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CHAPTER 5 INTEGRATION

5.1 AREA AND ESTIMATING WITH FINITE SUMS


1. faxb x#

Since f is increasing on ! ", we use left endpoints to obtain


lower sums and right endpoints to obtain upper sums.

"

i!
$

"
#

"# !#  "#

"
4

4" !#  4"  #"  4$

(a) x

"!
#

"
#

and xi ix

i
#

a lower sum is ! #i

(b) x

"!
%

"
%

and xi ix

i
%

a lower sum is ! 4i

(c) x

"!
#

"
#

and xi ix

i
#

an upper sum is ! #i

(d) x

"!
%

"
%

and xi ix

i
%

an upper sum is ! 4i

2. faxb x$

i!
2

i1
%

"
)

"
#

#
"# "# +1#

"
4

#
#
#
4" 4"  #"  4$ +1#

i"

"
%

(
)

"
%

$!
"'

(
$#

&
)
"&
$#

Since f is increasing on ! ", we use left endpoints to obtain


lower sums and right endpoints to obtain upper sums.

"

i!
$

"
#

"# !$  "#

"
4

4" !$  4"  #"  4$

"
#

and xi ix

i
#

a lower sum is ! #i

(b) x

"!
%

"
%

and xi ix

i
%

a lower sum is ! 4i

(c) x

"!
#

"
#

and xi ix

i
#

an upper sum is ! #i

(d) x

"!
%

"
%

and xi ix

i
%

an upper sum is ! 4i

(a) x

"!
#

i!
2

i1
%

i"

"
"'

$'
#&'

"
#

$
"# "# +1$

"
4

$
$
$
4" 4"  #"  4$ +1$

"
#

*
)

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Addison-Wesley.

*
'%

"!!
#&'

*
"'
#&
'%

258

Chapter 5 Integration

3. faxb

"
x

Since f is decreasing on 1 5, we use left endpoints to obtain


upper sums and right endpoints to obtain lower sums.

(a) x

&"
#

# and xi "  ix "  #i a lower sum is ! x"i # # "$  "&

(b) x

&"
%

1 and xi "  ix "  i a lower sum is

(c) x

&"
#

# and xi "  ix "  #i an upper sum is ! x"i # #"  $"

(d) x

&"
%

1 and xi "  ix "  i an upper sum is

4. faxb %  x#

i"
%
!"
xi
i"
"

" " #" 

i!
$
!"
xi
i!

"
$

" "" 

"
#

 &"

"
%

"'
"&

"
$

((
'!

)
$

 "%

#&
"#

Since f is increasing on # ! and decreasing on ! #, we use


left endpoints on # ! and right endpoints on ! # to obtain
lower sums and use right endpoints on # ! and left endpoints
on ! # to obtain upper sums.

(a) x

#  a#b
#

# and xi #  ix #  #i a lower sum is # %  a#b#  # a%  ## b !

(b) x

#  a#b
%

" and xi #  ix #  i a lower sum is !%  axi b# "  !%  axi b# "

"

i!

i$

"%  a#b#  %  a"b#  a%  "# b  a%  ## b '


(c) x

#  a#b
#

# and xi #  ix #  #i a upper sum is # %  a!b#  # a%  !# b "'

(d) x

#  a#b
%

" and xi #  ix #  i a upper sum is !%  axi b# "  !%  axi b# "

i"

i#

"%  a"b#  a%  !# b  a%  !# b  a%  "# b "%


5. faxb x#

"
#

Using 4 rectangles x " % !


"% f ")  f $)  f &)  f ()

"
%

Using 2 rectangles x
#

"# "%  $%

"!
$#

"!
#

"# f "%  f $%

&
"'

"% ")  $)  &)  ()

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Addison-Wesley.

#"
'%

Section 5.1 Area and Estimating with Finite Sums


6. faxb x$

"
#

Using 4 rectangles x " % !


"% f ")  f $)  f &)  f ()

"
%

"# "%  $%

(
"% " $ )&

7. faxb

"
x

"!
#

Using 2 rectangles x
#)
# '%

%*'
% )$

Using 2 rectangles x
# "#  "% $#

"# f "%  f $%

(
$#

"#%
)$

&"
#

$"
"#)

# #afa#b  fa%bb

Using 4 rectangles x & % " "


"f $#  f &#  f (#  f *#
" #$ 

8. faxb %  x#

#
&

#
(

 #*

"%))
$&(*

Using 2 rectangles x
#a$  $b "#

259

#  a#b
#

%*'
&(*

%*'
$"&

# #afa"b  fa"bb

Using 4 rectangles x #  %a#b "


"f $#  f "#  f "#  f $#
#
#
#
#
"%   $#  %   "#  %  "#  %  $#
"'  *% #  "% # "'  "!
# ""

