You are on page 1of 69

# KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA

## Umm Al-Qura University

College of Engineering & Islamic Architecture

## Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering

2. Basic Electrical Circuits

## Houssem Rafik El-Hana BOUCHEKARA 2009/2010 1430/1431

BASIC ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS .......................................................................................... 4 2.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 4 2.2 BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS ..................................................................................... 5 2.2.1 Charge ................................................................................................................... 5 2.2.2 Current................................................................................................................... 5 2.2.3 Voltage .................................................................................................................. 7 2.2.4 Power and Energy ................................................................................................. 8 2.2.5 Circuit elements ................................................................................................... 11
2.2.5.1 2.2.5.2 2.2.5.3 Passive elements (loads) ............................................................................................ 11 Active elements ......................................................................................................... 11 Sign convention .......................................................................................................... 12 Ohms Law.................................................................................................................. 13 Conductance .............................................................................................................. 14

2.2.6

Resistor ................................................................................................................ 13

2.2.6.1 2.2.6.2

2.2.7 Capacitor ............................................................................................................. 17 2.2.8 Inductor ............................................................................................................... 20 2.3 CIRCUIT THEOREMS ....................................................................................................... 23 2.3.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 23 2.3.2 Definitions and Terminologies ............................................................................. 23 2.3.3 Ohms Law ........................................................................................................... 26 2.3.4 Kirchhoffs Laws................................................................................................... 26
2.3.4.1 2.3.4.2 2.3.4.3 2.3.4.4 Series resistors and voltage division .......................................................................... 30 Parallel resistors and current division ........................................................................ 32 Series and parallel capacitors..................................................................................... 32 Series and parallel inductors ...................................................................................... 32 Mesh Analysis ............................................................................................................ 35 Nodal Analysis ............................................................................................................ 35

2.3.5

## Electric Circuits Analysis ...................................................................................... 35

2.3.5.1 2.3.5.2

2.3.6 Superposition Theorem ....................................................................................... 38 2.3.7 Thvenins Theorem .............................................................................................. 38 2.3.8 Nortons Theorem................................................................................................ 38 2.3.9 Source Transformation ........................................................................................ 38 2.3.10 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem .................................................................. 38 2.3.11 Mesh and Nodal Analysis by Inspection ............................................................ 38 2.4 SINUSOIDS AND PHASORS ............................................................................................... 39 2.4.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 39 2.4.2 Sinusoids .............................................................................................................. 39 2.4.1 Phasors ................................................................................................................ 42 2.4.2 Phasor Relationship for Circuit Element .............................................................. 46
2.4.2.1 2.4.2.2 2.4.2.3 Resistor ...................................................................................................................... 46 Inductor...................................................................................................................... 48 Capacitor .................................................................................................................... 49

## 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4.5

Impedance and Admittance ................................................................................ 50 Kirchhoff laws in the frequency domain .............................................................. 52 Other Sinusoidal Parameters ............................................................................... 52
Mean or Average Value.............................................................................................. 52 Effective or RMS Value ............................................................................................... 53

2.4.5.1 2.4.5.2

2.4.6 Power in AC Circuits ............................................................................................. 53 2.4.7 Power Factor ....................................................................................................... 55 2.4.8 Power Factor Correction ...................................................................................... 57 2.5 THREE PHASE CIRCUITS ................................................................................................... 58

## 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.5.4 2.5.5 2.5.6 2.5.7

objectives............................................................................................................. 58 Three-Phase Circuits Overview ............................................................................ 58 WYE CONNECTION .............................................................................................. 60 DELTA CONNECTIONS .......................................................................................... 62 THREE-PHASE POWER ......................................................................................... 64 THREE-PHASE CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS ............................................................... 65 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................... 69

## 2 BASIC ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS

2.1
INTRODUCTION

Electric circuit theory and electromagnetic theory are the two fundamental theories upon which all branches of electrical engineering are built. Many branches of electrical engineering, such as power, electric machines, control, electronics, communications, and instrumentations, are based on electric circuit theory. Therefore, the basic electric circuit theory is the most important course for an electrical engineering student and always an excellent starting point for a beginning student in electrical engineering education. Circuit theory is also a valuable to students specializing in other branches of the physical sciences because circuits are good model for the study of energy systems in general, and because the applied mathematics, physics, and topology involved. In electrical engineering, we are often interested in communicating or transferring energy from one point to another. To do this requires an interconnection of electrical devices. Such interconnection is referred to as an electric circuit and each component of the circuit is known as an element.

## An electric circuit is an interconnection of electrical elements.

A simple electric circuit is shown in Fig. 2.1. It consists of three basic components: a battery, a lamp and connecting wires. Such a simple circuit can exist by itself; it has several applications, such as a torch light, a search lights and so forth.

## 2.2 BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS

2.2.1 CHARGE
The concept of electrical charge is the underlying principle for explaining all electrical phenomena. Also the most basic quantity in an electric circuit is the electric charge. We all experience the effect of electric charge when we try to remove our wool sweater and have it stick to our body or walk across a carpet and receive a shock.

Charge is an electrical property of the atomic particles of which matter consists, measured in coulombs (C). Charge, positive or negative, is denoted by the letter q or Q.

We know from elementary physics that all matter is made of fundamental buildings blocks known as atoms and that each atom consists of electrons, protons, and neutrons. We also know that the charge e on an electron is negative and equal in magnitude to 1.60210-19 C, while a proton carries a positive charge of the same magnitude as the electron. The presence of equal numbers of protons and electrons leaves an atom neutrally charged.

2.2.2 CURRENT

Current can be defined as the motion of charge through a conducting material, measured in Ampere (A). Electric current, is denoted by the letter i or I.

The unit of current is the ampere abbreviated as (A) and corresponds to the quantity of total charge that passes through an arbitrary cross section of a conducting material per unit second. (The name of the unit is a tribute to the French scientist Andr Marie Ampre.) Mathematically, = Or
(2. 1)

(2. 2)

Where is the symbol of charge measured in Coulombs (C), I is the current in amperes (A) and t is the time in second (s). The current can also be defined as the rate of charge passing through a point in an electric circuit i.e. =
(2. 3)

A constant current (also known as a direct current or DC) is denoted by symbol I whereas a time-varying current (also known as alternating current or AC) is represented by the symbol or (). Figure 2.2 shows direct current and alternating current.

Figure 2. 1 : Two common type of current: (a) direct current (DC), (b) alternative current (AC).

Example 2. 1: Determine the current in a circuit if a charge of 80 coulombs passes a given point in 20 seconds (s). Solution: = Example 2. 2: How much charge is represented by 4.600 electrons? Solution: Each electron has -1.60210-19 C. Hence 4.600 electrons will have: 1.602 1019 4.600 = 7.369 1016 80 = = 4 20

Example 2. 3 : The total charge entering a terminal is given by = 5 sin 4 . Calculate the current at = 0.5 . Solution: = = + At = 0.5 . = = 31.42 Example 2. 4 : Determine the total charge entering a terminal between = 1 and = 2 if the current passing the terminal is = 3 2 . Solution:

=
=

= .

2.2.3 VOLTAGE
Charge moving in an electric circuit gives rise to a current, as stated in the preceding section. Naturally, it must take some work, or energy, for the charge to move between two points in a circuit, say, from point a to point b. The total work per unit charge associated with the motion of charge between two points is called voltage. Thus, the units of voltage are those of energy per unit charge; they have been called volts in honor of Alessandro Volta.

Voltage (or potential difference) is the energy required to move charge from one point to the other, measured in volts (V). Voltage is denoted by the letter v or V.

We write: =

(2. 4)

where is energy in joule (J) and is charge in coulombs (C). 1 volt = 1 joule/coulomb = 1 newton meter/coulomb Like electric current, a constant voltage is called a DC voltage and it is represented by V, whereas a sinusoidal time-varying voltage is called an AC voltage and it is represented by . The electromotive force (e.m.f) provided by a source of energy such as battery (DC voltage) or an electric generator (AC voltage) is measured in volts.

