propellant to reach the same speed since it is starting from rest. If the missile is launched from the air. a groundbased missile needs additional propellant since it must travel through more of the denser atmosphere. However. Applying Newton’s second law yields 𝐹 = 𝑚𝑎 = 𝑚 𝑑𝑉̇ = 𝑇 𝑑𝑡
The change in velocity with respect to time can be expressed in terms of thrust and weight as 𝑑𝑉̇ 𝑇 𝑇𝑔 = = 𝑑𝑡 𝑚 𝑊
2.CHAPTER 2 Boosters
2. it already has a large initial speed. after the propellant is expended.

we can express the instantaneous missile weight as 𝑊 = 𝑊𝑡 + 𝑊𝑇 Where the derivative of the weight is negative (weight is decreasing). we get the rocket equation as ∆𝑉̇ = 𝐼𝑠𝑝 𝑔 𝑙𝑛 mf = Fuel Mass Fraction. thrust magnitude and the rate at which the propellant is burning. or
𝑉1 𝑡𝐵
∫ 𝑑𝑉̇ = 𝑇. Typically.As long as the missile is burning propellant (0<t<tB). represents the maximum change in velocity we can impart. Thus. glide weight. It is appositive number in units of seconds and is related to the thrust and change in missile weight according to 𝐼𝑠𝑝 = [− 𝑇 ] 𝑊
More fuel-efficient missiles have higher values of specific impulse. the specific impulse has values ranging from 200s to 300s. By substituting the specific impulse definition into the velocity change formula.
𝑡𝐵
𝑉̇1 − 𝑉̇0 = ∆𝑉̇ = 𝑇. Practical effects such as gravity and atmospheric drag will usually work in the direction of decreasing ∆V. The preceding expression can be made more concise and useful by specifying fuel effectiveness in terms of a parameter known as the specific impulse Isp. for tactical missiles. we can find an expression for the change in velocity due to burning of propellant by direct integration. The preceding velocity formula is also known as the rocket equation. Isp = Specific Impulse 1 1 − 𝑚𝑓
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. 𝑔 ∫
0
𝑑𝑡 (𝑊𝑡 + 𝑊𝑇 )
Thus the change in velocity depends only on the missile total weight. 𝑔 ∫
𝑉0 0
𝑑𝑡 𝑊
Substitution of the expression for the missile weight into the integration yields.

We can see from the figure that. in the absence of drag and gravitational effects. would be 2300 ft. That means if the missile were launched from the ground./s. increases missile speed
Using the preceding equation.2) Tsiolkovsky Rocket Equation:
The Tsiolkovsky Rocket Equation. its final speed. the change in velocity is about 2300 ft. describes the motion of vehicles that follow the basic principle of a rocket: a device that can apply acceleration to itself (a thrust) by expelling part of its mass with high speed and move due to the conservation of momentum. Fig 2. if the fuel mass fraction is 200s.2) Increasing fuel mass fraction and specific impulse. The equation relates the delta-v (the maximum change of speed of the rocket if no other external forces act) with the effective exhaust velocity and the initial and final mass of a rocket (or other reaction engine). including propellant. is the final total mass./s.2. or Ideal Rocket Equation. its final speed would be 3300 ft. For any such maneuver (or journey involving a number of such maneuvers): ∆𝑉̇ = 𝑣𝑒 ln Where: 𝑚0 is the initial total mass./s. If the missile with the same fuel mass fraction were launched from an aircraft traveling at 1000 ft.
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𝑚0 𝑚1
. 2.2 shows how the change in missile velocity varies with fuel mass fraction and specific impulse. 𝑣𝑒 is the effective exhaust velocity./s.

If it is desired that the interceptor change its velocity by amount of ∆𝑉̇. a divert engine and fuel. To simplify mathematical computations. The purpose of the payload for strategic guided interceptors is to acquire the target and maneuver. then the weight of the structure fuel and payload must also follow the rocket equation which is given as: 𝑊 𝑠 + 𝑊 𝑝 + 𝑊 𝑝𝑎𝑦 = (𝑊 𝑠 + 𝑊 𝑝𝑎𝑦 )exp ( ∆𝑉̇ ) 𝑔𝐼𝑠𝑝
Where 𝐼𝑠𝑝 denotes the specific impulse of the booster fuel and is measured in seconds. consists of structure. Mathematically. it is assumed that the sole purpose of the single-stage booster is to get the payload up to the speed. The payload denoted by 𝑊 𝑝𝑎𝑦 .
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. A single-stage booster consists of fuel and structure denoted by the weights 𝑊 𝑝 and 𝑊 𝑠 . booster and payload. electronics. As per the rocket equation the change in velocity is related to specific impulse 𝐼𝑠𝑝 and fuel mass fraction 𝑚𝑓. The fuel mass fraction has been defined as the ratio of the propellant weight to the total weight.∆𝑉̇ is delta-v . an approximate fuel mass fraction is considered and is defined as the ratio of the propellant weight to the sum of the propellant weight and structure or. In this section preliminary boosters designs are investigated so that speeds required for strategic travel (20kft/s) can be achieved.3) Single Strategic interceptor model
Initially. using divert fuel to hit the target.the maximum change of velocity of the vehicle (with no external forces acting). ∆𝑉̇ = 𝐼𝑠𝑝 𝑔 ln 1 1 − 𝑚𝑓
A strategic interceptor consist of two sections viz. respectively as shown in figure below:
2.

velocity desired.𝑚𝑓 ∗ =
𝑊 𝑝 𝑊 𝑠 + 𝑊 𝑝
For small payloads the approximate and actual fuel mass fraction are equivalent. ∆𝑉̇ 1 1 − 𝑚𝑓 ∗ ∆𝑉̇ 𝑊 = 𝑊 [𝑒𝑥𝑝 ( )] ⁄ [ − 𝑒𝑥𝑝 ( )] 𝑝 𝑝𝑎𝑦 ∗ ∗ 𝑔𝐼𝑠𝑝 𝑚𝑓 𝑚𝑓 𝑔𝐼𝑠𝑝 The total interceptor weight 𝑊𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 consists of the booster fuel and structure plus the payload. the propellant and structural weights are indicated in each of the stages. On rearranging the above equation we can relate the weight of booster structure to the propellant weight and fuel mass approximate mass fraction as. In order to lighten the weight of the vehicle to achieve orbital velocity. 𝑊𝑝2 1 − 𝑚𝑓 ∗ 2 ∆𝑉̇2 1 ∆𝑉̇2 = 𝑊 )]⁄[ ∗ − 𝑒𝑥𝑝 ( )] 𝑝𝑎𝑦 [𝑒𝑥𝑝 ( ∗ 𝑔𝐼𝑠𝑝 2 𝑚𝑓 2 𝑚𝑓 2 𝑔𝐼𝑠𝑝 2
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. Moreover the weight of the payload is only a small portion of the lift-off weight. in this figure.4) Two-Stage booster
Figure above represents the schematic of two stage booster.3) Booster Staging:
We know that all the rockets use the thrust generated by propulsion system to overcome the weight of the rocket. the second stage propellant weight can be expressed as. approximate fuel mass fraction and specific impulse which is given as. a larger proportion of the weight of the vehicle becomes the near-empty fuel tanks and the structure that was required when the vehicle was fully loaded.
2. As the propellants are burned off during powered ascent. Most of the weight of the rocket is the weight of the propellants.
∗ 𝑊 𝑝 (1 − 𝑚𝑓 ) 𝑊 𝑠 = 𝑚𝑓 ∗
Putting this relationship in the rocket equation a formula for the propellant weight in terms of the payload weight. Therefore. or 𝑊𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑊 𝑠 + 𝑊 𝑝 + 𝑊 𝑝𝑎𝑦 2. most launchers discard a portion of the vehicle in a process called staging.