9. (a) D (0)(1)  (12)(1)  (22)(1)  (10)(1)  (5)(1)  (13)(1)  (11)(1)  (6)(1)  (2)(1)  (6)(1) 87 inches
(b) D (12)(1)  (22)(1)  (10)(1)  (5)(1)  (13)(1)  (11)(1)  (6)(1)  (2)(1)  (6)(1)  (0)(1) 87 inches
10. (a) D (1)(300)  (1.2)(300)  (1.7)(300)  (2.0)(300)  (1.8)(300)  (1.6)(300)  (1.4)(300)  (1.2)(300)
 (1.0)(300)  (1.8)(300)  (1.5)(300)  (1.2)(300) 5220 meters (NOTE: 5 minutes 300 seconds)
(b) D (1.2)(300)  (1.7)(300)  (2.0)(300)  (1.8)(300)  (1.6)(300)  (1.4)(300)  (1.2)(300)  (1.0)(300)
 (1.8)(300)  (1.5)(300)  (1.2)(300)  (0)(300) 4920 meters (NOTE: 5 minutes 300 seconds)
11. (a) D (0)(10)  (44)(10)  (15)(10)  (35)(10)  (30)(10)  (44)(10)  (35)(10)  (15)(10)  (22)(10)
 (35)(10)  (44)(10)  (30)(10) 3490 feet 0.66 miles
(b) D (44)(10)  (15)(10)  (35)(10)  (30)(10)  (44)(10)  (35)(10)  (15)(10)  (22)(10)  (35)(10)
 (44)(10)  (30)(10)  (35)(10) 3840 feet 0.73 miles
12. (a) The distance traveled will be the area under the curve. We will use the approximate velocities at the
midpoints of each time interval to approximate this area using rectangles. Thus,
D (20)(0.001)  (50)(0.001)  (72)(0.001)  (90)(0.001)  (102)(0.001)  (112)(0.001)  (120)(0.001)
 (128)(0.001)  (134)(0.001)  (139)(0.001) 0.967 miles
(b) Roughly, after 0.0063 hours, the car would have gone 0.484 miles, where 0.0060 hours 22.7 sec. At 22.7
sec, the velocity was approximately 120 mi/hr.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Addison-Wesley.

260

Chapter 5 Integration

13. (a) Because the acceleration is decreasing, an upper estimate is obtained using left end-points in summing
acceleration ?t. Thus, ?t 1 and speed [32.00  19.41  11.77  7.14  4.33](1) 74.65 ft/sec
(b) Using right end-points we obtain a lower estimate: speed [19.41  11.77  7.14  4.33  2.63](1)
45.28 ft/sec
(c) Upper estimates for the speed at each second are:
t
0
1
2
3
4
5
v
0
32.00 51.41 63.18 70.32
74.65
Thus, the distance fallen when t 3 seconds is s [32.00  51.41  63.18](1) 146.59 ft.
14. (a) The speed is a decreasing function of time right end-points give an lower estimate for the height (distance)
attained. Also
t
0
1
2
3
4
5
v
400
368
336
304
272
240
gives the time-velocity table by subtracting the constant g 32 from the speed at each time increment
?t 1 sec. Thus, the speed 240 ft/sec after 5 seconds.
(b) A lower estimate for height attained is h [368  336  304  272  240](1) 1520 ft.
15. Partition [! #] into the four subintervals [0 0.5], [0.5 1], [1 1.5], and [1.5 2]. The midpoints of these
subintervals are m" 0.25, m# 0.75, m$ 1.25, and m% 1.75. The heights of the four approximating
1
125
343
$
$
rectangles are f(m" ) (0.25)$ 64
, f(m# ) (0.75)$ 27
64 , f(m$ ) (1.25) 64 , and f(m% ) (1.75) 64
Notice that the average value is approximated by

"
length of [!#]

"
#

$
$
$
$
4" #"  43 #"  45 #"  47 #"

$"
"'

approximate area under


. We use this observation in solving the next several exercises.
curve f(x) x$

16. Partition [1 9] into the four subintervals [" $], [3 &], [& (], and [( *]. The midpoints of these subintervals are
m" 2, m# 4, m$ 6, and m% 8. The heights of the four approximating rectangles are f(m" ) "# ,
f(m# ) "4 , f(m$ ) 6" , and f(m% ) 8" . The width of each rectangle is ?x 2. Thus,
Area 2 "#  2 4"  2 6"  2 8"

average value

25
1#

area
length of ["*]

25

12
8

25
96 .

17. Partition [0 2] into the four subintervals [0 0.5], [0.5 1], [1 1.5], and [1.5 2]. The midpoints of the subintervals
are m" 0.25, m# 0.75, m$ 1.25, and m% 1.75. The heights of the four approximating rectangles are
"
#

f(m" )

"
#

"
#

 sin#

1
4

"
#

"
#

1, and f(m% )

1, f(m# )

"
2

 sin#

71
4

 sin#

"
#

  "2 1. The width of each rectangle is ?x #" . Thus,

31
4

"
#

"
#

1, f(m$ )

"
2

 sin#

51
4

"
#

  "2

"
2

Area (1  1  1  1) "# 2 average value

area
length of [02]

2
#

1.

