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A Torque Control Method of Three-Inertia Torsional System with Backlash

Yu Nakayama, Kiyoshi Fujikawa, Hirokazu Kobayashi

Research & Development Department, Toyo Electric.Mfg.Co.,Ltd. 3-8 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama-shi,Kanagawa-ken, 236-0004, Japan te1:+81-45-785-3702; fax:+81-45-790-3180;e-mail:nakayamay@toyodenki.co.jp

Abstract: ?'his paper proposes a torque control method of Three-Inertia Torsional System with gear (or coupling) backlash. The proposed controller consists of a PID controller, and a proportional feed-forward compensation, and a proportional feedback compensation of the gear torque estimated by a disturbance observer. The parameters of the controller can be designed by Coeficient Diagram Method (CDM). Analysis and experiment results show that the mechanical vibrations of Three-Inertia Torsional System can be suppressed well, and a good torque transfer performance can be got by using the proposed controller.
1. Introduction In motor drive system, if link up motors and load by a flexible shaft, the motor drive system becomes a mechanical resonance system called ,Two-Inertia Torsional system (2-1 system). In the torque control of the 2-1 system, in order to suppress the torsional vibration of the shaft, we proposed a simple control method called P-ID control in the paper [l]. However, when a gear exist in the motor drive system with a torsional load, the motor drive system becomes a ThreeInertia Torsional System (3-1 system). If we still use a P-ID control as so the torque control for the 2-1 system, the vibration caused by the gear backlash will can't be suppressed. Therefore, in order to suppress the vibration caused by the gear backlash, and ge,f a good transfer performance from the torque command T to the shaft torque T,, in this paper, we propose a simple torque control method. The controller is designed by using a PID controller and a feed-forward proportional compensation and a feedback proportional compensation of the gear torque estimated by a disturbance observer. The parameters of the controller can be designed by Coefficient Diagram Method (CDM). Although the control design approach is easy, it is shown that the vibration caused by the gear backlash can be suppressed well and a better transfer performance of torque can be got. The effectiveness of the proposed method will be shown by simulations and experiments. 2. Three-Inertia Torsional System and the Open-Loop Frequency Response
A typical structure of a motor drive system with a torsional load is shown in Fig.1. The system consists of a driving motor and a load coupled to the driving motor through a gear and a shaft. If we consider the effects of the gear inertia and backlash, the motor driver system can be modeled by a Three-Inertia Torsional System (3-1 system). Fig.2 shows a block diagram representation of the 3-1 system, where the box containing a nonlinear element represents the model

used for the gear backlash. The 3-1 system parameters used in this paper are listed on the Tablel.
gear torque load

Shaft

motor torque

motor speed

'8

gear speed

I'
shaft torque

load speed

Fig.1 Three-Inertia Torsional System

Tm

Fig.2 Block diagram of the 3-1 system System Parameters _ _ _ _ _ _ _Tablel _ _ _ _3-1 __ _______---_-_-Symbol Description motor inertia Jrn J, gear inertia load inertia JL Kc shaft stiffness D, shaft damping coefficient gear stiffness K, D , gear damping coefficient 6 gear backlash Value 0.0641 Kgm2 0.0868 Kgm' 0.0523 Kgm' 242 "/rad 0.1 Nmsedrad 2000 Nmlrad 0.2 "sechad 0.25 degree

___________________-_-------

0-7803-5976-3/00/$10.00 02000 IEEE.


193

AMC2000-NAGOYA

For the 3-1 system, when 6 =0, the open-loop transfer function from the motor torque T, to the shaft torque T, is given by equ.(l), where, the damping coefficients D, and D, are omitted owing to the values are very small.

TOAKI UNI. JAPAN [3]. In the paper [ l ] , the P-ID controller can be designed as

M ( s ) =J,K,K,
N ( s ) = J m J , J , s 4+ [ J , ( J , + J , ) K ,

+J , ( J , +J , ) K , ] s 2

+(J,+J,+J,)K,K, =p4s4+p2s2+pO

[ ( p 2+ Jpi - 4p,p, ) / 2 ~ , ] / ~ are ) the natural resonant frequencies respectively corresponding to the shaftresonance and the gear- resonance. In Fig.3, the break lines show the plots of the open-loop frequency response from the motor torque T, to the shaft torque T,. Because the values of the damping coefficients D, and D, are very small, so two high peaks arise in the gain characteristic plot at frequencies w and O 2, then a torsional vibration of the shaft with frequency O~ and a backlash vibration of the gear with frequency o are simultaneously easily caused.
Torque command transferperformance
I