## 2.2.4 POWER AND ENERGY

Although current and voltage are the two basic variables in an electric circuit, they are not sufficient by themselves. For practical purposes, we need to know how much power an electric device can handle. We also know that when we pay our bills to the electric utility companies, we are paying for the electric energy consumed over a certain period of time. Thus power and energy calculations are important in circuit analysis.

Power is the time rate of expending or absorbing energy, measured in watts (W). Power, is denoted by the letter p or P.

## We write this relationship as: =

(2. 5)

Where p is power in watts (W), w is energy in joules (J), and t is time in seconds (s). From voltage and current equations, it follows that: = Or =
(2. 7)

= . =

(2. 6)

The power in this equation is a time-varying quantity and is called the instantaneous power. Thus, the power absorbed or supplied by an element is the product of the voltage across the element and the current through it. It is important to realize that, just like voltage, power is a signed quantity, and that it is necessary to make a distinction between positive and negative power. The electrical engineering community uniformly adopts the passive sign convention, which simply states that the power dissipated by a load is a positive quantity (or, conversely, that the power generated by a source is a positive quantity). By the passive sign convention, current enters through the positive polarity of the voltage. In this case, = + > 0 implies that the element is absorbing power. However, if = < 0, as in Fig. 2.3, the element is releasing or supplying power. . Passive sign convention is satisfied when the current enters through the positive terminal of an element and = +. If the current enters through the negative terminal, =

## Figure 2. 2: The passive sign convention.

The law of conservation of energy must be obeyed in any electric circuit. For this reason the algebraic sum of power in a circuit, at any instant of time, must be zero: = 0
(2. 8)

This again confirms the fact that the total power supplied to the circuit must balance the total power absorbed. From Eq.(2. 6), the energy absorbed or supplied by an element from 0 to time is :

=
0

=
0

(2. 9)

## Energy is the capacity to do work, measured in joules (J).

Although the unit of energy is the joule, when dealing large amounts of energy, the unit used is the kilowatt hour (kWh) where 1 Wh=3600 J. Example 2. 5: A source e.m.f. of 5 V supplies a current of 3A for 10 minutes. How much energy is provided in this time? Solution: = = 5 3 10 60 = 9 Example 2. 6: An electric heater consumes 1.8Mj when connected to a 250 V supply for 30 minutes. Find the power rating of the heater and the current taken from the supply.

## I.e. power rating of heater = 1kW. = Thus = 1000 = = 4 250

Hence the current taken from the supply is 4A. Example 2. 7: An energy sources forces a constant current of 2A for 10 s to flow through a lightbulb. If 2.3 kJ is given off in the form of light and heat energy, calculate the voltage drop across the bulb. Solution: The total charge is: = = 2 10 = 20 The total voltage drop is: = Example 2. 8: Find the power delivered to an element at = 3 if the current entering its positive terminals is: = 5 cos 60 And the voltage is: (a) = 3 , (b) = 3 dt . Solution: (a) The voltage is = 3 = 15 cos 60 ; hence, the power is : = = 75 cos 2 60 At = 3 , = 75 cos2 60 3 103 = 53.48
di

## 2.3 103 = = 115 20

10

(b) We find the voltage and the power as = 3 = 3 60 5 sin 60 = 900 sin 60 = = 4500 sin 60 cos 60 At = 3 , = 4500 sin 0.18 cos 0.18 = 6.396

## 2.2.5 CIRCUIT ELEMENTS

As we discussed in the Introduction, an element is the basic buildings block of a circuit. An electric circuit is simply an interconnection of elements there are two types of elements found in electric circuits: passive elements and active elements. An active element is capable of generating energy while a passive element is not. Our aim in this section is to gain familiarity with some important passive and active elements.

A load generally refers to a component or a piece of equipment to the output of an electric circuit. In its fundamental form, the load is represented by one or a combination of the following circuit elements: 1. Resistor (R). 2. Inductor (L). 3. Capacitor (C). A load can either be resistive, inductive or capacitive nature or a blend of them. For example, a light bulb is a purely resistive load whereas a transformer is both inductive and resistive.

## 2.2.5.2 Active elements

The most important active elements are voltage or current sources that generally deliver power to the circuit connected to them. There are two kinds of sources: independent and dependent sources. An ideal independent source is an active element that provides a specified voltage or current that is completely independent of other circuit variables. An ideal dependent (or controlled) source is an active element in which the source quantity is controlled by another voltage or current. It should be noted that an ideal voltage source (dependent or independent) will produce any current required to ensure that the terminal voltage is as stated; whereas an ideal current source will produce the necessary voltage to ensure the stated current flow. Table 2.1 shows the basic circuit elements along with their symbols and schematics used in an electric circuit.

11

## Circuit Element Resistor

Symbol R

Schematic

Inductor

Capacitor

Independent voltage source Independent current source Dependent voltage source Dependent current source

## 2.2.5.3 Sign convention

It is common to think of current as the flow of electrons. However, the standard convention is to take the flow of protons to determine the direction of the current.

## Figure 2. 3: Sign convention.

In a given circuit, the current direction depends on the polarity of the source voltage. Current always flow from positive (high potential) side to the negative (low potential) side of the source as shown in the schematic diagram of Figure 2.4(a) where Vs is

12

the source voltage, VL is the voltage across the load and I is the loop current flowing in the clockwise direction. Please observe that the voltage polarity and current direction in a sink is opposite to that of the source. In Source current leaves from the positive terminal In Load (Sink) current enters from the positive terminal

2.2.6 RESISTOR
Materials in general have a characteristic behavior of resisting the flow of electric charge. This physical property, or ability to resist current, is known as resistance and is represented by the symbol R.

The resistance R of an element denotes its ability to resist the flow of electric current, it is measured in ohms (). The circuit element used to model the currentresisting behavior of a material is the resistor. The resistance of any material with a uniform cross sectional area A depends on A and its length , as shown in Fig. 2.3. In mathematical form: =
(2. 10)

Where is known as the resistivity of the material in ohm-meters. To describe the resistance of a resistor and hence its characteristics, it is important to define the Ohms law.

## 2.2.6.1 Ohms Law

Ohms law states that the voltage v across a resistor is directly proportional to the current i flowing through the resistor.

Mathematically =
(2. 11)

13

(2. 12)

Where the constant of proportionality R is called the resistance or electrical resistance, measured in ohms (). Example 2. 9: Find R if the voltage V and current I are equal to 10 V and 5 A respectively. Solution: Using Ohms law = 10 = = 2 5

A short circuit is a circuit element with resistance approaching zero. An open circuit is a circuit element with resistance approaching infinity. .

2.2.6.2 Conductance
A useful quantity in circuit analysis is the exact opposite of resistance R, Known as conductance and denoted by G: = 1 =
(2. 13)

Where G is measured in Siemens () and sometimes also represented by the unit mho (ohm spelled back-ward), with the symbol ()(upside-down omega).

Conductance is the ability of an element to conduct electric current; it is measured in mhos or Siemens (S).

The power disspated by a resistor can also be expressed in terms of R using previous equations:

14

= = 2 =

(2. 14)

## The power dissipated by a resistor may also be expressed in terms of G as: = = 2 = 2

(2. 15)

We should note two things from the two previous equations: 1. The power dissipated in a resistor is a nonlinear function of either current or voltage. 2. Since R and G are positive quantities, the power dissipated in a resistor is always positive. Thus, a resistor always absorbs power from the circuit. Example 2. 10: An electric iron draws 2 A at 120 V. find its resistance. Solution: From Ohms law = Example 2. 11: A light bulb draws 0.5 A current at an input voltage of 230 V. determine the resistance of the filament and also the power dissipated. Solution: From Ohms law = 230 = = 460 0.5 120 = = 60 2

Since a bulb is purely resistive load, therefore all the power is dissipated in the form of heat. This can be calculated using any of three power relationships shown above = = 230 0.5 = 115 = 2 = 0.5 = Example 2. 12: In the circuit shown in Fig. 2.5, calculate the current I, the conductance G, and the power p.
2

460 = 115

15

## Figure 2. 4: Electric circuit of example 2.12.

Solution: The voltage across the resistor is the same as the source voltage (30V) because the resistor and the voltage source are connected to the same pair of terminals. Hence, the current is: = The conductance is = 1 1 = = 0.2 5 103 30 = = 6 5 103

We can calculate the power in various ways: = = 30 6 103 = 180 = 2 = 6 103 2 5 103 = 180 2 (30)2 = = = 180 5 103 Example 2. 13: For the circuit shown in Fig 2.6, calculate the voltage v, the conductance G, and the power p.