18. Partition [0 4] into the four subintervals [0 1], [1 2 ], [2 3], and [3 4]. The midpoints of the subintervals
are m" "# , m# #3 , m$ 5# , and m% 7# . The heights of the four approximating rectangles are
f(m" ) 1  cos

%
1 "#
4

1  cos 18 0.27145 (to 5 decimal places),

f(m# ) 1  cos

%
1 3#
4

1  cos 381 0.97855, f(m3 ) 1  cos

0.97855, and f(m% ) 1  cos

%
1 7#
4

%
1 #5
4

1  cos 581

1  cos 781 0.27145. The width of each rectangle is

?x ". Thus, Area (0.27145)(1)  (0.97855)(1)  (0.97855)(1)  (0.27145)(1) 2.5 average


2.5
5
value lengtharea
of [04] 4 8 .

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Addison-Wesley.

Section 5.1 Area and Estimating with Finite Sums

261

19. Since the leakage is increasing, an upper estimate uses right endpoints and a lower estimate uses left
endpoints:
(a) upper estimate (70)(1)  (97)(1)  (136)(1)  (190)(1)  (265)(1) 758 gal,
lower estimate (50)(1)  (70)(1)  (97)(1)  (136)(1)  (190)(1) 543 gal.
(b) upper estimate (70  97  136  190  265  369  516  720) 2363 gal,
lower estimate (50  70  97  136  190  265  369  516) 1693 gal.
(c) worst case: 2363  720t 25,000 t 31.4 hrs;
best case: 1693  720t 25,000 t 32.4 hrs
20. Since the pollutant release increases over time, an upper estimate uses right endpoints and a lower estimate
uses left endpoints:
(a) upper estimate (0.2)(30)  (0.25)(30)  (0.27)(30)  (0.34)(30)  (0.45)(30)  (0.52)(30) 60.9 tons
lower estimate (0.05)(30)  (0.2)(30)  (0.25)(30)  (0.27)(30)  (0.34)(30)  (0.45)(30) 46.8 tons
(b) Using the lower (best case) estimate: 46.8  (0.52)(30)  (0.63)(30)  (0.70)(30)  (0.81)(30) 126.6 tons,
so near the end of September 125 tons of pollutants will have been released.
#

21. (a) The diagonal of the square has length 2, so the side length is #. Area # #
(b) Think of the octagon as a collection of 16 right triangles with a hypotenuse of length 1 and an acute angle measuring
#1
1
"' ) .
Area "' " sin 1 cos 1 % sin 1 ## #)#)
#

(c) Think of the 16-gon as a collection of 32 right triangles with a hypotenuse of length 1 and an acute angle measuring
#1
1
$# "' .
Area $# " sin 1 cos 1 ) sin 1 ## $!'"
#

"'

"'

(d) Each area is less than the area of the circle, 1. As n increases, the area approaches 1.
22. (a) Each of the isosceles triangles is made up of two right triangles having hypotenuse 1 and an acute angle measuring
#1
1
1
"
cos 1n "# sin #n1 .
#n n . The area of each isosceles triangle is AT # # sin n
(b) The area of the polygon is AP nAT

n
#

sin

#1
n ,

n
n_ #

so lim

sin

#1
n

lim 1
n_

sin #n1
#n1

(c) Multiply each area by r# .


AT "# r# sin #n1
AP n# r# sin

lim AP 1r

#1
n

n_

23-26. Example CAS commands:


Maple:
with( Student[Calculus1] );
f := x -> sin(x);
a := 0;
b := Pi;
plot( f(x), x=a..b, title="#23(a) (Section 5.1)" );
N := [ 100, 200, 1000 ];
# (b)
for n in N do
Xlist := [ a+1.*(b-a)/n*i $ i=0..n ];
Ylist := map( f, Xlist );
end do:
for n in N do
# (c)

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Addison-Wesley.

262

Chapter 5 Integration

Avg[n] := evalf(add(y,y=Ylist)/nops(Ylist));
end do;
avg := FunctionAverage( f(x), x=a..b, output=value );
evalf( avg );
FunctionAverage(f(x),x=a..b,output=plot);
# (d)
fsolve( f(x)=avg, x=0.5 );
fsolve( f(x)=avg, x=2.5 );
fsolve( f(x)=Avg[1000], x=0.5 );
fsolve( f(x)=Avg[1000], x=2.5 );
Mathematica: (assigned function and values for a and b may vary):
Symbols for 1, , powers, roots, fractions, etc. are available in Palettes (under File).
Never insert a space between the name of a function and its argument.
Clear[x]
f[x_]:=x Sin[1/x]
{a,b}={1/4, 1}
Plot[f[x],{x, a, b}]
The following code computes the value of the function for each interval midpoint and then finds the average. Each
sequence of commands for a different value of n (number of subdivisions) should be placed in a separate cell.
n =100; dx = (b  a) /n;
values = Table[N[f[x]], {x, a  dx/2, b, dx}]
average=Sum[values[[i]],{i, 1, Length[values]}] / n
n =200; dx = (b  a) /n;
values = Table[N[f[x]],{x, a + dx/2, b, dx}]
average=Sum[values[[i]],{i, 1, Length[values]}] / n
n =1000; dx = (b  a) /n;
values = Table[N[f[x]],{x, a  dx/2, b, dx}]
average=Sum[values[[i]],{i, 1, Length[values]}] / n
FindRoot[f[x] == average,{x, a}]
5.2 SIGMA NOTATION AND LIMITS OF FINITE SUMS
2