4)
Gravity Turn:
If we attempt to align the thrust vector with the booster velocity vector.5 + 𝑦 ) 𝑉̇
𝑦 =
(𝑥 2
Where the initial conditions on velocity are related to the initial flight path angle and location. Figure below shows a typical case of counterclockwise travel. 𝑚𝑓 ∗ 2 is the second stage fuel mass fraction.5 + 𝑦 ) 𝑉̇ −𝑔𝑚𝑦 𝑎 𝑇 𝑦 + 2 1. The acceleration due to the booster thrusting is given by.Where ∆𝑉̇2is the desired velocity change is attributed to the second stage. W the missile weight.5 Therefore.
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. The initial launch characteristics could be either counterclockwise or clockwise depending upon the location of the target. and g is 32. First and second stage burn times are given by. 𝑎 𝑇 = 𝑔𝑇 𝑊
Where T is the thrust magnitude in pounds. 𝑉̇ = (𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 )0.The booster velocity V at any time could be found from the velocity components as. we will obtain a gravity turn. and 𝐼𝑠𝑝 2 is the second stage specific impulse. during a gravity turn at any time the components of acceleration acting on the booster in our Earth-centered coordinate system are given by.2 ft/s2 . 𝑥 = (𝑥 2 −𝑔𝑚𝑥 𝑎 𝑇 𝑥 + 2 1. 𝑡𝑠1 = And 𝑡𝑠2 = 𝐼𝑠𝑝2 𝑊𝑝2 𝑇2 𝐼𝑠𝑝1 𝑊𝑝1 𝑇1
2.

2. the velocity initial conditions are 𝜋 𝑥(0) = 𝑉̇(0) cos ( − 𝛾0 + 𝜃0 ) 2 𝜋 𝑦(0) = 𝑉̇(0) sin ( − 𝛾0 + 𝜃0 ) 2
A case for clockwise initial launch condition is given below
2.5) Counterclockwise Travel
For counterclockwise travel. 𝑥(0) = 𝑉̇(0) cos (− 𝑦(0) = 𝑉̇(0) sin (− 𝜋 + 𝛾0 + 𝜃0 ) 2 𝜋 + 𝛾0 + 𝜃0 ) 2
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.6) Clockwise Travel
The velocity initial conditions are.

𝑥(0) = (𝑎 + 𝑎𝑙𝑡)𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃0 𝑦(0) = (𝑎 + 𝑎𝑙𝑡)𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃0
A simulation was performed for a given booster design parameters to find the appropriate thrustweight profiles and in addition. The resultant velocity and acceleration profiles due to this change was once again simulated. To remedy the situation so that we could get smaller flight path angles to yield long range trajectories.8. and the initial flight path angle was made a parameter. Cases were run with the nominal design. If the flight path angle is less than 80 deg. During the trajectory the flight path angle will start from 85 deg and gradually reduce to smaller values. A comparison is done with the initial and the final graphs are shown in figure 2. the booster performs a gravity turn. Here the initial flight path angle of the booster during gravity turn is 85 deg. the booster will immediately crash into the earth.
2. the flight path angle rapidly decreases due to the small booster acceleration (about 4g at the beginning). As the booster thrusts.The initial components of the booster location are given by. the maximum axial booster acceleration during each stage was increased from 10g to 20g.
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. Eventually the flight path angle decreases to the point where the component of the booster acceleration which is perpendicular to the surface of the earth is not sufficient to overcome gravity.7) Larger Flight-Path angles are required for initial booster design
The resultant shown in the above figure indicate that large flight path angles are required just to get a trajectory for a gravity turn.

for the new booster design. via the simulation.
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.2. and results for different flight path angles are shown in the figure below.8) New booster design versus nominal configuration
Gravity turns were performed.

With the nominal design.9) New booster design yields longer fly-out range
We can see that the larger axial booster acceleration allowed the booster to experience lower flight path angles. increased the maximum range about 2600 n. which permitted a lower flight path angle of 65 deg. the maximum range achieved with a flight path angle of 85 deg was about 2300 n.mi
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.mi.2. which increased the booster range. The new design.

this is the flight through the atmosphere and extending into free space where the aerodynamic forces may be neglected.
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. in general. The terms cutoff and burnout. it increases as the mass of the vehicle decreases with fuel consumption and staging. the velocity and position of the vehicle must be controlled along the trajectory so as to limit the aerodynamic loading of the structure and to place the vehicle on a free-fall trajectory. its objective is to place the missile on a trajectory with flight conditions that are appropriate for the desired target. During this portion of the flight. Therefore.000 to 6. which will carry it to its target. The free-flight trajectory is a conic section (i. Above the thrust termination point (or cut-off point) the atmosphere is. an ICBM will burn out at about 264. almost nonexistent for missiles capable of attaining ranges on the order of 5. until a final value in the range of 5 to 10 g’s will be reached. the greatest force acting on the vehicle is the thrust. it will reenter the atmosphere. these parameters establish the trajectory to be followed. Structural limitations and flight performance requirements will combine to restrict the ascent trajectory such that only limited correction maneuvers may be employed. 2. This is also called “vacuum flight.4 nm (490 km) altitude and 420. consequently. More specifically. At the time of cut-off (or burnout). they denote the initial conditions necessary to solve the differential equations of motion.CHAPTER 3 Lambert Guidance
A ballistic missile’s trajectory is composed of three segments.” For this phase of the flight. to the velocity and flight path angle for the specified target range. the missile is in a free-fall condition under the influence of gravitation alone. the guidance and control would be relatively simple. which lasts from the time of launch to missile motor thrust cutoff or burnout and exit from the atmosphere (depending on cut off altitude).1 to 1. As the missile converges on the target..112 kilometers).000 nautical miles (9.260 to 11. 1. Free-Flight (or Free-Fall): The portion that constitutes most of the trajectory. which is derived from a rocket engine. and the only major problem would be that of precision guidance. the vehicle will have attained an altitude such that aerodynamic forces are no longer of major importance to the trajectory. in other words. Powered Flight: The portion. If there were no restrictions on the maneuvers that the missile can make during the powered flight. the termination of powered flight. This is equivalent to steering the missile to a burnout point that is uniquely related. that is. define the conditions at the beginning of the free-fall. the initial conditions determine the parameters of the orbit.e. The acceleration of the missile from this thrust is usually about 1. However. an ellipse). as stated above. Typically. It should be pointed out that the guidance of a ballistic missile occurs entirely during this powered portion (or phase) of the flight. After the termination of powered flight.9 nm (780 km) downrange from its target.5 g’s at liftoff.

the transition from free-fall to reentry flight is more gradual as a result of the built up of air density as the missile penetrates the atmosphere.
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. 3. Consequently. In particular. The computation of this trajectory phase involves knowledge of aerodynamic stability derivatives of the missile. it is convenient to treat the reentry phase as terminal perturbation acting on the free-fall trajectory. It should be noted here that the reentry point is not defined precisely. While the transition from powered flight to freefall is abrupt. The powered flight is designed to place the vehicle in an appropriate trajectory so that upon thrust termination the missile will begin a free-fall orbit to the target. As in the powered flight trajectory. this. It can be shown that the effects of reentry constitute only a perturbation to the freeflight trajectory. under powered flight. This same convention may be employed to define the initial point for reentry.The missile is then no longer in the free-fall condition. but the termination of the free-fall trajectory is not similarly well defined. The free flight will be assumed to terminate when the missile returns to the reference sphere (see Figure 3.. is the reentry phase of the missile trajectory. The importance of this phase of flight to navigation and guidance arises from the high accelerations that are experienced by the missile on reentry. For the definition of free-fall. the flight conditions that obtain at the time of initiation of the free-fall phase of the flight have the greatest influence on the impact point of the missile.. target on the surface of the Earth).e. The main effects are those arising from the assumption that the Earth is a homogeneous rotating sphere. the extremely high heating rates that are obtained during this flight limit the reentry trajectories that are permissible for any given missile configuration. no guidance need be employed during this free-fall. as we shall see below. it will be convenient to adopt the convention of a “reference sphere. The reentry trajectory is determined to a great extent by the conditions of flight that obtain as the missile approaches the effective atmosphere of the Earth. since the trajectory will be fully predictable.” The reference sphere is defined as the sphere with the center at the center of the Earth having the thrust termination (i.e. The reentry phase of the trajectory should begin at an altitude of about 100. As stated above. Frequently. The choice must be based on both technical and strategic factors. This gives rise to an elliptical trajectory passing through the cut-off point and target with one focus at the center of the Earth. It should be noted that the entry of a ballistic missile into its free-fall trajectory occurs abruptly upon the event of thrust cut-off.000 ft (30. for a given range.480 m). Many effects influence the free-flight trajectory. where the dynamic pressure starts to significantly affect the motion of the missile. burnout) point on its surface. All the other factors that affect the free-flight trajectory can be considered to cause only perturbations of the elliptic orbit. Reentry: The portion that begins at some point where the atmospheric drag becomes a significant force in determining the missile’s path and lasts until impact (i.1). there is also a broad selection of free-flight trajectories to choose from.

