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2004 Army Modernization Plan

ii 2004 Army Modernization Plan




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2004 Army Modernization Plan iii


iv 2004 Army Modernization Plan

Table of Contents

Executive Summary ......................................................................................................... vii

2004 Army Modernization Plan .......................................................................................... 1

Overview ............................................................................................................................. 1

Purpose ................................................................................................................................ 4
Current Operational Environment: An Army at War ................................................................ 5
Future Operational Environment ............................................................................................ 7
National Security and Defense Strategies ........................................................................... 10
DOD Transformation Planning Guidance ............................................................................. 11
Army Transformation Roadmap and Campaign Plan ........................................................... 12
Army Capabilities and Joint Operating Concepts ................................................................ 12
Army Focus Areas ............................................................................................................... 15

Army Transformation ....................................................................................................... 17

Accomplishments, Continuing Progress, and Refinement .................................................... 17

Transformation Timelines—Building Combat Power Over Time ........................................... 18
The Current Force—Capabilities for the Joint Force Today .................................................. 18
Maintaining and Extending Readiness and Setting the Force .............................................. 19
New Capabilities for the Current Force—Stryker Brigade Combat Teams ........................... 20
Stryker Brigade Combat Teams .......................................................................................... 22
Focused Logistics ............................................................................................................... 26
Industrial Base Modernization .............................................................................................. 29
The Future Force—Enhanced Capabilities for the Joint Force Tomorrow ............................. 30
Units of Action (UA) and Employment (UE) .......................................................................... 34
Units of Action ..................................................................................................................... 35
Future Force Characteristics ............................................................................................... 38
Units of Employment ........................................................................................................... 40

Army Modernization ......................................................................................................... 43

Modernization Strategy—Balanced Modernization .............................................................. 43

Integrating across the DOTMLPF ........................................................................................ 44
Modernization Priorities ...................................................................................................... 45
Enabling Process and Tools for Tomorrow . . . Ensuring Security for Today
................................................................................................ 46
Unit Set Fielding (USF) ....................................................................................................... 46

2004 Army Modernization Plan v

Software Blocking (SWB) .................................................................................................... 47
Studies and Analysis ........................................................................................................... 48
Modeling and Simulation ..................................................................................................... 50
Munitions Transformation Strategy ....................................................................................... 53
Nonlethal (NL) Munitions ...................................................................................................... 54
Investment Strategy ............................................................................................................. 55
The Future Force................................................................................................................. 55
S&T Priorities ..................................................................................................................... 56
S&T Efforts ......................................................................................................................... 57
FCS and Complementary Systems ..................................................................................... 60
PB05 Implementation .......................................................................................................... 61
The Current Force ............................................................................................................... 61
Equipping Initiatives ............................................................................................................ 62
Recapitalization .................................................................................................................. 62
Selected Modernization ...................................................................................................... 62
Responsive Modernization in Support of Operations ........................................................... 63
Reset—Restoring Readiness and Improving Capabilities ................................................... 64
Equipping Stryker Brigades ................................................................................................ 64
PB05 Implementation .......................................................................................................... 65

Summary and Conclusion ............................................................................................... 66

Annex A: Doctrine ......................................................................................................... A-1

Annex B: Organizations ................................................................................................ B-1

Annex C: Training and Leader Development ............................................................... C-1

Annex D: Materiel .......................................................................................................... D-1

Appendix 1: Force Application.......................................................................................... D-8

Appendix 2: Protection ................................................................................................... D-41
Appendix 3: Focused Logistics ...................................................................................... D-60
Appendix 4: Battlespace Awareness ............................................................................... D-76
Appendix 5: Command and Control ................................................................................. D-83

Annex E: Personnel ...................................................................................................... E-1

Annex F: Facilities ..........................................................................................................F-1

Glossary .......................................................................................................................... G-1

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2004 Army Modernization Plan

Executive Summary

Our Army at War—Relevant and evolve into a Future Force that preserves its
Ready relevance and improves its ability to
accomplish all missions. The capabilities of
today’s Army, however, must be the instrument
The U.S. Army, a vital member of the Armed for fighting and winning the global war on
Forces joint team, remains fully engaged in an terrorism. We are now incorporating, to the
ongoing global war on terrorism and with other maximum extent possible, maturing
enemies that confront our nation. Over technologies from our investments in future
325,000 Soldiers from our Army are currently capabilities. In effect, we are conducting an
deployed in 120 countries, with approximately “in-stride” transformation that supports our Army
125,000 Soldiers in Iraq, Afghanistan and at war today, while simultaneously developing
Kuwait alone. A significant portion of that force improved capabilities for the future. As an
comes from our Reserve Component—Army integral part of this ongoing process, we have
National Guard and Army Reserve. They are recently initiated a major initiative to restructure
an indispensable part of the Army team and the Army into more modular formations, which
comprise over 50 percent of the total Army. Our will allow us to provide increased force density
primary focus in this war is on supporting the and capabilities essential for the immediate
magnificent Soldiers that make up this force. future as well as the foundation for the longer-
The effective training and equipping of these term force. This restructuring initiative is well
Soldiers are indispensable to the success of underway to produce an additional ten
today’s Army—our Current Force—and brigades in its initial phase.
represent an enduring and unalterable
commitment. This commitment is clearly With the active support of Congress and the
affected by the Army’s significant participationDepartment of Defense, the Army continues
in the ongoing war and the increased building on the significant efforts made during
operational tempo, and there is a resulting the past four years to implement an ambitious
major impact on our equipment, prepositioned process of transforming into an even more
stocks and ammunition inventories. The Army capable force. This process of change,
faces serious challenges that will require building on a long history of continuing change
continued and additional resourcing in order and adaptation in the Army, has already
to maintain the proper level of support to our produced tangible improvements. New
Soldiers and ensure uninterrupted readiness. combat organizations—the Stryker Brigade
Combat Teams—are being fielded today as
Along with maintaining today’s readiness, the part of the Joint Force. Other advancements
Army is also investing in tomorrow’s readiness
are also being made in developing new
by pursuing a comprehensive process to
transform our capabilitiesforandTomorrow
continually . . . Ensuring Security for Today
technologies and capabilities for the longer

2004 Army Modernization Plan vii

Throughout this endeavor, however, the Army Modernization and Investment in
has had to carefully assess and balance the Today’s Readiness and
risks of near-term requirements and the needs
Tomorrow’s Capability
for the future. To accomplish this, we have
employed a flexible strategy of “balanced
modernization” to maintain the proper mix of Modernization is a continuous process of
priorities, efforts and investments. This developing and fielding warfighting capabilities
strategy includes a dynamic reevaluation in light for the Army to provide to the Joint Force for
of changing operational requirements and use in a joint, interagency and multinational
policy guidance. To assist in this continual environment. These activities are facilitated
rebalancing, and in light of the immediate and optimized by sound modernization and
requirements for current operations, the Army investment strategies specifically designed to
leadership identified immediate focus areas implement the Army’s transformation process
to examine specific changes needed to and provide clear priorities and focus for
enhance the readiness of the force. Some equipment resource allocation. The overall
results of this self-examination process will be Army modernization strategy focuses on
incorporated into plans and programs in the providing capabilities necessary for the Current
immediate future. Others will be incorporated Force, while supporting a transformation
over a longer period. Throughout all of these process to build capabilities essential for the
efforts, the Army remains firmly committed to future. To clearly define the focus for its
succeeding in our major core competencies; implementation, the modernization strategy
training and equipping Soldiers, growing consists of the following two parts:
leaders, and providing relevant and ready land
power to the Combatant Commanders and the • Maintaining and improving essential
Joint Force. warfighting capabilities of the Current Force
through an integrated program of selected
The 2004 Army Modernization Plan describes and responsive modernization and focused
the Army’s modernization and investment recapitalization. This includes the fielding
strategies, the specific means of implementing of immediate operational capabilities by
the Army’s plans to maintain and improve the organizing and equipping six brigade-sized
Current Force while developing and fielding a units outfitted with a family of internetted
Future Force with increased capabilities. The Stryker combat vehicles and other state-of-
ultimate goal is building, fielding and the-art, off-the-shelf technologies. Another
maintaining combat-capable units that will critical element is an accelerated effort to
deliver sustained land power across the full insert, where feasible, newly developed
range of possible missions. This capabilities derived from emerging
modernization plan’s annexes also discuss how technologies and recent lessons learned.
the Army is adapting to this challenge throughout In light of the continuing demands on our
its doctrine, organizations, training, materiel, Soldiers and their equipment, the Army has
leadership and education, personnel and also initiated an aggressive reset program
facilities. to return equipment and units to operational
readiness for future missions while
incorporating organizational changes to
make units more modular. Lastly, the Army
is beginning a major restructuring effort,

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facilitated by a recently approved temporary of change. Campaign-quality Army forces
increase of 30,000 in manning, that will build possessing increased joint and expeditionary
upon initiatives in force stabilization, capabilities are the objective of our ongoing
modularity, and Active and Reserve and future efforts.
Component rebalancing to significantly
increase the readiness, number and The Army intends to provide an even more
responsiveness of Army brigades. ready and relevant land force for use as part of
the Joint Force. Encouragement and direct
• Science and technology efforts to enable support from Congress and the Department of
timely fielding of the Future Forces and, in Defense have been invaluable in facilitating the
particular, the Future Combat Systems— Army’s transformation efforts to date and
the networked family of systems and the meeting the new operational demands we are
foundation of that force. Investments of over facing in the global war on terrorism. Additional
$11 billion identified in last year’s budget fiscal support is essential as we adjust our
for this purpose have been continued in this plans to meet new requirements associated
year’s budget submission. Of this amount, with operational demands. The FY05
97 percent is specifically targeted for the President’s Budget reflects the Army’s
Future Force. Beside these science and continued refinements to ensure readiness
technology investments, an additional $3 today. While we remain firmly committed to
billion increase has been made in this developing tomorrow’s force, we must and will
year’s budget to develop the Future Combat provide our Soldiers the best possible
Systems and supporting Complementary capabilities for today’s battles. To achieve and
Systems for the Unit of Action—the Future maintain these capabilities, the Army requires
Force’s structural foundation. New robust and flexible resourcing in the FY05
capabilities that are developed during this budget as well as focused support in any
process will be inserted into Current Force potential supplemental funding measures that
units where appropriate and affordable. the Department of Defense and Congress may
deem appropriate and necessary. This
Adapting to Current Missions and support is essential for the Army to maintain
Meeting Future Requirements progress on our aggressive path to build a
more capable force and succeed in the war
effort today, which is our overriding strategic
Today’s Army is both fully engaged in the global
imperative and commitment to the nation.
war on terrorism and committed to the process

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The Army today—Active and Reserve transforms itself into an even more capable,
Components—is fully committed as a critical flexible and responsive force.
member of the joint team abroad and at home
in fighting the nation’s wars and preserving its The combat operations in Iraq and the
security. From Iraq, Afghanistan and Kuwait— subsequent and ongoing security and
where our Soldiers are engaged in securing stabilization missions in Iraq and Afghanistan
and building new and stable democracies and vividly demonstrate the importance of both the
combating global terrorism—to Korea, Bosnia individual Soldier and the unique and
and Kosovo, where tens of thousands more of indispensable role of the Army in conducting
our Soldiers are ensuring those regions’ sustained land warfare for the Joint Force. The
continued stability—to here at home, where accomplishments of the Army in these battles
additional thousands are actively engaged in and missions have validated the importance
domestic security, the U.S. Army stands ready of previous investments in modernizing and
to accomplish any mission. While successfully recapitalizing the force as well as the benefit
engaged in these missions at home and of inserting the emerging new technologies as
abroad, the Army also continues to transform found in unmanned aerial vehicle systems
itself into a force that can field new capabilities (UAVS), friendly or Blue Force Tracking (BFT)
and be an even more relevant and ready systems, precision munitions, and key Soldier
member of the Joint Force—today and in the systems such as night vision devices and body
Transforming for Tomorrow
future. The challenge to adapt and change
. . . Ensuring Security for Today
armor. Preservation of an essential balance
while simultaneously fighting the nation’s wars between enduring and critical current
and confronting our enemies is daunting, but it capabilities and promising new capabilities
is one that the Army accepts and is intent on has never been more important than in the
meeting. midst of these demanding missions. Carefully
maintaining this balance remains an imperative
The Current Force is the Army available to the for the Army.
nation at any point in time, and it is this force
that will always be called upon to defend the The early lessons of Operations Enduring
nation’s interests. Preserving the warfighting Freedom and Iraqi Freedom have also
readiness and improving the capabilities of this highlighted the need for accelerating
force are an enduring priority for the Army, and transformation. On future battlefields against
the Soldier is the centerpiece of the Army’s more competent enemies and in more
overall efforts in this regard. The Soldier challenging environments, the Army’s Future
deployed today is the Army’s greatest asset Force—that force which is always evolving over
and remains the focus of efforts in the near term time—must possess even greater
and into the future, as the Army continuously responsiveness, deployability, agility, versatility,
lethality, survivability and sustainability to

2004 Army Modernization Plan 1

achieve decisive victory. Additionally, the Army • Devoted its highest priority to providing the
must develop a greater capability to operate best support possible for the forces
effectively in joint operations across a wide deployed in the global war on terrorism,
spectrum of potential missions. True jointness particularly for those units engaged in
in the future will require not only better Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring
interoperability in systems, but also an Freedom; applied lessons learned during
enhanced ability for full and mutual support ongoing operations to the maximum extent.
among the Services. In recognition of this
expanded need for effective jointness, the Joint • Implemented aggressive equipping
Staff has recently initiated a new system—the initiatives—including diversions, cross-
Joint Capabilities Integration and Development leveling, and accelerated fielding of
System (JCIDS)—to increase oversight of promising technologies—to provide
emerging new capabilities and ensure they will equipment for Active Component (AC) and
support the common operations concepts and Reserve Component (RC) units deployed
provide the necessary operational capabilities. and engaged in combat operations; key
The Army is fully committed to this approach examples included an increased pace and
and will work diligently to harmonize the goals scope of fielding individual body armor, up-
and results of internal Army transformation with armored High Mobility Multi-purpose
the requirements of joint operations in the future. Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWV), and aviation
One of the Army’s two core competencies survivability equipment.
continues to be providing the most capable
land power to the Joint Force and the supported • Initiated efforts for “setting the force” or
Combatant Commanders, and this involves a “reset” by replacing equipment damaged
commitment to readiness and jointness today and destroyed in battle and restoring full
and well into the future. In addition, the Army readiness for Army units to conduct future
has another core competency to train and equip missions.
its Soldiers and grow leaders who will embody
a joint and expeditionary mindset and enable • Conducted a thorough review of the
the campaign-quality Army, which will remain a assumptions and tenets of Army
vital member of the joint team of forces. Transformation and revised plans
accordingly in light of the changed
In the Fiscal Year 2005 President’s Budget operational environment and lessons
(PB05), the Army is continuing to emphasize learned from Operation Iraqi Freedom—
its dual commitment to supporting and with the goal focused on providing a
improving the readiness of the Current Force campaign-quality Army with joint and
while ensuring further progress toward a Future expeditionary capabilities while preserving
Force with even greater capabilities. the greatest support to the Soldier. The
Momentum achieved in the past several years result of this review is a synchronized Army
due to the active and invaluable support from plan for the way ahead (Figure 1) that will
Congress and the Department of Defense incorporate the current operational
(DOD) has been the firm foundation for the requirements, new initiatives in the areas
progress that has been recently made and of force restructuring and modularity, force
presently planned for in the Army’s stabilization, reorganization of
transformation. Specifically, since the 2003 prepositioned stocks, optimization and
Army Modernization Plan, the Army has: rebalancing of AC and RC units, and

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Figure 1. Army Transformation—The Way Ahead

continued support for transformational reorganization of RC National Guard

change. The 2004 Army Modernization brigades is likewise planned. See Annex B,
Plan and subsequent years’ plans will Organizations, for further details on these
directly support implementation of this restructuring plans.
overall direction for the Army’s future.
• Validated the organization and operational
• Initiated a significant organizational readiness of the first Stryker Brigade
restructuring of Army units to create a more Combat Team (SBCT)—the 3rd Brigade,
modular, flexible and responsive array of 2nd Infantry Division—in spring and summer
balanced formations to meet the near-term 2003, and successfully deployed the
and future requirements of the Combatant brigade to Iraq in fall 2003. It is presently
Commanders. The approved temporary serving as an important Army component
increase of 30,000 in Army manning, along in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Accelerated
with the initiatives in modularity, force equipping and training the second SBCT—
stabilization and rebalancing, will enable a the 1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division—to
planned increase in AC brigades from 33 permit its operational availability in 2004.
to 43, with the potential based on Secretary Began the transition and fielding of the third
of Defense (SECDEF) approval to SBCT—the 172nd Infantry Brigade—in
increase to 48 brigades. A corollary Alaska using a refined Unit Set Fielding

2004 Army Modernization Plan 3

process to reduce the time the unit is not authorizing execution of a Concept and
available. Received SECDEF approval in Technology Development (CTD) contract
December 2003 of the Army plan to equip option for SDD.
the fifth and sixth SBCTs and incorporate
important capability enhancements in those • Developed a flexible funding strategy for the
units. FCS Increment I, which has identified
requirements and can accommodate future
• Accelerated actions to rebalance the mix design changes. Contract for $14.8 billion
of AC and RC by moving approximately was signed in December 2003 with the
10,000 spaces to enhance early Lead Systems Integrator (LSI), Boeing and
deployment capabilities of the active force Science Applications International
and realign forces to meet the requirements Corporation, with funds to be used
of ongoing and future joint operations, while incrementally through FY11 by the FCS
also reducing involuntary mobilizations. industry partners. Initial contracts of $2
Further significant rebalancing efforts, billion each were subsequently awarded by
involving approximately 100,000 positions, the LSI to General Dynamics and United
to follow in the future that will improve overall Defense Industries for specific
readiness and also reduce the stress on development of the FCS.
high-demand RC units. Aimed toward both
expanding the number of brigades and • Maintained focus on developing the Army’s
creating more agile and deployable forces. ability to support the Joint Force
Commander in conducting fully
• Accelerated the implementation of a force interdependent and network-centric
stabilization initiative that incorporates a warfare. To this end, continued emphasis
new manning system and home-basing on fielding key systems essential to the
concept. This will improve unit readiness, Army’s participation in the network—the
cohesiveness, deployability, as well as Warfighter Information Network-Tactical
provide stability and predictability for (WIN-T), the Joint Tactical Radio System
Soldiers and their families. (JTRS), the Distributed Common Ground
System-Army (DCGS-A), and the Aerial
• Continued substantial transformation efforts Common Sensor (ACS).
to move toward a Future Force by
increased resourcing of the centerpiece of Purpose
this force—the Future Combat Systems
(FCS)—and associated Complementary The purpose of the 2004 Army Modernization
Systems. Plan is to effectively and efficiently support the
readiness of the Army today as a critical
• Received the approval of the Defense component of the Joint Force and its
Acquisition Board (DAB) in May 2003 to transformation to deliver future readiness
initiate the FCS as a Major Defense characterized by a force that is responsive,
Acquisition Program (ACAT 1D), deployable, agile, versatile, lethal, survivable,
authorizing entrance into the System and sustainable at every point on the spectrum
Development and Demonstration (SDD) of potential operations. The 2004 Army
phase leading to Preliminary Design Modernization Plan, like previous years’ plans,
Review (PDR) for Increment I, and focuses on building combat-capable units to

4 2004 Army Modernization Plan

ensure the Army’s continued capability, along • Provides information on selected programs
with other elements of the joint team, to win our that are critical to the Army’s efforts to
nation’s wars and successfully fulfill all missions enhance capabilities of the Current Force
assigned in defense of our national interests. and continually transform to improved
Along with the Army Science and Technology Future Force capabilities
Master Plan, it provides the rationale and
justification for the research, development, and The 2004 Army Modernization Plan does not
acquisition (RDA) portion of the Army’s offer the following:
program in support of PB05. Furthermore, it
is fully consistent with and supportive of • Specific details on all RDA programs. This
implementing the guidance of the Army information is provided in other documents,
leadership, which is reflected separately in The to include the U.S. Army 2004 Weapon
Army Plan, the Army Transformation Systems Handbook.
Roadmap, which was recently updated and
submitted to DOD in November 2003, and the • Specific commitment for budget figures
annual Army Posture Statement. Specifically, beyond FY05. Any information reflected for
the 2004 Army Modernization Plan: these years represents an Army planning
estimate and is subject to change.
• Communicates FY05 budget priorities, key
accomplishments and remaining • Modernization schedules for specific units
challenges, and shapes conditions for Army that are published and disseminated
budget planning for future years separately

• Describes the Army’s transformation efforts, Current Operational

the progress to date, and how the Army’s Environment: An Army at War
overall modernization strategy supports
both the readiness of the Current Force and
transformation initiatives as it continually The Army’s prior decision to transform itself into
a more responsive and capable force was the
evolves toward the Future Force
result of an appreciation of an altered and
• Describes the future operational rapidly changing strategic environment. The
end of the Cold War had already rearranged
environment and the warfighting concepts
the broad shape of the requirements facing the
the Army is expected to use in that
U.S. military, and subsequent trends and events
reinforced the need for substantive change.
This new environment also included the
• Explains how Army readiness and
realization of a revolution in information
transformation initiatives are supported by
technology that presented both an imperative
modernization efforts across the entire
as well as an opportunity to adapt organizations
breadth of Doctrine, Organization, Training,
and equipment to meet the challenges of the
Materiel, Leadership and Education,
21st century. While this need for change was
Personnel, and Facilities (DOTMLPF)
acknowledged in recent years, the dramatic
events that occurred in late 2001 and in
• Describes the Army’s modernization and
subsequent military operations have vividly
investment strategies
reinforced the nature of the new strategic
environment and the associated urgency for

2004 Army Modernization Plan 5

Figure 2. Army Global Commitments
effective and innovative responses now and in security of the United States as the primary
the future. The global war on terrorism, which enduring mission for the U.S. military as a
has been fought globally by U.S. and allied whole. Waging the global war on terrorism
forces, is a current reality as well as a future encompasses efforts overseas as well as at
challenge for the Army and other members of home, and it involves use of all Army
the joint team. The nation and its military forces components—AC and RC—as well as the
are indeed at war and engaged in a demanding essential civilian elements of the Army structure.
and vitally important endeavor. This
environmental reality influences all Army efforts Considerable lessons have already been
regarding preservation of essential readiness learned in both Operation Enduring Freedom
for the Current Force and transformation toward and especially in Operation Iraqi Freedom,
the Future Force. which remains a major commitment for Army
forces for the immediate future. These
Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi operations demonstrate the critical importance
Freedom have been major undertakings by the of effective joint operations and the value of
United States and have involved a significant highly trained and balanced forces. In both
commitment of Army forces as part of the joint operations, the Army’s Special Operations
operations conducted by the regional Forces—to include Rangers, Special Forces,
Combatant Commanders. Supporting these Special Operations Aviation, Psychological
missions and the overall global war on terrorism Operations, and Civil Affairs units—played a
remains the highest priority for the Army. This major role in effectively fusing their unique
mission is also consistent with the priority for capabilities with those of joint conventional

6 2004 Army Modernization Plan

forces. In addition, the array of conventional power structures are likely to change as
Army forces including the potent 3rd Infantry regional conflicts, civil wars and transnational
Division, which dramatically seized Baghdad; actors reshape existing paradigms. New
the 101st Airborne Division, with its unique air global actors may emerge on the world scene.
assault capabilities; the responsive Many emerging powers perceive the United
capabilities of the 173rd Airborne Brigade; and States as trying to achieve global dominance
the varied and indispensable capabilities of a and may form alliances in an attempt to limit
brigade of elements of the 82nd Airborne U.S. global influence. Demographics (high
Division, along with units of the V Corps, all population growth, and cultural, ethnic and
combined to form key elements of the Joint religious factors, coupled with increased
Force in Iraq in March-April 2003. Since the migrations, will cause potential unrest and
conclusion of major combat operations increased pressure for scarce resources),
(MCOs), the 4 th Infantry Division, the 1st economics (increasing globalization and the
Armored Division, the 3rd Armored Cavalry spread of transnational business), and
Regiment, and the 2nd Cavalry Regiment have technology (widely available advanced systems
also played significant roles in ongoing and very that are very user friendly) will enhance the
demanding stability operations, which often capabilities of developed and developing
include characteristics and costs associated states alike and may alter power relationships
with MCOs. Subsequently, other elements of within regions and create an intensified
AC and RC combat units have assumed globalization process. This globalization will
important roles in the long-term stabilization demand international interaction on a wide
and success of the mission. Overall, balanced range of issues to decrease the possibility of
Army forces with an assortment of capabilities conflict. It can also be said with reasonable
teamed with the 1st Marine Expeditionary certainty that during this period, state or non-
Force and 1st Marine Division, the British 1st state actors will employ or threaten violent force
Armoured Division, and other coalition forces as a means to pursue their interests. That
to form the critical land power component of violence will not be limited to U.S. interests or
the combined and joint forces in Iraq. It is facilities abroad, but as September 11 has
essential that the lessons learned from this demonstrated, may also occur in the United
operation be applied as soon and as widely States.
as possible within the Current Force to make
the Army and the joint team even more The causes for future conflict and the critical
effective. variables in the operational environment are
shown in Figure 3.
Future Operational Environment
The military strategic and operational setting
out to 2020 will become increasingly global,
In addition to the immediate demands and
encompassing land, sea, air, space and the
lessons from the current operational
cyber dimension and will be fought by joint and
environment, the next two decades present a
combined forces within a worldwide context
perplexing array of security challenges for the
utilizing a network-centric joint command,
United States. Expanding webs of economic
control, communications, computers (C4) and
and information architectures will allow some
intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance
regional powers to compete on a broader scale
(ISR) architecture. It will be fluid and
and emerge on the global landscape with
multifaceted, ranging from peacetime military
considerable influence. In addition, regional