1. !
k1

2. !
k1

6k
k1

6(1)
11

6(2)
21

6
2

k1
k

11
1

21
2

31
3

12
3

0

1
2

2
3

7
6

3. ! cos k1 cos (11)  cos (21)  cos (31)  cos (41) 1  1  1  1 0


k1

4. ! sin k1 sin (11)  sin (21)  sin (31)  sin (41)  sin (51) 0  0  0  0  0 0
k1

5. ! (1)kb1 sin
k1

1
k

(1)"" sin

1
1

 (1)#" sin

1
#

 (")$" sin

1
3

01

3
#

3  2
#

6. ! (1)k cos k1 (1)" cos (11)  (1)# cos (21)  (1)$ cos (31)  (1)% cos (41)
k1

(1)  1  (1)  1 4

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Addison-Wesley.

Section 5.2 Sigma Notation and Limits of Finite Sums


6

7. (a) ! 2kc1 2""  2#"  2$"  2%"  2&"  2'" 1  2  4  8  16  32


k1
5

(b) ! 2k 2!  2"  2#  2$  2%  2& 1  2  4  8  16  32


k0
4

(c) ! 2k1 2""  2!"  2""  2#"  2$"  2%" 1  2  4  8  16  32


k

"

All of them represent 1  2  4  8  16  32


6

8. (a) ! (2)k

(2)""  (2)#"  (2)$"  (2)%"  (2)&"  (2)'" 1  2  4  8  16  32

k1
5

(b) ! (1)k 2k (1)! 2!  ")" 2"  (1)# 2#  (1)$ 2$  (1)% 2%  (1)& 2& 1  2  4  8  16  32
k0
3

(c) ! (1)k1 2k2 ")#" 2##  (")"" 2"#  (")!" 2!#  (1)"" 2"#  (")#" 2##
k 2

 (1)$" 2$# 1  2  4  8  16  32;


(a) and (b) represent 1  2  4  8  16  32; (c) is not equivalent to the other two
4

(")k "
k1

9. (a) !
k2
2

(b) !
k0
1

(c) !
k

"

(1)# "
21

(")k
k1

(1)!
01

(")k
k2

(1) "
1  2

(")$ "
31

(")"
11

(")!
02

(")#
21

(")% "
41

1 

1

(")"
12

"
#

1 

"
#

"
#

"
3

"
3

"
3

(a) and (c) are equivalent; (b) is not equivalent to the other two.
4

10. (a) ! (k  1)# (1  1)#  (2  1)#  (3  1)#  (4  1)# 0  1  4  9


k1
3

(b) ! (k  1)# (1  1)#  (0  1)#  (1  1)#  (2  1)#  (3  1)# 0  1  4  9  16


k 1

"

(c) ! k# (3)#  (2)#  (1)# 9  4  1


k 3

(a) and (c) are equivalent to each other; (b) is not equivalent to the other two.
6

11. ! k

12. ! k#

k1

13. !

k1

15. ! (1)k1

14. ! 2k
k1

k1

k1

"
k

16. ! (1)k
k1

17. (a) ! 3ak 3 ! ak 3(5) 15


k1
n

(b) !
k1
n

bk
6

"
6

k1
n

! bk
k1

"
6

(6) 1

k1
n

k1
n

k1
n

k1
n

k1
n

k1

(c) ! (ak  bk ) ! ak  ! bk 5  6 1
(d) ! (ak  bk ) ! ak  ! bk 5  6 11
n

(e) ! (bk  2ak ) ! bk  2 ! ak 6  2(5) 16


k1

k1

"
#k

k1

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Addison-Wesley.

k
5

263

264

Chapter 5 Integration
n

k1
n

k1

18. (a) ! 8ak 8 ! ak 8(0) 0


n

k1

k1

(c) ! (ak  1) ! ak  ! 1 0  n n
k1

10

19. (a) ! k
k1

10(10  1)
#

(b) ! 250bk 250 ! bk 250(1) 250


k1
n

k1

k1

k1

k1

(d) ! (bk  1) ! bk  ! 1 "  n


10

(b) ! k#

55

k1

10(10  1)(2(10)  1)
6

385

13(13  1)(2(13)  1)
6

819

10

(c) ! k$ 10(10#  1) 55# 3025


k1

13

20. (a) ! k
k1

13(13  1)
#

13

(b) ! k#

91

k1

13

(c) ! k$ 13(13#  1) 91# 8281


k1

k1

k1

k1

k1

k1

k1

k1

k1

21. ! 2k 2 ! k 2 7(7 # ") 56


23. ! a3  k# b ! 3  ! k# 3(6) 