or a hyperbola. The fixed point is called the focus of the conic. The most important types of curves (i. However. and the constant ratio. the fixed line is called its directrix.3. The polar equation of a conic section is given by the equation: 𝑟 = 1+𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜈
𝑝
(3. generally denoted bye. and parabola) represent the only possible paths for an orbiting object in the two-body problem. which determines the type of conic section represented by (3.e.1)
An equation of this type may represent an ellipse (or circle). From Figure 3.1) Geometry of a ballistic missile’s trajectory
Definition: A conic section is the locus of points so situated that the ratio of the distance of each point from a fixed point to its distance from a fixed line not through the fixed point is a constant. a parabola.2).e. e is called the eccentricity. circle. the focus and eccentricity are indispensable concepts in the understanding of orbital motion. The focus of the conic orbit must be located at the center of the central body.2 we note that the family of curves called conic sections (i. ellipse. and ν is
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..2)
Where p is a geometric constant of the conic called the parameter or semi-latus rectum. conic sections) can be represented by the general equation of the second degree in two variables as follows: 𝐴𝑥 2 + 𝐵𝑥𝑦 + 𝐶𝑦 2 + 𝐷𝑥 + 𝐸𝑦 + 𝐹 = 0 (3.. is called its eccentricity. hyperbola. Note that the directrix has no physical significance as far as orbits are concerned.

(3. In the two-body problem where one of the masses is very large compared to the other.2). the Sun). The following relations define the various paths: |e| > 1 hyperbola. which is the angle between r and the point on the conic nearest the focus. that is. Equation (6. Consequently. The exact nature of the resulting curves depends only upon the absolute value of the constant e.
3. Our next step is to develop the trajectory equation in polar coordinates for a small body (e.. the motion of the smaller mass takes place about the larger
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.2) The Conic Sections
It is the trajectory equation of a body expressed in polar coordinates.e.the polar angle known as the true anomaly. the equation of all curves formed by the intersection of a complete conic surface and a plane. |e| = 1 parabola. ν coordinate system is located at the “primary focus” of the conic sections.2) is also known as a Keplerian ellipse..g. we will assume that the two-body problem is applicable. For the present discussion.g. |e| < 1 ellipse.2) is the expression for the polar conic sections (i.. |e| = 0 circle. as shown in Figure 3. The origin of the r. a planet) orbiting a large central body (e. the eccentricity.

and the Earth–missile systems. Any motion under a central force takes place in a plane.4). G is the universal gravitational constant. The acceleration of M is much smaller than that of m. M is the mass of the central body. and m is the mass of the orbiting body. For example.g. no guidance forces). we can make the following assumptions: (1) Assume an inverse square law of force between the missile and the Earth. μ=G(M +m)≈GM. for an artificial satellite moving around the Earth as its focal center. In order to derive the trajectory (or orbit) equation. This means that the system is conservative and the sum of the kinetic and potential energies is constant. with m moving about it. G is the universal constant. This implies: (a) The dissipative forces of the system are negligible. so that without making too great an error we may consider M to be at rest. the equation of motion for the two-body problem is. so that the resulting motion is called motion under a central force. the missile) m that is attracted by a particle of large mass (the Earth) M.4)
Where. (2) Assume that the gravitational acceleration is a constant. From the above discussion. the gravitational attraction is: 𝐹 = − 𝐺𝑀𝑚 𝑟 2
Where M and m are the masses of the Earth and satellite.e. (c) The path of the missile is in a single vertical plane. In vector form. (3) Assume that the missile follows a path described by a conic section... From the above discussion.
𝑑2 𝑟 𝑑𝑡 2
=−
⃗ 𝜇𝑟 𝑟 3
(3. (b) The only forces acting on the missile after engine cut-off is that of gravity (i. we will use scalar notation instead of vector notation given by (3. and r is the distance of m from the center of the Earth. whose gravitational attraction is an inverse-square central force.
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.mass. the Moon– Earth. Equation also applies to the Earth –Sun. consider again the motion of a particle of small mass (e. The force of gravitational attraction between the masses is along the line joining them.

Let.6𝑏)
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. and AB is the major axis
Kepler’s first law states that the path.6𝑎)
𝑑2 𝑥 𝑑Ѳ 𝑑Ѳ 𝑑Ѳ 2 = 𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑠 Ѳ − 𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛 Ѳ − 𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛 Ѳ − 𝑟 ( ) 𝑐𝑜𝑠 Ѳ – 𝑟 Ӫ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 Ѳ 𝑑𝑡 2 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
𝑑2 𝑥 𝑑Ѳ 𝑑Ѳ 2 = 𝑟 cos Ѳ − 2𝑟 sin Ѳ − 𝑟 ( ) cos Ѳ – 𝑟 Ӫ sin Ѳ 𝑑𝑡 2 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
(3. Kepler’s first law is illustrated in Figure 3. of a planet around the Sun is an ellipse. using (3. C Is the center.5𝑏)
where r =(x2 +y2)1/2. the equations of motion in the orbital plane of the planet are: 𝑑 2 𝑥 𝑥 + 𝜇 ( )= 0 𝑑𝑡 2 𝑟 3 𝑑 2 𝑦 𝑦 + 𝜇 ( )= 0 𝑑𝑡 2 𝑟 3 (3. or orbit.3. y) be the coordinates of the planet referenced from these axes. Ѳ). Therefore.3) Shows an ellipse where S (Sun) and F(Focus) are two foci.3. Now. y) into polar coordinates (r. from Figure 3. x = 𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑠 Ѳ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑦 = 𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛 Ѳ 𝑑𝑥 𝑑Ѳ = 𝑟𝑐𝑜𝑠Ѳ – 𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛Ѳ 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 (3. We wish now to transform these equations given in rectangular coordinates (x.3 we let (x. Furthermore.5𝑎)
(3. the position of the Sun being at one focus of the ellipse. Kepler’s second law states that the radius vector SP sweeps out equal areas in equal times.4).

8a) (3. Since. leads to the statement of conservation of moment of momentum per unit mass r2(dѲ/dt) =h.9b)
The second equation. (3.6) and (3.8b)
Since (3.8) must hold for all values of Ѳ.7) into (3. These are the polar equations of motion.7a)
𝑑 2 𝑦 𝑑Ѳ 𝑑Ѳ 𝑑Ѳ 2 = 𝑟 sin Ѳ − 𝑟 cos Ѳ − 𝑟 cos Ѳ − 𝑟 ( ) sin Ѳ – 𝑟 Ӫ cos Ѳ 𝑑𝑡 2 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
𝑑2 𝑦 𝑑𝑡 2
= 𝑟 sin Ѳ − 2𝑟
𝒅Ѳ
cos Ѳ − 𝑟 ( 𝒅𝒕 ) sin Ѳ – 𝑟 Ӫ cos Ѳ 𝒅𝒕
𝒅Ѳ 2
(3.Similarly.
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑡
= 𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑛Ѳ + 𝑟Ѳ 𝑐𝑜𝑠Ѳ
(3.9b).9a)
(3. then a planet’s motion is governed by the following equations of force: 𝑚[𝑟 − 𝑟( 𝒅Ѳ 2 𝜇 ) ] = − 𝑚 ( 2 ) 𝒅𝒕 𝑟 𝒅Ѳ + 𝑟 Ӫ) = 0 𝒅𝒕
𝑚(2 𝑟 Or Radial force:
𝑟 − 𝑟( 𝒅𝒕 )2 = − (𝑟 2 ) Transverse force: 𝑟Ӫ + 2 𝑟 𝒅𝒕 = (𝑟 ) 𝑑𝑡 (𝑟 2 𝒅𝒕 )
𝒅Ѳ 1 𝑑 𝒅Ѳ
𝒅Ѳ
𝜇
(3. [𝑟 − 𝑟( 𝒅𝒕 )2 + (𝑟 2 )] 𝑐𝑜𝑠Ѳ − (2𝑟 [𝑟 − 𝑟( 𝒅𝒕 )2 + (𝑟 2 )] 𝑠𝑖𝑛Ѳ − (2𝑟
𝒅Ѳ 𝜇 𝒅Ѳ 𝜇 𝒅Ѳ 𝒅𝒕 𝒅Ѳ 𝒅𝒕
+ 𝑟Ӫ) 𝑠𝑖𝑛Ѳ = 0 + 𝑟Ӫ) 𝑐𝑜𝑠Ѳ = 0
(3.5) results in.7b)
Substituting (3.
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.