2004 Army Modernization Plan 7

Figure 3. Operational Environmental Variables

engagement to major contingency operations. would elicit a U.S. military response; others
These operations present differing dangers for realize that they must attempt to keep the
U.S. Armed Forces ranging from isolated United States from deploying to their regions.
attacks upon Soldiers to operations that involve To accomplish this goal, several adversaries
the mobilization of every capability available will use all means possible—military, political,
to a potential foe fighting a total war. Future economic, information and even terrorist
campaigns against the United States will attacks on the United States or allies’
include a balance of asymmetric, adaptive and homelands—to pressure the United States and
conventional operations executed over a time its allies from ever deploying forces to intervene
frame that allows potential enemies to conduct in conflict regions. Indeed, the threat of terrorist
a campaign to take advantage of potential U.S. attacks on the U.S. homeland is increasing,
strategic vulnerabilities, such as the underscoring the fact that there are no
requirement to rapidly deploy forces to conflict sanctuaries. If potential adversaries are unable
areas. to preclude U.S. or allied intervention, they will
try to exclude our forces from entry by denying
The United States, at present, is able to or striking the airbases or seaports our forces
eventually dominate any military force it will will need to conduct and sustain their
encounter in the various regions of the world, operations. These adversaries are also likely
though we must also be able to deploy to those to employ cruise and ballistic missiles, aircraft
regions where potential enemy forces may be and UAVS, special purpose forces and
present. Some adversaries conclude that they terrorists. Additionally, enemies will employ
can conduct operations below a threshold that information operations to degrade our

8 2004 Army Modernization Plan

command and control and lessen our ability to those being used today against U.S. and
conduct rapid, decisive operations. If U.S. and coalition forces in Afghanistan and Iraq.
allied forces are able to deploy, they will attempt
to limit or stop the flow of U.S. assets and Given creative and adaptive adversaries, the
support into an area. If the United States is Army’s Future Force must be capable of
successful in deploying forces to an area, the effective, proactive responses against both
enemy will use all of the operational modernized, conventional and unconventional
environment factors to influence the conduct of forces, as well as capabilities employed
operations. Additionally, they will employ any asymmetrically. Historical success will not
niche technology enhancement in weapons they necessarily be a reliable indicator of successful
have been able to acquire and integrate into future military operations, as potential
their forces to increase their own capability. adversaries develop ways of countering U.S.
Finally, adaptive, learning forces will operate intervention.
from dispersed and decentralized positions,
and use extensive cover, concealment, The challenge ahead is the ability of the U.S.
camouflage, denial and deception to Armed Forces in general and the Army in
complicate U.S. advantages in targeting and particular to maintain decisive superiority while
long-range standoff weapons delivery. The developing strategies, doctrine, organizations,
goal of these operations is to create and systems to defeat adaptive adversaries.
opportunities for their forces to prolong the Army forces must retain a quality of adaptive
conflict, cause the United States a greater dominance–the ability to dominate any situation
number of casualties, and create conditions to regardless of how an adversary reacts. This
end the conflict under conditions favorable to adaptive quality will require a Future Force with
themselves. Examples of these activities are inherent versatility and adaptive Soldiers and

Figure 4. Adaptive Threats

2004 Army Modernization Plan 9

leaders who can account for the critical • Assuring allies and friends
variables inherent in the future operational
environment. The primary challenge for the • Dissuading future and military competition
Army in dealing with adaptive threats is
summarized in Figure 4. • Deterring threats and coercion against U.S.
National Security and Defense
Strategies • If deterrence fails, decisively defeating any
The events of September 11, 2001 vividly
The QDR identified seven interdependent
demonstrated that the world had entered a new
Strategic Tenets, which support the Defense
era of conflict with new challenges. The
Policy Goals. The Joint Operations Concepts
challenges of the new era are no longer
(JOpsC) defines how the military will fight as a
confined to hostile nation states equipped with
Joint Force to achieve those goals. The
traditional militaries. Although traditional
combination of the JOpsC and the Strategic
challenges will remain, the United States is
Tenets provides the ways through which the
threatened more by failing states than by strong
military will assure, dissuade, deter, and defeat
states. We will face persistent and future
persistent and future challenges. The seven
threats from non-state actors and rogue states
Strategic Tenets are:
that will employ irregular, catastrophic and
disruptive methods to challenge us.
• Manage risk in four areas—force
management, operational, future and
In September 2002, the White House published
a new National Security Strategy (NSS) to serve
as the foundation for future U.S. actions and
• Adopt a capabilities-based approach
responses in meeting these new challenges.
The NSS states that the United States will seek
• Defend the United States and project U.S.
to “make the world not just safer but better” by
military power
spreading political and economic freedom,
maintaining peaceful relations with other states,
• Strengthen alliances and partnerships
and promoting respect for human dignity. It also
outlines a preventive strategy for ensuring the
• Maintaining favorable regional balances
safety of the American people.
• Develop and maintain a broad portfolio of
In response to the President’s guidance, DOD
military capabilities
has developed a Defense Strategy (due to be
updated in early 2004), which supports the
• Transform America’s defense
goals stated in the NSS. The strategy seeks
to extend U.S. influence and prosperity and
The military means with which the strategy will
preserve the nation’s security by building a
be executed is the Joint Force. The Joint Force
durable framework in which the United States must be adaptable, fully integrated and
and our allies can prosper in freedom. To this
networked with other instruments of national
end, the 2001 Quadrennial Defense Review
power. It must be decentralized, expeditionary,
(QDR) outlined four Defense Policy Goals—
and lethal and must possess decision
the ends of the strategy are:

10 2004 Army Modernization Plan

superiority in order to confront the persistent DOD Transformation Planning
and future challenges of the new era. The Joint Guidance
Force must consist of an appropriate mix of
capabilities and quality people. The force-
In April 2003, the SECDEF approved specific
sizing construct in the 2001 QDR specifically
guidelines for the DOD to follow in its efforts to
shapes and sizes the means of the Defense
achieve transformational capabilities in
Strategy. The Joint Force must possess the
support of emerging joint concepts to execute
capabilities and be sized to:
the broader National Security and Defense
Strategies. The desired outcome was
• Defend the United States
identified as “fundamentally joint, network-
centric, distributed forces capable of rapid
• Deter aggression and coercion forward in
decision superiority and massed effects across
critical regions
the battlespace.” Transformation is described
as “a process that shapes the changing nature
• Swiftly defeat aggression in overlapping
of military competition and cooperation through
major conflicts while preserving for the
new combinations of concepts, capabilities,
President the option to call for a decisive
people and organizations that exploit our
victory in one of those conflicts—including
nation’s advantages and protect against our
the possibility of regime change or
asymmetric vulnerabilities to sustain our
strategic position, which helps underpin peace
and stability in the world.” The Army is
• Conduct a limited number of small-scale
committed to fulfilling this guidance in its
contingency operations
transformational efforts now underway.
As a capabilities provider to the Joint Force,
the Army already has in motion a The DOD strategy for implementing
transformation consists of three parts:
comprehensive plan to achieve the ends of the
transforming the culture of innovative
strategy by transforming itself in a manner
leadership; transforming the processes for
consistent with the ways to provide relevant
capabilities identification and for strategic
and ready means that are joint, expeditionary
analysis; and transforming capabilities for force
and possess campaign qualities. Through the
transformation. Force transformation itself,
continuous support and upgrade of the Current
which is the major challenge for the Services,
Force as well as the development of the
is defined as resting on the following pillars:
evolving Future Force, the Army will provide
significant support to accomplishing the ends
• Strengthening joint operations
of the strategy by preserving key existing
capabilities, such as that for forced-entry and
• Exploiting U.S. intelligence advantages
tactical assault, and adding major
improvements that will capitalize on new
• Experimenting in support of new warfighting
technologies to enhance the overall
effectiveness of the force, today and in the
• Developing transformational capabilities

This strategy involves two major dilemmas that

must be addressed by the Army in its

2004 Army Modernization Plan 11

transformation efforts—the need to balance Plan, the primary synchronization instrument for
near-term operational risks against future risks the Army as well as a means for ensuring
and the need to invest now in specific effective coordination with joint and DOD
transformational technologies while remaining efforts. The Army Campaign Plan is a living
open to other paths to change in the future. The document that is modified in light of changing
requirement for this careful balancing means needs. In this regard, a new campaign plan
that the Army must continually reassess its plans was recently published in March 2004 that
and programs in light of both the changing includes overall coordination of the latest Army
strategic environment and the technological transformational efforts in the areas of
opportunities that will continue to evolve over modularity and restructuring, force stabilization,
time. Our transformation efforts must retain the reorganization of prepositioned stocks, AC
best of current capabilities and take advantage and RC force rebalancing, as well as other
of emerging transformational opportunities to ongoing initiatives. The content of the 2004
modernize and improve the Current Force while Army Modernization Plan is consistent with the
developing more revolutionary initiatives for the Army Transformation Roadmap, since both
Future Force. documents are based on the same overall
policy guidance and budget planning process
Army Transformation Roadmap for the Army contained in the TAP.
and Campaign Plan
Army Capabilities and Joint
As noted earlier, DOD published updated Operating Concepts
guidance to the Services in April 2003
regarding their transformation efforts. This Within the expected future operational
Transformation Planning Guidance reiterated environment and in support of the nation’s
goals as well as a process to assist with and National Security and Defense Strategies, the
to measure overall success. In November Army remains the primary provider of sustained
2003, the Army released its first annual update land power forces to the JFC. The vast majority
to the Army Transformation Roadmap, which of missions will be joint in nature, and the full
was initially published in June 2002. The array of Army forces—from highly valuable
Transformation Roadmap reports how Army Special Operations Forces (SOF) to the wide
Transformation supports and is congruent with variety of conventional forces—will be
Defense Transformation through the Future structured and equipped to participate in such
Years Defense Plan (FYDP). It demonstrates joint operations. Moreover, in those missions
how the Army is providing those capabilities requiring overseas deployments, the Army
required by the Joint Force Commander (JFC) relies on its sister Services for the critical
to execute the emerging operating concepts strategic lift, both air and sea, to get to the
that guide future joint operations. Furthermore, theater in a timely manner. Close cooperation
it is an integral part of The Army Plan (TAP), among the Services to produce joint
which is the primary internal programming interoperability and deployability, coupled with
guidance in developing and funding a dynamic program of training and
capabilities that the Army provides the Joint experimentation in peacetime, will be
Force. The Army Transformation Roadmap indispensable to achieving the level of joint
also serves as the means of providing overall support essential to success in all missions. In
direction for Army-wide efforts, which are laid effect, all Services are now progressing from
out in greater detail in the Army Campaign the need for interoperability to a broader

12 2004 Army Modernization Plan

requirement for real interdependence. defining nature of most major military operations
Additionally, where possible, cooperative in the recent past, from Operation Desert Storm
programs with other Services and in a joint to the Balkan missions to Operation Enduring
framework will be fully supported. In this Freedom in Afghanistan and most recently
regard, the Army and U.S. Marine Corps Operation Iraqi Freedom. The likelihood is for
established in October 2003 the Army Marine this trend to continue in the future. As a result,
Corps Board with the goal of meeting the Army views effective international
periodically to identify and resolve issues cooperation as an important element in making
related to respective capabilities and programs Army transformation efforts successful in both
and the potential for cooperative efforts. process and eventual application on future
Depending on the subject matter, other battlefields. Such cooperation will focus on two
Services will also be included in this process key and complementary components—
to address areas of mutual interest. multinational force compatibility or
interoperability, and security cooperation.
In addition to the imperative for successful joint
cooperation and support, the Army also Returning to the DOD transformation goal of
recognizes that many, if not most, future developing capabilities for application by the
missions will also be characterized by Joint Force, the new JCIDS methodology
interagency and multinational cooperation. (Figure 5) validates the joint capability
Multinational arrangements have been a requirements that emerge from the JOpsC,

Figure 5. Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS) Process

2004 Army Modernization Plan 13

which will serve as the link between how joint partners, in recognition of the importance
forces operate today and how they will operate of this critical competence.
in the future. It provides the operational context
for transformation by linking strategic guidance • Joint Air and Missile Defense—the
with the integrated application of Joint Force increasing range and speed of air and
capabilities. The JOpsC provides a unifying missile threats, and their potential ability to
framework for developing Service concepts deliver weapons of mass destruction, place
and subordinate joint operating concepts, joint a high premium on the interdependence of
functional concepts, and enabling concepts. Service air and missile defenses,
Army concepts are inherently joint in nature and regardless of their domain of origin; has
are nested with the JOpsC. In this regard, the driven considerable integration of programs
Army’s overall Capstone Concept describes and requirements.
Army Future Force operations and provides the
central focus for the Army’s supporting • Joint Logistics—all Services have key
operating, functional and enabling concepts. interdependencies in the logistics arena
and will experience even more in an
These supporting Army concepts will be nested expeditionary environment; a pressing
in a coherently joint context that includes the demand for a joint end-to-end logistics
following five key joint and expeditionary structure that permits reliable sustainment
interdependencies: of distributed operations in which
deployment, employment, and sustainment
• Joint Battle Command—interdependent are simultaneous.
command and control driven by top-down,
comprehensive architectures and The JOpsC builds upon the goal of full-spectrum
redundant, interoperable networks; will dominance across the range of military
enable effective joint fires, blue force operations and is based on the ability to sense,
tracking, and logistic support for effective understand, decide and act faster than an
anticipation and reaction in an enemy in any situation. To succeed in an
expeditionary context. uncertain future security and operational
environment, the JOpsC places emphasis on
• Joint Fires—the interdependence of joint a capabilities-based and adaptable force to
fires will be vital to mitigating risk and balance capabilities and manage risk. In
reducing reliance on organic fires in a joint addition, the JOpsC identifies seven future joint
and expeditionary environment; effective force attributes—fully integrated, expeditionary,
implementation requires cooperative networked, decentralized, adaptable, decision
adjustments by all Services. superior, and lethal. The Army’s intent is to
embed these attributes as much as possible
• Joint Lift—the Army’s dependence on its in the Current Force, while accelerating
sister Services is nowhere more obvious development of new technologies and their
than in the area of mobility, both strategic incorporation in the evolving Future Force.
and operational; the solution to the Army’s
mobility challenges will require action by To succeed in achieving this goal of full-
both the Army, in terms of improved spectrum dominance, the Joint Force must
deployability, and our other Service adopt a more joint and expeditionary mindset.
That is also the goal of the Army as

14 2004 Army Modernization Plan

transformation efforts continue that are devoted • Focused Logistics
to moving progressively from an improved
Current Force to a more capable Future Force. • Battlespace Awareness
The Army will seek to achieve these future
attributes by developing more modular • Command and Control
organizations and institutionalizing the joint and
expeditionary mindset within those The Army’s materiel development efforts will
organizations. Additionally, an effort will be be tied to this overall process and goals for
made to accelerate the development of new fielding the Joint Force with its required and
capabilities for the Future Force and integrated capabilities. Annex D, Materiel, to
simultaneously insert some of these new the 2004 Army Modernization Plan categorizes
capabilities into the Current Force. key materiel development efforts in terms of
the above functional capabilities.
Within the JOpsC, four joint operating concepts
are identified to further guide the development Army Focus Areas
and integration of joint functional and Service
concepts to provide joint capabilities. These
To augment and further refine the Army’s
four operating concepts are: Homeland
internal plans and ongoing actions in light of
Security, Strategic Deterrence, Major Combat
the operational environment and exigencies of
Operations, and Stability Operations. For the
the ongoing war, the Army leadership in late
Joint Force to operate in a simultaneous and
2003 initiated an extensive review of a wide
distributed manner and accomplish its
variety of focus areas (Figure 6 on the following
missions with these operating concepts, it
page). Overall, the introspective examination
requires certain functions, called functional
along these functional lines aims at examining
concepts. These joint functional concepts
Army efforts and making necessary
describe how a future JFC will integrate a set
adjustments as required to improve the support
of military tasks to attain the capabilities
for the Joint Force today and into the future. In
needed across the range of military operations.
conjunction with the Army’s participation in the
Following are the joint functional capabilities
JCIDS process to provide needed capabilities
that will guide both joint and Army efforts to
to the Joint Force, this comprehensive internal
develop and field capabilities for the future: review serves to inform current and future policy
and budgetary decisions. While some of the
• Force Application initial results of this process led to minor
modifications in the Army’s component of
• Protection PB05, more extensive modifications are
expected to occur in the FY06-11 planning
process currently underway.

2004 Army Modernization Plan 15

Army Focus Areas
• The Soldier—Develop flexible, adaptive and competent Soldiers with a Warrior Ethos.

• The Bench—Prepare future generations of senior leaders. Identify and prepare select Army
leaders for key positions within joint, interagency, multinational and Service organizations.

• Combat Training Centers/Battle Command Training Program—Focus training at CTC and

BCTP to meet requirements of current security context, and joint and expeditionary team.

• Leader Development and Education—Train and educate Army members of the joint team.

• Army Aviation—Conduct a holistic review of Army Aviation and its role on the Joint battlefield.

• Current to Future Force—Accelerate fielding of select Future Force capabilities to enhance

effectiveness of Current Force. Army transformation is part of constant change.

• The Network—Leverage and enable interdependent, network-centric warfare.

• Modularity—Create modular, capabilities-based unit designs.

• Joint and Expeditionary Mindset—Retain our campaign qualities while developing a joint
and expeditionary mindset.

• Active Component/Reserve Component Balance—Redesign the force to optimize the

Active and Reserve Component (AC/RC) mix across the Defense Strategy.

• Force Stabilization—Ensure unit stability and continuity, and provide predictability to Soldiers
and their families.

• Actionable Intelligence—Provide situational understanding to commanders and Soldiers with

the speed, accuracy and confidence to impact current and future operations.

• Installations as Flagships—Enhance installations’ ability to project power and support


• Logistics—Develop an Army logistics structure that is responsive to the needs of a joint and
expeditionary campaign-quality Army while eliminating redundancy and streamline support by
reducing unnecessary layers.

• Authorities, Responsibilities, and Accountability—Clarify roles and enable agile decision


• Resource Processes—Redesign resource processes to be flexible, responsive and timely.

• Strategic Communications—Tell the Army story so that the Army’s relevance and direction
are clearly understood and supported.
Figure 6. Army Focus Areas

16 2004 Army Modernization Plan

Army T ransforma
Transforma tion

Accomplishments, Continuing across the full range of DOTMLPF to realize

Progress, and Refinement new capabilities that will support the emerging
Joint Force attributes and concepts needed to
implement National Security and Defense
In recent years, the Army has built upon its Strategies. It is the effective integration of all
vision for a future Army that is more capable of of these areas that will ultimately place Soldiers
rapid strategic response and tactical and leaders into combat-capable units that can
dominance across the full spectrum of military fulfill the entire array of missions in the new
operations. The primary instrument for security environment.
accomplishing this goal was a dramatic
process of change—Army Transformation— The evolving Army transformation process
that aimed at making a great Army even better (Figure 7) is continuous and dynamic and
and more relevant in its capability to serve as builds on a long history of adaptation and
an essential element of the overall Joint Force. change in the U.S. Army. It encompasses all
Along with Army Transformation, two other aspects of the Army, including both the Current
critical components made up the substance of Force today and the ever-evolving Future
the Army’s vision for the future—Readiness and Force. The security environment within which
People. Readiness was identified as the this process occurs is shaped by external
Army’s top priority for near-term responsibilities challenges, national strategic and defense
to the nation, with People highlighted as being guidance, and evolving joint concepts. These
at the centerpiece of the Army and its critical environmental factors have all been undergoing
link to the nation. This entire effort has always considerable change in recent months due to
been linked to the overall responsibility of the the demands of the ongoing global war on
Army to serve the nation and its interests as terrorism, including operations in Iraq, and the
part of a Joint Force comprised of all military emerging refinement of joint operations
Services. concepts and the system for producing joint
integrated capabilities. By far the most
The Army has made great progress thus far in important factor has been the dramatic change
its transformation efforts and has established in the strategic environment posed by the
momentum on a path to a Future Force
operational challenges associated with the
possessing new and improved capabilities.
global war on terrorism. The demands for
Significant investments have been made to readiness of the Army to meet current
explore and develop revolutionary capabilities
requirements in this ongoing war have taken
to provide our Soldiers and units. Some new
on an increased and higher priority in light of
capabilities have already been fielded to units
the risks to the nation and our Soldiers; thus
in the Current Force, including those the Army’s transformation plans must be and
capabilities resident in the new SBCTs that are
have been adapted to rebalance the
being formed. Further development of
associated strategy and implementing efforts.
additional and more significant capabilities is
The ongoing examination of immediate focus
well underway with the progress made in the
areas has been an important means in this
evolution of the FCS. Progress is by no means
rebalancing effort. People—primarily our
limited to new equipment, and efforts continue
Soldiers, but also their families and associated
2004 Army Modernization Plan 17
civilian and contractor support personnel—still simultaneously developing the new
remain as the centerpiece of the Army, current technologies that will be the foundation of
and future. Yet, transformation of an Army at revolutionary change. In the midterm, the Army
war must continue to accomplish the range of will complete the fielding of the SBCTs and the
missions assigned in the Defense Strategy and selected and limited modernization of the
to devote adequate resources to the Future Current Force, and begin fielding of Future
Force to maintain a military advantage against Force units. In the long term, the Army will
future threats. continue transforming into the Future Force,
while still seeking leap-ahead improvements

Figure 7. Evolving Army Transformation

Transformation Timelines—
in future capabilities as opportunities arise.
Building Combat Power Over Transformation is a continuum of changes and
Time improvements that seek to maintain clear
military superiority in the face of future needs
The Army is taking a phased approach to and technological developments.
developing and fielding capabilities over time.
In the near term, the focus is on maintaining The Current Force—Capabilities
and improving the Current Force through for the Joint Force Today
recapitalization of some existing systems and
the incorporation of new technology to create
In implementing its transformation efforts, the
a common operational picture (COP), and
Army is focused on continuously incorporating
designing the Future Force while

18 2004 Army Modernization Plan

capabilities in both its operational and Maintaining and Extending
institutional elements. The Current Force is the Readiness and Setting the Force
operational Army today and has the mission of
providing needed land power capabilities to
Modernization and recapitalization of the
the JFC for use across the full range of military
current Army force—the Current Force—is at
operations. It is the Current Force that is
the heart of addressing readiness. Army
carrying out vital missions in Iraq and
transformation timelines clearly show elements
Afghanistan and other key locations around the
world. It is this force that must be ready and of the Current Force remaining within the
Army’s force structure for the next 25-30 years.
able to respond to orders by the President and
Within that context, the Army will continue to rely
the SECDEF and support Combatant
upon the Current Force to fight and win conflicts
Commanders as part of the Joint Force. As
such, it is imperative that the Army continue to well into the fielding of the Future Force, which
devote those resources necessary to support will begin by the end of this decade. For that
and equip the Soldiers in today’s Army to ensure reason, sufficient resources must be devoted
their success and safety in all possible toward the recapitalization and limited
modernization of the Current Force while the
missions. To do this, the Army will work to
Army successfully transforms itself. The Army
maintain existing capabilities, enhance them
where feasible within emerging technologies will direct to the Current Force the resources
and available resources, and significantly needed to maintain combat superiority and
expand capabilities where possible in selected rapid strategic power projection and to insert
areas in the near term. The Current Force will new technologies that improve the quality of the
continue to serve as the basis for strategic force and its contribution to the joint team.
insurance throughout the Army transformation
The Army previously recognized the reality of
process over time, and its readiness must and
will be preserved. resource constraints and accepted some
limitations and associated risks in the Current
Force to allow the investment
required for the Future Force.
These limitations, however, must
be continually reviewed to
ensure that current readiness
requirements are always met,
especially in light of critical and
often unexpected needs that
arise such as the ongoing global
war on terrorism and other
contingency operations. Due to
the demands of the operational
requirements today, accepting
further risk in the Current Force
is no longer acceptable. As part
of maintaining warfighting
readiness today, the Army is
Figure 8. Current Force in Action in Iraq executing a detailed and

2004 Army Modernization Plan 19

comprehensive reset effort for “setting the Therefore, with the upgrade of the Current
force,” designed to return the forces that fought Force, the Army’s overall modernization
in overseas operations to prehostility readiness strategy begins to develop future leaders who
standards. This program is designed to rapidly can employ the Future Force in ways that
reconstitute the Army’s Current Force to be maximize its potential.
prepared for other contingencies.
The forward-deployed and
early-deploying contingency
forces will be recapitalized and
modernized with the insertion of
new technologies as needed to
implement the National Security
and Defense Strategies.
Reserve Component forces will
maintain capabilities
compatible with the units they
support through the selective
cascading of equipment from
the AC. Limitations in the
Current Force recapitalization
and modernization effort,
resulting from difficult decisions
made to fully fund Future Force
Figure 9. Setting the Force and Stryker programs, may
delay the modernization of the
An important element of the Current Force is RC forces that rely on cascading. This delay,
the requirement for an offensive or however, is a necessary risk required to meet
counteroffensive capability for use in a major the Army’s objective of a future transformed
conflict. To meet this need, the Army is force and to support overall DOD
selectively modernizing and recapitalizing transformation goals while still preserving and
portions of III Corps including the 3rd Armored upgrading the readiness of the Current Force.
Cavalry Regiment and two active duty heavy
divisions, the 1st Cavalry Division and the 4th New Capabilities for the Current
Infantry Division. Also included are those Force—Stryker Brigade Combat
echelons above division (EAD) units assigned
to III Corps, including RC units. In addition, the
Army will also selectively modernize and
recapitalize units undergoing reset. Fielding the Stryker-equipped brigades within
a new organizational design fills a strategic
The insertion of new information technologies near-term operational requirement for current
and better knowledge management systems Army forces. It leverages today’s state-of-the-
will provide Current Force organizations the art technologies to bridge the capabilities gap
warfighting capability to see the battlefield, between today’s force and the arrival of the
anticipate requirements and handle transitions Future Force and provides more flexible
that will characterize the Future Force. options for the regional Combatant

20 2004 Army Modernization Plan

Figure 10. SBCT Organizational Design

Commanders. Stryker-equipped brigades are The Army has fully funded plans to field six
designed to be operationally effective at both SBCTs to contribute to fulfilling the Defense
the low end of the spectrum—peacekeeping, Strategy and our national security requirements.
security-building, and small-scale In December 2003, the SECDEF approved an
contingencies (SSCs)—as well as at the high Army plan for further enhancements to the fifth
end of the spectrum—major combat operations and sixth brigades, which will include improved
(MCOs). They are optimized for close combat capabilities in the areas of aviation, fires,
to destroy enemy forces in their sanctuaries. networking and sensors. The SBCT 1 (3rd
They will also serve as an indispensable Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division (3/2 IN)) was
vanguard for the Future Force by validating deployed to Operation Iraqi Freedom in the fall
operational and organizational concepts, of 2003. The SBCT 2 (1st Brigade, 25th Infantry
training and leader development initiatives, and Division (1/25 IN)) is stationed at Fort Lewis.
deployment scenarios. 1/25 IN is currently receiving new equipment
and conducting individual and collective
The Army is fielding truly network-centric
units in the form of SBCTs. Unlike other
brigade combat teams in the Current
Force, the design of the SBCT features
organic combined arms formations down
to company level as well as the
assignment of core capabilities that
previously resided at higher levels. These
assigned forces and capabilities include
signal; ISR (to include UAVS); remote
ground sensors; nuclear, biological and
chemical (NBC) reconnaissance; artillery;
and combat engineers.
Figure 11. SBCT 1 (3/2 IN) in Iraq

2004 Army Modernization Plan 21

training. It is scheduled to attain operational mechanized and armored forces which were
capability in 2004, and the actual date of not rapidly deployable, required a large
operational availability may be advanced due logistics tail, and faced potential mobility
to acceleration in equipping and training. One challenges once deployed in austere
SBCT will be relocated to Europe. The environments where bridges could not handle
remaining SBCTs are: heavier vehicles, as experienced in Kosovo.