2-1 system P-ID controller Fig.4 P-ID control of 2-1 system

where, wo = , / K , ( l / J , + l / J , ) is the natural resonant frequency corresponding to the shaft-resonance of the 2-1 system. In Fig.5, the solid lines show the plots of the closed-loop frequency response from the torque command T to the shaft torque T, with the P-ID controller. By the way, the break lines show the plots of the open-loop frequency response from the motor torque T, to the shaft torque T,.
1wO

Torque command transferperformance

Fig.3 Frequency response characteristics (3-1 system, 6 =0) 3. P-ID Control for Two-Inertia Torsional System [l] In this chapter, a simple controller called P-ID controller presented in the paper [ l ]will be used for the torque control of Two-Inertia Torsional system. From a fact that the gear stiffness constant Kg is far larger than the shaft stiffness constant I & , if there is not backlash in the gear (i.e. 6 =O), the 3-1 system can be approximated to a is the 2-1 system as shown in Fig.4. In Fig.4, J,,(=J,+J,) sum of the motor inertia and the gear inertia as an equivalent motor inertia. For the torque control of 2-1 system, a P-ID controller as shown in Fig.4 can be easily designed with the Coefficient Diagram Method (CDM) presented by Prof. Manabe of
10
1W 100

Frequency IraUsecl

Fig.5 Frequency response characteristics (2-1 system)

194

Comparing the solid h e s with the break lines, we can see using the P-ID control, the torsional vibration of the shaft can be suppressed well, and a good torque transfer performance of the 2-1 system can be got. However, when the P-ID controller is used for the 3-1 system, the characteristic polynomial of the closed-loop system is given by equ.(3), where, it is supposed that 6 =O and D,=O.
A(s) = u s s s+ u 4 s 4 + u 3 s 3+ u 2 s 2+ U , S
U, U,

Fig.7.
...................................................................................................................................

+U,

= JLKcK,Ki = (J,

+ J , + J L ) K , K g + J , K c K g K , + D,JLK,Ki u 2 = D,(J, + J , + J L ) K , + J,K,K,K, + D,JLK,K, u 3 = J , ( J , + J,)K, + J L ( J , + J g ) K g+ D,J,K,Kd


' 4

=DcJm(J, + J L )
(3)

as = J,JgJL

Because the value of the shaft-damping coefficient D , is very small, the value of the coefficient a4 is nearly zero, so that stabilizing the closed-loop system become difficult. In Fig.3, the solid lines show the plots of the closed-loop frequency response with a P-ID controller, owing to the closed-loop system is hard to stabilize, the phase characteristic plot become larger than 0 degree in the high frequency range. Fig-6(a) and Fig.6(b) respectively show the simulated time responses CorresPonding to the 2-1 system and the 3-1system with 6 =o, we can see the P-ID torque control can't stabilize the 3-1 system.
(a)

..................................................................................................

.i

Fig.7 Proposed torque control (3-1 system)

g 3 .......
2

~1
5 4

...............................

............. ............_... ..................


.>

For the proposed controller can be designed easily, below, we take the filter time constant of the disturbance observer (Tf) as same as that of the differentiator (Td) in the PID controller (i.e. Tf=Td=TO).Furthermore, when it is supposed that 6 =0, and D,=D,=O, and J,,=J,, and Kff=O,the closedloop transfer function from the torque command T' to the shaft torque T, is as follows
@*(s)=

...........................

......... ._ _

.................... ........ .._....._... 4 _. ....__....._........ ;.. ........................... ..........


~

: P-ID control for2-I system ! ............ -. .......... : __,.. ...................... ...........................................

......................

J,K,K,[(K, +T,K,)s* + ( K , + T o K i ) s + K i ]

Us)

(4)

OO

05

1.5

where, A(s) is the closed-loop characteristic polynomial, and given by


A(S) =u6s6 + a i s s + a 4 s 4+u3s3+ u 2 s 2 + u , s + a o
U, = U, =

JLK,KgKi
[J,

+ J , + J , + ( J , + J,)K, + J,(K,
+TOKp)+(Jm +Jg
+JL)TOIKcKg

+ToKi)]KcK,

' 2 =[JL(Kd

Fig.6 Time responses

u 3 = J,(Jg
' 4

+ J,)K, + J L ( J , + J,)Kg + J,JLK,Kfb


)Kc + J L
(Jm

= [ J m ( J g +J ,

+ J g >KgIT'