13) may be written as follows:
𝑑𝑟 𝑑𝑡
= −𝑢−2 (𝑑Ѳ) ℎ𝑢2 = −ℎ (𝑑Ѳ)
𝑑𝑢
𝑑𝑢
(3. Equation (3.𝑑 2 𝑑Ѳ 𝑑Ѳ (𝑟 ) = 2 𝑟 + 𝑟 Ӫ 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 The function.15).16)
−(
45 | P a g e
.15)
Taking the second derivative of (3.10) and (3.9a).9b) where h is the constant of integration (h is also called the angular momentum). Now let us introduce the variable 𝑢 = 𝑟 From (3.10) into (3.10) we have
𝒅Ѳ 𝒅𝒕 1
(3.11) yields 𝑑𝑟 𝑑𝑢 1 𝑑𝑢 𝑑Ѳ = −𝑢−2 ( ) = − ( 2 ) ( ) ( ) 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑢 𝑑Ѳ 𝑑𝑡 and from (3. (3.
𝑑Ѳ 𝑑𝑡
= ℎ𝑢2
(3.11).14)
Hence.10)
Satisfies (3. results in 1 𝑑 2 𝑢 2 1 2 4 2 ) [−ℎ ( ) 𝑢 − ( ) ℎ 𝑢 = −𝜇𝑢2 ] ℎ2 𝑢2 𝑑Ѳ2 𝑢
𝑑2 𝑢
(3.12)
Taking the derivative of (3.10) is simply the mathematical expression of Kepler’s second law.11)
= 𝑟 2 = ℎ𝑢2
ℎ
(3. 𝑟 2 𝑑𝑡 = ℎ
𝑑Ѳ
(3. we have 𝑟 = −ℎ2 (𝑑Ѳ2 ) 𝑢2 Substituting (3.

exist at a point of zero aerodynamic forces. since the effect of having 𝜃 = 𝜃𝑖 rather than 𝜃 = 0 is simply to rotate the reference for measurement of the polar angle. The complementary solution of (3.22a)
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. the constant C1 is identified with the eccentricity e. (3.18) is called the harmonic equation. 𝑢𝑐 = 𝐴𝑠𝑖𝑛 Ѳ + 𝐵 𝑐𝑜𝑠 Ѳ.18) is the general solution of
𝑑2 𝑢 𝑑Ѳ2
+ 𝑢 = 0.3 we note that the semilatus rectum p is given by 𝑝 =
𝑏 2 𝑎
= 𝑎(1 − 𝑒 2 ). . From Figure 6. of course. or 𝑢𝑐 = 𝐶1 𝑐𝑜𝑠(Ѳ − 𝐶2).18) is 𝜇 𝜇 2 ℎ 𝑢 = 𝑢𝑐 + 𝑢𝑝 = 𝐶1 cos(Ѳ − 𝐶2) + 2 = [1 + 𝐶1 cos(Ѳ − 𝐶2)] ℎ or 𝑟 =
ℎ2 𝜇
[1+𝐶1 cos(Ѳ −𝐶2)]
.20) as ℎ2 𝜇 𝑟 = [1 + 𝑒 cos(Ѳ − 𝜔)] where e and ω are constants of integration.
(3.20)
This is the polar form of an ellipse with origin at one focus.Or
𝑑2 𝑢 𝑑Ѳ2
+ 𝑢 =
𝜇 ℎ2
(3.
(3.e. This puts no restrictions on the solution. Ѳ = 0
𝑑𝜃 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑟 𝑑𝑡
= =
𝑑Ѳ𝑖 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑟𝑖 𝑑𝑡
𝑟 = 𝑟𝑖 . The particular solution is readily found to be 𝑢 𝑝 = 𝜇/ℎ2 . The initial conditions on the motion are the burnout conditions of the ballistic missile or orbital vehicle (or the burnout conditions of the retrorocket in the case of reentry).3. In terms of Figure 3.18)
The differential equation represented by (3.
i. and the constant C2 identified with ω.19) where C1 and C2 are constants of integration. These conditions must. Therefore. Then the complete solution of (3. its solution is well known.
Note that the polar angle 𝜃 has been set equal to zero at the initial conditions. A statement of the initial conditions that appears natural from an engineering point of view is at 𝑡 = 0. we can write (3.

Although case (i) is that with which we are closely concerned here. or relative to the nonrotating Earth. It is convenient to interpret the initial conditions in terms of 𝑟𝑖 . The general equation of a conic section. general equation of a conic section. Here γi is the initial missile flight-path elevation angle. 𝑑𝑟𝑖 /𝑑𝑡 .or we can write 𝑝 = ℎ2 /𝜇 so that ℎ = 𝑝𝜇 = 𝜇𝑎(1 − 𝑒 ). Vi . the extension of the possibilities concerning the motion of a body under the gravitational attraction of the Sun should be noted. and Vi is the magnitude of the initial velocity vector in inertial space. (ii) a parabola if e=1. if e>1. which may be (i) an ellipse if e<1. and γi .
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. rather than in terms of 𝑟𝑖 . (iii) a hyperbola. of
course. and
𝑑𝜃𝑖 𝑑𝑡 2 2
(3. in the plane of motion.22b)
. measured.

24)
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.4.23b)
𝑟𝑖 ( 𝑑𝑡 ) = 𝑉̇𝑖 cos 𝛾𝑖
It is now convenient to introduce a parameter ∆o defined by the relationship.From Figure 3. we have
𝑑𝑟𝑖 𝑑𝑡
= 𝑉̇𝑖 sin 𝛾𝑖 .
𝑑𝜃𝑖
(3. ∆0 ≡ 𝑟𝑖 𝑉̇𝑖2 / 𝜇 (3.23a) (3.

25) and (3. taking the derivative of r with respect to ν and setting the result equal to zero. we have
2 ℎ𝑖
𝜇
= 𝑟𝑖 ∆0 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝛾𝑖
(3. From (3. . We can now obtain expressions for ℎ𝑖 in terms of 𝑟𝑖 .This parameter is termed the initial condition parameter. 𝑑𝑟 𝑝𝑒 sin 𝜈 𝑟 2 𝑒 sin 𝜈 = = =0 𝑑𝜈 (1 + 𝑒 cos 𝜈)2 𝑝 sin ν =0.29)
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. e=0.27a)
(3.27b)
Dividing (3.27a) gives the expression for e in terms of ra and rp: 𝑒 = 𝑟
𝑟𝑎 −𝑟𝑝
𝑎
+𝑟𝑝
(3. The discussion of the complete elliptical orbit best proceeds by considering first the maximum and minimum values of r.10) and (3. as given by (3. ℎ𝑖 = 𝑟 2 (𝑑𝜃𝑖 /𝑑𝑡) = 𝑟𝑖 𝑉̇𝑖 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝛾𝑖 (3. ∆0 .26)
Figure 3. the semi-major axis of the ellipse defined by 𝑎 =
𝑟𝑎 +𝑟𝑝 2
(3. and γi . .27b) by (3. It can be verified that the equation of motion (3.2) reduces to the statement r =ri = [constant] by using (3.25) Squaring and introducing (3. .4 illustrates the geometry of the ellipse applicable to an elliptical orbit.22b) to write
2 ℎ𝑖 𝑝 𝑟𝑖 ∆0 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝛾𝑖 𝜇 𝑟 = = = 1 + 𝑒 cos 𝜈 1 + 𝑒 cos 𝜈 1 + 𝑒 cos 𝜈
or the circular orbit γi =0. Thus. and ∆0 ≡1. These values are: Minimum (perigee) radius occurs for ν =0: 𝑟𝑝 = 1+𝑒 Maximum (apogee) radius occurs for ν =π: 𝑟𝑎 = 1−𝑒
𝑝 𝑝
(3. 2π. and hence r =ri . π. and it can be interpreted as the ratio of twice the particle’s initial kinetic energy to its initial potential energy. for ν =0.24).28)
Now introduce a. .2). gives the extreme values for r.23) we obtain.