## Figure 2. 5 : Electric circuit of example 2.13.

16

Solution: Answer: 20 V, 100S, 40mW. Example 2. 14 A voltage source of 20 sin is connected across a 5 resistor. Find the current through the resistor and the power dissipated. Solution: = Hence, = = 80 sin2 20 sin = = 4 sin 5 103

2.2.7 CAPACITOR
A capacitor is a passive element designed to store energy in its electric field. Besides resistors, capacitors are the most common electrical components. Capacitors are used extensively in electronics, communications, computers, and power systems. For example, they are used in the tuning circuits of radio receivers and as dynamic memory elements in computer systems.

## A capacitor consists of two conducting plates separated by an insulator (or dielectric).

In many practical applications, the plates may be aluminum foil while the dielectric may be air, ceramic, paper, or mica. When a voltage source v is connected to the capacitor, the source deposits a positive charge q on one plate and a negative charge q on the other. The capacitor is said to store the electric charge. The amount of charge stored, represented by q, is directly proportional to the applied voltage v so that: =
(2. 16)

where C, the constant of proportionality, is known as the capacitance of the capacitor. The unit of capacitance is the farad (F), in honor of the English physicist Michael Faraday. The relationship between voltage and current for a capacitor is governed by the following equation:

17

= = 1

(2. 17)

+ (0)
0

(2. 18)

where C is the capacitance measured in Farads (F) and v(0) is the initial voltage or initial charge stored in the capacitor. When v = V (constant DC voltage), = 0 and = 0. Hence a capacitor acts as an open circuit to DC. Previous equation shows that capacitor voltage depends on the past history of the capacitor current. Hence, the capacitor has memorya property that is often exploited. The instantaneous power delivered to the capacitor is: = =

(2. 19)

1 = 2 2 =

(2. 20)

## We note that = 0, because the capacitor was unchanged at = . Thus, 1 = 2 2 = 2 2

(2. 21)

(2. 22)

This energy is stored in the electric field of the capacitor which is supplied back to the circuit when the actual source is removed. Example 2. 15: (a) Calculate the charge stored on a 3-pF capacitor with 20 V across it. (b) Find the energy stored in the capacitor. Solution: (a) since = , = 3 1012 20 = 60 (b) The energy stored is 1 1 = 2 = 3 1012 400 = 600 2 2 Example 2. 16: The voltage across a 5*F capacitor is:

18

= 10 cos 6000 Calculate the current through it. Solution: By definition, the current is: = = 5 106 10 cos 6000

= 5 106 6000 10 sin 6000 = 0.3 sin 6000 Example 2. 17: Determine the voltage across a 2*F capacitor if the current through it is: = 6 3000 Assume that the initial capacitor voltage is zero. Solution: Since = And 0 = 0 = 1 2 106
0

+ (0)
0

6 3000 . 103

= 1 3000 Example 2. 18: Determine the current through a 200-F capacitor whose voltage ()is shown in Fig. 2.7.

## Figure 2. 6: For example 2.18.

19

Solution: The voltage waveform can be described mathematically as 50 100 50 = 200 + 50 0 0 < < 1 1 < < 3 3 < < 4

The current waveform is a shown in Fig .2.8 and can be described mathematically as 10 10 = 10 0 0 < < 1 1 < < 3 3 < < 4

## Figure 2. 7: For example 2.18.

2.2.8 INDUCTOR
An inductor is a passive element designed to store energy in its magnetic field. Inductors find numerous applications in electronic and power systems. They are used in power supplies, transformers, radios, TVs, radars, and electric motors. Any conductor of electric current has inductive properties and may be regarded as an inductor. But in order to enhance the inductive effect, a practical inductor is usually formed into a cylindrical coil of a ferromagnetic material with many turns of conducting wire.

## An inductor consists of a coil of conducting wire.

In an inductor, the relationship between voltage and current is given by the following differential equation:

20

= Or = 1

(2. 23)

+ (0)
0

(2. 24)

where L is the constant of proportionality called the inductance of the inductor. The unit of inductance is the henry (H), named in honor of the American inventor Joseph Henry, and (0) is the initial current stored in the magnetic field of the inductor.

Inductance is the property whereby an inductor exhibits opposition to the change of current flowing through it, measured in henrys (H).

When i = I (constant DC current), = 0, v = 0. Hence an inductor acts as a short circuit to DC. The inductor is designed to store energy in its magnetic field. The energy stored can be obtained from previous equations. The power delivered to the inductor is: = =

(2. 25)

## The energy stored is:

(2. 26)

1 1 = 2 2 2 2

(2. 27)

Since, = 0 1 = 2 2
(2. 28)

This energy is stored in the magnetic field of the inductor which can be supplied back to the circuit when the actual source is removed.

21

Example 2. 19: The current through a 0.1 H inductors is = 10 5 . Find the voltage across the inductor and the energy stored in it. Solution: Since, = and = 0.1 = 0.1 10 5 = 5 + 5 5 = 5 1 5

The energy stored is: 1 1 = 2 = 0.1 100 2 10 = 5 2 10 2 2 Example 2. 20: Find the current through a 5 H inductor if the voltage across it is:
2 = 30 0

> 0 < 0

Also find the energy stored within 0 < < 5 . Solution: Since =
1 0

+ (0 ) and = 5 , = 1
0

30 2 + 0 = 2 3

5

=
0

60 5 = 156.25

22

## 2.3 CIRCUIT THEOREMS

2.3.1 INTRODUCTION
This section outlines the most commonly used laws and theorems that are required to analyze and solve electric circuits. Relationships between various laws and equation writing techniques by inspection are also provided. Several examples are shown demonstrating various aspects of the laws. In addition, situations are presented where it is not possible to directly apply the concepts and potential remedies are provided.

## 2.3.2 DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGIES

In the following, various definitions and terminologies frequently used in circuit analysis are outlined. Electric Network: a connection of various circuit elements can be termed as an electric network. The circuit diagram shown in Figure 2.9 is an electric network.

A branch represents a single element such as a voltage source or a resistor. A node is the point of connection between two or more branches. A loop is any closed path in a circuit. Two or more elements are in series if they are cascaded or connected sequentially and consequently carry the same current. Two or more elements are in parallel if they are connected to the same two nodes and consequently have the same voltage across them.

In other words, a branch represents any two-terminal element. The circuit in Fig. 2.9 has five branches, namely, the 10-V voltage source, the 2-A current source, and the three resistors. A node is usually indicated by a dot in a circuit. If a short circuit (a connecting wire) connects two nodes, the two nodes constitute a single node. The circuit in Fig. 2.9 has three nodes a, b, and c. Notice that the three points that form node b are connected by perfectly conducting wires and therefore constitute a single point. The same is true of the four points forming node c. We demonstrate that the circuit in Fig. 2.9-(a) has only three nodes by redrawing the circuit in Fig. 2.9-(b). The two circuits in Figs. 2.9-(a) and 2.9-(b) are identical. However, for the sake of clarity, nodes b and c are spread out with perfect conductors as in Fig. 2.9-(a).