24. ! ak#  5b ! k#  ! 5

22. !
k1

6(6  ")(2(6)  1)
6

6(6  ")(2(6)  1)
6

1k
15

1
15

!k

1
15

k1

5(5 # 1) 1

73

 5(6) 61

k1

k1

k1

k1

k1

k1

k1

k1

 1)
25. ! k(3k  5) ! a3k#  5kb 3 ! k#  5 ! k 3 5(5  1)(2(5)
 5 5(5 # 1) 240
6

 1)
26. ! k(2k  1) ! a2k#  kb 2 ! k#  ! k 2 7(7  1)(2(7)

6

27. !

k$
225

k1

k1

 ! k 
7

28. ! k  !
k1

k1

k$
4

"
2 #5

k1

k1

! k $  ! k 
#

! k 
k1

"
4

"
#25

7(7  1)
#

308

5(5 # 1)  5(5 # 1) 3376


#

! k$ 7(7  1) 
#
k1

"
4

7(7 # 1) 588
500

29. (a) ! 3 3a7b 21

(b) ! 7 7a500b 3500

k1

k1

264

262

k3

j1

(c) Let j k  2 k j  2; if k 3 j 1 and if k 264 j 262 ! 10 ! 10 10a262b 2620

36

28

28

28

k9

j1

j1

j1

30. (a) Let j k  8 k j  8; if k 9 j 1 and if k 36 j 28 ! k ! a j  8b ! j  !8

28a28  1b
2

 )a28b 630
17

15

k3

j1

(b) Let j k  2 k j  2; if k 3 j 1 and if k 17 j 15 ! k2 ! a j  2b2


15

15

15

15

j1

j1

j1

j1

! a j2  4j  4b ! j2  ! 4j  ! 4

15a15  1ba2a15b  1b
6

4

15a15  1b
2

 4a15b

1240  480  60 1780

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Addison-Wesley.

Section 5.2 Sigma Notation and Limits of Finite Sums


71

(c) Let j k  17 k j  17; if k 18 j 1 and if k 71 j 54 !kak  1b


k3

54

54

54

54

54

j1

j1

j1

j1

! a j  17baa j  17b  1b ! a j2  33j  272b ! j2  ! 33j  ! 272


j1

54a54  1ba2a54b  1b
6

 33

54a54  1b
2

 272a54b 53955  49005  14688 117648

31. (a) ! 4 4n

(b) ! c cn

k1
n

k1

k1

k1

k1

(c) ! ak  1b ! k  ! 1

n an  1 b
2

n

32. (a) ! 1n  2n 1n  2nn 1  2n2


k1
n

(c) !
k1

k
n2

1 n an  1 b
n2
2

n2  n
2

(b) !
k1

c
n

c
n

nc

n1
2n

33. (a)

(b)

(c)

34. (a)

(b)

(c)

35. (a)

(b)

(c)

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Addison-Wesley.

265

266

Chapter 5 Integration

36. (a)

(b)

(c)

37. kx"  x! k k1.2  0k 1.2, kx#  x" k k1.5  1.2k 0.3, kx$  x# k k2.3  1.5k 0.8, kx%  x$ k k2.6  2.3k 0.3,
and kx&  x% k k3  2.6k 0.4; the largest is lPl 1.2.
38. kx"  x! k k1.6  (2)k 0.4, kx#  x" k k0.5  (1.6)k 1.1, kx$  x# k k0  (0.5)k 0.5,
kx%  x$ k k0.8  0k 0.8, and kx&  x% k k1  0.8k 0.2; the largest is lPl 1.1.
39. faxb "  x#

Let x

"!
n

!a"  c#i b "


n
$

n
n$

#  $n  n"#
'

. Thus,

n_

Let x

# 
'

$!
n

"
n#

$
n

!#ci $ ! 'i
n
n

i"

i"

Thus,

41. faxb x#  "

lim ! 'i
n_ i" n

Let x

$!
n

"

n
#( ! #
i
n
i"

n_ i1

"

"
$

#
$

and ci ix
$
n

")
n#

!i

i"

#
lim *n n# *n
n_

$
n
n

and ci ix

$i
n.

")
n#

$
n

i"

$
n

#n$  $n#  n
'n$

lim !a"  ci# b n"

The right-hand sum is


n an  " b
#

*n#  *n
n#

lim *  n* *.

!ac#i  "b $ ! $i #  " $


n
n
n

i"

i1

$
n

nan  "ba#n  "b


'n $

!an#  i# b

"
n$

i1

"

lim " 
40. faxb #x

!"  i #

"! #
i
n$
i1

"

and ci ix ni . The right-hand sum is


n

"
n

i1

"
n

n_

$i
n.
$
n

#( nan  "ba#n  "b

n$
'

The right-hand sum is


n

! *i##  "
n

i"

$

*
")  #(
*a#n$  $n#  nb
n  n#
$
 $ Thus,
#n $
#
n
#(
")  n  n*#
lim !ac#i  "b $n lim
 $
#
n_ i"
n_

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Addison-Wesley.

*  $ "#.