Therefore.31)
This is the equation of the elliptical orbit that is usually encountered in the astronomical literature.
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.27a) and (3.We can now add the two equations (3. the time can be determined regardless of the form of the ellipse. we will now discuss Lambert’s theorem.27b) and solve for p.30)
which allows the equation of motion to be written in the simple form 𝑟 = 1+𝑒 cos 𝜈 . Lambert’s Theorem With the preliminaries complete. which. the sum of the distances from the center of force to the initial and final points. the time required in describing any arc depends only on the major axis. and the length of the chord joining these points. is often called the parameter of the motion: 1 1 1 − 𝑒 + 1 + 𝑒 𝑟𝑎 + 𝑟𝑝 = 2𝑎 = 𝑝 [( )+( )] = 𝑝 { } 1 + 𝑒 1 − 𝑒 1 − 𝑒 2 or 𝑝 = 𝑎(1 − 𝑒 2 ) (3. The German mathematician Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728–1777) showed in the eighteenth century (in 1761) that in elliptic motion under Newtonian law. |𝑒| < 1
𝑎(1−𝑒 2 )
(3. if these elements are given. as we saw earlier.

5
Assume the initial location of body in the gravity field is given by.5 𝑔𝑚𝑦 (𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 )1. Therefore. and r0 is the initial distance from the center of earth to missile which can be expressed as. 𝑣 = 𝑔𝑚 (1 − cos ∅) 𝛾 𝑟0 cos 𝛾 [(𝑟0 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑎) − cos(∅ + 𝛾)]
Where ∅ is the central angle separating the initial location of missile and it intended target. location of body. 𝑥(0) = 𝑥0 𝑦(0) = 𝑦0 After tf seconds. This was shown by Johann Heinrich Lambert.1)
Statement of Lambert’s Theorem:
In elliptic motion under Newtonian law. 𝑥 = − 𝑦 = − 𝑔𝑚𝑥 (𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 )1. 𝑟0 = 𝑎 + 𝑎𝑙𝑡 alt is the intial altitude of missile with respect to surface of earth. the time required in describing any arc depends only on the major axis. and the length of the chord joining these points. 𝑥(𝑡𝑓 ) = 𝑥𝑓 𝑦(𝑡𝑓 ) = 𝑦𝑓 Lambert’s problem is to find the initial velocity orientation of body in the gravity field so that the preceding initial conditions and boundary values are satisfied. or. 𝑥(0) =? 𝑦(0) =? Solution to Lambert’s Problem: Initial missile velocity. the time can be determined regardless of the form of ellipse. if these elements are given. 𝛾 is initial flight path angle of missile. the sum of distances from the center of force to the initial and final points.
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.3. or. a is the radius of earth. Statement of Lambert’s Problem: A body in a gravity field satisfies newton’s law of gravitation.

𝑣 =
𝑔𝑚 (1 − cos ∅) 𝛾 𝑟0 cos 𝛾 [(𝑟0 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ) − cos(∅ + 𝛾)] 𝑟𝑓
𝑟 𝑓 = 𝑎 + 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑓
Where 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑓 is altitude of intended target. 𝜋 𝑥(0) = 𝑣𝑐𝑜𝑠 ( − 𝛾 + 𝜃0 ) 2 𝜋 𝑦(0) = 𝑣 sin( − 𝛾 + 𝜃0 ) 2 Where 𝛾 is the orientation of missile velocity with respect to a reference that is tangent to the earth and perpendicular to the vector from center of earth to the initial location of missile and 𝜃0 is the initial angular location of missile with respect to x-axis of earth-centered Cartesian coordinate system.
3. we can find the initial conditions on the velocity components in earth-centered system by trigonometry as.4) Counterclockwise travel
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.If we desire to hit a target at any location rf. the preceeding velocity equation can be modified to. If velocity vector is oriented for counterclockwise travel.

𝑟0 𝑣 2 𝜆 = 𝑔𝑚 𝜙 is the angular distance to be travelled. then the initial conditions on the velocity components in the Earth-centered system can be shown as.3.5) Clockwise travel
If the velocity vector is intended to travel clockwise as shown in figure.
𝜙 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 −1
𝑟0 .cot( )−sin 𝛾
𝜙 2
)
Where 𝑣 is the required velocity to hit the object and 𝜆 is defined as. which is valid for elliptical travel (𝜆 < 2). 𝑥(0) = 𝑣𝑐𝑜𝑠 (𝛾 − 𝜋 + 𝜃0 ) 2 𝜋 𝑦(0) = 𝑣 sin(𝛾 − + 𝜃0 ) 2
The formula for the time required for the missile to reach its intended target (t f) .5
𝑡𝑎𝑛
−1
√( )−1
(
2 𝜆
cos 𝛾.
𝑟0 𝑣 cos 𝛾 tan(1−cos 𝜙)+(1−𝜆) sin 𝜙 (2−𝜆)[
1−cos 𝜙 cos(Υ+𝜙) + ] cos Υ 𝜆 𝑐𝑜𝑠2 Υ
𝑡𝑓 =
{
}+
2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛾 𝜆[( )−1]
2 𝜆 1. does not require the target to be on the surface of the earth and is given by.𝑟𝑓 |𝑟0 |.|𝑟𝑓 |
53 | P a g e
.

𝛾) 𝑡𝑓 = 𝑓(𝑣. The angle between the vectors is the central angle 𝜙. 𝑟𝑓 . It is important to note that the flight time and velocity obtained are exact solutions for the flight-path angle used. solve for the velocity. We now have sufficient information to numerically solve Lambert’s problem. Statd mathematically. The resultant velocity can then be used to solve for the flight time from our other closed-form solution.3. 𝛾) In Lambert’s problem we are given 𝑟0 . 𝑟𝑓 and a flight path angle 𝛾. 𝜙. For example. With a central angle 𝜙. we can use the following relationships which are based on exact closed-from solutions: 𝜙 = 𝑓(𝑟0 . nor are we guaranteed that a particular value of 𝛾 will yield the desired flight time 𝑡𝑓 . we do not know how to choose 𝛾. 𝑟𝑓 denotes a vector from the center of the earth to the final location of the object. and then solve for the time of flight. sufficient information is available to find the required velocity from our closed-form solution.6) Central angle between initial and final position
In this figure. we start with 𝛾 = −90 𝑑𝑒𝑔. That is. 𝑟0 . 𝑟0 and 𝑟𝑓 . we know that the solution must be rejected since it requires the missile to travel through the Earth. we work out all solutions until we find the one that satisfies the constraints of the problem. If we use the preceding relationships. If the flight time is less than the desired flight time. We can solve the problem by the method of Brute Force. we repeat the procedure with a slightly larger value of 𝛾. 𝑟𝑓 ) 𝑣 = 𝑓(𝑟0 . we can say that given 𝛾. 𝜙. If the flight-path angle that satisfies the preceding procedure is negative. 𝑟𝑓 and 𝑡𝑓 and we seek to find 𝑣 and 𝛾. 𝑟0 denotes a vector from the center of the earth to the initial location of the object. We stop the loop when the computed flight time is greater than the desired flight time. This numerical method converges
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.

because we know that the flight time is smooth and monotonically increasing with increasing flight-path angle. When a flight time is found that exceeds the desired flight time we exit the loop for another loop that increments the flight-path angle (after decreasing the last flight path angle by o. the nominal case. and a desired flight time (TF). as written. thus making this approach very competitive with more elegant Lambert routines. by restricting the brute force search and eliminating many iterations by recalling the previous velocity (𝑣) formula. 𝑟0 𝑣 2 𝜆 = 2 = 𝑔𝑚
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. It is desired to find the velocity orientation of the missile (VRX. The first loop iterates on the flight-path angle in units of 0. The routine. ALTNMM).5 s to execute on a 16 MHz. To demonstrate how the routine works. VRY) so that the missile will hit the target in exactly 1000 s. an initial angle and altitude for the target (XLONGTDEG. ALTNMT). shown in the listing was run. for finding the Lambert solution. is 100 times slower than more elegant lambert routines. From the listing we can see that the program consists of two loops. We can say that.15 deg) in very fine units of 0. using double-precision arithmetic. SPEED UP LAMBERT ROUTINE We can speed up the Lambert routine by two orders of magnitude.
𝑣 =
𝑔𝑚 (1 − cos ∅) 𝛾 𝑟0 cos 𝛾 [(𝑟0 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ) − cos(∅ + 𝛾)] 𝑟𝑓
Here we are only interested in trajectories of ballistic missiles. When the desired flight time is achieved. the program iterates on the flight-path angle (GAMDEG) until a solution is found. so we can rule out the case that lead to escape velocity (𝜆 = 2) or. For most cases the program takes about 1.1 deg. based on the procedure developed before.0001 deg. This loop is required to get extremely precise answers.
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE This example represents sample code. given an initial angle and altitude for the missile (XLONGMDEG. 32-bit microcomputer with a math coprocessor. we exit the loop and the routine. By performing a more intelligent search it is possible to find the correct solution to Lambert’s problem in a few iterations. In this case the missile is on the surface of the Earth 45 deg away from the target.