• SBCT 3 is the 172 nd Infantry Brigade SBCT Capabilities. SBCTs fill the near-term
(Separate) stationed at Forts Richardson capabilities gap between heavy and light
and Wainwright, AK. forces and bridge the gap between the Current
Force and the arrival of the Future Force by
• SBCT 4 is the 2nd Cavalry Regiment (Light) combining the best characteristics of heavy,
stationed at Fort Polk, LA. light and SOF and through the procurement of
new equipment backed by enabling doctrine
• SBCT 5 is the 2nd Brigade, 25th Infantry and training, all integrated into an improved
Division stationed at Schofield Barracks, force design and enabled by installation and
HI. range upgrades that allow Stryker units to fully
optimize training time. Core qualities of the
• SBCT 6 is the 56th Brigade of the 28th SBCTs include:
Infantry Division (Mechanized) of
Pennsylvania Army National Guard. • Rapidly deployable

Stryker Brigade Combat Teams • Full-spectrum-capable

• Mobility via C-130 and C-17, as well as self-
deployable over operational distances by
SBCTs provide a tremendous capability toward
the security of our nation. They provide
Combatant Commanders a rapid response
• Joint and coalition interoperability
force that conducts distributed and dispersed
operations, especially suited for
operations in complex and urban
terrain, with significant enhancements
in combat power empowered by
situational awareness. A unique
asset, Stryker Brigades can follow
forced entry operations conducted by
SOF and/or the 82 nd Airborne
Division, with a mobile, lethal, and
survivable early-entry force. Prior to
the formation of SBCTs, this was not
possible; the Army’s follow-on forces
were either additional light forces
which lacked lethality, tactical
mobility, and protection; or heavy Figure 12. Stryker offloaded from a C-130

22 2004 Army Modernization Plan

• Combat-capable upon arrival with Changing the organization of the SBCT
minimum preparation generally falls into two categories:
augmentation or scalability. The SBCT is
• Precision, internetted combined arms scaleable in terms of its ability to accept like-
fighting qualities type additional forces to expand core tasks and
functions already resident in the SBCT (e.g.,
• Decisive action from deliberate maneuver attaching additional infantry or reconnaissance
to dismounted infantry assault assets). The SBCT is also capable of
accepting temporary augmentation, consisting
• Force effectiveness in complex and urban of units and/or capabilities not resident within
terrain situations the brigade (e.g., attaching air defense, military
police, civil affairs, psychological operations,
• Decreased sustainment footprint, derived or aviation assets). In both cases, units will
from use of a common platform, better execute their normal mission essential tasks
reliability and fuel efficiencies and therefore will not require extensive training
in order to deploy or operate.
• Ability to operate under joint or Army
headquarters In many contingencies, SBCTs might be
organized to operate directly under a Joint Task
• Reachback operations for joint, Army Force (JTF) headquarters. In other
intelligence, analysis, logistics, fires, and contingencies, SBCTs will fight under the direct
force protection control of a higher Army headquarters such as
a division or corps. When deployed with a
To achieve a rapid deployment threshold, combined arms division, SBCTs will provide
SBCT design capitalizes on the widespread the division the capability to conduct stability
use of common vehicular platforms, coupled and support or security operations
with reduced personnel and a smaller logistical simultaneously with warfighting, and will
footprint in theater. Preconfigured in ready-to- enhance the division’s capabilities to operate
fight combined arms packages, the entire in urban and complex terrain. The rapid tactical
SBCT can deploy and begin operations soon mobility and reduced sustainment burden of the
after arrival and with minimum preparation at SBCT maximize its employment for exploitation
points of entry. As an early-entry force that can and pursuit operations. Whether subordinate
follow a forcible-entry operation, or arrive under to a JTF or Army headquarters, the higher
permissive conditions, SBCTs provide the echelon will assist the SBCT in establishing
Combatant Commander with a force optimized reachback linkages to the next higher echelon
primarily for employment in small-scale to expand its capabilities in the areas of
contingencies in complex and urban terrain. information, intelligence, joint effects, force
SBCTs are particularly suited for confronting protection and sustainment.
low- to mid-range threats employing both
conventional and asymmetric capabilities. If Requirement for SBCTs. The conversion to
necessary, particularly at the higher end of the an SBCT design is based on thorough analysis
operational spectrum, SBCTs can be of the security environment and anticipated
augmented with additional capabilities through operational requirements. The strategic
the time-tested concept of task organizing for rationale is as follows:

2004 Army Modernization Plan 23

• Converting four active duty brigades (three deployment force in Europe and providing
light and one heavy) and one active duty the Pacific with more lethal and survivable
cavalry regiment to a common SBCT forces.
design provides a needed force
management foundation for the Army SBCTs also allow the Army to balance today’s
rotational base to sustain deployment and training and wartime readiness requirements
training requirements. with the need to expose Soldiers to
organizations they will lead in the Future Force.
• Converting the 56th Brigade, 28th Infantry The SBCTs are essential to changing the culture
Division (Mechanized) provides the force of the Army and present a rare opportunity to
depth necessary to meet SSCs, increases transform every part of the Army: Active and
the flexibility of the strategic reserve, and Reserve, light, heavy, cavalry, forward-deployed
begins cultural transformation of the Army’s and U.S.-stationed, and finally both the
Reserve Component. operational and institutional Army.

• The SBCT stationing strategy best supports SBCTs and the Future Force. Transforming
the overall Defense Strategy by orienting the Current Force to the Future Force
three SBCTs towards the Pacific and one introduces an operational risk associated with
in Europe, although these brigades are still unit conversion, training, and attainment of a
globally responsive. Future Force operational capability. The
enhanced warfighting capabilities of SBCTs
• Increased capabilities to Combatant
Commanders by locating a rapid

Figure 13. SBCT Requirement

24 2004 Army Modernization Plan

greatly reduce that risk by providing a designed to excel in the nonlinear, asymmetric
capability that is optimized for asymmetric battlefield of the future.
crises we will most likely face this decade.
SBCTs also provide the Army with other Although SBCTs are an important bridge to the
considerable benefits that will assist in the Future Force and will inform Future Force
transformation to a Future Force design. design and doctrine, they do not possess
Future Force qualities. Two examples are
First, converting units to an SBCT design has found in the areas of lethality and survivability.
required the Army to develop and produce While the Army has ensured SBCTs have tank-
advanced warfighting doctrine that fully killing capability in close, compartmented urban
supports the rapid, distributed, and dispersed environments, they still lack sufficient lethality
knowledge-based operational qualities of the to operate at the higher end of the operational
SBCT. These qualities will be magnified in the spectrum (in environments of open, rolling
Future Force Unit of Action (UA) and will terrain against armor/anti-armor threats that
require the development of additional are of necessity assigned to today’s armored
supporting doctrine. By producing SBCT forces) without augmentation, particularly on
doctrine now, the Army has successfully laid a the future battlefield where adversaries are
strong foundation for future doctrinal work. likely to use advanced armor technologies. In
the Future Force, FCS-equipped UAs will
Second, the application of SBCT doctrine at feature a networked fires architecture enabled
unit level has led SBCT forces to develop new by advanced heavy weapons, launch systems
tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs) that and penetrators that will ensure the destruction
are unlike those associated with the Army’s of any potential armor system on the future
Current Force. An example of this is found in battlefield with a high assurance of first-round
reach operations, where Soldiers assigned to hit. Several technologies such as the Compact
SBCTs use their joint information network, Kinetic Energy Missile, Javelin P3I, and the
enabled by links to higher headquarters, to electromagnetic gun are examples of potential
obtain and access required resources from Future Force lethality not available to SBCTs
home station or outside the operational area and not engineered for integration into the
to provide Intelligence Overwatch to the Stryker platform. Other science and technology
deployed SBCTs. This capability will continue (S&T) lethality efforts with potential to be
to evolve and refine as the Army moves toward integrated into the FCS include a multi-role
a Future Force capability. armament system; advanced warheads with
miniaturized, multi-mode seekers; and
Third, the combined effects of rapid system development of solid-state lasers for both
procurement (Stryker Armored Vehicles), ground-to-ground and ground-to-air
accelerated development of advanced engagements.
warfighting doctrine and associated TTPs,
distributed and dispersed operations enabled Similarly, SBCTs do not have the same level of
by networked capabilities, all integrated into a survivability that is planned for the Future Force.
combined arms design down to company level, This enhanced survivability will be derived from
have caused a profound and needed cultural C4 and ISR that provides the commander with
shift within the Army. This cultural change is a unparalleled situational awareness, thereby
critical first step in the development of Soldiers allowing him to see, understand and act first,
and leaders who will fight in Future Force units and if engaged, the ability to survive being

2004 Army Modernization Plan 25

acquired and fired at first. Ceramic armors and Focused Logistics
“smart” armor systems coupled with active
protection systems are potential FCS In support of the overall goal of maintaining and
components that will allow the UAs to fight and improving the capabilities of today’s force and
survive at the highest end of the operational transforming to a more capable force in the
spectrum. Other examples abound, to include future, the Army has developed a corollary and
the ability of FCS-equipped UAs to exercise essential plan to transform logistics. The Army
battle command on-the-move (a Future Force logistics community exists to deliver materiel
concept) or drastically reduce logistical footprint readiness to our Soldiers—a task that has
via the use of onboard water generation, fuel remained the same for years. Today, the most
efficiencies, greater reliability, use of precision critical task is to sustain the combat readiness
munitions, and leveraging of advanced of the Army’s deployed force—the Army at
diagnostics and prognostics that will predict war—and maintain the overall operational
vehicle repair requirements before failure, readiness of the Current Force. The Current
thereby eliminating the need for stockpiles of Force must not only fight and win decisively
spare parts. against any threat, but it must also adapt to a
changing operational environment. The
The Army’s plan and strategy to transform itself fundamental challenge is to do what is required
to a Future Force is compelling. The Stryker to enhance current capabilities, while still
Brigades are a critical component of that adapting and transforming Army logistics for
strategy. Designed to fill a near-term tomorrow.
capabilities gap and provide the bridge from
the Current to the Future Force, the SBCT The Army delivers materiel readiness to the
provides a Combatant Commander with an Current and Future Forces as the land power
early-entry combined arms force that is component of the Joint Force. Operation Iraqi
deployable on the U.S. Air Force family of Freedom presents a view of future military
tactical aircraft, lethal, survivable and mobile, operations that guides Army logistics
that does not exist anywhere in the nation’s transformation efforts. At the same time, these
military today. Designed and optimized operations and associated lessons learned
primarily for employment in SSCs in complex reveal a number of shortfalls that the current
and urban terrain, confronting low-end to mid- logistics system faces on a 21 st century
range threats that may combine both battlefield. That battlefield is both joint and
conventional and asymmetric qualities, the combined, and it is characterized by dispersed
SBCT is also capable of fighting at the higher operations, decentralized execution, and an
end of the spectrum with augmentation. For increased threat to the lines of communication
the first time, the Army will have units that can and traditional “rear areas.” In essence,
enter complex urban environments, fight and Operation Iraqi Freedom is a 21st century war
win decisively with confidence. Stryker supported by a 20th century logistics system.
Brigades are required by the nation’s Defense
Strategy and represent a total DOTMLPF The successes enjoyed in Iraq were the result
solution that integrates new equipment with of the integrated logistics team of Soldiers,
enhanced capabilities into a strategically civilians and contractors who developed
responsive force design, all supported by new innovative solutions to a range of challenges
doctrine, TTPs, and enhancements to ranges and delivered readiness to the warfighter. Since
and installation training facilities.

26 2004 Army Modernization Plan

Operation Desert Storm, investments made in extended fully to Army logistics forces, and
logistics systems produced a number of there are some areas where significant effort
success stories: and progress is required. To help realize the
potential for the Army’s logistics transformation,
• Major improvements made in airfields, the logistics community is focusing on
seaports, railheads, and strategic lift accomplishing clear objectives in four specific
platforms allowed Army units to deploy in areas. These four areas are the Army logistics
record time community’s highest priorities and the targets
for applying policies, processes, and
• Expanded Army prepositioned stocks resources.
consisting of combat-ready equipment
allowed the JFC to build combat power in Connect Army Logisticians. Today’s
theater in a matter of days rather than logisticians have trouble “seeing the
weeks requirements” on the battlefield. Similarly, the
warfighting customers cannot “see the support”
• The Theater Support Vessel (TSV) that’s coming their way. As a result, we still rely
provided the JFC a robust new option for on pushing support based on the best estimate
intra-theater movement of what we think Soldiers need. The Army will
solve this problem by connecting our
The technological improvements made since logisticians. Army logisticians will be an integral
Operation Desert Storm, however, have not part of the joint battlefield network, with satellite-

Figure 14. Focused Logistics

2004 Army Modernization Plan 27

based communications that give them full-time Modernize Force Reception. We have
connectivity on demand, enabling them to pass invested well over the past 10 years in
and receive key data from the battlefield to the improving our ability to deploy rapidly from our
industrial base. This connectivity will cover the CONUS platforms. The strategic movement
battlefield, and will give logisticians the agility of forces by Large Medium Speed Roll-on/Roll-
and flexibility to quickly plug and unplug into and off Ship (LMSR) and C-17 aircraft has
from a dedicated network, with a stand-alone significantly enhanced our capabilities.
capability. However, we have not invested at the other end
—our ability to receive forces in the theater is
The Army logistics community will work in still hamstrung by the lack of a deployable
concert with ongoing efforts on the network to headquarters that focuses on joint theater-
ensure logistics communications solutions are opening tasks. Today, we build support
embedded within the Army’s network, and will organizations “on the fly” to execute aerial and
optimize joint and combined operations in an seaports of debarkation operations, and we
expeditionary environment. The logistics COP depend on forces from several organizations
will be enabled by this network connectivity and to establish the theater sustainment base. This
will provide the vital link in the joint process takes time, a luxury we will not have
commander’s ability to “see” his force and as the Army develops an expeditionary
make decisions based on accurate, real-time structure that is capable of deploying joint-
logistics information. capable force modules more rapidly than ever
Modernize Theater Distribution. Effective
theater sustainment rests solidly on the To effectively receive this expeditionary force
fundamental concepts of distribution-based flow and to facilitate immediate operational
logistics, and we need a single focus on the employment and sustainment, the Army will
simple task of guaranteeing delivery, on time, design an integrated theater-opening capability
every time. The Army must employ a that can respond on extremely short notice and
distribution system that reaches to the Soldier execute critical sustainment tasks immediately
at the point of the spear, from the source of upon entry. That theater-opening capability will
support, wherever that may be. not be an ad hoc organization—it must be a
support organization that has trained to perform
The goal is to strengthen warfighter confidence the tasks, is enabled with the right tools to
by increasing visibility and establishing flexible, succeed, and has the capacity to expand to
responsive distribution capabilities. We will not meet theater growth. The critical operational
need to store large quantities of supplies tasks that this organization must accomplish
forward, but rather will respond to customer are: (1) provide operational sustainment C2 with
requirements with speed and precision. The reachback capability and initial network
Army’s logistics community and U.S. visibility; (2) conduct theater reception, staging,
Transportation Command seek to develop this onward movement and integration operations,
solution from factory to foxhole in the joint to include life support, force protection and
environment. Along with the Army Materiel operation of ports of debarkation; (3) sustain
Command (AMC) and the Defense Logistics forces in theater, to include theater distribution
Agency (DLA), we are committed to enabling and requirements visibility.
an effective distribution-based sustainment

28 2004 Army Modernization Plan

Integrate the Supply Chain. Over the past will meet the Combatant Commander’s
several years, the Army has reduced stockage requirements rapidly and effectively.
levels at several echelons for various reasons.
We changed Army policy several years ago to The Army’s focus is directed at building and
reduce the number of items carried on unit reinforcing confidence in the minds of the
prescribed load lists while simultaneously Combatant Commanders and across the
reducing stockage levels at many authorized broad spectrum of units, agencies, allies and
stockage lists across the field Army. other entities we support by delivering
Additionally, we took risk at the strategic level sustainment on time, every time. We can only
by underfunding our strategic spares do that if we provide logisticians the capability
programs. The cumulative result of these to “see the requirements” every day and control
reductions is a “leaned out” supply chain without the distribution to guarantee precise, time-
the benefit of either an improved distribution definite support. Army logisticians will be part
system or an enhanced information system. As of joint and combined logistics processes that
a result, our Soldiers are at the end of a long leverage speed to deliver focused logistics.
line of communications, with reduced We will integrate real-time total asset visibility
inventories and an old distribution system, and and seamlessly connect to the industrial base.
that system does not support them. This will result in a logistics common
operational picture that will enable the kind of
The Army will immediately view the supply chain end-to-end control that always delivers the right
in a holistic manner to ensure we understand support, to the exact location, at the precise
the impact of actions across the entire chain, time needed. If we do not connect our
not just at a single level or within a single logisticians, improve the capability of our
Service. This joint, end-to-end view is distribution system, modernize force reception,
absolutely essential if we are to provide the kind provide integrated supply management and
of support our Soldiers deserve. The solution give the JFC total asset visibility, we will be
is an enterprise view of the supply chain and a studying these same lessons after the next
Service and agency integration of processes, major conflict. The Army’s logistics community
information and responsibilities. We are is committed to ensuring that we do not have
committed to developing the Army’s enterprise to relearn these same lessons in the future.
solution to the supply chain in close
coordination and alignment with DOD’s
Focused Logistics initiative. At end state, joint Industrial Base Modernization
information will be freely and automatically
shared between strategic-, operational- and A modern industrial base is essential to the
tactical-level headquarters and agencies. overall success of Army logistics
Consumers and logisticians from all agencies transformation. The AMC envisions the
and Services will enter local supporting industrial base as a complementary and
systems, plug into the sustainment network, and synergistic mix of commercial and organic
be afforded end-to-end Joint Total Asset industrial base capabilities and capacities.
Visibility. Combined with the efforts under These capabilities must be maintained in
“Modernize Theater Distribution,” commanders modern operating condition to ensure quality
will be capable of seeing inventory in motion and enhance productivity, as well as encourage
and inventory available at storage locations, and public-private partnerships to include
developing and implementing decisions that investment opportunities for modernization.

2004 Army Modernization Plan 29

The organic industrial base consists of Army homeland security. Future Force units will
owned arsenals, maintenance depots, and conduct operational maneuver from strategic
ammunition plants. Given the Army’s national distances and arrive at multiple points of entry,
defense mission and Title 10 responsibilities both improved and unimproved. As necessary,
to support other Services, the unique Future Force units will conduct forcible entry,
characteristics of some of its equipment and overwhelm aggressor anti-access strategies
the demand for readily available replacements, and capabilities, and rapidly impose our will
it is necessary to maintain certain industrial on our opponents. In this manner, Future Force
capabilities within the Army. In this regard, units arrive immediately capable of conducting
Program Executive Offices will also identify any simultaneous, distributed and continuous
depot facility requirements necessary to combined arms, air-ground operations, day
support new systems that are being fielded. and night, in open, close, complex, and all other
Using partnership relationships with industry terrain conditions throughout the battlespace.
and applying innovative technologies to Army units conducting joint and combined
production and maintenance processes, the operations will see first, understand first, act
Army can transform its industrial base efforts first and finish decisively at the strategic,
into the future. This will be accomplished operational, and tactical levels of war.
through full utilization of an organic workforce
and capabilities for core missions and Army Future Force units will dominate land
synergistic partnerships with private-sector operations, providing the decisive complement
developers where appropriate. This will enable to air, sea and space operations. They will
the Army’s industrial base to be effective and create synergy within the Joint Task Forces
responsive to supporting the Future Force as (JTFs) by controlling the ground, where people
well as continue sustaining current operations. and political authorities reside. Combined
precision maneuver and precision strike
The Army’s transformation process must capabilities, linked by decision superiority, will
present a balanced approach to the Future defeat our opponents in their protective
Force. It not only must encompass the sanctuaries in detail or force them into the open
development and procurement of combat where they can be destroyed with joint fires.
systems and capabilities, but must also be The psychological effects produced by the
balanced with an effective logistical support power and precision of Future Force units will
system and responsive industrial base. serve to deter hostile acts, both prior to
deployment and during the stability phases of
The Future Force—Enhanced operations. The presence of Future Force
Capabilities for the Joint Force leaders and Soldiers, dispersed across the
battlespace yet operationally integrated through
an information network, provides the JFC
situational dominance in applying lethal and
The Future Force is the Army’s future full- nonlethal effects with unprecedented precision
spectrum force—organized, manned, across the spectrum of military operations.
equipped, and trained to be more strategically
responsive, deployable, agile, versatile, lethal, Information superiority is a key enabler for
survivable and sustainable across the entire achieving the Army’s transformation goals and
spectrum of military operations from major its modernization into the Future Force. Army
combat operations through counterterrorism to Knowledge Management (AKM) is the Army’s

30 2004 Army Modernization Plan

strategy to achieve this objective by focused, intent-centric environment will be the
transforming itself into a network-centric, hallmark of information-empowered operations
knowledge-based force. A commander- in the future, bringing situational awareness of

Figure 15. Current to Future Force

2004 Army Modernization Plan 31

the total environment—friendly, neutral, understanding that centers of analytic expertise,
unknown and enemy—to the commander, culturally aligned with the maneuver force, will
where and when he needs it, in an intuitive be key enablers of brigade and battalion
format. Further, it will allow him to collaborate operations. Analytic Overwatch is a mission
both vertically and horizontally with other activity in which operationally aligned and
leaders to seize and maintain battlespace responsive analytic capabilities are
understanding to act first and finish decisively. consistently focused on the maneuver brigade
The technologies that support this sort of and battalion knowledge challenge. The core
warfare must be augmented by appropriate foundations of Analytic Overwatch are cultural
changes in doctrine, organization, training, alignment with the supported brigade or
leadership, and education to exploit the power battalion, direct operational responsiveness to
of knowledge management and to achieve a the supported force, anticipation of supported
capabilities-based Army for 2010 and beyond. force requirements, the ability to produce
This effort is an integral part of the Army’s products before the force realizes they need
transformation. AKM will vastly improve them, and the assured robust communications
information superiority for our warfighters and paths to provide usable products in a timely
business stewards in the battlespace, in our manner. Analytic Overwatch is core to the
organizations and in our mission processes emerging Distributed Common Ground
supporting logistics; intelligence, surveillance System (DCGS) net-centric model of warfare.
and reconnaissance; personnel management;
medical services; and the training and Fundamental to Overwatch is the ability to
education of Army personnel worldwide. To this provide tactically relevant intelligence to
end, the Army has recently activated the materially assist operational planning and force
Network Enterprise Technology Command engagement preparations. Overwatch
(NETCOM) as the Army’s single authority to materially aids the synchronization and
operate, manage, and develop the Army integration of brigade organic intelligence
Knowledge Enterprise (AKE). NETCOM is capabilities. The Overwatch activity strives to
now implementing the Army’s enterprise collapse time around analytic activity as it fights
concept for voice, data, and video networks, for relevant knowledge and information
improving network capacity, performance, and consistent with the tactical force plan. Through
security across the AKE. Accordingly, the use of powerful software tools and
NETCOM has assumed technical control of all advanced analytic capabilities and accesses,
Army networks including those of the Army analysts operating in Overwatch scan
National Guard and Army Reserve. voluminous amounts of raw data and
information in search of key indications and
The Army recognizes that achieving information warning of future threat activity and immediate
superiority requires more than network intentions. En route intelligence updates
connectivity. We must leverage the power of geared to tactical force knowledge
all available Army, joint, interagency, and requirements are a key feature of Overwatch.
multinational ISR capabilities in support of the Optimally, Analytic Overwatch operates to build
Future Force. Analytic Overwatch is an the knowledge foundation upon which sensor-
advanced concept for providing sustained, to-shooter/-decider activities can be initiated
responsive, relevant intelligence analytic while forces are en route for immediate action
support of maneuver brigades and battalions. upon arrival. Anticipation, understanding,
Analytic Overwatch is premised on an responsiveness, and relevance are all