23

## Figure 2. 8: An electric network showing nodes, branches, elements and loop.

A loop is a closed path formed by starting at a node, passing through a set of nodes, and returning to the starting node without passing through any node more than once. A loop is said to be independent if it contains a branch which is not in any other loop. Independent loops or paths result in independent sets of equations. For example, the closed path abca containing the 2- resistor in Fig. 2.9-(b) is a loop. Another loop is the closed path bcb containing the 3- resistor and the current source. Although one can identify six loops in Fig. 2.9-(b), only three of them are independent. A network with b branches, n nodes, and l independent loops will satisfy the fundamental theorem of network topology: = + 1
(2. 29)

24

Example 2. 21: Determine the number of branches and nodes in the circuit shown in Fig.2.10. Identify which elements are in series and which are in parallel.

## Figure 2. 9: For example 2.21.

Solution: Since there are four elements in the circuit, the circuit has four branches 10 V, 5, 6, and 2 A. The circuit has three nodes as identified in Fig. 2.11. The 5- resistor is in series with the 10-V voltage source because the same current would flow in both. The 6- resistor is in parallel with the 2-A current source because both are connected to the same nodes 2 and 3.

## Figure 2. 10: The three nodes in the circuit of Fig. 2.10.

Example 2. 22: How many branches and nodes does the circuit in Fig. 2.12 have? Identify the elements that are in series and in parallel.

## Figure 2. 11: For example 2.22.

25

Solution: Five branches and three nodes are identified in Fig. 2.13. The 1- and 2- resistors are in parallel. The 4- resistor and 10-V source are also in parallel.

## 2.3.3 OHMS LAW

See section 2.2.6.1.

## 2.3.4 KIRCHHOFFS LAWS

Arguably the most common and useful set of laws for solving electric circuits are the Kirchhoffs voltage and current laws. Several other useful relationships can be derived based on these laws. These laws are formally known as Kirchhoffs current law (KCL) and Kirchhoffs voltage law (KVL).

KCL is based on the law of conservation of charge, while KVL is based on the principle of conservation of energy. Kirchhoffs current law (KCL) states that the algebraic sum of currents entering a node (or a closed boundary) is zero. In other words; the sum of the currents entering a node is equal to the sum of the currents leaving the node. Kirchhoffs voltage law (KVL) states that the algebraic sum of all voltages around a closed path (or loop) is zero. In other words; sum of voltage drops = sum of voltage rises

## Mathematically, KCL implies that:

= 0
=1

(2. 30)

26

where N is the number of branches connected to the node and is the nth current entering (or leaving) the node. By this law, currents entering a node may be regarded as positive, while currents leaving the node may be taken as negative or vice versa. From KCL and (2. 30) we can write: =
(2. 31)

For example consider the node in Fig. 2.14. Applying KCL gives 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 0 Thus, 1 + 3 + 4 = 2 + 5

## Expressed mathematically, KVL states that:

= 0
=1

(2. 32)

Where M is the number of voltages in the loop (or the number of branches in the loop) and is the voltage. To illustrate KVL, consider the circuit in Fig. 2.15. The sign on each voltage is the polarity of the terminal encountered first as we travel around the loop. We can start with any branch and go around the loop either clockwise or counterclockwise. Thus, KVL yields: 1 + 2 + 3 4 + 5 = 0 Rearranging terms gives: 1 + 4 = 2 + 3 + 5

27

## Figure 2. 14: A single-loop circuit illustrating KVL.

Example 2. 23: For the circuit in Fig. 2.16-(a), find voltages 1 and 2 .

## (a) Figure 2. 15: For example 2.23.

(b)

Solution: To find 1 and 2 , we apply Ohms law and Kirchhoffs voltage law. Assume that current flows through the loop as shown in Fig. 2.16-(b).From Ohms law: 1 = 2 2 = 3 Applying KVL around the loop gives: 20 + 1 2 = 0 Substituting Eq. (1) and Eq. (2) into Eq. (32), we obtain: 20 + 2 3 = 0 = 4 Substituting in Eq. (1) and (2) finally gives: 1 = 8 2 = 12
(5) (6) (4) (3) (1) (2)

28

Example 2. 24: Find the currents and voltages in the circuit shown in Fig. 2.17(a).

(a)

(b)

## Solution: We apply Ohms law and Kirchhoffs laws. By Ohms law : 1 = 81 2 = 32 3 = 63

(1) (2) (3)

Since the voltage and current of each resistor are related by Ohms law as shown, we are really looking for three things: 1 , 2 , 3 or 1 , 2 , 3 . At nod a, KCL gives: 1 2 3 = 0 Applying KVL to loop 1 as in Fig. 2.17(b): 30 + 1 + 2 = 0 We express this in terms of i1 and i2: 30 + 81 + 32 = 0 Or
(6) (5) (4)

29

1 =

30 + 32 8

(7)

## Applying KVL to loop 2: 2 + 3 = 0 2 = 3 We can write: 63 = 32 3 = 2 2

(9) (8)

Substituting Eqs. (7) and (9) into (4) gives : 30 32 2 2 = 0 2 = 2 8 2 Thus we obtain: 1 = 3, 3 = 1, 1 = 24, 2 = 6 , 3 = 6
(11) (10)

2.3.4.1

## Series resistors and voltage division

Consider the single-loop circuit of Fig. 2.18. The two resistors are in series, since the same current flows in both of them. Applying Ohms law to each of the resistors, we obtain: 1 = 1 2 = 2
(2. 33) (2. 34)

(2. 35)

(2. 36)

30

Or = 1 + 2
(2. 37)

## Notice that Eq.(2. 36) can be written as: =

(2. 38)

Implying that the two resistors can be replaced by an equivalent resistor that is: = 1 + 2
(2. 39)

Thus, Fig. 2.18 can be replaced by the equivalent circuit in Fig. 2.19. An equivalent circuit such as the one in Fig. 2.19 is useful in simplifying the analysis of a circuit.

= 1 + 2 + + =
=1

(2. 40)

## The voltage across each resistor of Fig. 2.18 is given by: 1 = 2 = 1 1 + 2 2 1 + 2

(2. 41)

(2. 42)

Notice that the source voltage v is divided among the resistors in direct proportion to their resistances; the larger the resistance, the larger the voltage drop. This is called the principle of voltage division, and the circuit in Fig. 2.29 is called a voltage divider. In general, if a voltage divider has N resistors (R1,R2, . . . , RN) in series with the source voltage v, the nth resistor (Rn) will have a voltage drop of. = 1 + 2 + +

(2. 43)

31

## 2.3.4.2 Parallel resistors and current division

In the same manner, we can get the equivalent resistance of resistors in parallel by applying KVL. Mathematically we can write: 1 1 1 1 = + + + = 1 2 =

=1

(2. 44)

1 + 2 + +

(2. 45)

This second equation introduces the principal of current division and the current divider.

## 2.3.4.3 Series and parallel capacitors

The equivalent capacitance of series-connected capacitors is the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals of the individual capacitances. Mathematically (Applying KCL) we can write: 1 1 1 1 = + + + = 1 2

=1

(2. 46)

The equivalent capacitance of N parallel-connected capacitors is the sum of the individual capacitances. Mathematically (Applying KVL):

= 1 + 2 + + =
=1

(2. 47)

## 2.3.4.4 Series and parallel inductors

The equivalent inductance of series-connected inductors is the sum of the individual inductances.

= 1 + 2 + + =
=1

(2. 48)

The equivalent inductance of parallel inductors is the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals of the individual inductances. 1 1 1 1 = + + + = 1 2 Example 2. 25: Fine the equivalent resistance for the circuit given in figure 2.20.

=1

(2. 49)

32

Solution:

## Figure 2. 20: Equivalent circuit for this example.

Hence, the equivalent resistance after steps (a) and (b) is given by: = 4 + 2.4 + 8 = 14.4 Example 2. 26: Fine the equivalent resistance for the circuit given in figure 2.22.

## Figure 2. 21: Circuit for this example.

Solution: = 6

33

Example 2. 27: Find the equivalent capacitance seen between terminals a and b of the circuit in Figure 2.23.