Based on the non-pathological nature of these solutions and the fact that the flightpath angle is well-bounded.
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. The new lambert routine is not only accurate than the previous one but it is also more than two orders of magnitude faster. 𝛾𝑛−1. we do not have to evaluate each flight-path angle but can instead perform a more efficient search in finding the flight-path angle that corresponds to the desired flight time. The search is terminated when the computed flight time 𝑡𝐹𝑛 is sufficiently close to the desired flight time 𝑡𝑇𝐷𝐸𝑆 . At each iteration the new computed value of flight-path angle is limited to the minimum and maximum possible values of the flight-path angle derived from the escape velocity condition. After much algebra we get two solutions corresponding to the minimum and maximum flight-path angles as 2𝑟 [sin 𝜙 − √ 𝑟 0 (1 − cos 𝜙) ]
𝑓
𝛾𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 {
(1 − cos 𝜙) } 2𝑟 [sin 𝜙 + √ 𝑟 0 (1 − cos 𝜙) ]
𝑓
𝛾𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 {
(1 − cos 𝜙) }
Solution for the velocity and time of flight were smooth. For example. well-behaved functions of the flightpath angle.Substitution of the escape velocity condition into the velocity formula yields
2=
𝑔𝑚 (1 − cos ∅) 𝛾 𝑟0 cos 𝛾 [(𝑟0 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ) − cos(∅ + 𝛾)] 𝑟𝑓
We can solve the preceding equation for the flight-path angle 𝛾. we can use algorithm known as secant method to perform the search or
𝛾𝑛+1 = 𝛾𝑛 +
(𝛾𝑛 − 𝛾𝑛−1 )(𝑡𝐹𝐷𝐸𝑆 − 𝑡𝐹𝑛 ) 𝑡𝐹𝑛 − 𝑡𝐹𝑛−1
We can see from the preceding equation that the new flight-path angle 𝛾𝑛+1 is related to previous values 𝛾𝑛 .

7) Lambert Routine using brute force method to calculate flight time
3.Simulation Results:
3.8) Lambert routine using brute force method to determine velocity
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.

the Lambert subroutine will give the orientation of velocity vector for an impulsive missile to satisfy the problem. The difference in velocities is known as velocity to be gained (ΔV). 𝑎 𝑇𝑥 = 𝑎 𝑇 Δ𝑉̇ 𝑥 /Δ𝑉̇ 𝑎 𝑇𝑦 = 𝑎 𝑇 Δ𝑉̇ 𝑦 /Δ𝑉̇
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. If boosting missile thrust vector is aligned with velocity to be gained vector. we have to find desired velocity from lambert subroutine VLAMBERT and subtract the current missile velocity VM. or. If atmosphere is neglected then the solution to this problem is quite simple and is known as Lambert Guidance. When desired velocity is achieved. then desired velocity will be obtained in a feedback fashion. Δ𝑉̇ 𝑥 = 𝑉̇𝐿𝐴𝑀𝐵𝐸𝑅𝑇𝑥 − 𝑉̇𝑀𝑥 Δ𝑉̇ 𝑦 = 𝑉̇𝐿𝐴𝑀𝐵𝐸𝑅𝑇𝑦 − 𝑉̇𝑀𝑦 Total velocity to be gained.5 Δ𝑉̇ = (Δ𝑉̇ 𝑥 − Δ𝑉̇ 𝑦 )
If magnitude of current thrust acceleration is given by 𝑎 𝑇 . Since we do not have impulsive missiles (missiles that get up to speed immediately).9) Basis of Lambert Guidance
At small time-increments. engine is cut off and missile flies ballistically to the intended target. it is desirable to find out if the Lambert subroutine could be of use in enabling a non-impulsive missile or booster to reach its target.3.
3. components of velocity to be gained are.2)
Booster Steering:
Given that we have the initial position and final position (target destination) of the missile and an arrival time. Mathematically. then the direction of thrust acceleration at each instant of time should be aligned with the velocity to be gained vector.
2 2 0. Consider the vector Diagram shown below. while the missile is boosting.

NUMERICAL EXAMPLE: Following numerical presents a simulation of a two-stage booster using lambert guidance during the boost phase. The maximum acceleration in each stage is 20 g.
3. the simulation automatically sets the actual velocity to the desired velocity to avoid making the integration interval very small in the simulation. One-third of the speed will be attained in the first stage and rest of the speed will be attained in the second stage. The booster is assumed to have two stages. The booster considered in this example has a capability of reaching a velocity of 20000 ft/s. Burnout of the second stage will be completed at about 60 s.10) X component of achieved velocity reached Lambert Solution
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. it is desired that the booster.9 and specific impulse of 300 s. Scenario is unrealistic since g loading and range safety considerations have been ignored. but it is useful for demonstrating how Lambert guidance works. At this time the booster cuts off and coasts. each of which has a fuel mass fraction of 0. when the difference between the desired velocity and the attained velocity is less than 500 ft/s. which is initially at angular location 𝜃0 = 30 𝑑𝑒𝑔 (ANGDEG=30). As the Lambert feedback loop runs. reach a target at 45 deg (XLONGTDEG) in 500 s (TF=500).

This component is much larger than the x-component. the purpose of the lambert guidance is to place the interceptor on a collision triangle at the end of a boost phase.11) Y component of achieved velocity reaches Lambert solution
Fig 3. The lambert guidance principal can be used for interceptors that fly ballistically to hit the stationary targets. The two velocities converge at about 45 s. The discontinuity in the y-component at about 15s is due to staging. 3. and the slight discontinuity near the end of the display is due to setting the achieved velocity to the desired velocity when the velocity to be gained was less than 500 ft/s.3. Fig. In this case.6 displays the x-component of the achieved velocity along with the desired or Lambert velocity. Lambert solution was reached in 45 s even though the missile was capable of burning fuel for nearly 60 s. lambert guidance can be used to steer a strategic missile with a thrust termination system in absence of atmospheric effects.
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.7 displays the y-component of the achieved and desired velocities. Thus. Lambert guidance can also be used to for guided interceptors that must hit the moving and accelerating targets.

13) Nominal booster design velocity curve
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.12) New booster design velocity curve
3.SIMULATION:
3.

14) Booster simulation using Lambert Guidance
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.3.

we can ratio the two velocity expressions. The arc length is related to the central angle as. Often there is a restriction. It is the velocity to be gained. 𝑉̇𝐶𝐴𝑃 = 2𝜃𝑟 Since the perpendicular bisects the central angle . that all the booster fuel must be consumed. In this case a method other than Lambert guidance must be employed to waste some of the booster’s excess energy. It is also easy to show that the perpendicular bisects the chord and the central angle. If the thrust vector is drawn tangent to the chord at the beginning of the arc. in the absence of a thrust termination system.3. r denotes radius of circle. 2ϴ is the central angle and ∆𝑉̇ denotes the chord connecting two endpoints of arc.3) General Energy Management (GEM) Steering: It is possible to steer a strategic interceptor to the intercept point using Lambert guidance and to make it possible the thrust had to be terminated before the end of burn in order to achieve the desired Lambert solution. A popular energy wasting technique is known as General energy management (GEM) Steering. Finally.
3. yielding
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. so ∆𝑉̇ = 2𝑟 sin 𝜃 Therefore.15) Basic angles in general energy management
VCAP denotes length of arc of circle which resembles velocity capability of booster. a perpendicular is dropped from the chord to the center of the circle. Consider the figure given below to understand the energy wasting concept. it is easy to show from the geometry that the thrust vector is at an angle of ϴ with respect to the chord.