32 2004 Army Modernization Plan

characteristics of a well-executed Overwatch Space systems increasingly provide critical
function. Overwatch provides support to the support for ground warfare force enhancement
engaged force while anticipating transitions functions including intelligence, surveillance,
and future operations. The Overwatch function and reconnaissance; communications;
sustains knowledge overmatch for current warning; combat identification; positioning,
operations while simultaneously providing velocity, navigation, and timing; battle damage
analytic products to assist concurrent planning. assessment; and monitoring of weather, terrain
and the environment. Joint space-based
Networked Analytic Centers are the platforms capabilities aid the implementation of Future
from which the Analytic Overwatch mission is Force concepts, particularly in respect to
executed. First and foremost, Networked achieving information superiority, creating
Analytic Centers are centers of analytic and situational awareness, and operating within the
intelligence management expertise optimally high tempo, noncontiguous, simultaneous
enabled by their connectivity forward to framework of distributed operations. To
maneuver brigades and battalions, laterally with accomplish these tasks, Army space
other tactically focused analytic centers and stakeholders participate in joint efforts to insure
upward/rearward with the full range of joint, future space systems and services will provide
national and multinational intelligence responsive, timely and assured support to
capabilities. The concept provides maneuver commanders at all echelons and be fully
brigades and battalions tasking authority to integrated with air and terrestrial-based
Networked Analytic Centers. battlefield systems. Fully integrated joint space
force enhancement will provide depth,
Future concepts for Networked Analytic persistence and reach capabilities from
Centers generally operate from large, fixed or national to tactical levels that organic Army
home station locations. This concept systems alone could not provide. Space force
transitions existing corps and echelons above enhancement to warfighters will be generally
corps (EAC) units to an Intelligence Overwatch transparent because it is so fully integrated into
organization. They are generally not supporting processes and products. Although
categorized as deployable but are relocatable awareness of space’s role may not be
depending on operational conditions, facilities, apparent, warfighter reliance grows steadily as
and connectivity. The analytic centers are does its potential advantage to adversaries.
optimally enabled from locations where they Combined, these dynamics make
have access to a robust and reliable development of space control capabilities a
communications and information technology priority. Army space stakeholders participate
architecture. Additionally, they are constructed fully in joint space control development efforts.
with modular, scaleable assets capable of Maturing Army space cadre experience and
relocation to support mission requirements leadership will ensure Soldiers will be
forward. A Networked Analytic Center can be knowledgeable, skilled and confident in
located anywhere analysts, communications working with space systems and products and
and sufficient technology infrastructure can be will view space-based operations as integral
made available, consistent with operational and routine parts of military operations.
necessity. However, the focus is on providing
expert, timely, relevant knowledge to enable Future Force units will make significant
tactical decision making at the brigade and contributions at all three levels of warfare:
maneuver battalion levels. strategic, operational and tactical. At the

2004 Army Modernization Plan 33

strategic level, Future Force units will continue Army study and wargaming and, more recently,
to meet the Army’s nonnegotiable contract with training enhanced with networked situational
the American people to fight and win our awareness within Current Force formations.
nation’s wars. Future Force units will also Future Force units will be optimized to win on
continue to provide the Army’s unique the offensive, to initiate combat on their terms,
contribution to national security: sustained land to gain and retain the initiative, build
dominance across the range of military momentum quickly and win decisively. They
operations and spectrum of conflict. Army Units will be capable of mastering the transitions in
of Action will comprise the tactical warfighting warfare—from fort to foxhole, from offense to
echelons of the Future Force, filling the same defense, from warfighting to support
role as today’s brigades and lower echelons. operations—to maintain operational
momentum and threaten retention of the
At the operational level, the Army provides initiative. At the tactical level, Future Force
headquarters that act as integrating agents Units will see first, understand first, act first and
within joint, interagency and multinational finish decisively as the means to tactical
teams. Designated Future Force headquarters success. Operations will be characterized by
and major commands (which will be developing situations out of contact;
characterized as Units of Employment (UE) at maneuvering to positions of advantage; and
what is now equivalent to corps and division engaging enemy forces beyond the range of
levels), will act as JTF Headquarters, Joint their weapons, destroying them with precision
Force Land Component Commands (JFLCC), fires and, as required, by tactical assault at
and/or Army Forces (ARFOR) command times and places of our choosing.
headquarters. Army headquarters at all levels Commanders will accomplish this by
will also be integral parts of any Standing Joint maneuvering distributed and dispersed tactical
Task Force (SJTF), which may be formed by formations equipped with FCS and Objective
the respective Combatant Commanders to Force Warrior (OFW) for the dismounted
provide seamless joint command and control. Soldier and his leader, and enabled by
For land campaigning, the Future Force will networked battle command capabilities for
provide operational-level decision and common situational awareness. With these
information superiority to JFCs, enabling them capabilities, the Future Force will master the
to gain and maintain operational initiative. transitions at all levels of operations.
Information superiority will be gained through
operational level ISR; information management Units of Action (UA) and
(IM); and information operations (IO). When Employment (UE)
coupled with Future Force land campaign
planning expertise, information superiority
As part of its overall transformation process,
enables JFCs to see first, understand first and
the Army is assessing the echelonment of future
act first at the operational level.
formations. It is envisioned that the Future
Force, enabled by networked battle command,
The Army’s ability to dominate the tactical level
will conduct operations that are jointly
of war—the short-sword warfight—upon which
integrated at a much lower level of command
operational and strategic success is built, is
than today. Current thinking is focused on use
essential for Joint Force success on land.
of the organizational constructs referred to as
Recognizing what is possible at the tactical
UA and UE. Both of these levels of organization
level has been the subject for years of intense

34 2004 Army Modernization Plan

are intended to provide the JFC with units that the entire range of threats and all conditions
will accomplish the full spectrum of missions and variables in which these forces will be
the Army is called upon to perform—from employed. The UA will apply to the mission
homeland security to humanitarian assistance sets of these combat formations with the
to SSCs or MCOs. As part of the major exception of Special Forces, Ranger and
restructuring effort underway, the Army will airborne forces. T he Army currently has multiple
create units having a modular UA and UE organizational designs under development for
organizational design. The UE design (both the Unit of Action. Brigade Combat Team UA
UEx and UEy) will transform the Army from designs include Armored, Infantry, Stryker, and
three to two standing echelons (Figure 16). the FCS-equipped UA. These UAs are
designed and organized for close combat and
Units of Action stability operations. Support UA designs
include Aviation, Sustainment, Protection,
Strike, and Reconnaissance and Surveillance.
The Army accomplishes the full spectrum of
The Support UAs are designed and organized
these missions today through the application
for multifunctional and functional support
of multiple ground combat formations and
organizations. These include Special Forces
groups and the Ranger Regiment, airborne,
The capabilities of the UA are balanced across
light infantry, Stryker Brigades, mechanized
the desired Future Force characteristics of
infantry, armor and armored cavalry, and air
responsiveness, deployability, agility, versatility,
assault formations. These formations address
lethality, survivability, and sustainability.

Figure 16. Levels of Command–Transformed from 3 to 2 Standing Echelons

2004 Army Modernization Plan 35

Graphic to be inserted later

Figure 17. FCS-equipped Units of Action (UA) Organizational Design

Although optimized for offensive operations, the Designed to ensure campaign quality, the UA
UA can execute stability and support not only has the responsiveness and
operations. It employs a revolutionary deployability to achieve a 96-hour deployment
networked, battle command architecture to vary goal, but it is specifically designed with the
its span of command and control and integrate durability, endurance and stamina to fight
UE or JTF supporting capabilities to battles and engagements for the duration of a
accomplish its mission. campaign, focused on the decisive points and
centers of gravity. Given its inherent tactical
The hallmark of UA operations will be the mobility, it can land at points removed from its
significant ability to develop situations out of objectives, out of range of enemy defenses, and
contact, come at the enemy in unexpected then move by land to complete its mission. This
ways, use teaming with leader initiative, capability applies not only to entry operations,
maneuver to positions of advantage with speed but also to theater operations throughout the
and agility, engage enemy forces beyond the campaign.
range of their weapons, destroying them with
enhanced fires, and assaulting at a time and The UA will master the transitions in warfare
place of our choosing. Although not necessarily that sap operational momentum and threaten
sequential, it is the combination of fires initiative retentions. Superior situational
(precision and volume) and maneuver, and the understanding delivers the advantage required
tactical assault that makes the enemy’s to close with and destroy the adaptive and
problem so difficult. The cumulative effect of asymmetric adversaries of the future and
simultaneous, multidimensional operations will allows the commander to set the requisite
be to dominate an adversary, enabling friendly conditions for mission success in purpose,
forces to destroy, dislocate and disintegrate time and space.
him and transition to the next engagement.

36 2004 Army Modernization Plan

The UA is not a fixed organization. It has the The UA has the ability to develop the situation
capability to command and control up to six before, during and after contact, affording
maneuver battalions and its C4 and ISR leaders and Soldiers unprecedented
architecture enables the UA to increase its situational dominance with revolutionary
span of control. The UA can be tailored for competencies and capabilities. The UA acts
specific missions and between missions in the within a new tactical paradigm based upon the
campaign and is able to employ a range of quality of firsts: see first, understand first, act
supporting capabilities, from a UE or a JTF, to first and finish decisively.
perform a variety of missions such as
reinforcing fires, air and missile defense or civil See First. UA leaders see the entire
operations. battlefield—the parts, the whole and the
surrounding environment, including terrain,
Historically, uncertainty about friendly and weather, and population implications—that
enemy conditions on the battlefield often affect operations. They must know, think and
dictated cautious movements to contact. understand several steps ahead of the enemy
Forces lost both time and resources while simultaneously ensuring the enemy sees
developing the situation while in contact, last. This is done through aggressive
followed by the initiation of decisive action at a counterreconnaissance, which is especially
time and place that was not necessarily of focused on enemy air and UAV threats as well
choice. UA capabilities intend to break this as enemy special purpose forces. Given the
paradigm and develop situations out of contact availability of national and joint assets, the UA
and destroy enemy forces at the commander’s will arrive in theater with somewhere between
desired time and place through improvements 50 percent knowledge of enemy situation in
in: open, rolling terrain to as low as 10 percent
knowledge of enemy situation in major urban
• Information dominance that allows areas. Embedded ISR capabilities within the
unprecedented situational awareness and UA’s organizational design, along with
understanding responsive joint sensors, will improve
understanding of the enemy’s disposition and
• Embedded, robust, all-weather 24/7 ISR capabilities to about 80 percent, thereby
allowing the UA to develop the situation in open,
• Ability to plan collaboratively and rehearse rolling terrain while on-the-move from
virtually while on-the-move, arriving at the dispersed, parallel axes. In complex, urban
objective on parallel axes terrain, the UA will require tactical patience
while it isolates key areas and conducts
• Inherent air-ground integration deliberate reconnaissance to ensure its small
units can see first and prevent enemy from
• Manned/unmanned teaming with organic gaining tactical surprise.
unmanned weapons systems
Understand First. Leaders must understand
• Standoff destruction of enemy systems with the enemy’s patterns so they understand what
assured lethality featuring a high probability information means and know what they must
of a hit and equally high probability of kill, do with it. Much of this is accomplished by
all beyond the range of the enemy’s matching the UA’s ISR results with external ISR
weapons databases through the Distributed Common

2004 Army Modernization Plan 37

Ground System-Army (DCGS-A) to provide the Finish Decisively. Finally, the UA finishes
UA commander with the tailored information decisively by controlling the tempo of
required to recognize the tactical opportunities operations, denying the enemy freedom of
on the battlefield. Exploitation of these action and destroying the enemy’s ability to
opportunities allows UA units to take actions fight. The UA can maneuver, employ fires, and
that yield operational or even strategic results transition seamlessly while in contact. It is
against the enemy’s centers of gravity, decisive optimized for closing with and destroying the
points and vulnerabilities. What is described enemy when forces are joined by:
here is more than “understanding” prior to
contact and then hammering the enemy with • Precise fires and precision maneuver while
fires to achieve a tactical decision. What is in contact
new is the UA’s ability to employ understanding
before, during and after tactical engagements • Precision fires at standoff and mutual
to apply fires, fully integrated with maneuver, to support on-the-move
achieve a tactical decision. Beyond
understanding first, the UA leader forces the • Assured mobility near the objective to avoid
enemy to understand last through being trapped in enemy kill zones
counterreconnaissance, deception, pattern
avoidance and irregular battlefield geometry. • Dismounted infantry that exits their carriers
with full situational understanding
Act First. Seeing and understanding first—a
continual process—gives commanders and • Tactical assault against all threats in any
their formations the situational dominance terrain and in all weather conditions
necessary to act first. Through the mastery of
movement techniques, mutual support, fire and Critical to the ability to see first, understand first,
maneuver, control and distribution of fires, act first and finish decisively at the strategic,
integrating combat power, assault, and operational and tactical levels is a force design
transition, the UA leader takes cues when in or founded on a set of characteristics that
out of position, and executes with speed, agility provides the force with the capability to be
and initiative. UA leaders create an strategically responsive and dominant at every
organization that is built around excellence in point on the spectrum of military operations.
small unit operations, armed with information
dominance, and create conditions that allow Future Force Characteristics
leaders down to squad level to act on intent as
never before. In the past, the Army has taught The following seven characteristics of the Future
leaders to accumulate an overwhelming Force are complementary features that
correlation of forces prior to acting. In the UA, together produce an overall capability greater
leaders will routinely attack with a force than the individual capabilities they describe.
correlation of 1:1 to 2:1. They will achieve this
ability by an overwhelming dominance of Responsiveness and Deployability. The
situational understanding, which will allow the UA is deployable and capable of quickly and
UA to act at these ratios by precisely attacking rapidly concentrating combat power in an
enemy forces from standoff, thus setting the operational area. The UA can maneuver at
conditions to finish decisively. operational distances by air, land, and sea to

38 2004 Army Modernization Plan

arrive in coherent combined arms increments overwhelming lethality overmatch. This
and fight upon arrival. overmatch is based on several tenets:

Agility. The UA has the ability to transition • Firing first with assured lethality and
among the various types of operations and assured kill
from one tactical engagement or battle to the
next, based on advanced battle command on • Assured first-round kill to include avenge
the move and communications and intelligence kill capability
related systems that build and sustain superior
understanding. The difference is that this • Precision
design is based on strengthening the leader’s
ability to understand the environment and • Networked Army and joint fires
execute actions aggressively. This yields a
greater level of competency in the combat skills • Mutual support
of the leader and the led. The leader not only
understands the environment, but can also • Develops situation out to 75km radius
share that assessment with other units very
effectively. This level of situational Survivability. The UA takes advantage of
understanding makes teaming resources or technologies that provide maximum protection
units nearly effortless, giving the UA incredible and survivability down to the individual Soldier
agility. level, on or off platforms. This is accomplished
by leveraging low-observable technologies,
Versatility. The UA can move from task to task active and passive protection systems, and
with great agility as stated above. Further, it force protection. Survivability is also achieved
can accomplish a broad range of missions, with the following capabilities:
giving it unparalleled versatility. The UA has
the inherent capacity to dominate at any point • Information superiority
in the spectrum of military operations based
on tailorability and modularity. It can be task- • Maximized cover and concealment
organized to accomplish a wide variety of techniques
missions. An essential characteristic of the UA
design is its combined arms framework, which • Superior dash speed employed from cover
by its very nature provides improved mission to cover
• Dispersed networked units that maintain
Lethality. The UA has assured overmatch mutual support in overwatch
against enemy line-of-sight (LOS), beyond-line-
of-sight (BLOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) • Lethality that assures first-round kill
fires in all conditions and environments. The
foundation of the UA’s improved lethality is its • Effective suppressive and obscuration fires
ability to aggressively employ small units and
teams at the right time and place in the • Trained and well-led Soldiers who are
battlespace. Every element in the UA is competent and capable of doing the right
capable of generating combat power and thing at the right time and doing it effectively
contributing to the fight and providing

2004 Army Modernization Plan 39

• Rapid augmentation by UE combat combat operations; designate objectives;
multipliers when dictated by mission, coordinate with multi-Service, interagency,
enemy, troops, terrain, time, and civilians multinational and nongovernmental activities;
(METT-TC) and employ long-range fires, aviation and
sustainment while enabling C4 and ISR and
Sustainability. The UA is able to conduct tactical direction to the UA. The UE attains
combat operations with a much reduced organic higher-level Army, joint and coalition
logistics footprint and lower consumption rates. effects to set conditions to enter battle on our
The UA will operate for three days at a high terms, seize the initiative before contact and
operational intensity and up to seven days in a employ our strengths against enemy
medium to low operational environment before weaknesses.
it must be resupplied.
The UE is subdivided into two echelons: UEx
The UA’s organizational design will provide (higher tactical) and UEy (operational land).
significant improvements in the critical These highly tailorable and scalable
capabilities described above. However, there headquarters will be designed around the
will frequently be times when the UA must be future Battle Command System; both are
augmented by additional resources to ensure modular entities designed to employ a tailored
overmatch in these critical areas. The mix of forces.
augmentation will be provided from the UE
force pools based on METT-TC. In addition to The UEx is designed to be the primary
more maneuver UAs, other potential controlling headquarters for the maneuver,
augmentation could include maneuver support maneuver support, and maneuver sustainment
UAs (air defense, chemical, engineer, or UAs. The UEx can serve as the ARFOR
military police) or maneuver sustainment UAs headquarters and combined JFLCC for an
(maintenance, distribution, global health, supply SSC without augmentation, or it can serve as
and services, human resource support, the JTF headquarters for an SSC with an SJTF
religious support, legal support, financial headquarters attached.
management, or explosive ordnance
demolition). The UEy plans and conducts major land
operations in a Joint Operations Area. It
Units of Employment orchestrates decisive, shaping, and sustaining
operations in support of the joint campaign.
Without augmentation, it serves as a JTF
The UEs are highly tailorable, higher echelons
headquarters for SSCs. For MCOs, the UEy
that integrate and synchronize Army, joint and
can serve as ARFOR and combined JFLCC
multinational forces for full-spectrum operations
headquarters without augmentation. The UEy
at the higher tactical and operational levels of
can also serve as the intermediate
war. They link ground and joint forces and
headquarters between a higher UEy and UEx
orchestrate ground operations that decide joint
during certain MCOs.
campaigns. They will be organized, designed
and equipped to fulfill C2 functions as the
The UE focuses on battles, major operations
ARFOR component, JFLCC or the JTF. UEs
and decisive land campaigns in support of joint
are the bases for combined arms air-ground
operational and strategic objectives. They
task forces. They resource and execute
participate in all phases of joint operations from

40 2004 Army Modernization Plan

initial entry to conflict termination in any form of The UA normally fights under the command and
conflict and operating environment and in all control of a UE. The UA orchestrates multiple
weather and conditions. engagements to win battles. The UE employs
UAs to achieve tactical decision. The UA

Figure 18. Fighting the Modular Army in a JTF

2004 Army Modernization Plan 41

integrates organic and supporting ISR, fires and • Synchronize operations and combat power
maneuver to close with and destroy the enemy.
• Facilitate transitions to maintain tempo in
The UE must be able to execute these core multiple battles
missions to enable success:
• Sustain forces by synchronizing operations
• Facilitate deployment, in total or part,
anywhere in the world with little notice • Provide enablers to the UA through the force
pooling of maneuver, maneuver support,
• Develop the situation before forces are and maneuver sustainment UAs
joined and gain information superiority
As the Army moves forward in its
• Shape and isolate the battlespace transformation efforts, it continuously models
and analyzes force designs and functions to
• Shield the force from enemy air and surface ensure full-spectrum dominance. The UA and
effects UE attributes and capabilities described above
are the results of much analytical work designed
• Direct entry and decisive operations to to ensure the nation has the most effective
destroy, disintegrate and dislocate the warfighting force possible. As new
enemy technologies become available and as the
Army analyzes and learns from its fielding and
• Air assault up to a maneuver battalion use of the SBCTS, the Army will continuously
refine the UA and UE concepts and designs.

42 2004 Army Modernization Plan

Army Modernization

Modernization Strategy— comprehensive strategy of integrating all its

Balanced Modernization efforts and programs across the DOTMLPF
toward the goal of equipping and organizing
forces. This strategy can be described best
Modernization is a continuous process of as one of “balanced modernization,” which
integrating new Doctrine, Organizations, seeks to develop and field combat-capable
Training, Materiel, Leadership and Education, units through an appropriate mix of selective
Personnel, and Facilities (DOTMLPF) to procurement and fielding of new equipment
develop and field warfighting capabilities for (modernization), rebuilding and upgrading of
the Army to provide to the Joint Force in key existing equipment (recapitalization), and
executing the National Security and Defense preserving needed elements of current
Strategies and all assigned missions. equipment (maintenance). Modernization
Modernization activities are facilitated and programs are placed into three basic
optimized by sound modernization and categories and are then subcategorized based
investment strategies that are specifically upon the force they are fielded to support.
designed to implement the Army’s
transformation process. The modernization These modernization strategy categories are:
and investment strategies also establish
common terms of reference for all • Modernization—the development and/or
modernization activities and, very importantly, procurement of new systems with improved
provide clear priorities and focus for the warfighting capabilities
allocation of resources for equipment
expenditures. The overall Army modernization • Recapitalization—the rebuild and selected
strategy remains focused directly on providing upgrade of currently fielded systems to
those necessary capabilities for the Current
ensure operational readiness and a zero-
Force, which remains the foundation of the time/zero-mile system
Army’s readiness to fight and win decisively
against any threat, while simultaneously
• Maintenance—repair or replacement of end
supporting a transformation process to ensure items, parts, assemblies, and
that those capabilities essential for the future subassemblies that wear or break
are being developed. The investment strategy
in support of modernization describes the As an instrument for the most efficient use of
process used in deciding how to allocate these various means, the Army has an important
monies across competing priorities in order to process—Unit Set Fielding—which is
obtain the best capability for each dollar spent. designed to ensure achievement of the greatest
combat capability across the force throughout
In support of the overall goal of maintaining and the overall modernization process while
enhancing current readiness while also maintaining the highest level of readiness and
implementing transformation into a more the lowest feasible expenditure of resources.
responsive and capable force for the future, the
Army has developed a coordinated and

2004 Army Modernization Plan 43

The modernization strategy also consists of the insert, where feasible, newly developed
following two components, which help define a capabilities in the evolving Army concept,
clearer focus for its implementation: derived from emerging technologies.

• Maintaining and improving essential • S&T efforts to enable timely fielding of the
warfighting capabilities of the Current Force Future Force and, in particular, the FCS,
to preserve military superiority for all which will be the foundation of that force.
possible missions. This includes the This also entails a corollary mission to
fielding of immediate operational identify and field selected new capabilities
capabilities by organizing and equipping into Current Force units where appropriate
six SBCTs; restoring and improving the and affordable.
readiness of units returning from operations
through a comprehensive reset effort; and Integrating across the DOTMLPF
restructuring the Army to create modular
units, thus increasing the readiness, The Army’s transformation process includes a
number and responsiveness of Army comprehensive examination of the
brigades. Additionally, another critical interrelationships among doctrine,
element will be an accelerated effort to organizations, training, materiel, leadership

Figure 19. Modernization Strategy

44 2004 Army Modernization Plan

and education, personnel, and facilities. As Modernization Priorities
the Army fields new capabilities to the Current
Force and evolves into the Future Force, it must To achieve balanced readiness of the force
optimize investments by ensuring the proper over time, the Army prioritizes its investment of
synchronization between DOTMLPF limited resources. From a requirements
requirements and DOTMLPF solutions. perspective, priority is to maintain and improve
the readiness of the Current Force, including
Transforming the Army has placed new fielding the capabilities of the Stryker Brigades
demands on how leaders and Soldiers are and inserting new technologies into existing
managed throughout the force. With over one
systems, and then to modernizing into future
million Soldiers geographically dispersed formations. From a resourcing perspective,
across seven continents, the Army’s personnel however, while the Army is committed to
community is developing new tools that will preserving the essential warfighting
ensure the right Soldiers with the right skill sets capabilities of the Current Force, it will also
are assigned to the proper units in a timely devote significant funding toward
manner to ensure combat readiness. transformation initiatives that serve as the
Enhanced personnel databases, leveraging foundation of the Future Force yet also have
web-based technologies, and implementing applicability to the Current Force. A key
best business practices are examples of how component to preserving these warfighting
the Army intends to improve the management capabilities will be achieved through the
of its military and civilian personnel. The fielding of SBCTs. The number one priority for
increased operational demands have also Army modernization investments is the
required a reexamination of many longstanding development of the Future Force and
personnel and basing practices, with the result particularly the FCS, the foundation of the future
being that the Army is transitioning to an transformed Army. Initially that investment takes
improved manning system designed to improve the form of S&T efforts to explore, identify, and
unit readiness by increasing stability and develop the revolutionary technologies needed
predictability for unit commanders, Soldiers, to make the FCS a reality. Of the Army’s total
and families. This will place greater emphasis
S&T funding in the FYDP, 97 percent directly
on building and sustaining cohesive,
supports programs needed to develop Future
deployable combat-ready units. Force technologies. In addition to these S&T
efforts, the Army is devoting a substantial and
Modernizing the Army with new systems and
increasing amount of its RDA funding to fielding
equipment is a critical undertaking that
systems that will be fully integrated in the Future
consumes vital and limited resources. Only by
Force. Overall, maintaining effective
ensuring that equipment fielding is integrated interoperability between systems in the Current
and synchronized with total requirements can Force—including the SBCTs—and in the
the Army be assured that resources are being Future Force will be a critical component of the
used in a wise and cost-effective manner. The Army’s modernization plan. To accomplish this,
annexes attached to the 2004 Army sufficient resources will be applied to those
Modernization Plan provide a comprehensive activities that improve acquisition of
and succinct review of the progress being interoperable capabilities across the force
made in modernizing across the DOTMLPF as (e.g., areas such as architectures, training, C4
the Army continuously transforms itself from the and ISR integration, and Software Blocking).
Current to the Future Force.

2004 Army Modernization Plan 45

Developing and fielding the Future Force is the unique technological advancements to
Army’s modernization investment priority, and conventional Army forces. In addition to these
59 percent of RDA funding in the FYDP forces, the Army also plans to insert
supports this purpose. Included as a subset technological improvements into other Current
within this investment, fully 20 percent of overall Force units that have an important role in
RDA is directly earmarked for the FCS. maintaining operational readiness.
Approximately 37 percent of total RDA is
earmarked for the Current Force, with about 4 Enabling Process and Tools
percent of RDA for Army infrastructure
investments. The preponderance of funding There is an important process that is integral
focused on the Future Force will continue to to the execution of the Army’s modernization
increase over time as the Army progresses in strategy—Unit Set Fielding (USF). In addition
the transformation process.
to this process, the Army uses an important
acquisition policy and process called Software
The focus on the Future Force is, in fact,
Blocking to implement USF by integrating and
enabled by the Army’s continued investment in
synchronizing system software developments
the readiness and capability of the Current
and upgrades. The Army also makes extensive
Force. When the Future Force units are fielded
use of modeling and simulation as well as of
and become operationally capable, beginning
studies and analyses to help establish priorities
in 2010, the change in investments will
and make informed choices throughout the
accentuate this shift even further. In recent
transformation process. Collectively, all of
years, the Army has begun a paradigm shift in
these tools are integral to the success of
its investments toward an increasing emphasis
transformation and an effective and efficient
on identifying and fielding leap-ahead
modernization strategy.
technologies needed for the future. This shift
will continue in the coming years, though the
Army also intends to simultaneously insert
Unit Set Fielding (USF)
many of the technological improvements into
the Current Force as soon as feasible to Under traditional fielding processes, units were
capture the benefits and improve near-term modernized by receiving multiple and separate
capabilities required for current operational issuances of individual systems throughout the
readiness. year. This modernization approach, however,
rarely provided the unit with a complete and
To accelerate the transformation to the Future fully integrated operational capability. It also
Force, the Army has accepted some risk by proved to be disruptive to unit training and
focusing its modernization efforts on selected readiness. The single system/single unit focus
units and capabilities. A key example of this of traditional Total Package Fielding (TPF)
focus is the modernization of Army Special does not support the scope of facility,
Operations Forces, which because of their installation, training complex, and training
unique asymmetrical nature and essential role center modernization required for fielding
in the global war on terrorism and other integrated new capabilities to units.
contingencies warrant particular priority and
technological improvement. These forces will A more disciplined and structured
continue to leverage the Army’s developing modernization approach was needed. The
technology as well as make available their own Army established the USF process in 2001.