Section 5.2 Sigma Notation and Limits of Finite Sums


42. faxb $x#

"!
n

Let x
n

"
n

and ci ix ni . The right-hand sum is

!$c#i " !$ i # "


n

i"

#n$  $n#  n
#n$

lim
n_

43. faxb x  x# xa"  xb

i"

#  $n  n"#
#

#  $n  n"#
#

"!
n

"
n

Let x

#
#

$
n$

i"

. Thus, lim !$c#i "n


n_ i"

".

and ci ix ni . The right-hand sum is

n
"!
i
n#
i"

44. faxb $x  #x#

i"

" n a n  "b

n#
#

"  "n
#

$ nan  "ba#n  "b

n$
'

! i#

!aci  ci# b " ! i  i # "


n
n
n
n

i"

lim
n_

"  "n
#

Let x

"!
n

"
n

#  $n  n"#
'

"
#

#
'

n
$!
i
#
n
i"

n
#! #
i
$
n
i"

$n#  $n
#n#

#n#  $n  "
$n#

!a$ci  #c#i b " ! $i  # i # "


n
n
n
n

i"

i"

$ n a n  "b

n#
#

$  $n
#

 n#$ nan  "ba' #n  "b


n
# $  "
$

n_ i"

lim

$  $n
#

Let x

"!
n
n

"
n

#  $n  n"#
$

i"

i"

#n# an#  2n  "b


4n4
n

$
#

#
$

"$
' .

and ci ix ni . The right-hand sum is

!a2c3i b " !2 i 3 "


n
n
n

Thus,

. Thus, lim !a$ci  #c#i b "n

n#

&' .

and ci ix ni . The right-hand sum is


n

n
"! #
i
n$
i"

45. faxb 2x3

#
$
#
" nan  "ba#n  "b

n #n# n  #n '$nn$  n
'
n$
n
#  $n  n"#
. Thus, lim !aci  c#i b "n
'
n_ i"

n_

267

n#  2n  "
#n #

n
#! 3
i
n4
i"

"  #n  n"#
#

" #  "
lim !a2c3i b "n lim n# n#
n_ i"
n_

# n a n  "b
#
n4

"
#.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Addison-Wesley.

268

Chapter 5 Integration

46. faxb x2  x3

Let x

!  a"b
n
n

"
n

and ci "  ix "  ni . The rightn

2
$
hand sum is !ac#i  ci3 b "n !"  ni  "  ni n"
i1

! 2 

i1
n

!2
n
i"

2n anb 


n#  2n  "
4n#

4 6n  n#2

1 
4

5n  5
#n

4n2 6n#
3n2

lim 2 

5
#

5
n

2
n_

2
n

2
"
n#

5  5n
#

2


5
2

4 6n  n#2
3

1  2n 
4

7
12 .

4
3

1
4

5i
n

n
5!
i
n2
i"

%i
n2

n
%! 2
i
n3
i"

5 n an  "b

n2
#
"
n#

i
"
n3 n
3

i1
n

! n2 

i1
n
1! 3
i
n4
i"

5i
n2

% nan  "ba#n  "b

n3
'

%i2
n3

i3
n4

1 nan  "b

n4
#

. Thus, lim !ac#i  ci3 b n"


n_ i"

5.3 THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL

1.

'02 x# dx

2.

'"! 2x$ dx

3.

'(& ax#  3xb dx

4.

'"% "x dx

5.

'#$ 1 " x dx

6.

'0" 4  x# dx

7.

' ! % (sec x) dx

8.

'0 % (tan x) dx
1

9. (a)
(c)
(e)
(f)

10. (a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)

11. (a)
(c)

"
&
'#2 g(x) dx 0
(b) ' g(x) dx  ' g(x) dx 8
&
"
&
&
2
'"2 3f(x) dx 3'"2 f(x) dx 3(4) 12
(d) ' f(x) dx ' f(x) dx  ' f(x) dx 6  (4) 10
#
"
"
&
&
&
'" [f(x)  g(x)] dx '" f(x) dx  '" g(x) dx 6  8 2
'"& [4f(x)  g(x)] dx 4 '"& f(x) dx  '"& g(x) dx 4(6)  8 16

'"* 2f(x) dx 2 '"* f(x) dx 2(1) 2


'(* [f(x)  h(x)] dx '(*f(x) dx  '(* h(x) dx 5  4 9
'(* [2f(x)  3h(x)] dx 2 '(* f(x) dx  3 '(* h(x) dx 2(5)  3(4) 2
'*"f(x) dx  '"* f(x) dx (1) 1
'"( f(x) dx '"* f(x) dx  '(* f(x) dx 1  5 6
'*( [h(x)  f(x)] dx '(* [f(x)  h(x)] dx '(* f(x) dx  '(* h(x) dx 5  4 1
'"2 f(u) du '"2 f(x) dx 5
'#" f(t) dt  '"2 f(t) dt 5

(b)
(d)

'"2 3 f(z) dz 3 '"2 f(z) dz 53


'"2 [f(x)] dx  '"2 f(x) dx 5

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Addison-Wesley.