16) Sign conventions
Above figure shows the proper relationship between the thrust and the velocity to be gained vectors relative to the inertial Earth-centered coordinate system.
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. we ensure that the thrust vector is at an angle 𝜃 with respect to the velocity to be gained vector (∆𝑉̇).
3. the components of thrust accelerations are given by. then we can still achieve Lambert solution at the end of burn and hit the target.
For counterclockwise travel. 𝜃 = √6(1 − ∆𝑉̇ ) 𝑉̇𝐶𝐴𝑃
Formula suggests that if at each instant of time.∆𝑉̇ 2𝑟 sin 𝜃 sin 𝜃 = = 𝑉̇𝐶𝐴𝑃 2𝑟𝜃 𝜃 Expanding the sine term into a two-term Taylor series leads to 𝜃 3 (𝜃 − ∆𝑉̇ 𝜃 2 6) = =1− 𝑉̇𝐶𝐴𝑃 𝜃 6 Solving for the angle yields.

𝑎𝑥𝑇 = 𝑎 𝑇 cos(𝜙 + 𝜃) 𝑎𝑦𝑇 = 𝑎 𝑇 sin(𝜙 + 𝜃) Listing 14. 𝜙 represents angle between ∆𝑉̇ and the x-axis.4 presents a simulation of a booster intercepting a ground target using general energy management guidance. Plot shows how the
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. NUMERICAL EXAMPLE: To avoid numerical problems.17) GEM angle reaches steady state quickly
A nominal case was run to see how the GEM guidance logic performed.𝑎𝑥𝑇 = 𝑎 𝑇 cos(𝜙 − 𝜃) 𝑎𝑦𝑇 = 𝑎 𝑇 sin(𝜙 − 𝜃) 𝜃 represents angle between the thrust vector and velocity to be gained vector (∆𝑉̇).
3. The axial acceleration capability of the booster is continually being computed according to. It is still necessary to implement lambert subroutine in order to implement GEM guidance technique.9 that although the booster burn lasts for nearly 60 s. For clockwise travel. 𝑉̇𝐶𝐴𝑃 = 𝑉̇𝐶𝐴𝑃 − 𝐻𝑎 𝑇 Where H is the integration step-size and 𝑎 𝑇 is instantaneous axial acceleration of booster. thrust acceleration components become. the angle the thrust vector makes with the velocity to be gained vector approaches steady state in slightly over 50 s. We can see from the fig 3. the GEM logic is terminated when the velocity to be gained drops below 50 ft/s.

14 displays the gem trajectory during the boost phase. Both trajectories are vastly different during the boost phase. the GEM-guided booster heads in the right direction. However. and both hit the target at the same time.19) Both Lambert and GEM trajectories hit target at the same time
Fig 3.15 displays the GEM and Lambert trajectories for the entire flight (boost and coast phases).
3. The discontinuity in the curve is due to staging. Although both the trajectories are vastly different during the boost phase.velocity capability of the booster diminishes during the burn. after wasting energy.
3. It appears from the figure that the booster will never hit the target because initially it appears to be heading in the wrong direction.
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. they eventually converge. Superimposed on the figure is the Lambert guidance trajectory during the boost phase for the same case.18) Lambert and GEM trajectories during boost phase are vastly different
Fig 3.

20) Simulation to support the theory
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.SIMULATION:
3.

as well as the actual.1) by taking the vector product of both the sides with r: 𝑑 2 𝒓 [𝜇 (𝒓 × 𝒓)] 𝒓 × 2 + = 𝟎 𝑑𝑡 𝑟 3 or 𝑑 𝑑𝒓 (𝒓 × ) = 𝟎 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 which implies that the specific angular momentum of m2 relative to m1. 4. The equation of motion of each mass is given by Newton’s second law of motion referred to an inertial frame. Consider spherical masses 𝑚1 .CHAPTER 4
4. and possesses an analytical solution. the small magnitude of perturbations – such as non-uniform gravity. since it is not subject to substantially large disturbances at any given time. Since spacecraft flight times are orders of magnitude larger than those of either aircraft or rockets. it is necessary to account for the perturbations while guiding a vehicle in its space mission. Orbit Equation Let us begin the solution of equation (6. However. the equations of motion are amenable to simplified solution in several important cases. we have 𝑑 2 𝑟 𝜇𝒓 + = 0 𝑑𝑡 2 𝑟 3 where r(t) is the position of the center of mass 𝑚2 relative to the center of mass 𝑚1 and μ = G(𝑚1 + 𝑚2 ). and we can approximate μ ≈ G𝑚1 . 𝑚2 . is negligible in comparison with that of the celestial body. atmospheric drag. defined by
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. Being governed primarily by the gravitational field of a spherical body (called orbital mechanics).1 Introduction:
Orbital Mechanics
Space flight is much more predictable than either aircraft or rocket flight. called orbital mechanics. The motion of a spacecraft under the influence of a celestial body is usually approximated as a two-body problem by neglecting the small gravitational effects caused by the other objects. solar radiation pressure – can appreciably modify the trajectory over a long duration.2 Orbital Mechanics:
The relative motion of two spherical bodies in mutual gravitational attraction is the fundamental problem of translational space dynamics. the spacecraft’s mass. non-spherical shapes of the two bodies. Usually. m in mutual attraction given by Newton’s law of gravitation. with G = 6.6726 × 10−11 m3/kg/s2 being the universal gravitational constant. Subtracting the two equations of motion from one another. 𝑚1 .

we have the following
(a) The direction of h is a constant. This implies that the vectors r and v are always in the same plane – called the orbital plane – and h is normal to that plane.𝒉 = 𝒓 × is conserved. we have 𝑑 2 𝑟 𝑑 (𝑣 × ℎ) × ℎ = 𝑑𝑡 2 𝑑𝑡 Furthermore. We next take the vector product of both sides of equation (6. (r. the second term on the left-hand side of equation (6.θ) ℎ = | 𝒉 | = | 𝒓 × 𝒗 | = 𝑟 2 𝑑𝜃 𝑑𝑡
The trajectories in the orbital plane – called orbits – are classified according to the magnitude and direction of a constant h. 𝑑𝑡
is the velocity.1) with h: 𝑑 2 𝒓 𝜇 × 𝒉 + 3 (𝒓 × 𝒉) = 0 2 𝑑𝑡 𝑟 Since h is constant. The case of h = 0 represents rectilinear motion along the line joining the two bodies. Here 𝒗 = consequences:
𝑑𝒓 𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝒓 = 𝒓 × 𝒗. Since h is a constant vector. the following interesting identity can be derived by differentiating r2 with respect to time: 𝒓 · 𝒗 = 𝑟𝑟 Hence. while h ≠ 0 represents the more common orbits involving rotation of m2 about 𝑚1 . Writing h in polar coordinates. 𝜇 𝜇 [(𝒓 × 𝒉)] = [(𝒓 × (𝒓 × 𝒗)] 𝑟 3 𝑟 3 𝜇 = 3 [(𝒓 · 𝒗)𝒓 − (𝒓 · 𝒓)𝒗] 𝑟 = 𝜇𝑟 𝜇 𝒓 – 𝒗 2 𝑟 𝑟
𝒗 𝑟𝒓/𝑟 = −𝜇 ( – 2 ) 𝒓 𝑟 = −𝜇 𝑑 𝒓 ( ) 𝑑𝑡 𝒓
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.6) becomes. (b) The magnitude of h is constant.

Furthermore. θ). (r. and the semi-major axis. can be defined such that 𝜇𝒆 = 𝒗 × 𝒉 – 𝜇𝒓 𝑟
Since the eccentricity vector is normal to h. the orbit is a parabola. called the eccentricity vector. with unit vectors ih = h/h. In all cases. From the orbit equation it is clear that the general orbit is a conic section – the shape obtained by cutting a right-circular cone in a particular way. we have 𝑑 𝜇𝒓 (𝒗 × 𝒉 – ) = 𝟎 𝑑𝑡 𝑟 Thus. the focus of the orbit is at the center of the celestial body. For e = 1. the orbit is a hyperbola. ip. is used to specify the relative position and velocity vectors of the spacecraft in the orbital plane. the orbit is an ellipse. implying that e points toward the periapsis. we have r + e · r = (1/μ)r ·[ (v × h)] = h2/μ or ℎ2 [ 𝜇 ] [1 + 𝑒 cos 𝜃]
𝑟(𝜃) =
The above equation – called the orbit equation – defines the shape of the orbit in polar coordinates. and indicates that the orbit is symmetrical about e. is given by ℎ2 [ 𝜇 ] [1 − 𝑒 2 ]
𝑎 = 4. it lies in the orbital plane and is employed as a reference to specify the direction of the relative position vector. The position and velocity of the spacecraft in the perifocal frame are given by 𝑟 = 𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝑖𝑒 + 𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑖𝑝
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. The rectilinear trajectory is a special parabola with h = 0. r(t). the minimum separation of the two bodies (called periapsis) occurs for θ = 0. This frame. a constant vector e. For e > 1. The circle is a special ellipse with e = 0 and r = h2/μ. a. is called the perifocal frame. Taking the scalar product of μe with r(t). θ(t). made by r(t) with e (measured along the flight direction) is called the true anomaly. and ip = ih × ie.3) Perifocal and Celestial Frames:
A right-handed coordinate frame fixed to the orbital plane. The angle. ih). (ie. ie = e/e. θ(t).On substituting. For e < 1.