.
Figure 2. 22: Circuit for this example.

Solution: The 20-F and 5-F capacitors are in series; their equivalent capacitance is 20 5 = 4 F 20 + 5 This 4-F capacitor is in parallel with the 6-F and 20-F capacitors; their combined capacitance is 4 + 6 + 20 = 30 F This 30-F capacitor is in series with the 60-F capacitor. Hence, the equivalent capacitance for the entire circuit is = Example 2. 28: Calculate the equivalent inductance for the inductive ladder network in Figure 2.24. 30 60 = 20 F 30 + 60

Solution: 25 mH.

34

## 2.3.5 ELECTRIC CIRCUITS ANALYSIS

The KVL, KCL and Ohms law are the primary tools to analyze DC electric circuits. The term nodal analysis is generally used when analyzing an electric circuit with KCL whereas loop or mesh analysis is designated for problem solving using KVL. The mesh and nodal analysis methods outlined below are quite systematic and usually provides the solution to a given problem. However, they are fairly computational and an alternative straightforward solution may exist using circuit reduction techniques such as series/parallel combination of resistors and/or VDR/CDR methods.

## 2.3.5.1 Mesh Analysis

The mesh analysis technique consists of the following steps 1. Transform all currents sources to voltage sources, if possible (see Section 3.8). 2. Identify and assign a current to each mesh of the network (preferably in the same direction). 3. Write mesh equations using KVL and simplify them. 4. Solve the simultaneous system of equations. 5. Number of equations is equal to number of meshes in the network.

## 2.3.5.2 Nodal Analysis

The following steps describe the nodal analysis method 1. Transform all voltage sources to current sources, if possible (see Section 3.8). 2. Identify and assign an arbitrary voltage to each node including the reference node in the network assuming all currents leaving the node. The reference node is normally assumed to be at zero potential. Write nodal equations using KCL and simplify them. 3. Solve the simultaneous system of equations. 4. Number of equations is N 1 where N is the number of nodes in the network including the reference node. Example 2. 29:

## Determine the voltages at the nodes in Figure. 2.25.

35

Solution: At node 1, 3 = 1 + 3 = 1 3 1 2 + 4 2

## Figure 2. 25: Circuit for analysis for this example

We have three simultaneous equations to solve to get the node voltages 1 , 2 , and 3 . We shall solve the equations in two ways; using the elimination technique or using Cramers rule. Lets use the second method 3 2 1 1 12 = 4 7 1 2 0 2 3 1 3 0 From this, we obtain 1 =
1

2 =

3 =

36

## Where , 1 , 2 3 are the determinants to be calculated. 1 = 1 48 = = 4.8 V, 10 2 = 2 24 = = 2.4 V, 10 3 = 3 24 = = 2.4 V 10

Example 2. 30: For the circuit in Figure 2.27, find the branch currents 1 , 2 , and 3 using mesh
analysis.

## Figure 2. 26: Circuit for this example.

Solution: We first obtain the mesh currents using KVL. For mesh 1, 15 + 51 + 10 1 2 + 10 = 0 Or 31 22 = 1 For mesh 2, 62 + 42 + 10 1 2 10 = 0 Or 1 = 22 1
(2) (1)

We shall solve the equations in two ways; using the elimination technique or using Cramers rule. Lets use the first method, we substitute equation (2) into equation (1), and write 62 3 22 = 1 2 = 1 A From equation (2), 1 = 22 1 1 = 1 A Thus, 1 = 1 = 1 A, 2 = 2 = 1A, 3 = 1 1 = 0

37

2.3.6 SUPERPOSITION THEOREM 2.3.7 THVENINS THEOREM 2.3.8 NORTONS THEOREM 2.3.9 SOURCE TRANSFORMATION 2.3.10 MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER THEOREM 2.3.11 MESH AND NODAL ANALYSIS BY INSPECTION

38

## 2.4 SINUSOIDS AND PHASORS

2.4.1 INTRODUCTION
Thus far our analysis has been limited for the most part to dc circuits: those circuits excited by constant or time-invariant sources. We now begin the analysis of circuits in which the source voltage or current is time-varying.

2.4.2 SINUSOIDS
In this section, we are particularly interested in sinusoidally time-varying excitation or simply, excitation by a sinusoid.

A sinusoid is a signal that has the form of the sine or cosine function.

A sinusoidal current is usually referred to as alternating current (ac). Such a current reverses at regular time intervals and has alternately positive and negative values. Circuits driven by sinusoidal current or voltage sources are called ac circuits. Consider the sinusoidal voltage: = sin Where the amplitude of the sinusoid. the angular frequency in radians/s the argument of the sinusoid. The sinusoid is shown in Figure 2.28(a) as a function of its argument and in Figure 2.28(b) as a function of time. It is evident that the sinusoid repeats itself every T seconds; thus, T is called the period of the sinusoid. From the two plots in Figure 2.28, we observe that T = 2, = 2
(2. 50)

The fact that () repeats itself every seconds is shown by replacing by + in Equation (2. 50). We get:

39

## + = sin ( + ) = sin + = Hence, + =

2 = sin + 2 = sin

(2. 51)

(2. 52)

That is, v has the same value at + as it does at and () is said to be periodic. In general,

A . periodic function is one that satisfies () = ( + ), for all and for all integers

## Figure 2. 27: A sketch of Vm sin t: (a) as a function of t, (b) as a function of t.

As mentioned, the period T of the periodic function is the time of one complete cycle or the number of seconds per cycle. The reciprocal of this quantity is the number of cycles per second, known as the cyclic frequency of the sinusoid. Thus, = 1
(2. 53)

40

And it is clear that = 2 While is in radians per second (rad/s), in hertz (Hz). Let us now consider a more general expression for sinusoid. = sin( + )
(2. 55) (2. 54)

Where + is the argument and is the phase. Both argument and phase can be in radians or degrees. Let us examine the two sinusoids 1 = sin() 2 = sin( + )
(2. 56)

## Figure 2. 28: Two sinusoids with different phases.

These two vectors are shown in Figure.2.29. The starting point of 2 in Figure 2.29 occurs first in time. Therefore, we say that 2 leads 1 by or that 1 lags 2 by . If 0, we also say that 1 and 2 are out of phase. If = 0, then 1 and 2 are said to be in phase; they reach their minima and maxima at exactly the same time. We can compare 1 and 2 in this manner because they operate at the same frequency; they do not need to have the same amplitude. Example 2. 31: Find the amplitude, phase, period, and frequency of the sinusoid = 12 cos 50 + 10 Solution: The amplitude is = 12 V

41

2

=
1

2 50

## The frquency is = Example 2. 32:

= 2

50

Calculate the phase angle between 1 = 10 cos + 50 And 2 = 12 sin 10 State which sinusoide is leading. Solution: In order to compare 1 and 2 , we must express them in the same form. If we express them in cosine form with positive amplitudes, 1 = 10 cos + 50 = 10 cos + 50 180 1 = 10 cos 130 Or 1 = 10 cos + 230 and 2 = 12 sin 10 = 12 cos 10 90 2 = 12 cos 100 Comparing both expressions of 1 and 2 we can deduce that 2 leads 1 by 30.

2.4.1 PHASORS
Sinusoids are easily expressed in terms of phasors, which are more convenient to work with than sine and cosine functions.

A phasor is a complex number that represents the amplitude and phase of a sinusoid.