46 2004 Army Modernization Plan

Figure 20. Unit Set Fielding (USF) Equipment Fielding Schedule

This process expanded on the single system is also developing a comprehensive USF
modernization policies and procedures by strategy for the Future Force. The first FCS-
focusing on building a unit combat capability enabled UA, scheduled for an initial operational
package of equipment. USF integrates and capability (IOC) in FY10, will use the USF
synchronizes resourcing, planning, preparation process to field system-of-systems (SoS)
and fielding of the package to a designated capabilities.
unit during a single modernization window. The
designated unit is usually a brigade combat Software Blocking (SWB)
SWB is an acquisition policy and disciplined
Optimum success in fielding the capability process through which the Army achieves and
package is gained by integration of all
sustains an integrated SoS warfighting
DOTMLPF activities required to develop, field, capability. SWB is a critical enabler of USF.
and support the individual systems that
comprise unit sets. This holistic modernization SWB as an acquisition process improvement
approach is crucial to transforming the Army.
is consistent with the Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996
and DOD 5000. The framework embodied in
USF is currently being executed to modernize the SWB policy synchronizes system software
the 1st Cavalry Division, the 1st Brigade, 25th
developments and upgrades. It is designed to
Infantry Division (SBCT 2), and the 172nd focus the acquisition process on a disciplined
Infantry Brigade (SBCT 3). USF will be used approach for achieving interoperability,
to field the remaining four SBCTs as well as commonality, and synergistic functionality. In
other selected light and heavy forces. The Army

2004 Army Modernization Plan 47

conjunction with USF, SWB is a conduit for essential to Force Application, Protection,
executing the Army’s transformation. Focused Logistics, Command and Control,
and Battlespace Awareness. SWB ensures
Under SWB, the Army is making a commitment that the critical C4 and ISR, weapon systems,
to divest itself of its traditional systems-centric and SoS network infrastructure are matured in
approach to embrace a SoS capability that a manner that enhances overall operational
supports each element of DOTMLPF. This will warfighting capability while at the same time
allow the Army to make smart decisions based maximizing the operational effectiveness of
on the impact to warfighting capability vice individual systems. In a resource-constrained
systems. Under the policy, systems include environment, priorities are targeted at
new/upgraded core battlefield systems, maximizing total capability. For SWB, this will
trainers, stimulators, test and instrumentation, require a sustainment of resources from
and simulators needed to achieve an requirements through fielding.
integrated capability across all elements of
DOTMLPF. SWB applies to all Army systems Studies and Analysis
except those business systems that do not
exchange information with tactical C4 and ISR The Army’s transformation must successfully
systems and weapon systems. structure, organize, and equip the Army for the
challenges of the 21st century. This is an
SWB represents a necessary evolution along
ambitious goal, and it will not be achieved
the path of acquisition reform. SWB lowers
without well-analyzed investments, in both
the artificial barrier between elements within
financial and intellectual terms. Managing the
the acquisition process that inhibit our ability
transformation process to produce an Army that
to develop, test, train, and sustain a synergistic
is highly effective in joint warfighting will require
warfighting capability. Through SWB the
continuous analysis to develop DOTMLPF
acquisition process focuses on a total
solutions that offer the warfighter the greatest
warfighting capability rather than individual
capability. Robust analyses and studies
support timely and correct decisions; increase
the correlation of requirements for strategic,
SWB is a Future Force process that is being
operational, and tactical conditions; expand
implemented to enhance the Current Force technology trade space; permit the effective
operational capability. This means it will take utilization of past modernization investments;
a few iterations before SWB is fully matured. and maximize effective system integration
Thus, SWB provides the paradigm through within the Army’s SoS framework. Army
which existing systems will transition from their analytical efforts will provide significant
stovepipe implementations in support of Army assistance in the materiel development and
objectives to provide enhanced capabilities to selection process by balancing risk between
the Joint Force. schedule, performance, and affordability.
These analytical efforts will also identify specific
Joint Venture 2020 requires the insertion of modernization and recapitalization initiatives
innovations in information technology. SWB required to sustain Current Force superiority
provides the vehicle for tuning the Army’s within acceptable risk while the Army focuses
acquisition efforts towards developing the resources on enabling the Future Force. Army
interdependent application necessary to analytical capabilities support development of
achieve the SoS warfighting capability an effective modernization program that

48 2004 Army Modernization Plan

Figure 21. Investment Assessment Process

balances costs, technology, and warfighting to determine the optimum mix of systems that
needs for Current and Future Forces. will allow us to build and maintain
multifunctional, combat-capable units within an
Although the Army uses a variety of analyses SSF. Analysis allows the Army to balance risk
and studies to support its decision makers, the between schedule, performance, and
tools described below represent the most affordability within and across Joint Mission
commonly employed. These samples include: Areas (JMA). Effects-based objective analysis
the System-of-Systems Framework (SSF), provides a rigorous, quantitative, holistic
Warfighting Alternative Analysis Requirements approach to system acquisition. The Army uses
and Resources (WA2R2), Warfighting Lens the results of studies to support the
Analysis (WFLA), Continuous Early Validation development of systems and to defend Army
(CEaVa), and Value Added Analysis (VAA). programs during budget development and
defense reviews.
The System of Systems Framework is an
institutionalized process, synchronized with the Warfighting Alternative Analysis
budget planning process, to provide insights Requirements and Resources. The Army
to the Army leadership for resource decisions, requires analysis to review warfighting
and to support/refute external studies. The requirements for the Army during
Army conducts analysis and studies in order transformation with a view towards the potential

2004 Army Modernization Plan 49

impacts on required capabilities due to alternatives to support the development of a
resource reallocation. WA2R2 provides an balanced and effective Army RDA program.
updated assessment of the Army’s warfighting The study identifies and analyzes costs and
requirements, integrated capabilities and benefits of weapon systems and develops
value-added in the future. The analysis feasible, affordable modernization investment
provides insights and an analytical strategies in support of the Army program
underpinning for building systems and planning. The objectives are to produce
munitions requirements into future investment strategies for major weapon
programmatic reviews and defending Army systems that maximize force effectiveness
requirements. WA2R2 gives the senior Army subject to constraints on budget, force
leadership options that constitute the best mix structure, and production capabilities and to
of cost-effectiveness, operational effectiveness develop a quick reaction analysis tool to
and minimized risk, and identifies those cross- address modernization questions during
cutting systems that best integrate to achieve program execution.
decisive victory.
Modeling and Simulation (M&S)
Warfighting Lens Analysis is an analytically
based process by which warfighter Modeling and simulation is a horizontal and
recommendations on the Army’s battlefield vertical integration mechanism that crosses
capabilities are incorporated into the Army’s
most Army functional areas and lines of
budget planning process. It prioritizes weapon
operation. The Army, as the Joint Force lead
and training systems requirements, and the
for land warfare, uses M&S to influence both
material solutions that best fulfill those
the Current and Future Forces for spiral
requirements, to ensure warfighting overmatch
development, resource decisions, and
capability within available resources.
operational and institutional support. A joint,
interagency, multinational role for M&S is
Continuous Early Validation is a decision
essential in the areas of training, test and
support system that will aid decision makers
evaluation, military operations, concepts and
and analysts in evaluating acquisition programs requirements, and in research, development
by providing timely visibility on the status and and acquisition. The DOD analytical
issues of a program. CEaVa will stabilize the framework is based on a top-down,
problem statement by validating key capabilities-based approach to requirements
performance parameters or critical called Joint Capabilities Integration and
requirements relative to the ever-changing Development System (JCIDS). This top-down
environment. CEaVa makes it clear that the approach to force planning 15-20 years in the
user and developer are solving the right future utilizes concept development and
problem. Additionally, it increases the likelihood experimentation to derive desired joint
of producing the correct system on time. capability for acquisition. Land warfare M&S
CEaVa is a tool that will aid the Army in requirements are therefore linked to joint or
conducting assessments of procurement Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD)
programs. requirements.
Value Added Analysis provides decision Current operations and lessons learned are
makers an analytical approach for the shaping emerging simulation tools,
evaluation and prioritization of competing environments, and training systems. This

50 2004 Army Modernization Plan

drives a requirement for the Army to keep its algorithms, software, and experimentation
M&S current and relevant. M&S must use techniques to map the Future Force. The Army
databases that are compatible and integrated Research, Development, and Engineering
with Army command and control systems. (RDE) Command is using sophisticated M&S
Investments in data standards, common techniques and technologies to experiment and
geospatial terrain, collaborative environments, develop new technologies. Combat readiness
space representations, test environments, is enhanced though training and mission
command and control, and urban combat rehearsals using constructive and virtual
representations are essential. Investments in simulators and simulations, many of which are
these areas, such as those to develop and linked through distributive interactive
provide common geospatial terrain, will simulations. The benefit to the Army is
enhance Soldier training and combat improved combat readiness posture, insight
preparation by providing simulation and training into various courses of action, and reduced
systems integrated directly into operational weapon systems cost, performance, and/or
systems, support course-of-action analyses schedule risk.
and rapid decision making, and prepare
Soldiers to fight in unfamiliar, fast-paced, The Army is integrating its M&S capabilities
dynamic environments. within the Army architecture and applied to the
Global Information Grid (GIG), its enterprise
Advanced simulation and virtual reality services, and supporting infrastructure. M&S
investments will enable the development of infrastructure is the foundation to develop, use,
future urban combat training centers for and maintain this robust M&S capability.
asymmetric warfare, unconventional Infrastructure includes the basic facilities,
operations, joint exercises and equipment, installations, and services needed
experimentation. S&T investments in M&S for the development and maintenance of a
support and shape Defense Transformation. system. It also includes collaborative
The Army’s current investment objectives are environments, personnel performing
to demonstrate training and leader development or maintenance,
development M&S technologies. Key communications, networks, architectures,
technologies include simulation software, standards, protocols, analyses, and information
decision aids, architectures for immersive resource repositories.
environments, and algorithms for live, virtual,
and constructive (LVC) simulation The Army is continuing development of a
environments. The synergies of these collaborative environment to utilize the
technologies will enable training environments tremendous M&S capabilities within the Army
to create adaptive, high-performing leaders RDE Command. The Modeling Architecture
and Soldiers. This has already resulted in for Test, Research, and Experimentation
operational payoffs such as battlefield course (MATREX) will provide robust, networked, LVC
of action analysis tools for more informed simulation environments that will revolutionize
decision making. the way the Army develops and acquires its
weapon systems. MATREX is being used to
Today, Army organizations are improving their focus research on modeling the C4 and ISR
analytic, development, test, collaboration, and network, use of M&S in test and evaluation
training M&S. Joint and Army analytic (T&E), and reducing cost and time to field new
organizations are using modern data, weapons systems. MATREX will provide

2004 Army Modernization Plan 51

insight into technology required for Training (SMART) Concept. SMART capitalizes
comprehensive and systematic joint training on M&S tools and technologies to address
systems needed for joint, interagency, and system development, operational readiness,
multinational operations. The expected payoffs and life-cycle cost and is accomplished through
of these M&S investments are the development the collaborative efforts of the requirements,
of tools and techniques for rapid force training and operations, and acquisition
modernization, to effectively prepare Soldiers communities. The Future Combat System
and units for combat, and to provide technology Advanced Collaborative Environment (FCS
for a seamless integrated LVC simulation in a ACE) is one of the first collaborative
joint, interagency, and multinational environments to apply SMART within a major
environment. acquisition program.

Emerging simulation tools and embedded For broad concept development and
training systems are using databases experimentation, the Army’s Training and
compatible and integrated within Army Doctrine Command (TRADOC) is networking its
command and control systems. Investments, M&S as part of the Battle Lab Collaborative
such as those to develop and provide common Simulation Environment (BLCSE). BLCSE
geospatial terrain, will enhance Soldier training enables experimentation in a persistent,
and combat preparation by providing distributed, linked environment with common
simulations and training systems integrated data to reduce travel and facility costs while
directly into operational systems, support offering expanded opportunities, both in terms
course-of-action analyses and rapid decision of frequency and additional player participation.
making, and prepare Soldiers to fight in Expanded frequency and participation facilitates
unfamiliar, fast-paced, dynamic environments. rapid parallel development of subordinate and
Integrated LVC environments will be the functional concepts at the TRADOC centers and
foundation for the Joint National Training schools, within the TRADOC battle labs, and with
Capability. Advanced simulation and virtual other commands and environments. Likewise,
reality will enable the development of future embedded collaborative testing (digital and live)
urban combat training centers for asymmetric in TRADOC and the Army Test and Evaluation
warfare and unconventional operations, joint Command ensures efficiencies by eliminating
exercises and experimentation. The Army will the need for redundant or repeated testing.
be able to leverage this new environment to
facilitate development of new concepts, Developing and preparing land forces for future
doctrine, force structure, tactics, and military operations is a core competency of the
operations. institutional Army. Beginning with an overall
vision and strategic guidance that are informed
Collaborative environments are enduring or by operational experience, DOTMLPF analyses
persistent collections of subject matter experts conducted by analyses organizations serve to
supported by interoperable tools and data develop operational and functional concepts.
bases, authoritative information resources, and The results of analyses provide insights for force
product/process models that are focused on a employment in military operations at all levels
common domain or set of problems. The Army and combat intensities, current and future, across
is using collaborative environment concepts to the spectrum of conflict and peacetime
develop the FCS under the Simulation and engagement, but in the context of joint,
Modeling for Acquisition, Requirements and interagency, and multinational operations. Other

52 2004 Army Modernization Plan

types of analyses are warfighting experiments; Munitions Transformation
analysis of alternatives studies; personnel, Strategy
equipment and ammunition requirement
determination; doctrine and concept
development; force modernization alternative As a result of new technologies, munitions are
evaluation; manpower and resource becoming more capable across the full
management program design; potential threat spectrum of operational scenarios. Munitions
estimation; and planning for mobilization, can no longer be viewed as a commodity, but
deployment and sustainment of improved need to be seen as an integral part of the
mobile and flexible forces to meet those threats. Army’s weapon systems capabilities. From
close-in fights to deep strikes, munitions must
The future is optimistic. Many of the major be responsive, effective and supportable.
challenges of synchronization, integration, and Additionally, from a life-cycle standpoint, they
resource optimization will be overcome in the must be producible, trainable and
next decade with careful planning, investment maintainable. The cradle-to-grave process the
and implementation. The next generation of Army uses to develop, procure, store, manage,
Army personnel who use M&S will be raised in and dispose of munitions, therefore, needs to
a culture that is computer savvy and will be be modernized. Technologies exist and are
comfortable in simulation-immersed evolving to provide munitions with dramatic
environments. Thus, the issues will not be in increases in range, lethality, accuracy, and
teaching the value of using M&S tools and reliability. Decreases in size and weight
techniques, but in keeping up with the demand. resulting in scalable lethality, target
It is vital for the Army to recognize these discrimination, and interchangeable
demands and invest for the future. components will reduce the number and types
of munitions needed.

Figure 22. Munitions Transformation

2004 Army Modernization Plan 53

Munitions will be responsive through the full As with all elements of the Army’s
operational depth of the battle area. Fires from transformation process, limited resources drive
LOS, BLOS and NLOS will provide both decisions and strategies. The Army has
suppressive and precision fires. Additionally, already begun to include these key elements
these fires will provide variable effects, from into requirements documents for new
destruction to nonlethal (NL) incapacitation. munitions, and this effort needs to be continued
Scalable warheads and smart components will and expanded. Munitions to support current
contribute to eliminating fratricide and readiness must continue to be procured with
minimizing collateral damage to modest efforts to maintain and upgrade current
noncombatants. Embedded training stocks. Existing stocks must also receive
technologies, which can be used both in the adequate stockpile management and
field and in synthetic training environments, will surveillance resources to protect past
reduce reliance on live-fire training of expensive investments. Munitions production facilities
munitions to achieve 2004 Army also deserve focused attention to integrate new
Modernization Plan competency. Finally, production technologies and satisfy
munitions will be joint, both operationally and environmental and safety standards. The
logistically. competing needs of modernization, readiness,
and current operations necessitate a balanced
The challenge is to identify critical needs and approach to resourcing. An effort is underway
not pursue all promises that technology offers. to develop a munitions investment strategy and
To truly transform munitions, a synchronized methodology to address core munitions issues
effort between the Army and industry is to enable the resource process. The
essential. Common and modular design of cornerstone of this assessment will be clear
components, block upgrades, and definition of munitions requirements that will
recapitalization programs are crucial to the involve a review of unit basic load computations
munitions life-cycle strategy. Innovative and a rebaselining of the quantitative war
packaging concepts will decrease the logistics reserve requirements for munitions process.
footprint and improve system availability (better This effort will define maximum risk levels—
protection, easier handling and less wastage). core essential munitions levels to best meet
Embedded diagnostics and prognostics will strategic, operational and training
ensure better storage management and timely requirements.
delivery, lessening the logistics burden. Design
decisions must address training needs as well Nonlethal (NL) Munitions
as second and third order effects on stockpile
management and demilitarization. Production The challenges of both current and future
facilities will require upgrade and operational environments have caused the
reconfiguration to account for new technologies Army to recognize the need for NL effects. The
and to satisfy increasingly stringent strategy for the NL effort is integrated at
environmental and safety standards. Department of the Army level with other Service
Environmentally compliant ammunition and efforts as well as the Joint Nonlethal Weapons
“insensitive munitions” requirements are Program Integrated Product Team.
realities. Demilitarization will become less Specifically, the Army expects that its NL
necessary, as advanced munitions designs analysis could provide more detailed insights
and conversions for training reduce this burden in the following areas:
on the life cycle.

54 2004 Army Modernization Plan

• Potential delivery means: including LOS This imperative is the foundation of the Army’s
(including Soldier-delivered NL), NLOS, and commitment to the nation, particularly at this
BLOS. time of wartime engagement, and it is likewise
the essential enabler for being able to transform
• Battlefield applications: incapacitate, over time to a Future Force that is better able
suppress, and disperse combatants and/ to meet future strategic requirements.
or separate combatants from
noncombatants. Deny vehicle movement Second to the imperative of maintaining
or trafficability. readiness, the Army in PB05 seeks to maintain
and improve the well-being of its people. This
• Environmental impacts: alter environmental is not a luxury, but rather is vital to the Army’s
conditions to favor friendly forces and, once overarching capabilities and ability to conduct
use of NL has accomplished its objectives, all assigned missions.
safely restore the environment to its
previous condition. Next, as part of its PB05 program, the Army
seeks to accelerate the Army’s transformation
• Overall, NL munitions provide unique and those capabilities associated with the
capabilities across a wide spectrum of Future Force and insert them into the Current
missions and will be applicable to the Force as much as possible. It is within the
Future Force and the FCS. The Army will context of this effort that the Army’s
also seek to incorporate them in Current modernization strategy of balanced
Force munitions as much as practicable. modernization guides investment decisions
and relative priorities. With the emphasis on
Investment Strategy the achievement of the Future Force
capabilities that will reduce future risk, coupled
The ultimate goal of Army modernization is to with the indispensable imperative of current
build and maintain multifunctional, combat- operational readiness, the Army has chosen
capable units using a USF approach. The to make more focused modernization and
nature of the planning, programming, and recapitalization of its Current Force by inserting
budgeting system requires that combat unit new technologies that become available as a
components be managed as single entities. It result of transformation investments. This
is the whole unit, however, that remains the represents a slight readjustment, but is still
consistent with the overall Army objective of
primary focus. The objective is to achieve an
operational capability that satisfies mission maintaining readiness while still developing
and fielding transformational capabilities in the
needs. The challenge inherent in building
combat-capable units through the application future and today where possible.
of integrated components and the necessary
associated functions is the achievement of The Future Force
synergism and complementary results in the
units. The Army is developing a Future Force that will
achieve the capabilities necessary to be a
In the Army’s investment strategy for PB05, the strategically responsive, precision maneuver
overriding requirement is to maintain the force that is dominant across the range of
essential operational readiness of the Army. military operations. This force is not a finite

2004 Army Modernization Plan 55

end state as much as a path of continuous provide an enhanced C4 and ISR for dominant
change for the future. It will be optimized for situational awareness and precision strike.
versatility and have more agility in order to Through the spiral development process,
dominate land operations in any future conflict. emerging capabilities from Future Force
It will also be capable of transitioning from programs will be inserted into selected
normal readiness to smaller scale components of the Current Force, thus
contingencies or major combat operations. providing force modernization with a minimum
The Future Force will be equipped with impact on operational readiness. This will
significantly enhanced systems centered on the necessitate that the FCS and other enabling
FCS, the networked system of systems made programs remain sufficiently affordable and
up of a family of manned and unmanned air flexible in order that their emerging capabilities
and ground platforms, and ground-based can be incorporated into the Current Force
maneuver, maneuver support and maneuver where possible.
sustainment systems. Key enabling systems
such as the Warfighter Information Network- S&T Priorities
Tactical (WIN-T), the Joint Tactical Radio
System (JTRS), DCGS-A, and the Aerial The near-term priority is on maturing and
Common Sensor (ACS) will also complement demonstrating critical technologies for the
the overall capabilities that the Future Force
Future Force, with major emphasis on the FCS.
will bring to the Joint Force. The Future Force
These technologies will provide the foundation
will be designed to operate as part of a joint
for accelerated acquisition programs to meet
team, and its joint operational architecture will
the timetable of the Army Vision. Key areas of

Figure 23. Future Combat Systems

56 2004 Army Modernization Plan

investment include lethality, survivability, C4 and technology investments that is responsive to
ISR, Soldier system of systems, warfighter needs today and into the future. S&T
semiautonomous air and ground robotic seeks technological solutions that can be
vehicles, human engineering, reduced logistical demonstrated in the near term, explores the
burden, Soldier training, counter-mine, and feasibility of new concepts for the midterm, and
medical prevention and casualty care. seeks the imaginable for an uncertain far-term
Advanced technology development (6.3) future.
provides mature technologies for rapid insertion
into Army acquisition programs, whether they FCS is the main thrust of the S&T program and
are new systems or product improvements. represents 25 percent of all S&T investments.
The balance of S&T is targeted to pursuing
The midterm focus is on developing and technologies that support the Future Force as
demonstrating incremental upgrades for the a whole. Some of these technologies are
FCS and new capabilities for the Future Force. highlighted below:
Investments that will provide transition products
in the midterm are currently being made in • Future Combat Systems. The most
applied research (6.2) programs, in leap- significant S&T initiative enabling the Future
ahead areas such as next generation lethality Force is the FCS program. The FCS is
(e.g., electromagnetic guns, directed energy), comprised of a family of advanced,
survivability (active protection systems), C2 on- networked, air- and ground-based
the-move using autonomous sensor networks, maneuver, maneuver support, and
advanced simulation, personnel technologies, maneuver sustainment systems that will
and logistics demand reduction; this research include manned and unmanned platforms.
includes the development of components, The FCS is networked via a C4 and ISR
models, and new concepts through in-house architecture, including networked
and industry efforts. communications, sensors, battle command
systems, training and both manned and
In the far term, revolutionary new warfighting unmanned reconnaissance and
concepts will be enabled by increased Army surveillance capabilities that will enable
investments in basic research (6.1). Basic improved battlespace awareness and
research is the number two priority area for S&T operations at a level of synchronization
investment. The products of current heretofore unavailable. The FCS will
investments in areas such as nanoscience, network systems under development, and
biometrics, smart structures, advanced new systems to be developed to meet the
computing, and materials by design will enable needs of the UA. The network will enable
significant enhancements that maintain dramatically improved ISR, enhanced
technological overmatch in our land combat analytical tools, joint exchange of blue and
forces. red force tracking down to the tactical level,
synchronized battle command, real-time
S&T Efforts sensor-to-shooter linkages, and increased
synergy between echelons and within small
tactical units. It will also enable the UA to
Army S&T is responding boldly to the
challenges of a transforming Army. The S&T connect to higher echelons, Army and joint,
program consists of a dynamic portfolio of and national assets making these
capabilities available to the small units of