and the axis oG xG points toward the vernal equinox. In most practical applications. yields the line of nodes. is the angle between the orbital plane and ( xG yG ). ((xG yG ). i. The intersection of the orbital plane with the reference plane.1) Orientation of the perifocal frame relative to the celestial plane given by Euler angles
tan 𝜙 =
[𝑒 sin 𝜃] [1 + 𝑒 cos 𝜃]
On eliminating the flight-path angle from the velocity expression. The ascending node is the name given to the point on the line of nodes where the orbit crosses the plane ((xG yG ) from south to north. The inclination. pointing toward the ascending node makes an angle Ω with the axis oG xG . Normally. n. where the plane (xG yG ) is either the equatorial plane. (xG yG ). and is termed right ascension of the ascending node. and is the positive rotation about n required to produce ih from the axis oG zG . the spacecraft’s position and velocity are resolved in a stationary celestial frame that is fixed with respect to distant stars and has its origin at the center of the celestial body. or the ecliptic plane.𝑣 = 𝑣(sinϕ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 − cos ϕ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃)𝑖𝑒 + 𝑣(sin ϕ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 + cosϕ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃)𝑖𝑝 where ϕ (t) is the flight-path angle (taken to be positive above the local horizon) shown in Figure below by
4. A unit vector. while the ecliptic plane is used for interplanetary trajectories. the equatorial plane is employed as the reference plane. The angle ω represents
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. The angle Ω is measured in the plane (xG yG ) in an anti-clockwise direction. as shown in Figure. when an orbit close to a planet is of interest. Examples of Earth-based celestial frames are the geocentric frames (oG xG yG zG ). we have 𝒗 = −(𝜇/ℎ)𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃𝒊𝒆 + (𝜇/ℎ)(𝑒 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃)𝒊𝒑 .

equation (6. thereby determining the function θ(t). or hyperbolic orbit. but do not provide any information about the location of the spacecraft at a given time. depending upon whether we have an elliptical.5). However. parabolic.
4. On substituting the orbit equation (6. This missing data is usually expressed as an equation that relates the variation of true anomaly with time. and completing the solution to the two-body problem. τ.13) into the angular momentum magnitude. θ(t).a positive rotation of n about ih to produce ie in the orbital plane. beginning with the time of periapsis. and is called the argument of periapsis.
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.20) provides τ. such an integration is usually carried out by a numerical procedure. for which θ = 0. we have 𝑑𝜃 𝜇 = √ 3 (1 + 𝑒 cos 𝜃)2 𝑑𝑡 𝑝 Integration of equation (6.2) Orientation of celestial frame with vernal equinox
4.4) Time Equation: The vectors h and e completely determine the shape and orientation of a two-body trajectory.

𝑟 𝑓 = 1 + ( cos(𝜃 − 𝜃0 ) − 1) 𝑝 𝑔 = 𝑓 = 𝑟𝑟0 sin(𝜃 − 𝜃0 ). ip and ro. we write the known position and velocity as
𝑟0 = 𝑟 cos 𝜃0 𝑖𝑒 + 𝑟 sin 𝜃0 𝑖𝑒 𝜇 𝜇 𝑣0 = − ( ) sin 𝜃0 𝑖𝑒 + (𝑒 + cos 𝜃0 )𝑖𝑒 ℎ ℎ convert above equations in matrix form. ℎ
𝑑𝑓 ℎ = − 2 [sin 𝜃 + 𝑒(sin 𝜃2 − sin 𝜃1 )] 𝑑𝑡 𝑝 𝑔 = 𝑑𝑔 𝑟1 = 1 + 𝑑𝑡 𝑝(cos 𝜃 − 1)
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. vo in r and v equations. and ih is given by 𝒓 = 𝑟 cos 𝜃𝒊𝒆 + 𝑟 sin 𝜃𝒊𝒆 𝒗 = −(𝜇/ℎ) 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝒊𝒆 + 𝜇 (𝑒 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃)𝒊𝒆 ℎ
Given the position and velocity at a time. In order to do so. (1 − 𝑒 2 ) ⁄2 𝑑𝜃 = 𝑛𝑑𝑡. one would like to determine the position and velocity at some other time. Then the square matrix in equation is non-singular (its determinant is equal to h). t. Then you will get Lagrange’s coefficients.Elliptical Orbit (0 ≤ e < 1) For an elliptical orbit. we can invert the matrix to obtain ie and ip. t0. Now put ie. ip. (1 + 𝑒 cos 𝜃)2 Where 𝑛 = √𝑎3
𝜇 3
Solving above equation will gives the position and velocity vectors in an elliptical orbit can be expressed directly in terms of the eccentric anomaly as follows: 𝒓 = 𝑎(𝑐𝑜𝑠𝐸 − 𝑒)𝒊𝒆 + √𝑎𝑝 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝐸𝒊𝒑 𝒗 = −√𝜇𝑎/𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝐸𝒊𝒆 + √𝜇𝑝/𝑟𝑐𝑜𝑠𝐸𝒊𝒑 Lagrange’s Coefficients: The two-body trajectory expressed in the perifocal frame with Cartesian axes along ie.

r1 + r2.Minimum Energy Orbital Transfer: Orbital energy is given by 𝜀 = − 2𝑎 for the transfer orbit Clearly. This is tantamount to changing the orbital shape for given initial and final positions by moving the two foci in such a way that both (a. we have t2 − t1 = f (a. joining the two positions. as well as in the orbital determination of space
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. the sum of the two radii. Lambert’s theorem states that the transfer time. 𝑟2). a. r1 + r2. Such a problem is commonly encountered in the guidance of spacecraft and ballistic missiles. provided (a. c). Thus.2) about a given planet. r1 + r2. t2 − t1. is a function of only the semi-major axis. the minimum energy orbit involves the smallest positive value of the semi-major axis. r1 + r2) are unaffected.
𝜇
Geometry of Minimum Energy Transfer Orbit
Lambert’s Theorem For a general orbital transfer (Figure 6. of the transfer orbit. and would normally result in the smallest propellant expenditure. c) are unchanged. (𝑟1 . a. one can choose any value of e for the orbit. of the orbit joining the two given radii. and the chord. Since there is no dependence of the transfer time on the orbital eccentricity. Lambert’s Problem Lambert’s problem is the name given to the general 2PBVP resulting from a two-body orbital transfer between two position vectors in a given time. c = |r2 − r1|.

equation (6. However. non-singular solution. Examples of Lambert algorithms are the universal variable methods by Battin (1964. (r1. r2).62) subject to the boundary conditions. A practical solution to Lambert’s problem – that can be used for guiding spacecraft – must avoid such difficulties. r2). τ). we must determine a transfer orbit that is coplanar with (r1. the derivative of t12 with respect to a is infinite for a minimum energy orbit. a. e. and the respective true anomalies. and hyperbolic transfer trajectories. therefore Newton’s method cannot be used for solving the time equation with respect to a. In the orbital plane. Furthermore. which can be applied to elliptical. r(0) = r1 and r(t12) = r2. θ (Figure 6.
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. for the required time of flight. 1999). These methods can be formulated either by evaluation of infinite power series (Stumpff functions) or continued fractions (hypergeometric functions).2). (r1. if a = am. is to be solved for the unique transfer orbit. θ2).objects from two observed positions separated by a specific time interval. (a. parabolic.62) yields a transfer time t12 that is a double-valued function of the semi-major axis. the two positions are uniquely specified through the radii. Thus we need a robust algorithm which converges to a unique. Lambert’s problem given by equation (6.5 For the initial and final positions. (θ1. r2). t12 = t2 − t1. which implies that an iterative solution may not converge to a single value of a. and the transfer angle.