42

## A complex number can be written as = +

(2. 57)

Where = 1, x is the real part of z and y is the imaginary par of z. The complex number z can also be written in polar or exponential form as = + = = Where = Rectangular form Polar from Exponential form

## 2 + 2 is the magnitude of z, and = tan1 is the phase of z.

The idea of phasor representation is based on Eulers identity. In general, = cos sin We may write cos = Re sin = Im
(2. 62) (2. 63) (2. 61)

where Re and Im stand for the real part of and the imaginary part of. Given a sinusoid
= cos + = Re +

(2. 64)

or
= Re

(2. 65)

Thus, = Re Where
= =

(2. 66)

(2. 67)

is the phasor representation of the sinusoid = as we said earlier. To get the phasor corresponding to a sinusoid, we first express the sinusoid in the cosine form so that the sinusoid can be written as the real part of a complex number. Then we take out the time factor , and whatever is left is the phasor corresponding to the sinusoid. By suppressing the time factor, we transform the sinusoid from the time domain to the phasor domain. This transformation is summarized as follows:

43

## Phasor domain representation

= =

(2. 68)

Given a sinusoid = cos + ,we obtain the corresponding phasor as = . Equation (2.68) is also demonstrated in Table 2.2, where the sine function is considered in addition to the cosine function. From Eq. (6.68), we see that to get the phasor representation of a sinusoid, we express it in cosine form and take the magnitude and phase. Given a phasor, we obtain the time-domain representation as the cosine function with the same magnitude as the phasor and the argument as plus the phase of the phasor. The idea of expressing information in alternate domains is fundamental to all areas of engineering. Time domain representation = cos + = sin + = cos + = sin + Phasor domain representation

= = = =

## (2. 69) (2. 70) (2. 71) (2. 72)

We can write some useful relation between time representation and phasor representation Time domain representation Phasor domain representation
(2. 73)

(2. 74)

## Example 2. 33: Evaluate these complex numbers: 1. 40 50 + 20 30 2. 10 30 + (3 4) 2 + 4 (3 5)

44

Solution : 1. Using polar to rectangular transformation 40 50 = 40 cos 50 + sin 50 = 25.71 + 30.64 20 30 = 20 cos 30 + sin 30 Adding them up gives 40 50 + 20 30 = 43.03 + 20.64 = 47.72 25.63 Taking the square root of this 40 50 + 20 30 = 6.91 12.81 2. Using polar-rectangular transformation, addition, multiplication and division 10 30 + (3 4) 8.66 5 + (3 4) = 2 + 4 (3 5) 2 + 4 (3 5) 11.66 9 = 14 + 22 14.73 37.66 = = 0.565 160.31 20.08 122.47 Example 2. 34: 1. Transform these sinusoids to phasors: 1.1 = 4 sin 30 + 50 1.2 = 6 cos 50 40 2. Find the sinusoids represented by these phasors: 2.1 = 8 20 2.2 = 3 + 4 Solution: 1. 1.1 Since sin = cos + 90 = 4 sin 30 + 50 = 4 cos 30 + 50 + 90 = 4 cos 30 + 140 The phasor from of is = 4 140 1.2 = 6 cos 50 40 has the phasor = 6 40 2. = 17.32 10

45

2.1 Since = 1 90 = 8 20 = 1 90 8 20 = 1 90 20 = 8 70 V Converting this to time domain gives = 8 cos + 70 V 2.2 = 3 + 4 = 5 126.87. Transforming this to time domain gives = 5 cos + 126.87 A Example 2. 35: Using the phasor approach, determine the current i(t) in a circuit described by the integrodifferential equation. 4 + 8 Solution:
We transform each term in the equation from time domain to phasor domain

= 50 cos 2 + 75

4 + 8 But = 2

8 3 = 50 75

## 4 4 6 = 50 75 = 50 75 50 75 = = 4.642 143.2 A 4 10 10.77 68.2

Converting this to the time domain = 4.624 cos 2 + 143.2 A Keep in mind that this is only the steady-state solution, and it does not require knowing the initial values.

## 2.4.2 PHASOR RELATIONSHIP FOR CIRCUIT ELEMENT

Now that we know how to represent a voltage or current in the phasor or frequency domain, one may legitimately ask how we apply this to circuits involving the passive elements R, L, and C. What we need to do is to transform the voltage-current relationship from the time domain to the frequency domain for each element. Again, we will assume the passive sign convention.

2.4.2.1 Resistor
If the current through a resistor R is = cos( + ), the voltage across it is given by Ohms law as

46

= = cos( + ) The phasor form of this voltage is = But the phasor representation of the current is = Hence, =

(2. 75)

(2. 76)

(2. 77)

(2. 78)

This equation shows that the voltage-current relation for the resistor in the phasor domain continues to be Ohms law, as in the time domain. Figure 2.30 illustrates the voltage-current relations of a resistor. We should note from this equation to, that voltage and current are in phase, as illustrated in the phasor diagram in Figure 2.31.

Figure 2. 29: Voltage-current relations for a resistor in the: (a) time domain, (b) frequency domain.

## Figure 2. 30: Phasor diagram for the resistor.

47

2.4.2.2 Inductor
For the inductor L, assume the current through it is = cos( + ). The voltage across the inductor is = = sin( + )
(2. 79)

We know that sin = cos + 90 We can write the voltage as = = cos( + + 90) Which transforms to the pasor =
+90

(2. 80)

(2. 81)

= 90 = 90

(2. 82)

## But the phasor representation of the current is = And 90 = Thus =

(2. 85) (2. 84) (2. 83)

Showing that the voltage has a magnitude of and a phase of + 90.The voltage and current are 90 out of phase. Specifically, the current lags the voltage by 90. Figure 2.32 shows the voltage-current relations for the inductor. Figure 2.33 shows the phasor diagram.

Figure 2. 31: Voltage-current relations for an inductor in the: (a) time domain, (b) frequency domain.

48

## Figure 2. 32: Phasor diagram for the inductor; I lags V.

2.4.2.3 Capacitor
For the capacitor C, assume the voltage across it is = cos( + ). The current through the capacitor is = = sin( + )
(2. 86)

## By following the same steps as we took for the inductor we obtain: = =

(2. 87)

Showing that the current and voltage are 90 out of phase. To be specific, the current leads the voltage by 90. Figure 2.34 shows the voltage-current relations for the capacitor; Figure 2.35 gives the phasor diagram.

Figure 2. 33: Voltage-current relations for a capacitor in the: (a) time domain, (b) frequency domain.

49

## Figure 2. 34: Phasor diagram for the capacitor; I leads V.

Following is the summary of the time-domain and phasor-domain representations of the circuit elements. Element R L C Time Domain = = = Frequency Domain = = =

Example 2. 36: The voltage = 12 cos(60 + 45 ) is applied to a 0.1-H inductor. Find the steadystate current through the inductor. Solution : For the inductor, = where = 60 / and = 12 45 V. Hence, = 2 45 A Converting this to time domain = 2 cos 60 45 A

In the preceding section, we obtained the voltage-current relations for the three passive elements as = = =

(2. 88)

These equations may be written in terms of the ratio of the phasor voltage to the phasor current as

50

1 =

(2. 89)

From these three expressions, we obtain Ohms law in phasor form for any type of element as = or =
(2. 90)

where Z is a frequency-dependent quantity known as impedance, measured in ohms. Sinusoids are easily expressed in terms of phasors, which are more convenient to work with than sine and cosine functions.

The impedance Z of a circuit is the ratio of the phasor voltage V to the phasor current I, measured in ohms ().

The impedance represents the opposition which the circuit exhibits to the flow of sinusoidal current. Although the impedance is the ratio of two phasors, it is not a phasor, because it does not correspond to a sinusoidally varying quantity.