2004 Army Modernization Plan 57

the UA. The Army will be adhering to the transloading functions to the platform. OFW
seven key performance parameters during funding has been increased to support
the developmental process of the FCS: rapid transition of mature technology
joint interoperability, networked battle components to the Land Warrior-Advanced
command, networked lethality, Capability System Development and
transportability, sustainability/reliability, Demonstration (SDD). OFW Phase II
training, and survivability. Representative efforts will develop and integrate emerging
enabling technologies include unmanned air high-payoff technologies such as micro-
and ground technologies; highly mobile turbines and nano-materials to further
lightweight ground vehicles with advanced enhance Soldier capabilities.
survivability systems (e.g., active protection,
lightweight armor, signature management, • C4 and ISR. Research and technology to
and countermine capability); hybrid-electric enable comprehensive and timely
drive; low-power demand electronics and situational awareness tailored for the range
efficient power management; advanced of soldiers comprising the Future Force.
lethality systems; and reliable, secure This includes advanced ground-, air-, and
communications systems. space-based sensors and sensor
processing, flexible size/shape display
• Objective Force Warrior (OFW). The interface surfaces, disposable (cost-
flagship Soldier S&T program provides the effective) miniature sensor networks,
UA’s dismounted Soldier with the same electronic warfare systems and techniques,
combat overmatch that FCS brings to the militarized and special-purpose electronics,
maneuver portion of the Future Force. The countermine technologies and
program is a phased effort to achieve leap- sophisticated C4 computing technologies.
ahead advances in the areas of Soldier Keys to this are on-the-move distributed
survivability, lethality, and agility to operate C2, multifunction sensors and sensor fusion
for extended periods under arduous algorithms, and development of a
conditions, with minimal loss in physical seamless tactical Internet within and
capabilities from fatigue, stress, and between units. Future Force systems such
hardship. The initial phase, the OFW as DCGS will integrate these technologies
Advanced Technology Demonstration, into fused multidiscipline intelligence (multi-
develops an integrated system-of-systems INT), be globally self-deployable and full-
for the dismounted Soldier with FCS spectrum, and allow precision-targeting
connectivity. OFW will employ open system capabilities based on critical near real-time
architectures and high-risk/high-payoff intelligence to the commander.
technologies to yield an ultra-lightweight,
stealthy combat suit and an integrated, • Basic Research. Investments in the
network-centric communications/sensor/ exploration of fundamental phenomena that
power suite that enables dismounted have significant potential to enhance future
Soldiers to network and mass fires and land warfare capabilities in areas such as
generally access the power of the Future armor materials by design, nanoscience,
Force. It is through OFW that mounted/ biometrics, compact power, smart
dismounted synchronization will occur. structures, miniature and multifunctional
OFW will also allow the dismounted Soldier sensors and Soldier performance.
to greatly reduce his backpack by

58 2004 Army Modernization Plan

• Medical. Research and technology to reduce logistics demand, especially the
protect and treat warfighters to ensure demand on strategic lift. Examples include
worldwide deployability (e.g., emergency comprehensive, real-time asset visibility,
room technology in a box), increase providing the logistician a web-based portal
warfighter availability, and reduce into the entire end-to-end force projection
casualties and loss of life by (1) developing process; high-altitude-capable, precision-
and enhancing the biomedically protected guided airdrop distribution system;
Soldier, thereby increasing the Soldier’s embedded water generation systems; and
ability to operate effectively in the face of compressed meals (envisioned for use with
infectious, environmental, and chemical/ the FCS). In addition, tri-generation
biological threats; (2) enhancing Soldier equipment (power, heat, and environmental
stamina, enabling Soldiers to conduct control unit (ECU)) will provide protection
sustained, high-tempo Future Force from the elements for our Soldiers and
operations with minimal degradation; and equipment while unmanned vertical takeoff
(3) developing combat casualty care and landing (VTOL) cargo lifters, embedded
materiel for delayed evacuation, to provide diagnostic/prognostic systems, and
optimal battlefield care to the injured. robotics will greatly enhance resupply and
reduce demand for food, fuel, and water.
• Lethality. Technologies to enhance the
light forces, such as the Line-of-Sight • Personnel Technologies. Advanced
Antitank (LOSAT) System and the Precision training tools and methods to enhance
Guided Mortar Munitions (PGMM); and warfighter and commander abilities and
technologies to provide lethality options for performance, and advanced human
the Future Force, such as the Compact engineering concepts to avoid information
Kinetic Energy Missile (CKEM), overload and optimize task allocation to
electromagnetic gun and tactical high- enhance warfighting effectiveness.
energy laser.
• Survivability. Technologies that enable
• Rotorcraft. Research and technology to organizations, platforms and Soldiers to
enhance the performance and avoid being detected, acquired, hit,
effectiveness of future rotorcraft, including penetrated or killed. Examples are active-
autonomous flight and airborne launch protection systems, lightweight armor,
systems, small rotorcraft, networked vehicle-mounted mine detection, and
avionics and weapons, and human-systems signature management.
integration (e.g., crew station) technologies.
UAVs such as the Unmanned Combat • Advanced Simulation. Simulation tools
Armed Rotorcraft (UCAR), Micro-Air to provide increasingly realistic
Vehicle (MAV) and Organic Air Vehicle environments and systems support
(OAV) will provide the warfighter enhanced acquisition, requirements and training. This
situational awareness, force survivability includes technologies for networked
and lethality by enabling air-to-air and air- simulations, embedded training,
to-ground teaming. constructive simulations, virtual
environments, and range systems for live
• Logistics Demand Reduction. use.
Technologies to enhance deployability and

2004 Army Modernization Plan 59

FCS and Complementary confirmed the feasibility of technology and
Systems initiated implementation of a coherent and
integrated strategy to move toward an initial
operational capability in 2010 and a full
The FCS is the networked system of systems operational capability by 2012.
that serves as the core building block within
modular maneuver echelons to provide the In spring 2003, the Army G-8 led an effort to
Joint Force with superior combat power, identify, synchronize and approve the UA
sustainability, agility, lethality, and versatility. Complementary Systems, which is a group of
The FCS leverages advanced technologies systems beyond the FCS system of systems
with the capability to rapidly incorporate future that is necessary for the UA to achieve its
advances through deliberate technology optimum operational capabilities. The purpose
insertion and integration programs. It provides was to ensure the Complementary Systems are
a secure C4 and ISR system to incorporate synchronized with the fielding of the FCS. The
advances in the distribution and effective use effort resulted in the approval of systems within
of information power as part of an overall the near term for continued priority
network. The FCS consists of the network plus development. The UE Complementary
18 manned and unmanned air and ground Systems are planned for similar
systems. A major step for the FCS was synchronization in FY04.
achieved in May 2003 with the successful
approval of the Milestone B decision, which

Figure 24. FCS Fielding Strategy

60 2004 Army Modernization Plan

Figure 25. FCS Complementary Systems

PB05 Implementation existing heavy divisions, light divisions, Stryker

Brigades, and Special Operations Forces.
In PB04, the Army funded $11.3 billion in S&T This force is the guarantor of both current
investments, of which 97 percent was devoted warfighting readiness and the Army’s ability to
to the Future Force. PB05 maintains this same continue transforming towards the Future Force
level of investment, which is a clear indication with enhanced capabilities. Because of these
that the Future Force continues to remain a operational requirements, the Army is no longer
high-priority Army goal. Further evidence of the able to accept the degree of risk to this force
intended support of Future Force development that was thought possible in the past. As a
is a $3 billion increase provided in PB05 for result, the Army is reexamining the
the FCS and its Complementary Systems. requirements for new capabilities and
enhanced readiness in the Current Force and
The Current Force weighing them against the need for resources
to support transformation to the Future Force.
To help preserve the operational readiness of
Today’s Army—the Current Force—is heavily the Current Force, the Army will continue with
committed with over 325,000 Soldiers its program of selective recapitalization and
deployed in over 120 countries. It includes the modernization, which will also insert new

2004 Army Modernization Plan 61

technologies to the greatest degree possible. taking risks with other systems and other parts
These investments remain essential for both of the force. To develop an affordable and
readiness and reducing the operating and executable recapitalization program, the Army
support costs of aging systems. has focused its resources on selected units
within III Corps, taking risks in the Army’s
The Stryker Brigades or SBCTs are a new remaining units.
component of the Current Force, with the first
operational unit deployed to Iraq in fall 2003. While the recapitalization program approval
These brigades—scheduled to be six in all— process has helped the Army focus its
provide Combatant Commanders with resources, reduce requirements and develop
increased responsiveness and tactical agility cost effective, funded programs, the Army must
when properly augmented to meet the full range still remain aware of the inherent risk in this
of operational requirements. These units will program. Even for prioritized systems, the Army
be infantry-centric and equipped with the latest still has significant unfunded requirements for
in C4 and ISR capabilities to enhance their joint systems that reside in other units beside III
synergy and versatility. Along with other Corps. As a result of its recapitalization
components of the Current Force, the SBCTs strategy, the Army has provided critical combat
represent the foundation of the Army’s capability to portions of III Corps, accepted risk
contribution to the joint team in meeting the in its remaining units, and established a
nation’s security needs. process that will help free up resources for the
Future Force. The Army will continue to review
Equipping Initiatives the scope of its recapitalization efforts and
make adjustments as appropriate.
Selected Modernization
Recapitalization is the rebuild and selected
upgrade of currently fielded systems to ensure The Army focuses its limited modernization
efforts for the Current Force primarily on those
operational readiness and a near zero-time/
zero-mile system. The goals of recapitalization systems that will benefit the warfighter today—
are to improve unit effectiveness and particularly those incorporating newly
developed technologies—but will also have
warfighting capability, extend service life,
direct applicability to the Future Force over the
reduce operating and support cost, and
longer term. These systems are placed into
improve reliability, safety and maintainability.
When operationally necessary and financially two categories: those that are part of the near-
term Current Force and will transition to the
prudent, the Army will recapitalize selected
systems. Future Force over time (e.g., the Family of
Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV)) and those
that are being built specifically for the Future
The Army’s need to recapitalize its systems is
Force, but which can be used today (e.g.,
significant, though this goal is clearly
Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (TUAV) and
unaffordable given the current fiscal constraints
Highly Mobile Artillery System (HIMARS). By
and planning guidance. The Army, therefore,
doing this, the Army is ensuring that its scarce
has decided to focus its resources on only
resources are efficiently spent on systems that
those systems and units that are essential to
benefit it today as well as in the future.
maintaining today’s warfighting readiness while

62 2004 Army Modernization Plan

Moreover, the Army is focusing its Responsive Modernization in
modernization efforts on inserting new Support of Operations
technologies that have been recently
developed and offer the prospect of enhancing
Besides these ongoing efforts for
near-term readiness of Current Force units.
recapitalization and modernization, the Army
has also made some significant adjustments
The Army is reevaluating its past efforts to
accept risk in the Current Force in order to in light of the recent and ongoing operations in
accelerate transformation to the Future Force. Iraq. In support of the ongoing global war on
terrorism, and particularly the operations in
Modernization efforts have been restricted to
Iraq, the Army has taken aggressive steps to
selected units and capabilities, with only two
meet the materiel needs of our deployed forces.
divisions and one armored cavalry regiment in
III Corps, some XVIII Airborne Corps units, the These have included diversions, cross-leveling
SBCTs, and a limited number of other units, and accelerated fielding of promising
including SOF units, scheduled to receive technologies to provide equipment to AC and
RC units engaged in combat and stability
upgrades and enhanced capabilities.
operations and on the forefront of homeland
defense. Some of the key fielding initiatives

Figure 26. Interceptor Body Armor (IBA) and Up-Armored HMMWV (M1114)

2004 Army Modernization Plan 63

involved significant enhancements to been operating at five times normal tempo,
operational capabilities. A good example of prepositioned stocks are being significantly
this was the accelerated fielding of the Force degraded, and a considerable number of major
XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below end items have been lost in combat operations.
(FBCB2) system, which represented a major Reset includes a strategic assessment
improvement in achieving situational incorporating the lessons learned from
awareness on the battlefield and enabling a Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring
clearer COP across the force. This system Freedom, the reconstitution of a long-term plan
also enabled BFT and a new means of for stability and support operations and force
depicting friendly and enemy force locations rotations, and the reestablishment and
and contributed to reducing friendly fire restructuring of Army prepositioned stocks
casualties. Other initiatives included the worldwide. This is both a necessity and an
deployment of UAVS, up-armored High Mobility opportunity, and the purpose is to continue
Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWVs), support of Combatant Commanders, return
and significantly improved body armor for forces to prehostility readiness levels, and
individual Soldiers. In conjunction with this integrate reset into continued transformation,
responsive approach to operational needs, the modernization and recapitalization. The
Army has developed a truck strategy that standards established for reset include bringing
assesses the current status of tactical wheeled all equipment to normal operational status and,
vehicles and includes a coordinated plan of where sensible, upgrading capabilities and
restoration, recapitalization and modernization implementing lessons learned from recent
efforts to support the Current Force as well as operations, replacing obsolete equipment in
the Future Force. Related to supporting the prepositioned stocks, and reconfiguring those
Soldier, the Army has also recently instituted stocks to be more strategically relevant and
and employed a Rapid Fielding Initiative (RFI) responsive. In addition, the Army plans to use
as a process to streamline the provision and this opportunity to reorganize units and
fielding of the latest state-of-the-art weapons, implement the modularity objective identified
clothing and equipment to Soldiers in the field in the Army Focus Areas. Support from
and to find solutions to identified operational Congress in the form of the FY03 and FY04
requirements. In addition, the Army is supplementals has been instrumental in
institutionalizing a Rapid Equipping Force initiating this essential process, and we will
(REF) concept to improve current capabilities continue the efforts to fund this vital program in
by accelerating the fielding and insertion of the future. These efforts will most likely include
future technologies and capabilities. the requirement for additional funding in annual
budget submissions as well as further support
Reset—Restoring Readiness and in new supplementals. The Army’s Current
Improving Capabilities Force readiness depends on the effective
execution of reset, and it will be ongoing for
the foreseeable future.
In conjunction with the rotation of units from
Operation Iraqi Freedom, the Army is in the
process of “setting the force” or “reset” to
Equipping Stryker Brigades
restore and improve the operational readiness
of the force. This process is particularly critical The Army will maximize use of the USF concept
in light of the fact that deployed systems have to equip the SBCTs. Unit sets will be

64 2004 Army Modernization Plan

determined through extensive coordination PB04 and the associated FYDP had
between the major command of the SBCT, the decreased funding for the Current Force by
Army’s Training and Doctrine Command approximately $22 billion to support
(TRADOC), and the Office of the G-8, transformation efforts. This action was funded
Headquarters, Department of the Army by canceling or reducing a total of 48 systems.
(HQDA). Each unit will be sequenced through In PB05 additional reductions of this
a synchronized 18-month window, which not magnitude are not possible in light of increased
only involves the equipping of the unit but also operational demands on the Current Force.
New Equipment Training (NET) for individual The majority of funding for the Current Force is
Soldiers and unit collective training culminating still devoted to systems that are expected to
in the achievement of operational readiness. remain in the force as it moves toward the
As previously mentioned, the Army has already Future Force over time. Overall, the Army has
deployed the first Stryker Brigade to Iraq in an approximately $15 billion invested towards
operational mission. The second SBCT is due recapitalization of the Current Force to ensure
to be operationally ready in 2004. For the third readiness of selected Current Force systems.
SBCT in Alaska, equipment issue and NET are This is a prudent step needed for operational
ongoing, with operational availability projected readiness today and in the future.
for 2005.
For the Stryker Brigades, PB05 and the
PB05 Implementation associated FYDP provide $4.3 billion to fund
the Stryker Armored Vehicle, SBCT support
equipment, training enablers, sustainment
Congressional supplemental funding in FY04
enablers and infrastructure costs for all six
has been used to offset the costs of operations
brigades planned for fielding.
in Iraq. This supplemental funding, however,
does not fully reimburse the Army’s costs for
As a result of the tremendous demands being
ongoing operations or the redeployment and
placed on the Army today, significant additional
reset of assets used in support of these
fiscal needs are expected in order to maintain
operations. In addition, the Army has made a
and replace key systems and stocks and
conscious decision to accelerate identified new
ensure the readiness of the Current Force for
capabilities being developed for the Future
ongoing and planned operational rotations. To
Force and insert them into the Current Force.
achieve this, the Army will seek flexibility within
The result of these actions is an ensuing need
to rebalance risks and resources between the PB05 and support from future appropriations
Current and Future Forces. to manage the risks associated with changing
requirements for an Army at war and building
for the future.

2004 Army Modernization Plan 65

Summary and Concl
Summary usion
The 2004 Army Modernization Plan describes
The Army today is both fully engaged at war the overall modernization strategy as well as
and simultaneously committed to a continuous the key processes that will facilitate the building
process of change. The Army’s transformation of combat-capable units. While the materiel
is an integral part of current Army planning and aspects of modernizing and transforming the
operations, and strong momentum has already Army are a central theme of the 2004 Army
been achieved as a result of past decisions as Modernization Plan, it is essential that
well as the commitment and effort of Soldiers modernization be fully coordinated, balanced,
and civilians in all Army components. New and synchronized across the critical
capabilities have been fielded and deployed requirements of doctrine, organizations,
that give the President, Secretary of Defense, training, leadership and education, personnel,
and Combatant Commanders a greater array and facilities. Respective annexes are devoted
of network-centric land power options. to specific discussions of these essential
Campaign-quality Army forces possessing an areas. Above all else, people remain central
increased joint and expeditionary capabilities to the success of the Army’s transformation,
are the objective of the Army’s ongoing and and Soldiers are the true credentials of the
future efforts, and the Army fully intends to Army—today and tomorrow—just as they have
provide an even more relevant and ready land been throughout our nation’s history.
force for use as part of the joint team.
The Army, with the strong support of Congress
The 2004 Army Modernization Plan reviews and OSD, has made significant progress in the
the Army’s strategy of building and fielding constantly evolving transformation process. In
combat-capable units that will maintain and last year’s budget, the Army made some difficult
enhance the capabilities of the Current decisions to accelerate development of future
Force—today’s Army—and develop even more capabilities, which entailed a higher level of risk
improved capabilities for the continuously to the Current Force. These risks, however,
evolving Future Force. Accelerated efforts are have had to be reassessed continually in light
underway for incorporating the opportunities of the increased operational requirements
offered by these revolutionary technologies into associated with the global war on terrorism and
new systems and units and also inserting them particularly the impact of Operation Iraqi
into current systems and units if possible. Freedom. With over 325,000 Soldiers
Visible results of transformation efforts have deployed overseas, including as many as
already been seen in Iraq, where the first 125,000 in Iraq, the Army has had to reexamine
SBCT was deployed in fall 2003. This new the balance of risks between the Current Force
organization will also serve as an important link and the evolving Future Force. Congressional
to force development in the future. The 2004 supplemental funding in FY04 has helped
Army Modernization Plan identifies the significantly in offsetting the costs of
requirements and the plans for fielding these operational requirements, though the
important new capabilities. remaining risk to current readiness and the
desire to accelerate the development of new
capabilities that can be applied today has

66 2004 Army Modernization Plan

created a serious resource constraint and has • Accelerates development and fielding of
led to further rebalancing of investments. transformational capabilities and
specifically the FCS and Complementary
In addition to the necessary rebalancing of Systems by providing an additional $3
investments, the Army still has outstanding billion
requirements to support reconstitution and
recapitalization demands from the ongoing • Focuses S&T investment of approximately
operations. Furthermore, the significant $11 billion over the FYDP in the
restructuring process already underway will development of transformational
require continued and additional support in capabilities primarily applicable to the
order to achieve its goals of increased Future Force, though with potential
capabilities for the war effort. application to Current Force units and
The 2004 Army Modernization Plan is
submitted in conjunction with the release to The Army remains committed to investing in
Congress of PB05, which continues to the future through development of significant
implement transformational change while also improvements in capabilities that can be
preserving and enhancing readiness today. applied to the evolving force. Yet, the priority
Specifically the Army’s portion of the PB05 commitment is to the warfighting readiness of
submission provides funding for the following: today’s Army and the incorporation of
enhanced capabilities through the introduction
• Maintains essential emphasis on the overall of new modular structures and technologies.
readiness of the Current Force by devoting Modernization efforts will continue to include a
approximately $15 billion to the careful assessment of risks to ensure that an
recapitalization of systems in this force and appropriate balance is preserved between
by supporting efforts to restore full current and future requirements.
readiness for future missions for those units
involved in recent operations Considerable progress has been achieved in
the transformation process at the same time
• Fully funds fielding of six SBCTs by 2008 that the Army remains firmly and successfully
engaged in fighting a war on behalf of the
• Supports essential rebalancing of AC and nation’s security. The Army will remain prepared
RC units by transferring selected capability to respond to the nation’s needs today and into
from the RC to the AC and activating high- the future and will continue its unwavering
demand RC units dedication to providing the most ready and
capable sustained land power forces to the
Joint Force.

2004 Army Modernization Plan 67

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68 2004 Army Modernization Plan


Annex A
Doctrine and the Army operations doctrine. It also links Army
operations doctrine with Army tactical doctrine.
Doctrine is the concise expression of how Army
Full-Spectrum Operations
forces contribute to unified action in
campaigns, major operations, battles and
engagements. While it complements joint Army doctrine addresses the range of full-
doctrine, Army doctrine also describes the spectrum operations across the spectrum of
Army’s approach and contributions to full- conflict (Figure A-1). Army commanders at all
spectrum operations on land. Army doctrine echelons may combine different types of
is authoritative but not prescriptive. Where operations simultaneously and sequentially to
conflicts between Army and joint doctrine arise, accomplish missions in war and military
joint doctrine takes precedence. operations other than war (MOOTW). For each
mission, the Joint Force Commander (JFC)
Doctrine touches all aspects of the Army. It and Army Component Commander determine
facilitates communication among Soldiers no the emphasis Army forces place on each type
matter where they serve, contributes to a of operation. Offensive and defensive
shared professional culture, and serves as the operations normally dominate military
basis for curricula in the Army education operations in war and some small-scale
system. Army doctrine provides a common contingencies (SSC). Stability operations and
language and a common understanding of how support operations predominate in MOOTW
Army forces conduct operations. It is rooted that include certain SSCs and peacetime
in time-tested principles but is forward-looking military engagement (PME).
and adaptable to changing technologies,
threats and missions. Army doctrine is Concepts to Doctrine
detailed enough to guide operations, yet
flexible enough to allow commanders to The Training and Doctrine Command
exercise initiative when dealing with specific (TRADOC) Capstone Concept is the
tactical and operational situations. To be warfighting concept that provides a holistic,
useful, doctrine must be well known and macro-level description of the future Army and
commonly understood. how it will conduct operations. It is the
foundation for a comprehensive Future Force
As the Army’s keystone operations manual, body of work, which includes detailed Army
Field Manual (FM) 3-0, Operations, provides operating, functional and enabling subordinate
the principles for conducting operations. It concepts that describe the full range of
describes the Army’s operational-level role of interdependent operations, functions and
linking tactical operations to strategic aims and related future Army capabilities from a variety
how Army forces conduct operations in unified of perspectives and levels. The Capstone
Transforming for Tomorrow
actions. FM 3-0 bridges Army and joint . . . Ensuring
Concept describesSecurity
future Armyforcapabilities

2004 Army Modernization Plan A -1

and the contributions these capabilities bring and technology. Once an initial draft of a
to the Joint Force. It describes capabilities for concept is complete, it is analyzed through a
Annex A

global power projection and employment of process of experimentation and testing. The
U.S. forces across the full spectrum of military U.S. Army Transformation Concept
operations conducted at strategic, operational Development and Experimentation Campaign
and tactical levels in joint, multi-Service and Plan (AT-CDEP) guides this analysis, and it
multinational operations, as well as actions may be done in several ways, to include studies
involving or in support of other agencies. The by the TRADOC Analysis Center (TRAC),
development of the concept begins with the analysis at the battle labs, or in a series of
study and analyses of a wide range of data to wargames. Results are incorporated into the
include policy and strategy, Army missions, draft concept to produce a second draft. Once
historical perspectives, operational approved, a concept is published as a 525-
environments, technological forecasts, series pamphlet. Approved concepts become
assumptions and current Army doctrine. the baseline documents for the development
of Army doctrine. FM 1, The Army, and FM 3-
While Army doctrine emerges from Army 0, Operations, describe how the Army
concepts and lessons learned, Army concepts prosecutes operations. Concepts, lessons
themselves are developed in parallel and in learned and other factors drive doctrine, which
collaboration with joint concept developers. in turn becomes a key ingredient in the combat
Joint Vision 2020 and a series of evolving joint readiness of the Army. Approved doctrine
concepts, including the Joint Operations ensures that the leadership, Soldiers and
Concepts (JOpsC), Joint Operating Concepts collective training are all oriented toward
(JOC), and joint functional
and enabling concepts,
are key documents in the
logic trail from concepts to
doctrine. As a new
concept begins to mature,
it is analyzed in
relationship to Doctrine,
Organization, Training,
Materiel, Leadership and
Education, Personnel, and
Facilities (DOTMLPF).
These analyses identify
future operational
capabilities and force
design parameters
required for maneuver,
maneuver support, and
maneuver sustainment
functions on the battlefield.
These documents provide
focus for experimentation
programs and science
Figure A-1. The Range of Army Operations

A-2 2004 Army Modernization Plan

fielding an Army with a common operational comprehensive and embrace the full spectrum
language, common operational focus and of military operations, providing a conceptual

Annex A
common tactics, techniques, and procedures basis for the rapid transition—without loss of
(TTP). momentum—across the spectrum of
operations from offensive and defensive to
Sustaining a Doctrine-based Army stability and support operations.