4. Proposed Torque Control


To stabilize the 3-1 system shown in Fig.2, and get a better torque transfer performance, in this chapter, we propose a simple control method. The proposed controller is composed of a PID controller, and a feed-forward proportional compensation, and a feedback proportional compensation of the gear torque estimated by a disturbance observer as shown in

u s = J,J,J,

a6 = J,J,JLTo

(5)

In the following, we will design the parameters of the proposed controller with using the Coefficient Diagram Method (CDM) presented by Prof. Manabe of TOKAI UNIV. JAPAN [3]. The design approach is following:

195

For equ.(5), the conditions of the Manabe polynomial [3] are

In Fig.8, the break lines show the plots of the*closed-loop frequency response from the torque command T to the shaft torque T, with the proposed controller designed by equ.(9) and without feed-forward compensation (i.e. Kff=O).Where, the point lines show the plots of the open-loop frequency response from the motor torque T, to the shaft torque T,.

yi

a2
e =

, i=1-5;

ai+lai-l

where, t is an equivalent time constant, and y i are the stability indexes. Finding the solutions of equ.(6), the gains I(p, Ki, &, Ktb and the time constant To of the proposed controller can be found as following

1 K , =-{[*I[

y1y2y3y4y5

-1

(Jg

+J,)(Y4Y5

I
Ki
=
Kd

JL

2 3 4 4 1Y 2 3 4 5

Y Y Y KCKJ:

Y 4Y 5J 8 J LKg

l)1

-J,-J,-J,)

[*I
Y IY 2 Y 3 Y 4 Y 5 JLKJJd3
2 3 4 4 2 2 2 2 Y l Y 2 Y 3 Y 4 Y 5 -Y1Y2Y3Y4Y5 2 3 4 4 Y1Y 2 Y 3Y 4 Y 5
W O

Fig.8 Frequency response characteristics (3-1 system, 6 =0)

=[*I[

+I JLKCKJO

(7)

(J8 +J,)(Y4Y5

Y 4Y 5J,JZK8

K,

[*I(l-Y4Ys)

Y 4Y 5J g J LKg

For the system with the 6-th order, a standard form of the stability indexes y i is suggested in CDM, based on practical experiences, as follows [3].

Comparing the break lines with the point lines, we can see using the proposed controller, the mechanical vibration of the 3-1 system can be suppressed well. However, the gain characteristic plot is larger than 0 dB in frequency domain of 10-50[rad/sec], and the phase characteristic plot is far later than 0 degree in frequency domain of lO[rad/sec]-o,, so the torque transfer performance isnt good. Therefore, to improve the torque transfer performance of the 3-1 system, we add a feed-forward compensation in the proposed controller as shown in Fig.7. In addition, for easy to explain the designing processes of the feed-forward compensator, we remake Fig.7 as Fig.9.

T*

Using the stability indexes y given by equ.(8) and the 3-1 system parameters on the Tablel, from equ.(7), the parameters of the proposed controller can be found as follows

I
Fig.9 Proposed torque control (3-1 system)

To = 0.004 = 4m sec K , = -0.6086 K i =8.478 K d =0.0088 K , = -0.9881


[*I = 0.0805 (9)

In Fig.9, Fl(s) is the transfer function of the PID controller, F2(s) is the transfer function of the feed-forward compensator. G m ( s ) is the transfer function with the 5 t h order
from the output of the PID controller

Fmto the shaft torque

T, and given by

196

With the feed-forward compensation, the closed-loop error transfer function @ e (s) from the torque command T to the torque error AT(= T * -Tc) is Fig.10 Time responses

5 . Experimental Results
In this chapter, we give some experimental results. Fig.11 shown the experimental result of the open-loop frequency response, where the 3-1 experimental system parameters are also in the Table1 (i.e. 6 =0.25[degree]). In the same way as the simulation result given by the point line in Fig.8, at the natural resonant frequency 0 corresponding to the shaft vibration, a high peak arises in the gain characteristic plot, however, at the natural resonant frequency O 2 corresponding to the gear backlash vibration, only a low peak arises in the gain characteristic plot. Fig.12 shown the experimental result of the closed-loop frequency response by using the proposed torque controller, corresponding to 6 =0.25[degree], where the controller is implemented with the digital signal processor. It is similar to the simulation result of Fig.8, in Fig.12, we can see even if there is a smaller backlash in the gear, using the proposed torque control, the mechanical vibration of the 3-1 system can be suppressed well, and a better torque transfer performance can be got. Fig.l3(a) and Fig.l3(b) shown the experimental results of the time response, respectively corresponding to the openloop and the closed-loop with backlash 6 =0.25[degree], all results are similar to the simulation results shown in Fig.lO(b).