## The admittance Y is the reciprocal of impedance, measured in siemens (S).

The admittance Y of an element (or a circuit) is the ratio of the phasor current through it to the phasor voltage across it, or = 1 or =
(2. 91)

As a complex quantity, the impedance and admittance may be expressed in rectangular form as = + = + Where R: is the resistance.
(2. 92) (2. 93)

51

## 2.4.4 KIRCHHOFF LAWS IN THE FREQUENCY DOMAIN

We cannot do circuit analysis in the frequency domain without Kirchhoffs current and voltage laws. Therefore, we need to express them in the frequency domain. For KVL, let 1 , 2 , , be the voltages around a closed loop. Then 1 + 2 + + = 0
(2. 94)

In the sinusoidal steady state, each voltage may be written in cosine form, so that 1 cos + 1 + 2 cos + 2 + + cos + = 0 This can be written as
Re( 1 1 ) + Re( 2 2 ) + Re( ) = 0

(2. 95)

(2. 96)

If we let = [ 1 + 2 + + ] = 0 Since 0 1 + 2 + + = 0 Indicating that Kirchhoffs voltage law holds for phasors. By following a similar procedure, we can show that Kirchhoffs current law holds for phasors. Thus, it is easy to do many things, such as impedance combination, nodal and mesh analyses, superposition, and source transformation.
(2. 98) (2. 97)

## 2.4.5 OTHER SINUSOIDAL PARAMETERS

2.4.5.1 Mean or Average Value
For a continuous periodic waveform such as a sinusoid, the mean value can be found by averaging all the instantaneous values during one cycle. This is given by

52

(2. 99)

Clearly, the average value of a complete sine wave is 0 because of equal positive and negative half cycles. This is regardless of the peak amplitude.

## 2.4.5.2 Effective or RMS Value

The effective or root mean square (RMS) value of a periodic signal is equal to the magnitude of a DC signal which produces the same heating effect as the periodic signal when applied across a load resistance. Consider a periodic signal, (), then = 1 1

Mean

0 0

(2. 100)

Mean Square

2
0

(2. 101)

(2. 102)

## 2.4.6 POWER IN AC CIRCUITS

Power analysis is of paramount importance. Power is the most important quantity in electric utilities, electronic, and communication systems, because such systems involve transmission of power from one point to another. Also, every industrial and household electrical device every fan, motor, lamp, pressing iron, TV, personal computerhas a power rating that indicates how much power the equipment requires; exceeding the power rating can do permanent damage to an appliance. The most common form of electric power is 50- or 60-Hz ac power. The choice of ac over dc allowed high-voltage power transmission from the power generating plant to the consumer. The instantaneous power () absorbed by an element is the product of the instantaneous voltage () across the element and the instantaneous current () through it. Assuming the passive sign convention, =
(2. 103)

The instantaneous power is the power at any instant of time. It is the rate at which an element absorbs energy. Let the voltage and current at the terminals of the circuit be

53

= cos + () = cos( + ) The instantaneous power absorbed by the circuit is = = cos + cos( + ) Using the trigonometric identity cos cos = 1 cos + cos + 2

(2. 106)

## = cos + cos( + ) 1 = cos + + cos + + + 2 1 = cos + cos 2 + + 2 1 1 = cos 2 + + cos + 2 2

(2. 107)

(2. 108)

This shows us that the instantaneous power has two parts. The first part is constant or time independent. Its value depends on the phase difference between the voltage and the current. The second part is a sinusoidal function whose frequency is 2, which is twice the angular frequency of the voltage or current.

## Figure 2. 35: The instantaneous power p(t) entering a circuit.

We also observe that () is positive for some part of each cycle and negative for the rest of the cycle. When () is positive, power is absorbed by the circuit. When () is negative, power is absorbed by the source; that is, power is transferred from the circuit to the source. This is possible because of the storage elements (capacitors and inductors) in the circuit. The instantaneous power changes with time and is therefore difficult to measure. The average power is more convenient to measure. In fact, the wattmeter, the instrument for measuring power, responds to average power.

54

(2. 109)

## After some development we find the average power as: 1 = cos 2 =

(2. 110)

In terms of RMS voltage and current, the average power is given by = cos
(2. 111)

## 2.4.7 POWER FACTOR

The term cos in Equation 2.110 is called the power factor and is an important parameter in determining the amount of actual power dissipated in the load. In practice, power factor is used to specify the characteristics of a load. 1. For a purely resistive load = 0, hence Unity Power Factor. 2. For a capacitive type load I leads V , hence Leading power factor 3. For an inductive type load I lags V , hence Lagging power factor From Equation 2.111, the current can be specified as = cos

(2. 112)

Clearly, for a fixed amount of demanded power, P, at a constant load voltage, V , a higher power factor draws less amount of current and hence low 2 losses in the transmission lines. A purely reactive load where = 90and cos = 0will draw an excessively large amount of current and a power factor correction is required. Example 2. 37: Given that
() = 120 cos(377 + 45 ) V and () = 10 cos(377 10 )A

Find the instantaneous power and the average power. Solution: The instantaneous power is given by () = 344.2 + 600 cos(754 + 35 ) W. The average power is given by P = 344.2 W

55

Example 2. 38: Calculate the instantaneous power and average power if () = 80 cos(10 + 20 ) V and () = 15 cos(10 60 )A Solution: The instantaneous power is given by () = 385.7 + 600 cos(20 10 ) W. The average power is given by P = 385.7 W Example 2. 39: For the circuit shown in Fig. 2.37, find the average power supplied by the source and the average power absorbed by the resistor.

## Figure 2. 36: For this example.

Solution: The current I is given by The average power supplied by the voltage source is The current through the resistor is and the voltage across it is The average power absorbed by the resistor is

56

which is the same as the average power supplied. Zero average power is absorbed by the capacitor.

## 2.4.8 POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

To be done as a homework.

57

## 2.5 THREE PHASE CIRCUITS

2.5.1 OBJECTIVES
After studying this unit, you should be able to: 1. Discuss the differences between three-phase and single-phase voltages. 2. Discuss the characteristics of delta and wye connections. 3. Compute voltage and current values for delta and wye circuits. Most of the electrical power generated in the world today is three-phase. Threephase power was first conceived by Nikola Tesla. In the early days of electric power generation, Tesla not only led the battle concerning whether the nation should be powered with low-voltage direct current or high-voltage alternating current, but he also proved that three-phase power was the most efficient way that electricity could be produced, transmitted, and consumed.

## 2.5.2 THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS OVERVIEW

There are several reasons why three-phase power is superior to single phase power. 1. The horsepower rating of three-phase motors and the KVA (kilo-voltamp) rating of three-phase transformers is about 150% greater than for single-phase motors or transformers with a similar frame size. 2. The power delivered by a single-phase system pulsates, Figure 2.38. The power falls to zero three times during each cycle. The power delivered by a three-phase circuit pulsates also, but it never falls to zero, Figure 2.38. In a three-phase system, the power delivered to the load is the same at any instant. This produces superior operating characteristics for three-phase motors. 3. In a balanced three-phase system, the conductors need be only about 75% the size of conductors for a single-phase two-wire system of the same KVA rating. This helps offset the cost of supplying the third conductor required by three-phase systems.

Figure 2. 37: (a) Single-phase power falls to zero three times each cycle, (b) Three-phase power never falls to zero.

58

A single-phase alternating voltage can be produced by rotating a magnetic field through the conductors of a stationary coil, as shown in Figure 2.40.

## Figure 2. 38: Producing a single-phase voltage

Since alternate polarities of the magnetic field cut through the conductors of the stationary coil, the induced voltage will change polarity at the same speed as the rotation of the magnetic field. The alternator shown in Figure 2.39 is single phase because it produces only one AC voltage.

Figure 2. 39: The voltages of a three-phase system are 120 out of phase with each other.

59

If three separate coils are spaced 120 apart, as shown in Figure 2.40, three voltages 120 out of phase with each other will be produced when the magnetic field cuts through the coils. This is the manner in which a three-phase voltage is produced. There are two basic three-phase connections, the wye or star connection and the delta connection. = cos = cos 120 = cos = cos 240 = cos 2 3
(2. 113)

(2. 114)

(2. 115)

## 2.5.3 WYE CONNECTION

The wye or star connection is made by connecting one end of each of the threephase windings together as shown in Figure 2-41.

Figure 2. 40: A wye connection is formed by joining one end of each of the windings together.

The voltage measured across a single winding or phase is known as the phase voltage, as shown in Figure 2.42. The voltage measured between the lines is known as the line-to-line voltage or simply as the line voltage.