The Army’s doctrine of the future must enable In the near term, TRADOC will update key Army
core warfighting capabilities while increasing concepts, doctrine, and strategic plans to
its strategic responsiveness and dominance address full-spectrum operations in the joint,
over an expanded range of mission interagency and multinational (JIM)
environments and threats. Our doctrine must environments. TRADOC will focus on joint
encourage the relentless pursuit of the initiative doctrine and warfighting concepts that
in all military operations. It must address the maximize lethality and survivability. Joint
importance that a common picture of the capabilities for precision effects and maneuver,
battlefield plays in joint simultaneous particularly the engagement of moving ground
engagement in depth, shaping the close fight targets, will demand concepts and associated
and winning with overmatch. Doctrine must capabilities for joint, real-time, fully integrated
fully address how to effectively integrate and sensor-to-shooter capabilities. The U.S. Army
balance the application of information-enabled Special Operations Command (USASOC) has
precision effects and maneuver into every mirrored TRADOC’s doctrine transformation
mission area along the operational spectrum. process in many respects. The U.S. Army John
Firepower not only destroys but also F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School
psychologically affects our adversaries and (USAJFKSWCS) and the Army Special
disrupts their formations. It also facilitates the Operations Battle Lab are preparing
rapid maneuver of the land component forces Operational and Organizational (O&O) plans
necessary to take control of a local situation, that address Special Forces, Rangers,
enabling the exploitation of those effects before Psychological Operations (PSYOP) and Civil
the transitory effects of firepower pass. Affairs (CA) doctrine. The USAJFKSWCS is
also modifying existing doctrine to reflect new
Doctrine must sustain an Army that will be a capabilities and lessons learned from recent
hybrid force, with current organizations, training operations supporting Operation Enduring
systems, and materiel being replaced by new Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom and the
organizations with different training systems global war on terrorism.
and equipment. It must emphasize the
distributed, noncontiguous operations required TRADOC continues to ensure that Army
in Joint Vision 2020 and experienced in recent doctrine is nested within, rather than simply
operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. It must also compatible with, joint and multinational
address the complete range of potential tactical doctrine. These efforts to shape Army doctrine
and operational missions and operating will continue throughout the mid- and far terms.
environments, not only open rolling terrain but By the midterm, TRADOC will reform the
also close terrain and the equally challenging doctrinal development process so that it is agile
complex and urban terrain that is becoming the and efficiently reflects the best available thought
battlefield of choice for potential adversaries. on the art and science of military operations.
Most importantly, this doctrine must be

2004 Army Modernization Plan A -3

The Army Doctrine Hierarchy to better codify Army operations within a JIM
construct. On the third axis, TRADOC is
Annex A

The Army’s warfighting doctrine is organized revising existing Army doctrine in accordance
in a two-tiered hierarchy that provides a with the Doctrine Master Plan, a prioritized
structure for developing and implementing Army listing of all Army, joint, multi-Service, and
doctrinal publications. Tier 1—Army Doctrine multinational doctrine maintained by
is the highest-level tier and includes our TRADOC’s Futures Center, Joint and Allied
capstone document, FM 1, and our keystone Doctrines Division, and used to obtain and
document, FM 3-0. The approximately 40 other prioritize resources for doctrine development.
Tier 1 FMs offer a broad perspective on Army
operations and are instrumental in the proper TRADOC proponent schools and centers are
integration of all other Army doctrine and putting the finishing touches on the SBCT TTP
training publications. Tier 1 doctrine is intended using the Initial Force O&O as a the original
to provide a solid doctrinal basis for all Army framework, now augmented by significant unit
operations and, while this level of doctrine input for recent train-up events and certification
changes on a regular basis, it is not intended exercises. The SBCT doctrinal material
to change as rapidly as the Tier 2 manuals. consists of a small set of core publications to
Tier 2—Doctrine is the second tier that captures guide the training and early organizational
the bulk of proponent, lower-level organizational refinements of the SBCT, and follow-on doctrinal
FMs. There are currently over 600 Tier 2 FMs publications that support core publications,
providing TTP for specific functions, units and derived from unit training, lessons learned and
the employment of Soldiers and systems. unit feedback.
Tier 2 publications also include numerous
reference FMs covering tasks such as Recently published or soon to be published key
providing first aid, physical training and Army doctrine include FM 3-90, Tactics; FM
marksmanship. Army Special Operation 3-93, Decisive Force: The Army in Theater
Forces (ARSOF) doctrinal publications are Operations; FM 4-0, Combat Service
being revised to reflect a tiered approach while Support; FM 5-0, Army Planning and Orders
specific TTP are being included for ARSOF Production; and FM 6-0, Command and
components that will enable timely review and Control. As these same publications come due
updates of doctrinal publications. for revision around 2006-2007, the effort for
developing SBCT doctrine will merge with the
Warfighting Doctrine Development in Doctrine Master Plan execution. Publications
Support of Transformation will reflect transformed doctrine as we move to
the Future Force.
To support the transformation of the Army,
The Doctrine Literature Master Plan
TRADOC develops doctrine on the familiar
(DLMP) and Modernization
three axes of Army Transformation per Final
Draft TRADOC Regulation 25-36, The
The DLMP is the mechanism for managing,
TRADOC Doctrinal Literature Program.
developing, producing and disseminating
Along the first axis, TRADOC is wrapping up
doctrine. It accounts for the Army modernization
the first version of TTP for the Stryker Brigade
process. It depicts the policy for the
Combat Team (SBCT). Along the second axis,
development and management of Army, multi-
TRADOC is revising higher-level Army doctrine
Service and joint doctrine and TTP by

A-4 2004 Army Modernization Plan

TRADOC and non-TRADOC proponents. create better linkages between doctrine and
Because doctrine development is training development and products; more fully

Annex A
decentralized across Army agencies, the integrate Combat Training Centers (CTCs),
DLMP establishes standards, ensures Battle Command Training Program (BCTP),
consistency, and serves to institutionalize the Observer Controllers/Trainers (OC/Ts), and
doctrine development and production process. instructors into the development process;
enhance jointness; and provide feedback on
Historically, doctrine was viewed as having related organizational and resource issues.
about a five-year life cycle (without revisions/ The IPT’s initial work identified the need to
updates), but certain events may trigger early separate enduring doctrine from TTP-focused
revisions/updates (changes in the doctrine with separate development processes
contemporary operating environment (COE), for each. The IPT is also assessing related
operational lessons learned, organizational technology-based and automated collaborative
redesign, employment of new systems, etc.), tools test initiatives. Among these technology-
especially at the Tier 2 level. TRADOC will based programs was the Doctrine Taxonomy
continue to realign its current doctrine to Initiative (DTI). The DTI project was an umbrella
determine “what to train” in order to sustain the for a number of initiatives that are collectively
current force through transformation. focused on the development of an object-
based, next-generation document publishing
To reduce the impact of resource shortages, system that will support the rapid generation of
TRADOC is researching, studying, and unique doctrinal products to support all potential
exploring methods through an Integrated users, from doctrine-training developers
Process Team (IPT) to enhance our capabilities through individual Soldiers. The TRADOC-lead
to produce relevant doctrine in a timelier IPT will culminate in a concept-doctrine-training
manner. TRADOC is leveraging the use of new development system that produces concept-
automation tools, establishing a professional driven, doctrine-based, relevant, integrated,
cadre of doctrine developers, and instituting focused, standards-based, timely and user-
formal training to enhance the doctrine friendly products to support the field Army
development process. transformation efforts.

Doctrine-Training Development IPT Object-Based Publishing (OBP) of

In June 2002, Headquarters, TRADOC
established a doctrine-training development In FY03, the DCSDCS conducted a proof of
IPT. The initiative was cochaired by the Deputy principle for object-based publishing of
Chief of Staff for Doctrine Concepts and doctrine. This proof of principle, the DTI,
Strategy (DCSDCS) and the Deputy Chief of showed the ability of doctrine to be stored as
Staff for Operations and Training (DCSOPS&T) stand-alone topics rather than books or
made up of 17 primary members and 25 manuals. The success of this test was the
coordinating members from both the training catalyst for Army-wide adoption of OBP. The
and doctrine development communities. Key principle behind this is a one-time entry of
IPT objectives include: establish a technology- information that eliminates redundancies and
enabled, doctrine training development system creates web-based relational content that links
that provides relevant doctrinal products that all appropriate information for the Soldier.
are easily tailored to individual and unit needs; These information objects will be combined

2004 Army Modernization Plan A -5

with methods of retrieval (tools and search to streamline the development and fielding of
agents) to serve the requirements of individuals new doctrine. In a time when doctrine needs
Annex A

who need the right information at the right time. to be responsive to Soldier inquiries, structured
The goal is documents that are self-identifying, professional forums will play an important role
self-describing and self-assembling. Over 600 in quickly determining and distributing the
doctrinal publications will be converted to this requisite knowledge to satisfy doctrinal
new format in FY04-06, based on the availability requirements.
of funding. During this time frame, doctrine
development and lessons-learned processes The doctrine community will adopt an
will be evaluated and reengineered to information management approach that begins
capitalize on this new process of storing not with a tool but with basic information itself.
information. The combination of the new In this approach, data and information are
content storage method and improved maintained in simple Extensible Markup
business processes will result in timely and Language (XML) document formats, which
relevant doctrine in the field. facilitate easy and simple transfer of objects
through Internet protocols without first having
Future of the Army Doctrine and to manipulate any proprietary database
Doctrinal Process systems. A doctrinal object is a concise and
self-contained document structure that enables
Doctrine has served the warfighter well over the Army to organize and build information into
the years but must evolve to support a highly specialized and topically focused
transforming Army. As the Army transforms products. These objects can then be pulled
toward the Future Force, the methods of together in any number of combinations to build
producing and disseminating doctrine will customized, user-centric documents and other
change to meet the new requirements of this information products. Object-based
fighting force. The basic premise of the doctrine publications would allow for centralized update
development program for the future is not in and real-time dissemination of information.
the development of new architectures or
expenditures, but in the transformation of A mature object-based doctrine system will
doctrinal information through improved reduce direct duplication throughout the Army’s
collaboration using structured professional documents. In addition, this new system will
forums, otherwise known as “communities of greatly enhance our ability to conduct rapid,
practices.” A structured professional forum is nearly simultaneous, universal updates of
a group of people sharing concerns, passions related doctrine and training materials. It will
and solutions about topics, and who deepen provide the ability to capture input from any
their knowledge and expertise through frequent Soldier, anywhere, at anytime. It will support
interaction. Professional associations, the creation of an enterprise-wide knowledge
software developers and skilled craft guilds are system that can facilitate the rapid reception,
examples. Establishing structured professional validation and sharing of key operational
forums is an effective way to handle complex lessons throughout the Army.
problems and to share knowledge outside
traditional structural boundaries. The Army Our new process must balance our need to
doctrine development process can harness the maintain enduring, common, contextual
use of online structured professional forums doctrine that supports the development of
through a network-centric knowledge system flexible, adaptive leaders, yet allows for rapid

A-6 2004 Army Modernization Plan

updating of TTP necessary to support full- development and how they access and use
spectrum units in the train-alert-deploy knowledge as part of the Future Force.

Annex A
construct. Using the results of Army
experimentation that validate new concepts, Conclusion
new technologies that enhance doctrine
development, and disciplines that integrate it
The Army’s doctrine must enable core
with joint doctrine, Army doctrine used by the
warfighting capabilities while increasing
Future Force will bear little resemblance to the strategic responsiveness and dominance over
doctrine we have today. This new doctrine must an expanded range of mission environments
do more than teach Soldiers how to fight, it
and threats. It must clearly articulate the
must be doctrine that teaches the Soldier “how
capabilities of the land component in joint
to think about how to fight.” Relevant, current
operations. Efforts to shape Army doctrine will
doctrine contributes to the establishment and continue throughout the mid- and far-terms. By
maintenance of the Army Soldier as a the midterm, TRADOC will reform our doctrinal
profession in that it embodies the codification
development process so that it is agile and
of an expert compendium of knowledge. This
continues to reflect the best available thought
new doctrine and doctrine process will leverage
on the art and science of military operations
history and experiences with the latest web- and, in the far term, ensure that the rewrite of
based technologies to create, process and fundamental doctrine is accomplished to
distribute doctrine at all levels. The new
provide transformed warfighting doctrine for the
doctrine storage, processes and retrieval
Future Force.
methods will be a key factor in Soldier

2004 Army Modernization Plan A -7

Annex A

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A-8 2004 Army Modernization Plan


Overview responsive and dominant at every point on the

spectrum of operations.
Through a trained and ready force, the Army
The Army is comprised of Active Component
provides the nation joint and expeditionary
(AC) and Reserve Component (RC) Soldiers

forces able to transition to sustained land
and civilians. In FY04-05, it is organized into 4

Annex B
campaign forces, maintaining our non-
corps, 18 divisions (10 AC and 8 Army National
negotiable contract with the American people
Guard (ARNG)), 15 ARNG enhanced separate
to fight and win the nation’s wars. To do this,
brigades, and 2 ARNG strategic brigades
the Army meets the requirements articulated
(Figure B-1). The Army requires adequate
in the National Security Strategy (NSS), the
funding through FY11 for an AC end strength of
Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP), and
approximately 480,000 Soldiers; an RC end
the Contingency Planning Guidance (CPG).
strength of approximately 555,000 Soldiers
The Army also is transforming as part of the
(350,000 ARNG and 205,000 U.S. Army
Joint Force, becoming more strategically

Transforming for Tomorrow . . . Ensuring Security for Today

Figure B-1. FY05 Total Army Military Force Structure

2004 Army Modernization Plan B-1

Reserve (USAR)); and a civilian workforce of projection, force management and force
approximately 222,000 personnel. sustainment. This redesign is reshaping the
business rules of the Army, allowing operational
Army—Current to Future forces to reach back into strategic and national
capabilities through enhanced
The Army provides strategically responsive communications and data exchange systems.
land forces to joint and coalition forces that are Efficiencies gained in this area allow the Army
dominant across the full spectrum of operations. to minimize theater-required capabilities while
The Army’s Current Force must also transform reducing strategic lift requirements normally
toward a Future Force that is responsive, placed on the Army’s sister Services. The Army
deployable, agile, versatile, lethal, survivable also adjusts current organizations to become

and sustainable across the full spectrum of more effective and efficient for the full spectrum
Annex B

operations. The Army focuses its science and of military operations, thus ensuring that we
technology (S&T) investment on Future Force capitalize on all technological, doctrinal and
materiel enablers such as the Future Combat organizational developments to ensure optimal
Systems (FCS). Simultaneously, the Army is mission accomplishment.
fielding a Stryker force of six brigade-size
combat teams that will meet the near-term Secondly, the Army reinvests efficiencies
requirements in support of warfighting gained across the current stock of capabilities
Combatant Commanders by bridging the and organizations into those organizations that
capability gap between our light and heavy are most critical to Combatant Commanders.
Current Forces. These Stryker Brigade The overhaul of our personnel and logistical
Combat Teams (SBCTs) will also serve as a systems creates efficiencies in force structure
bridge to the Future Force. Throughout the that are then reinvested within operational
transformation process, the Army continues to forces to sharpen the package of capabilities
selectively modernize and recapitalize the required to fight and win the global war on
Current Force in order to retain significant terrorism and posture the Army for future
overmatch over present and potential operations.
Lastly, the Army rebalances itself by changing
There are three major aspects of the ongoing the mix of active and reserve forces to quickly
Army transformation from a force structure meet operational availability and rotational
perspective. The first is the redesign of the demands placed on the Army.
Army (operational and generational forces) to
achieve Future Force capabilities before the These three aspects (force redesign,
end of this decade. In this domain, the Army reinvestment and rebalancing), taken in the
has already activated three SBCTs and will aggregate, enable the Army to dynamically
activate three more (one of which is in the RC) recast its forces to meet the needs of the
between now and FY08. Additionally, the Army National Security and Defense Strategies,
is on a firm path to activate the first FCS- Combatant Commanders and Army
equipped unit in FY10. As a supporting effort commanders in an austere fiscal environment
to the creation of the FCS-equipped units, the with acceptable risk. Army capabilities
Army is redesigning its force generation forces supporting the Combatant Commands are
(i.e., institutional force and infrastructure) to gain enduring. The Army assesses these demands
advantages in force development, force to the Current and Future Forces and

B-2 2004 Army Modernization Plan

determines how best to resource them. In many of Defense (OSD) to build its force structure
cases, due to constraints in Army end strength for the Program Objective Memorandum
and Total Obligation Authority (TOA), the Army (POM) through the Total Army Analysis (TAA)
is strained in such a way that full resourcing of process. The 2001 Quadrennial Defense
all demands placed on the Army is unattainable Review (QDR) report first provided a new
within current end strength/TOA. Although these capabilities-based strategy and a new force-
constraints are significant, the Army ensures planning construct that serves as the basis for
that we do what is right for our people, the TAA. The May 2002 Defense Planning
maintains readiness and transforms to a future, Guidance (DPG) and the September 2002
more strategically relevant Army every day. NSS reemphasized the new strategy. The
strategy has four elements designed to give

Logistics Transformation is a key piece of Army the nation a broad set of capabilities to advance

Annex B
Transformation that directly supports the Army and defend our national interests in both peace
becoming a more strategically relevant force and war. The elements of the new strategy are:
is. The goals of our Logistics Transformation assuring our allies and friends, dissuading
are to ensure Army forces are capable of rapidly adversaries, deterring aggression and
deploying in support of current and future coercion, and decisively defeating any
operational force deployment objectives; adversary if deterrence fails. The force-
effectively sustaining a full-spectrum Army, while planning construct set forth in QDR01 replaces
synchronizing Army and joint efforts to: the QDR97 “2-MTW” construct with a 1-4-2-1
strategy of protect the homeland (“1”), deter
• Enhance strategic responsiveness—meet forward in four critical regions (“4”), swiftly
deployment timelines defeat adversaries in two near-simultaneous
conflicts (“2”), while preserving for the President
• Optimize sustainment capabilities while the option of decisively defeating one of those
minimizing the footprint adversaries (“1”). QDR01 also specifically
notes a requirement to maintain sufficient force
• Reduce the cost of generating and generation capability, as well as a strategic
sustaining forces while maintaining reserve, and the need for rotational forces to
warfighting capability and readiness support small-scale contingency operations.

The Army’s ability to support the National The QDR01, the DPG, the more recent SPG,
Security and Defense Strategies remains and the NSS do not change the Army’s AC or
central to determining force structure RC structure or end strength. They clearly
requirements as we plan and execute Army articulate homeland security as the highest
Transformation. The Army is leveraging priority. Additionally, a QDR01 and DPG-
information technology and structuring a totally directed study will address the roles and
integrated force, sized and shaped to meet missions, forces, and resources for the RC.
worldwide commitments. The new strategy also strongly supports the
Army’s transformation toward Future Force
Strategic Planning and Total Army capabilities. It emphasizes accelerated
Analysis development of new operational concepts,
organizations, and capabilities as part of this
The Army uses the Strategic Planning Guidance transformation. This includes improving the
(SPG) prepared by the Office of the Secretary capability of forward-deployed forces to win

2004 Army Modernization Plan B-3

rapidly and decisively with minimal The Army is fully engaged in daily activities
reinforcement, enhancing strategic supporting the new Defense Strategy, providing
responsiveness, and easing the sustainment forces for joint operations. Combatant
burden of reinforcing units. However, it also Commanders routinely employ the Army as
highlights the requirement to “divest ourselves their force of choice in executing theater
of legacy forces” while we transform. The cooperative security arrangements.
transformation process for the Total Army is a Maintaining our overseas presence and
long-term process (approximately 25 years), cooperative activities promotes regional
and divestiture must be accomplished while stability and gives substance to our security
maintaining adequate forces in a go-to-war- commitments. Additionally, the Army serves as
today capability. a role model for militaries of emerging

democracies and promotes internal stability

Annex B

September 11 and the global war on terrorism and democratic growth for such nations.
confirmed the Army was prepared to answer
the call. However, these events also forced the The Army is continuing to transform from its
Army to reexamine field commanders’ needs, current force structure to a more capabilities-
especially in force and homeland protection. based future force structure while maintaining
Results are being incorporated into Army its full commitment to Combatant Commanders
prioritization. TAA06-11 is ongoing and is around the world.
incorporating relevant lessons learned from
Operation Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan) Generating Forces
and Operation Iraqi Freedom on a timeline that
will allow for better coordination and review of
Army requirements for input to the FY06-11 Under Title 10, the Army’s generating force has
budget planning period. Additionally, the Army responsibility for providing the management,
is closely looking at its mix of AC and RC forces development, readiness, deployment and
to insure it maximizes effective timely support sustainment of the operating force (Figure B-2).
to the Combatant Commanders.
TAA06-11 was the first effort to deliberately
capture and approve generating force
Operating Force Structure
requirements at Headquarters, Department of
the Army (HQDA). The TAA11 Generating
The Army’s operating force must be sufficient Force Requirements Conference quantitatively
in both size and capabilities to meet all captured and validated manpower
requirements contained in the new defense requirements against missions. The Army’s
strategy to provide the nation with a full range generating force consists of approximately
of land force capabilities in support of current 2,400 units and is comprised of military,
and future joint warfighting. Department of the Army civilian (DAC) and
contract personnel. The generating force, like
The operating force is the warfighting portion the operating force, is resourced within
of the Army, the force that fights and wins the programmed end strength. Since both forces
nation’s wars by providing the combat must compete against the same resource pool,
capability necessary to sustain land management of workforce mix (military, civilian
dominance. The operating force accounts for and contractor personnel) within the generating
approximately 79 percent of the Army. force is critical. Historically, the generating force
has used approximately 20 percent of the total

B-4 2004 Army Modernization Plan

Annex B
Figure B-2. Army’s Generating Force

military end strength across all three • Reduce acquisition cycles by at least half,
components. anticipating the needs of future
organizations; complete major acquisitions
Redesign of the institutional force is an integral within three budget cycles
part of the overall Army Transformation strategy.
In December 2001, the Secretary of the Army • Create and sustain a customer-focused
announced his decisions on realignment of learning organization that evaluates itself,
Headquarters, Department of the Army. This eliminates obsolete structures, and designs
realignment began the process of transforming better processes
the management and command structure that
supports the operational Army. The process • Rapidly create and project an appropriate
of institutional Army reengineering continues and capable force to any area of the world.
with the following goals:
• Accomplish the reengineered generating
• Divest nonessential functions, remove force within the Army Vision
unnecessary layering and duplication and
consolidate functions, resource in the most Department of the Army Civilian (DAC)
cost-effective manner, and privatize/ Personnel
outsource functions where applicable
Department of the Army civilians are major
• Reallocate resources supporting core contributors to the Army’s overall mission,
competencies; fully integrate those comprising approximately 18 percent of the
resources across the Army, other Services, workforce and occupying vital support positions
and DOD in all Army operations. More importantly,

2004 Army Modernization Plan B-5

civilians provide stability and institutional capable of commanding and controlling any
knowledge regardless of the organizational combination of capabilities, Army or joint. They
level to which they are assigned, from senior will be more robust, staffed to minimize the
management to administrative support. This requirement for augmentation from subordinate
is particularly true in the area of depot-level organizations, and have separable, deployable
maintenance, supply, combat developments, command posts for rapid response and entry.
acquisition, training, medical care, research
Every division level headquarters will need to
and development, and facilities operations. The
be capable of managing Joint Force Land
civilian workforce is a cornerstone of the Army’s
CONUS-based, power-projection strategy. Component Command (JFLCC) operations.
With the overall tempo of Army operational Similarly, every corps level headquarters must
deployments and mission requirements be designed from the outset with enough

increasing, the civilian workforce decline of permanent sister service staff positions to
Annex B

recent years has been halted. The final permit it to receive and employ a Standing Joint
structure of the DAC workforce will be affected Force Headquarters (SJFHQ) plug, enabling
by the manning recommendations currently it to serve with equal effectiveness as a Joint
under review in support of the transformation Task Force or JFLCC headquarters, command
strategy initiatives. Army tactical units directly, or act as the Army
Service Component Command.
The Army will continue to fulfill its strategic
The Army must retain a wide range of commitments while simultaneously
capabilities while significantly improving their transforming to this modular, capabilities-
flexibility and versatility. A key prerequisite to based configuration. The main effort is modular
achieving this capability is developing modular conversion of the current 33 AC maneuver
tactical organizations. Modularity is a force brigades and activation of 10 to 15 additional
design methodology, which establishes a AC brigades configured as Brigade Combat
means of providing force elements that are Teams (BCTs) (UA); conversion to 34 ARNG
interchangeable, expandable, and tailorable to BCTs; transition of the division base structures
meet the changing needs of the Army. Although to the UEx modular design; and conversion of
divisions have long been the nominal measure EAD/EAC CS/CSS structure to modular
of the Army’s fighting strength, recent support UAs. The AC modular UEx conversion
operations increasingly have witnessed sequence is 3rd Infantry Division (M), 101st
deployment and employment of multifunctional Airborne Division (Air Assault), 10th Mountain
brigade combat teams. The Army is in the Division, 4th Infantry Division (M), 1st Cavalry
process of changing its operational force Division, 25th Infantry Division, 82nd Airborne
structure by reorganizing to brigade combat Division, 2nd Infantry Division, 1st Infantry
teams as the basic units of maneuver, Division (M), and 1st Armored Division. Under
endowing them routinely with adequate combat, the Army Campaign Plan, 3rd Infantry Division
combat support, and sustainment capabilities, began to convert to four Armored Brigade UAs
and assuring them connectivity to higher and and one Aviation UA in February 2004. The
joint assets. RC conversion timeline and unit sequence is
not yet determined.
At division level and higher, headquarters will
be stripped of organic subordinate formations, A temporary increase of 30,000 AC manning
becoming streamlined modular organizations was approved by OSD to enable the Army to

B-6 2004 Army Modernization Plan

Annex B
Figure B-3. BCT (UA) and UEx Synchronization

restructure over time while sustaining the level ADA battalions and four of the eight ARNG
of commitment to on-going combat and divisional ADA battalions will be inactivated.
supporting operations related to the global war The remaining four AC divisional ADA
on terrorism. Simultaneously, the Army is battalions along with four ARNG divisional
initiating force stabilization, regional SHORAD ADA battalions will be pooled at
assignments, and AC/RC balance restructuring corps to provide on-call force protection to AC
actions to complement modular conversions and ARNG divisions. The pool of Army
and increase Army readiness and capabilities. resources will address operational
Additionally, the Current to Future Force requirements in a timely manner without
transformation actions that include SBCT stripping an organic capability from deployed
fielding and FCS development continue on “in harm’s way” divisional force structure. This
established timelines. pooling concept supports the Army’s effort to
move to modular designs that allow force
Air Defense and Divisional Formations tailoring of units better sized and supported to
meet Combatant Commander’s needs. By
The Army will adjust the divisional Short Range pooling and reducing the total number of
Air Defense (SHORAD) force structure and no battalions in the force pool, and through
longer provide an organic air defense artillery modularity, the Army will be able to modernize
(ADA) battalion to its divisions. Corps ADA the remaining force structure to provide
battalions will provide divisional air defense relevant, capable air defense to meet the
force protection. Six of the ten AC divisional nation’s needs. Additionally, all Stinger teams