From equ.(ll), if we take the feed-forward compensation as F 2 ( s )= 1/6, (s) , the closed-loop error transfer function @ e (s) is @.,(s) = 0 , namely, a very good torque transfer performance can be got. However, from equ.(lO), the feedforward compensator is a differentiator with the 5 t h order, so that the realization of the feed-forward compensator isnt possible. Therefore, from a practical point of view, if we stress only on the improvement of the torque transfer performance in a lower frequency domain, the feed-forward compensator can be designed as a proportional compensation as

When the feed-orward compensator designed by equ.(l2) is added in the proposed controller, the plots of the closedloop frequency response from the torque command T to the shaft torque T, are shown by the solid lines in Fig.8. Comparing the solid lines with the break lines, we can see the torque transfer performance cab be improved well by using the feed-forward compensation. In addition, Fig.lO(a) and Fig.lO(b) respectively show the simulated time responses corresponding to 6 =O[degree] and 6 =0.25[degree], we can see .the proposed torque control can suppress the mechanical vibration of the 3-1 system even if there is a smaller backlash in the gear. Where, the input in the simulations is at t=0.2[sec] torque command: T is a step signal 6

6. Conclusion
In this paper, from a practical point of view, we proposed a simple torque control method of 3-Inertia Torsional System with backlash. The torque controller is designed using a PID controller and a feed-forward proportional compensation, and a feedback proportional compensation of the gear torque estimated by a disturbance observer. The parameters of the proposed controller can be designed by Coefficient Diagram Method (CDM). The analysis results on the closed-loop frequency response show that although the structure of the proposed controller is simple, the mechanical vibrations can be suppressed well, and the better torque transfer performance can be got. The effectiveness of the proposed control method is shown by simulations and experiments.

197

20
_.

HAG dB

20dW -60
..

T*

J
. .

i
. . .

... .~

. .

..

.. .

..

200

PHASE
de9

-7nn ---

0.25

&

X f r FUNC r c t 12.50Hz

LOG V,

lOOHz -117.6deg

Fig.11 Experimental result of the open-loop ( 6 =0.25[degree])

Fig.l3(a) Experimental result of the open-loop ( 6 =0.25[degree])

20

MAG
da EU/EU

20dB/
-60

200

PHASE
de9

--3nn -

0.25

X f r FUNC

rct

LOG
v_l

lOOHz
-13.3deg

&

2 . OOHZ

Fig.l3(b) Experimental result using the proposed controller ( 6 =0.25[degree])

Fig.12 Experimental result using the proposed controller ( 6=0.25[degree])

References
Y.Wu, K.Fujikawa and H.Kobayashi, A Torque Control Method of Two-Mass Resonant System with PID-P Controller IEEE 4th AMC Workshop, pp.240-245, 1998. Y.Wu, K.Fujikawa and H.Kobayashi, A Control Method of Speed Control Drive System with Backlash IEEE 3rd AMC Workshop, pp.631-636,1996. [3] Y.Wu, K.Fujikawa and HXobayashi, Vibration Suppression Control for Motor Drive System with Torsional Shaft and Backlash SICE, vo1.34, No.11, pp.1639-1644, 1998. [4] S.Manabe, Controller Design of Two-Mass Resonant System by Coefficient Diagram Method T.IEE Japan, vol.l18-D7No.1, pp.58-66, 1998.

[5] S.Manabe, Coefficient Diagram Method 14th IFAC Synp. on Automatic Control in Aerospace, pp.199-210, 1998. [6] M.Odai, Y.Hori, Speed Control of 2-Inertia System with Gear Backlash using Gear Torque Compensator IEEE 4th AMC Workshop, pp.234-239, 1998. [7] M.Odai, Y.Hori, Speed Control of 2-Inertia System with Gear Backlash based on Gear Torque CompensationT.IEE Japan, vol.l20-D, No.1, pp.5-10,2000. [8] M.Odai, Y.Hori, Controller Design Robust to Nonlinear Elements based on Fractional Order Control System T.IEE Japan, vol.l20-D, No.1, pp.ll-18,2000.

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