Figure 2. 41: Line and phase voltages are different in a wye connection.

60

In Figure 2.43, ammeters have been placed in the phase winding of a wye-connected load and in the line supplying power to the load. Voltmeters have been connected across the input to the load and across the phase. A line voltage of 208 V has been applied to the load. Notice that the voltmeter connected across the lines indicates a value of 208 V, but the voltmeter connected across the phase indicates a value of 120 V.

In a Wye connected system, the line voltage is higher than the phase voltage by a factor of the square root of 3.

Two formulas used to compute the voltage in a wye connected system are: = 3 And = . 3
(2. 116)

(2. 117)

In a wye connected system, phase current and line current are the same.

(2. 118)

Notice in Figure 2.43 that 10 A of current flow in both the phase and the line. In a wye-connected system, phase current and line current are the same.

Figure 2. 42: Line current and phase current are the same in a wye connection.

61

## Figure 2. 43: Adding voltage vectors of two-phase voltage values.

An illustration of vector addition is shown in Figure 2.44. In this illustration twophase voltage vectors are added and the resultant is drawn from the starting point of one vector to the end point of the other. The parallelogram method of vector addition for the voltages in a wye-connected three-phase system is shown in Figure 2.45.

## 2.5.4 DELTA CONNECTIONS

In Figure 2.46, three separate inductive loads have been connected to form a delta connection. This connection receives its name from the fact that a schematic diagram of this connection resembles the Greek letter delta ().

## Figure 2. 45: Three-phase delta connection.

62

In Figure 2.47, voltmeters have been connected across the lines and across the phase. Ammeters have been connected in the line and in the phase. In the delta connection, line voltage and phase voltage are the same. Notice that both voltmeters indicate a value of 480 V.

In a delta connection, line voltage and phase voltage are the same.

(2. 119)

## Figure 2. 46: Voltage and current relationships in a delta connection.

The line current of a delta connection is higher than the phase current by a factor of the square root of 3 (1.732).

## Formulas for determining the current in a delta connection are: = 3 And = 3

(2. 120)

(2. 121)

Notice that the line current and phase current are different, however. The line current of a delta connection is higher than the phase current by a factor of the square root of 3 (1.732). In the example shown, it is assumed that each of the phase windings has a current flow of 10 A. The current in each of the lines, however, is 17.32 A. The reason for this difference in current is that current flows through different windings at different times in a

63

three-phase circuit. During some periods of time, current will flow between two lines only. At other times, current will flow from two lines to the third, Figure 2.48. = 3
(2. 122)

The delta connection is similar to a parallel connection because there is always more than one path for current flow. Since these currents are 120 out of phase with each other, vector addition must be used when finding the sum of the currents (Figure 2.48).

(a)

(b) Figure 2. 47: (a) Division of currents in a delta connection, (b) Vector addition is used to compute the sum of the currents in a delta connection.

## 2.5.5 THREE-PHASE POWER

Students sometimes become confused when computing power in threephase circuits. One reason for this confusion is that there are actually two formulas that can be used. If line values of voltage and current are known, the power (watts) of a pure resistive load can be computed using the formula: VA = 3
(2. 123)

If the phase values of voltage and current are known, the apparent power can be computed using the formula: VA = 3
(2. 124)

Notice that in the first formula, the line values of voltage and current are multiplied by the square root of 3. In the second formula, the phase values of voltage and current are multiplied by 3. The first formula is used more often because it is generally more convenient to obtain line values of voltage and current, which can be measured with a voltmeter and clamp-on ammeter.

64

## 2.5.6 THREE-PHASE CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS

In the following examples, values of line and phase voltage, line and phase current, and power will be computed for different types of threephase connections. Example 2. 40: A wye-connected three-phase alternator supplies power to a delta-connected resistive load, Figure 2.49. The alternator has a line voltage of 480 V. Each resistor of the delta load has 8 of resistance. Find the following values:

( ) : Line voltage of the load. ( ) : Phase voltage of the load. ( ) : Phase current of the load. ( ) : Line current to the load L(Alt ) : Line current delivered by the alternator ( ) : Phase current of the alternator P(Alt ) : Phase voltage of the alternator P : True power

Figure 2. 48: Computing three-phase values using a wye-connected power source and a delta connected load.

Solution: The load is connected directly to the alternator. Therefore, the line voltage supplied by the alternator is the line voltage of the load. ( ) = 480 The three resistors of the load are connected in a delta connection. In a delta connection, the phase voltage is the same as the line voltage. ( ) = ( )

65

( ) = 480 Each of the three resistors in the load is one phase of the load. Now that the phase voltage is known (480 V), the amount of phase current can be computed using Ohms Law. ( ) = ( ) 480 8

( ) =

( ) = 60 The three load resistors are connected as a delta with 60 A of current flow in each phase. The line current supplying a delta connection must be 1.732 times greater than the phase current. ( ) = ( ) 1.732 ( ) = 60 1.732 ( ) = 103.92 The alternator must supply the line current to the load or loads to which it is connected. In this example, only one load is connected to the alternator. Therefore, the line current of the load will be the same as the line current of the alternator. ( ) = 103.92 The phase windings of the alternator are connected in a wye connection. In a wye connection, the phase current and line current are equal. The phase current of the alternator will, therefore, be the same as the alternator line current. ( ) = 103.92 The phase voltage of a wye connection is less than the line voltage by a factor of the square root of 3. The phase voltage of the alternator will be: ( ) = ( ) = ( ) 1.732 480 1.732

( ) = 277.13 In this circuit, the load is pure resistive. The voltage and current are in phase with each other, which produces a unity power factor of 1. The true power in this circuit will be computed using the formula: = 1.732 ( ) ( )

66

## = 1.732 480 103.92 1 = 86,394.93

Example 2. 41: A delta-connected alternator is connected to a wye-connected resistive load, Figure 2.50. The alternator produces a line voltage of 240 V and the resistors have a value of 6 each. The following values will be found:

( ) : Line voltage of the load. ( ) : Phase voltage of the load. ( ) : Phase current of the load. ( ) : Line current to the load L(Alt ) : Line current delivered by the alternator ( ) : Phase current of the alternator P(Alt ) : Phase voltage of the alternator P : True power

Figure 2. 49: Computing three-phase values using a delta-connected source and a wye-connected load.

Solution: As was the case in Example 1, the load is connected directly to the output of the alternator. The line voltage of the load must, therefore, be the same as the line voltage of the alternator. ( ) = 240 The phase voltage of a wye connection is less than the line voltage by a factor of 1.732.

67

240 1.732

( ) = 138.57 Each of the three 6 resistors is one phase of the wye-connected load. Since the phase voltage is 138.57 V, this voltage is applied to each of the three resistors. The amount of phase current can now be determined using Ohms Law. ( ) = ( ) = ( ) 138.57 6

( ) = 23.1 The amount of line current needed to supply a wye-connected load is the same as the phase current of the load. ( ) = 23.1 Only one load is connected to the alternator. The line current supplied to the load is the same as the line current of the alternator. ( ) = 23.1 The phase windings of the alternator are connected in delta. In a delta connection the phase current is less than the line current by a factor of 1.732. ( ) = ( ) = ( ) 1.732 23.1 1.732

( ) = 13.34 The phase voltage of a delta is the same as the line voltage. ( ) = 240 Since the load in this example is pure resistive, the power factor has a value of unity, or 1. Power will be computed by using the line values of voltage and current. = 1.732 = 1.732 240 23.1 1 = 9,602.21

68

2.5.7 SUMMARY
1. The voltages of a three-phase system are 120 out of phase with each other. 2. The two types of three-phase connections are wye and delta. 3. Wye connections are characterized by the fact that one terminal of each device is connected together. 4. In a wye connection, the phase voltage is less than the line voltage by a factor of 1.732. The phase current and line current are the same. 5. In a delta connection, the phase voltage is the same as the line voltage. The phase current is less than the line current by a factor of 1.732.

69