Section 5.3 The Definite Integral

'!$ g(t) dt  '$! g(t) dt 2


'$! [g(x)] dx  '$! g(x) dx 2

12. (a)
(c)

(b)

'"$ h(r) dr '"$ h(r) dr  '"" h(r) dr 6  0 6


"
$
$
 ' h(u) du   ' h(u) du ' h(u) du 6
$
"
"

14. (a)
(b)

15. The area of the trapezoid is A


"
#

(5  2)(6) 21

21 square units

"
#

(3  1)(1) 2

"
#

(B  b)h

"
#

(B  b)h

'# #x  3 dx
%

16. The area of the trapezoid is A

(d)

'$! g(u) du '$! g(t) dt 2


'$! g(r)2 dr "2 '$! g(t) dt "2 2 1

'$% f(z) dz '!% f(z) dz  '!$ f(z) dz 7  3 4


'%$ f(t) dt  '$% f(t) dt 4

13. (a)

(b)

'"#

$#

(2x  4) dx

2 square units

17. The area of the semicircle is A

9
#

"
#

1r#

"
#

1(3)#

'$$ 9  x# dx 9# 1 square units

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Addison-Wesley.

269

270

Chapter 5 Integration

18. The graph of the quarter circle is A


41

"
4

1 r#

"
4

1(4)#

'%! 16  x# dx 41 square units

19. The area of the triangle on the left is A

"
#

bh

2. The area of the triangle on the right is A

"
#

(1)(1)

"
#.

(2)(2)
bh

Then, the total area is 2.5

'# kxk dx 2.5 square units


"

20. The area of the triangle is A

"
#
"
#

"
#

bh

'" a1  kxkb dx 1 square unit


"

21. The area of the triangular peak is A

"
#

(2)(1) 1

"
#

bh

"
#

(2)(1) 1.

The area of the rectangular base is S jw (2)(1) 2.


Then the total area is 3

'"" a2  kxkb dx 3 square units

22. y 1  1  x# y  1 1  x#
(y  1)# 1  x# x#  (y  1)# 1, a circle with
center (! ") and radius of 1 y 1  1  x# is the
upper semicircle. The area of this semicircle is
A "# 1r# "# 1(1)# 1# . The area of the rectangular base
is A jw (2)(1) 2. Then the total area is 2 

'"" 1  1  x# dx 2  1# square units

1
#

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Addison-Wesley.

Section 5.3 The Definite Integral


23.

'!b x2 dx "# (b)( b2 ) b4

24.

'!b 4x dx "# b(4b) 2b#

25.

'ab 2s ds "# b(2b)  "# a(2a) b#  a#

26.

'ab 3t dt "# b(3b)  "# a(3a) 3# ab#  a# b

(b)

'02 4  x2 dx "4 1a2b2 1

27. (a)

'22 4  x2 dx "# 1a2b2 21

28. (a)

'01 3x  1  x2 dx '01 3x dx  '01 1  x2 dx  "# a1ba3b  4" 1a1b2 14  3#

(b)

271

'01 3x  1  x2 dx '01 3x dx  '01 3x dx  '11 1  x2 dx  "# a1ba3b  "# a1ba3b  2" 1a1b2 12

29.

'"

31.

'1#1 ) d) (2#1)

33.

'0

35.

'!"# t# dt 3

37.

'a#a x dx (2a)#

39.

'!

x dx

2
#

(1)#
#

1#
#

31 #
#

"
#

30.

'!&#& x dx (2.5)#

32.

'& # # r dr 5#2

x dx

3
7

7
3

34.

'!!$ s# ds (0.3)3

"
24

36.

'!1# )# d) 3

a#
#

3a#
#

38.

'a

$
b

b
3

40.

'!$b x# dx (3b)3

(0.5)#
#

1 $
#

$a

x# dx

" $
#

3
#

2
#

24

0.009

1$
#4

x dx

3a
#

a#
#

a#

9b$

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Addison-Wesley.

272

Chapter 5 Integration

41.

'$" 7 dx 7(1  3) 14

43.

'!2 (2t  3) dt 2 '"" t dt  '!2 3 dt 2 2#

44.

'!

45.

'#" 1  #z dz '#" 1 dz  '#" #z dz '#" 1 dz  "# '"# z dz 1[1  2]  "# 2#  1# "  "# 3#  74

46.

'$! (2z  3) dz '$! 2z dz  '$! 3 dz 2 '!$ z dz  '$! 3 dz 2 3#

47.

'"# 3u# du 3 '"# u# du 3 '!# u# du  '!" u# du 3 23

48.

'"#" 24u# du 24 '"#"

49.

'!# a3x#  x  5b dx 3 '!# x# dx  '!# x dx  '!# 5 dx 3 23

50.

'"! a3x#  x  5b dx  '!" a3x#  x  5b dx  3 '!" x# dx  '!" x dx  '!" 5 dx

t  2 dt

'!

'!2 5x dx 5 '!2 x dx 5 2#

42.

t dt 

'!

2 dt

0#
#

0#
#

'!"

u# du 

'!"#

0$
3

0$
3

51. Let ?x

b0
n

b
n

 1# 

0#
#

 "3 

u# du 24 13 

 3 13 

 5(1  0)  3#  5

0$
3

0#
#

 3[0  3] 9  9 0

0$
3

"# $
3

 2# 

3 23 

24

0#
#

78
3

1$
3

 5[2  0] (8  2)  10 0

7
#

x# 2?x xn " (n  1)?x, xn n?x b.


Let the ck 's be the right end-points of the subintervals
c" x" , c# x# , and so on. The rectangles
defined have areas:
f(c" ) ?x f(?x) ?x 3(?x)# ?x 3(?x)$
f(c# ) ?x f(2?x) ?x 3(2?x)# ?x 3(2)# (?x)$
f(c$ ) ?x f(3?x) ?x 3(3?x)# ?x 3(3)# (?x)$

f(cn ) ?x f(n?x) ?x 3(n?x)# ?x 3(n)# (?x)$


n

Then Sn ! f(ck ) ?x ! 3k# (?x)$


k1
n

k1

 1)
3(?x)$ ! k# 3 bn$ n(n  1)(2n

6
$

k1

b
#

2 

3
n

"
n#

'!b 3x# dx n lim


_

b$
#

2 

3
n

"
n#

3 37 7

and let x! 0, x" ?x,

10

 2 2  0 1  2 1

u# du 24

0#
#

 3(2  0) 4  6 2
#

b$ .

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Addison-Wesley.

Section 5.3 The Definite Integral


52. Let ?x

b0
n

and let x! 0, x" ?x,

b
n

x# 2?x xn " (n  1)?x, xn n?x b.


Let the ck 's be the right end-points of the subintervals
c" x" , c# x# , and so on. The rectangles
defined have areas:
f(c" ) ?x f(?x) ?x 1(?x)# ?x 1(?x)$
f(c# ) ?x f(2?x) ?x 1(2?x)# ?x 1(2)# (?x)$
f(c$ ) ?x f(3?x) ?x 1(3?x)# ?x 1(3)# (?x)$

f(cn ) ?x f(n?x) ?x 1(n?x)# ?x 1(n)# (?x)$


n

Then Sn ! f(ck ) ?x ! 1k# (?x)$


k1
n

k1

 1)
1(?x)$ ! k# 1 bn$ n(n  1)(2n

6
$

k1

1b
6

2 

53. Let ?x

3
n

b0
n

"
n#

b
n

'!b 1x# dx n lim


_

1 b$
6

2 

3
n

"
n#

1 b$
3 .

and let x! 0, x" ?x,

x# 2?x xn " (n  1)?x, xn n?x b.


Let the ck 's be the right end-points of the subintervals
c" x" , c# x# , and so on. The rectangles
defined have areas:
f(c" ) ?x f(?x) ?x 2(?x)(?x) 2(?x)#
f(c# ) ?x f(2?x) ?x 2(2?x)(?x) 2(2)(?x)#
f(c$ ) ?x f(3?x) ?x 2(3?x)(?x) 2(3)(?x)#

f(cn ) ?x f(n?x) ?x 2(n?x)(?x) 2(n)(?x)#


n

Then Sn ! f(ck ) ?x ! 2k(?x)#


k1
n

k1

2(?x)# ! k
k1

b# 1  "n
54. Let ?x

b0
n

#
2 bn# n(n 2 1)

'!b 2x dx n lim
_
b
n

b# 1  n" b# .

and let x! 0, x" ?x,

x# 2?x xn " (n  1)?x, xn n?x b.


Let the ck 's be the right end-points of the subintervals
c" x" , c# x# , and so on. The rectangles
defined have areas:
"
#

f(c" ) ?x f(?x) ?x ?x
#  1 (?x) # (?x)  ?x
f(c# ) ?x f(2?x) ?x 2?# x  1 (?x) "# (2)(?x)#  ?x
f(c$ ) ?x f(3?x) ?x 3?# x  1 (?x)

"
#

(3)(?x)#  ?x

f(cn ) ?x f(n?x) ?x n?# x  1 (?x)

"
#

(n)(?x)#  ?x

k1

k1

Then Sn ! f(ck ) ?x ! "# k(?x)#  ?x

"
4

b# 1  1n  b

'! x#  1 dx n lim
_
b

"
#

k1

k1

(?x)# ! k  ?x ! 1

4" b# 1  n"  b

"
4

"
#

bn# n(n 2 1)  bn (n)


#

b#  b.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Addison-Wesley.

273

274

Chapter 5 Integration

55. av(f) 3" 0

'!

"
3

'!

x# dx 

"
3

3
3

56. av(f) 3 " 0



'!

"
3

ax#  1b dx

"
3

1 dx

3  0 1  1 0.

'!$  x# dx 3"  #" '!$ x# dx


#

 "6 33  3# ;  x#  3# .

'!" a3x#  1b dx
"
"
3 ' x# dx  ' 1 dx 3 13  (1  0)
!
!

57. av(f) 1 " 0

#.

'!" a3x#  3b dx
"
"
3 ' x# dx  ' 3 dx 3 13  3(1  0)
!
!

58. av(f) 1 " 0

#.

'!$ (t  1)# dt
$
$
$
3" ' t# dt  32 ' t dt  3" ' 1 dt
!
!
!

59. av(f) 3 " 0

"
3

33  32 3# 

0#
#

 3" (3  0) 1.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Addison-Wesley.