2004 Army Modernization Plan B-7

will be removed from the six remaining AC Commanders with a proper force mix to
former divisional ADA battalions. Avenger execute all missions assigned.
crewman that can dismount and function as a
Stinger team as required will provide individual Stryker Formations
Stinger capability. Finally, the Army is
conducting an Air and Missile Defense (AMD) The Army began the transformation process in
end-to-end analysis that will identify required early 2000 at Fort Lewis, Washington. The first
future AMD capabilities by analyzing integrated two units are already organized as SBCTs. The
joint operational capabilities and determining six named Stryker Force units are (listed in
the most effective force mix within existing conversion order) the 3rd Brigade 2nd Infantry
resource constraints. Division, the 1st Brigade 25th Infantry Division,

the 172nd Infantry Brigade, the 2nd Armored

Annex B

Army National Guard Division Redesign Cavalry Regiment, the 2nd Brigade 25th Infantry
Study (ADRS) Division and the 56th Brigade 28th Infantry
Division (Pennsylvania National Guard). The
The ARNG is continuing execution of the ADRS. first Stryker brigade has reached initial
This concept converts noncritical ARNG operational capability (IOC) and was deployed
combat forces to combat support (CS)/combat in fall 2003 as a part of the ongoing mission in
service support (CSS) forces required to Iraq.
support the Army’s warfighting requirements.
ADRS Phases 1 and 2 are resourced and were This force (Figure B-4) will greatly enhance the
programmed in the FY04-09 Plan. The total Army’s ability to be dominant at every point of
cost for Phases 1 and 2 is approximately $2.3 the operational spectrum. In addition to its
billion and approximately 22,000 spaces are strategic deployability, this force will be
converted to CS/CSS units. The Army is operationally deployable with its vehicles
closely examining continuation and or change capable of movement within a theater via
to this process in light of current operational C-130-like aircraft. Combining technology
needs and its ability to supply Combatant overmatch with quality leadership, people, and

Figure B-4. The SBCT Design

B-8 2004 Army Modernization Plan

training provides the warfighting Combatant program change packages (PCPs) for
Commanders a land force capable of submission to OSD. The first PCP (PCP 06)
deterring, containing, stabilizing or decisively dealt exclusively with the issue of
terminating a crisis. responsiveness during the first 15-30 days.
The ensuing review resulted in the rebalancing
Using a single family of vehicles, to equip a of 5,600 spaces of force structure from the RC
brigade-size unit with all of its armored fighting to the AC. PCP 07 was submitted to address
vehicle strength is new to our Army. The Stryker the SECDEF’s directive to limit involuntary
family of vehicles allows the Army to put more mobilizations. Analysis focused on identifying
force structure at the “tip of the spear” and RC organizational shortfalls in support of
reduces training and sustainment complexity. normal overseas rotational requirements. The

Reducing the variety of combat vehicles in a resultant recommendation identified

Annex B
brigade-size force simplifies Army force approximately 4,000 spaces of RC force
structure and should reduce the overhead structure for rebalancing to create the high-
required to properly support the tip of the spear. demand unit depth required to limit involuntary
Concepts for Army Future Force capabilities
already exist. The Army Unit of Action and the In an effort to improve the responsiveness of
Army Unit of Employment are envisioned as the Army, the Chief of Staff, Army, directed a
the Future Force brigades and divisions/corps follow-on effort to improve the overall readiness
of today’s force structure. Refinement and of both AC and RC deployable organizations.
implementation of these concepts in Efforts focused on improving overall personnel
deployable go-to-war Army force structure and organizational readiness through the
before the end of this decade are key goals of elimination of an Authorized Level of
Army Transformation. Organization (ALO) as a resourcing strategy;
establishment of trainee, transient, holdee, and
AC/RC Rebalancing student-like accounts for both the ARNG and
USAR; and implementation of force
The Army is making a concerted effort to stabilization policies. Efforts also focused on
rebalance the mix of AC and RC forces with improving relevance through the optimization
the goal of mitigating stress on high-demand of select RC force structure to perform
RC units for overseas rotations. This homeland defense, stability and support
rebalancing effort results in the restructuring of missions, and building the required depth to
30,000 spaces of force structure (6,000 AC support long-term, steady-state rotational
and 24,000 RC). requirements. The rebalancing efforts
associated with these initiatives results in the
The 9 July 2003 Secretary of Defense restructuring of over 85,000 spaces of force
(SECDEF) memorandum on rebalancing structure.
forces directed the Services to eliminate the
need for involuntary mobilizations during the first The end state of these collective rebalancing
15-30 days. Additionally, the Services were efforts is a ready and relevant Army capable of
directed to reduce the current stress on RC responding to Combatant Commander
units by structuring forces to limit involuntary requirements while simultaneously defending
mobilizations to not more than one year every the homeland and possessing the requisite
six years. In response, the Army prepared two

2004 Army Modernization Plan B-9

depth to conduct multiple stability and support The redesign of the Chemical Corps simplifies
operations. its overall force structure. The CS, corps, and
heavy divisional chemical companies will be
Medical Modernization multifunctional companies. The CS company
will have platoons capable of conducting
The Army continues to work toward completion nuclear biological and chemical (NBC)
of the Medical Reengineering Initiative (MRI) reconnaissance and decontamination
as resources become available. MRI missions. Additionally, these companies will
reorganizes deployable medical forces at have platoons structured to perform biological
corps and echelon above corps and provides detection. All companies will possess the skills
the transitional pathway to the Future Force. and training necessary to support forces in

To improve the tailorability and modularity of combat as well as to provide support to DOD
Annex B

its structure and permit rapid integration to joint or civilian authorities in response to domestic
and expeditionary applications, the Army chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear
Medical Department has introduced a new (CBRN) incidents. Challenges are anticipated
concept known as Adaptive Medical Increments in ensuring these units are equipped with the
(AMI). AMI takes an existing medical force reconnaissance platforms, decontamination
structure and offers the Joint and Army Planners systems, and biological detection equipment
a wider selection of prepackaged, cellular necessary to perform their critical missions.
subcomponents to choose. This concept allows
greater flexibility in developing modular Baseline biological detection and large area
deployment support packages. smoke generation will continue to be provided
by specialized units, and Chemical Corps
As the Army transforms and adapts to a personnel will continue to man critical staff
changing world environment, the balance of AC positions throughout the Army to advise and
and RC is also changing. Our RC is divesting train personnel in NBC defense.
itself of specific laboratory specialties that
historically are difficult to recruit and maintain. Military Police
At the same time, the Reserves are increasing
numbers of forces in areas that are more Transformation and the global war on terrorism
suitable, such as medical logistics. This shift have served as catalysts for the Military Police
of technical specialties to the AC will improve Corps to restructure internment and
the Army’s ability to respond quickly to the resettlement organizations. The new
growing number of contingencies across the organizations are modular, deployable and
globe. multifunctional AC and RC organizations
capable of meeting current and emerging
Chemical Corps Redesign worldwide requirements.

The U.S. Army Chemical Corps is undertaking Prior to the events of September 11, and
a dramatic change of its force structure in order continuing through current operations, the
to meet the demands of the current operational operational tempo of the Military Police Corps
environment. The new chemical unit designs continues at an unrelenting pace. Military
focus on modularity and flexibility to support both Police Soldiers continue to support operations
warfighters and domestic response from homeland security to operations in
requirements. Southwest Asia; the demand for Military Police

B-10 2004 Army Modernization Plan

has never been higher. In response to the dissemination management) in a tiered
continuous high demand for Soldiers and Network Operations and Security Center
deployable units skilled in law enforcement, (NOSC) providing real-time, collaborative,
corrections and criminal investigations, the integrated, and seamless end-to-end
Army is planning significant growth in the management and defense of theater-level
Military Police structure through the TAA strategic and tactical networks for all Army
process. Military Police will continue to meet global applications and information services.
the rotational demands for operations such as This is only the beginning of reshaping Army
guarding high-risk detainees at Guantanamo Signal force structure. Ongoing developments
Bay and in Afghanistan, contributing to in signal structure below the corps level are still
peacekeeping missions like Bosnia and being refined. The Army is leveraging

Kosovo, investigating criminal operations, and technological developments in order to

Annex B
supporting the reestablishment of law and order consolidate networks into fully integrated
and stability following major combat operations. enterprise architectures for all Army forces.

Army Signal Initiatives Multicomponent Units

Army Signal force structure is in the process of An MCU combines personnel and/or
reorganization through multiple force design equipment from more than one component on
updates: the Integrated Theater Signal a single authorization document. The intent is
Battalion (ITSB), Tactical Installation and to maximize integration of AC and RC
Networking (TIN) Company, Joint Task Force resources in an austere environment. MCUs
(JTF)/Joint Forces Land Component have unity of command and control similar to
Commander (JFLCC) Command, Control, that of single component units. MCU status
Communications, and Computer (C4) does not change a unit’s doctrinal requirement
packages, and Network Operations (NETOPS) for personnel and equipment, force packaging,
updates. These changes create a deployable, or tiered resourcing. MCU selection is based
scalable, modular structure with standardized on mission requirements, unique component
capability, equipment and training Army-wide. capabilities and limitations, readiness
The ITSB provides a multifunctional structure implications, efficiencies to be gained, and the
that significantly streamlines theater signal ability and willingness of each component to
structure, reduces the requirement to task contribute the necessary resources. MCUs are
organize (“train-as-we-fight” dictum), and now at brigade, division, corps and theater
bridges the gap between the current and future levels, and they range from Army Service
signal architecture. The TIN Company design Component Command units to brigade and
adds/enhances network installation capabilities division headquarters companies.
to the Army’s cable and wire companies (like
cable TV and Internet service providers). The In January 2002, the Reserve Component
new design is flexible enough to resource the Coordination Council (RCCC) reviewed the
full spectrum of operations from major combat status of the MCU initiative and approved the
operations to small-scale contingencies to MACOMs recommendation to continue with the
homeland defense operations. The NETOPS initiative. The Army continues to refine the mix
force structure update implements the three of AC and RC in these units to make them more
tenets of NETOPS (network management, effective in support of mission requirements.
information assurance, and information

2004 Army Modernization Plan B-11

As of September 2004, there will be 66 units Conclusion
documented as MCUs. The Active Army will
be the “flag holder” (sponsoring component) for The Army continues to provide the nation an
38 MCUs, the ARNG will be the flag holder for array of deployable, agile, versatile, lethal,
2 MCUs and the USAR will be the flag holder survivable, and sustainable formations that are
for 26 MCUs. The ARNG participates in 19 affordable and capable of rapidly reversing the
MCUs, the USAR participates in 58 MCUs, and conditions of human suffering and resolving
the Active Army participates in all 66 MCUs. conflicts decisively. To do this, the Army’s force
Eleven MCUs contain all three Army component structure will be optimized in the context of
force structure elements. By the end of FY05, emerging joint operational concepts to be
the Army plans to grow an additional eight units dominant across the full spectrum of operations.

bringing the total MCU count to 74 units. The Army’s transformation strategy provides the
Annex B

means to achieve future success while

mitigating current risks.

B-12 2004 Army Modernization Plan


General capabilities at our disposal, but the very way

we think, the way we train, the way we exercise
The Army’s mission remains to provide trained and the way we fight.” We are reexamining
and ready forces to the designated Joint Force and challenging our institutional assumptions,
Commanders to fight and win our nation’s wars. paradigms and procedures to better serve our
This remains a nonnegotiable mission that the nation. The end result of this examination will
Army must accomplish. Our Army is at war, be a more relevant and ready force—a
and we will continue to be so for the foreseeable campaign quality Army with a joint and
future. Our Army is a proud member of the Joint expeditionary mindset. The Army will retain the
Force expertly serving our nation and its best of its current capabilities and attributes
citizens as we continuously strive toward new while developing others that increase relevance
goals and improved performance. The Soldier, and readiness to respond in the current and
projected strategic and operational

Leader Development
his training, readiness, and welfare is central
to all that we do. environments.

Training and
Annex C
The American Soldier remains indispensable To increase the relevance and readiness of our
to the joint team. Flexible, adaptive and operating and institutional forces, the Army has
competent Soldiers infused with the Warrior two core competencies supported by a set of
Ethos fight wars and win the peace. The essential and enduring capabilities. The
individual Soldier is the centerpiece of our Army’s core competencies are (1) to train and
combat systems and formations. Training equip Soldiers and grow leaders; and (2) to
Soldiers and developing leaders to function as provide relevant and ready land power
effective units is central to mission success. capability to the Combatant Commander as
Soldiers must be highly trained on mission part of the joint team. To further concentrate
essential tasks. Leaders must be able to the effort, the Army’s senior leadership has
rapidly apply the military decision-making established immediate focus areas with
process. They must be able to clearly define specific guidance for planning, preparation and
their information requirements, quickly execution of actions aimed at rapidly effecting
synthesize information, intuitively assess necessary and positive change.
situations, rapidly conceptualize courses of
Previously, the Army had conducted an
action, and clearly communicate their intent
extensive assessment of its training and leader
and decisions. Units and leaders must be
development under the Army Training and
highly trained and disciplined in the use of
Leader Development Panel (ATLDP) process.
information resources to assure timely delivery
of critical information. Close integration and synchronization of the
immediate areas of focus with the previous
The Department of Defense’s (DOD’s) efforts under the ATLDP will be needed to
Transformation for Tomorrow
Planning Guidance (TPG), .combine
. . Ensuring Security
these efforts under thefor
states, “ We must transform not only the Transformation Implementation Plan.

2004 Army Modernization Plan C-1

Army Culture combined arms, joint, interagency, and
multinational (JIM) considerations.
Army units operate in battle as part of the
Combatant Commander ’s joint team. The Army Training and Leader Development
Because we fight joint, we must think, train, Model centers on developing trained and ready
educate, and exercise joint. Army culture must units led by competent and confident leaders.
embrace its nesting within joint culture. The model identifies an important interaction
Jointness must be incorporated in every facet that trains Soldiers now and develops leaders
of Army culture. Jointness must be a common for the future. Leader Development is a lifelong
thread running through all aspects of Army learning process. The three core domains that
training and leader development. shape the critical learning experiences
throughout Soldiers’ and leaders’ careers are
Army culture is representative of American the operational, institutional, and self-
society as evidenced by the adoption of the development domains. All of these activities
seven Army values: loyalty, duty, respect, take place within an Army culture bound by
selfless service, honor, integrity, and personal distinct values, standards, ethics, and a warrior
courage. These values play a critical role in ethos.
shaping the beliefs of Soldiers and leaders.
Army culture is internalized over time by its Focused on the Soldier, these domains interact
Leader Development

members, as reflected in their practices and using feedback and assessment from various
sources and methods, to include counseling
Training and

beliefs. Influences external to the Army will

Annex C

continue to shape that culture.

Leader Development

Leader Development is the

deliberate, continuous, sequential,
and progressive process, based
on Army values, which develops
Soldiers and civilians into
competent and confident
leaders capable of decisive
action. Closing the gap
between training, leader
development, and battlefield
performance has always been
the critical challenge for any
army. In an era of complex national
security requirements, the Army’s
strategic responsibilities now
embrace a wider range of missions that
present even greater challenges to our
leaders. These operations will include
Figure C-1. Leader Development

C-2 2004 Army Modernization Plan

and mentoring, to maximize warfighting prepare Army leaders for full-spectrum
readiness. Each domain has specific, operations. Linking these two fundamental
measurable actions that must occur to develop obligations commits the Army to training
our leaders. The operational domain includes Soldiers and civilians while developing them
home station/deployed training, combat into leaders. Training and leader development
training center rotations, joint training exercises is a team effort and the Army has a role that
(e.g., Joint National Training Capability (JNTC) contributes to force readiness. For example,
exercise, Joint Air-Ground Center of Excellence the institutional Army, which includes schools,
(JAGCE) rotations, etc.), and operational training centers, combat training centers, and
deployments that satisfy national objectives. noncommissioned officer (NCO) academies,
Each of these actions provides foundational train Soldiers and leaders to take their place
experiences for Soldier, leader, and unit in Army units by teaching doctrine and tactics,
development. The institutional domain focuses techniques, and procedures (TTP). Units,
on educating and training Soldiers and leaders leaders, and individuals train to standard on
on the key knowledge, skills, and attributes their assigned missions, first as an organic unit,
required to operate in any environment. It then teaming to become an integrated
includes individual, unit and joint schools and component of a task force. Operational
advanced education. The self-development deployments and major training opportunities
domain, both structured and informal, focuses such as Combat Training Centers (CTCs),

Leader Development
on taking those actions necessary to reduce CTC-like training, and Mission Rehearsal
or eliminate the gap between operational and Exercises (MREs)/Mission Readiness

Training and
Annex C
institutional experiences. Throughout this Exercises (MRXs) provide rigorous, realistic,
lifelong learning and experience process, there and stressful training and operational
are formal and informal assessments and experience under actual or simulated
feedback of performance to prepare leaders conditions to enhance unit readiness and
for their next level of responsibility. Assessment produce bold, innovative leaders.
is the method used to determine the proficiency Simultaneously, individual Soldiers, NCOs,
and potential of leaders against a known warrant officers, officers, and the civilian work
standard. Feedback must be clear, formative force are responsible for training themselves
guidance directly related to the outcome of through personal self-development.
training events measured against standards.
Commanders have the ultimate responsibility
To assist in achieving success in the self- to train Soldiers and civilians, and develop
development domain, we will leverage leaders who can adjust to change with
technology through the Battle Command confidence and exploit new situations,
Knowledge Network (BCKN). Using BCKN, technology, and developments to their
leaders will collaborate on solving common advantage. The result of this Army-wide team
organizational problems, share branch-specific effort is a training and leader development
lessons learned, and form virtual teams to effect system that is unrivaled in the world. Effective
changes in doctrine. training and leader development produces
trained and ready units, led by competent,
One mandate of Army Transformation is to confident leaders that can accomplish
ensure the link between training and leader assigned missions across the full spectrum of
development is well understood in order to operations in a JIM environment.

2004 Army Modernization Plan C-3

Leader Education System commissioning source, will be trained using the
same standards and POI. They will be steeped
Officer Education System (OES) in the values and traditions of the Army, and
will possess a clearer knowledge of what it
means to be an officer.
The OES is being adapted to meet the needs
of the transforming Army and the realities of Phase II (Experiential Leader Training):
the contemporary operating environment Upon graduation/commissioning, lieutenants
(COE). We have begun to adapt instructions attend the second, branch-immaterial phase of
to include the new operational environment and BOLC. This course is physically and mentally
will gradually expand this to incorporate all challenging, with 84 percent of the training
programs of instruction (POI) and training conducted hands-on in a tactical or field
scenarios. The Army requires leaders who are environment. The platoon is the focal point for
able to manage training in order to prepare their all activities, as each student is evaluated in a
unit for operations. Leaders must understand series of leadership positions under varying
the development of mission essential task list conditions/situations. A highly trained cadre of
(METL) as well as the entire Army Training officers and NCOs continuously assess and
Management Cycle and the other tenets set counsel the performance of each student.
forth in FM 7-0, Training the Force, and FM Officer students also participate in several peer
7-1, Battle Focused Training.
Leader Development

reviews and self-assessments. The curriculum

includes advanced land navigation training, rifle
Training and

Basic Officer Leader Course (BOLC)

Annex C

marksmanship, weapons familiarization,

practical exercises in leadership, chemical,
The BOLC incorporates recommendations biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN)
from the ATLDP-O and the OES Needs operations, and use of night vision equipment,
Analysis Study. It transforms precommissioning and culminates in squad and platoon
and officer basic courses to better prepare situational-training exercises using
second lieutenants to achieve success in the contemporary operating environment
COE immediately upon arrival in their first unit. scenarios (including urban terrain). Students
The objective is to develop technically also complete several confidence courses
competent and confident platoon leaders containing obstacles that challenge students to
grounded in leadership and field craft, overcome personal fears. Lieutenants depart
regardless of branch, who embody the Army BOLC II with greater confidence, an increased
values and warrior ethos and who are physically appreciation for the branches of the combined
and mentally strong. To achieve this objective, arms, and a clearer picture of their personal
BOLC capitalizes on experience-based strengths and weakness. To date, four highly
training, logically structured to build upon and successful pilot courses have been conducted.
reemphasize previous lessons learned.
Phase III (Branch Specific Training): After
Phase I (Precommissioning): The traditional gaining confidence in their ability to lead small
commissioning sources are revising their units, these officers are prepared to learn the
curricula to train and educate the majority of specialized skills, doctrine, tactics, and
performance tasks (basic Soldier and leader techniques associated with their specific
skills) commonly performed by all lieutenants. branch. Upon graduation, officers will proceed
Each officer candidate or cadet, regardless of to their first unit or attend additional

C-4 2004 Army Modernization Plan

assignment-specific (Airborne, Ranger, working environment. The method of instruction
language school, etc.) training. is being redesigned to give a realistic, hands-
on experience to stimulate better recall during
Curriculum refinement for the BOLC pilot all situations, most importantly in a combat
program will continue in FY04 reflecting the environment.
needs of the Army and recommendations from
graduates. When implemented, BOLC will Intermediate Level Education (ILE) consists
provide the institutional training and education of two phases: the core curriculum course and
required to develop the high-quality officers the qualification course. The core course is a
needed to lead the Future Force. 13-week military education level (MEL) 4
awarding course (similar to term I of Command
Captains’ Professional Military Education and General Staff College (CGSC)) taught by
(PME) is being redesigned based on the the CGSC to officers in the four career fields.
feedback from numerous survey results. A 28-week qualification course (similar to terms
Currently, Captains’ career development is not II and III of CGSC) is being developed by CGSC
meeting the needs of the professional for officers in the operations career field. Each
company grade officer. Analysis of the data Functional Area (FA) in the other three career
indicates that emphasis is needed on fields will conduct individual qualification
assignment-tailored training focusing on courses ranging from two to 178 weeks in

Leader Development
specific primary staff positions, realistic length. The core course provides Army officers
scenario-driven command training, and a common MEL 4 education and Joint

Training and
Annex C
minimal time away from the family. Future Professional Military Education (JPME) I credit;
Captains’ PME will be a change from the current qualification courses prepare officers for duties
six-month model and will feature: in their respective career field or FA.
International Military Students (IMS) will
• Company command and staff continue to join their U.S. counterparts in most
competencies OES and ILE courses (core and FA)
• Branch and combined arms focus
• Linked to next duty assignment Warrant Officers Training and Education
• Introduction to joint operations
• Digital skills Our warrant officers are highly specialized,
• Knowledge- and application-based small unit leaders and trainers who serve their
instruction entire career honing technical and tactical skills.
• Leverage learning technologies As our senior leadership changes and
• Less than six months in length technology advances, warrant officers provide
the essential continuity for these transitions. The
The reevaluation of Captains’ OES requires COE and full-spectrum operations require a
branches to update task analysis of all company fully integrated officer corps ready to meet the
commander and staff officer positions. This is challenges of the Current and Future Forces.
leading to the validation and quality assurance To fully exploit the unique capabilities of this
of all present officer advance courses and the cohort, the Army must complete the full
updating of their Terminal Learning Objectives integration of warrant officers into the officer
(TLOs). The end state is a Captains’ OES that corps.
prepares captains for their next job, making
them more productive and adding to a positive

2004 Army Modernization Plan C-5

Central to the concept of full integration is the NCOES will also change. NCOs will continue
creation of a single OES for all Army officers. to be the masters of leader tasks for their
This OES will include the technically specific respective levels of responsibility and of
elements of warrant officer training and individual and small unit training; they will
education, rather than maintaining a separate, continue to be the recognized experts in field
stand-alone Warrant Officer Education System craft, basic marksmanship, Soldier care, and
(WOES). This integrated education system technical skills. In addition to these traditional
must develop and implement nested training skills, the Army will develop NCOs who can
opportunities, investments in infrastructure and master new information quickly, adapt to rapid
educational technologies, and staff and faculty. mission changes, and take advantage of
We will begin this process by developing a opportunities on the battlefield. Our educational
combined pre-appointment and pre- system will train the right tasks at the right levels
commissioning training course for all officer and will prepare the NCOs to operate in both
and warrant officer candidates, producing the analog and digital environments. In
officers bonded and grounded in common developing a future NCOES, we will look at
fundamentals, capable of small unit leadership, three critical areas:
and possessing sound conceptual and
interpersonal skills. Newly appointed warrant Infrastructure. Future strategies for
officers will continue to receive warrant officer infrastructure will address the combining of both
Leader Development

specific training to attain and sustain the Active Component (AC) and Reserve
technical competencies and balanced Component (RC) training and officer/NCO
Training and
Annex C

leadership skills required by each branch. training events. The use of RC Training
Assignment-oriented training and education infrastructure will leverage AC/RC training by
opportunities will be expanded to prepare our providing more locations by reducing distance
warrant officers for the unique assignments and travel cost for soldiers. Our capabilities
which may lay outside their normal specialty or will also fully leverage the live, virtual,
that are above their grade. constructive (LVC) learning environment to
provide the right training, at the right place and
A comprehensive systematic needs analysis, right time in a Soldier’s learning path. Our
job analysis, and critical individual task analysis infrastructure will move us from place- and time-
of warrant officer training and education will be based learning strategies to a strategy that
completed in accordance with the Systems pushes training to the Soldier anyplace and
Approach to Training process to determine the anytime it is needed.
training and education requirements by branch,
specialty, and grade. Faculty. Changes in learning strategies and
the incorporation of new technologies require
NCO Education System (NCOES) our NCOES faculties learn new skills. Each
member of an NCO academy and proponent
Soldier and leader competency is the center school cadre will master the use of technology
of gravity for our Army. A critical near-term task and understand how to develop both live and
is to transform our NCOES to insure it develops virtual collaboration skills in their students.
the competent and adaptive leaders required
in a more complex and uncertain environment. Curriculum. The Future Force Soldier will
While the current NCOES is not broken, the operate in a dynamic and network-centric
world and the Army are changing. Therefore, environment requiring enhanced thinking,

C-6 2004 Army Modernization Plan

learning, and decision-making skills that allow • Is more challenging with numerous
them to act decisively based on the problem-solving situations
commander’s intent and good situational
awareness. The instructional design of • Teaches self-development and stresses
NCOES will become more experiential and developmental counseling, goal setting, and
problem solving-oriented. Our overall design linkage to training in course POIs
for professional development will include the
integration of shared training opportunities Basic NCO Course (BNCOC)—Educating
between officer and NCO development the Staff Sergeant. At the SSG level, we will
systems. As the Army evolves to meet full continue to develop leaders who are masters
spectrum operational requirements, of their Military Occupational Specialty (MOS)
expectations of the NCO corps will increase as well as expert trainers and training
and the tasks normally associated with more managers. At this level, we will continue to
senior NCOs will migrate downward. We will focus on leading and training inside the platoon
also begin to develop NCOs who are formation and on providing the initial exposure
competent battle staff NCOs at the SSG level to core staff skills needed inside the battalion
and continue to grow and refine those skills at formation. We will provide SSGs training on:
the SFC and MSG level.
• Common and MOS-specific skills

Leader Development
Primary Leader Development Course
(PLDC)—Educating the Sergeant. The • How to lead and train the squad and section

Training and
Annex C
Sergeant is the primary first-line leader for our
Soldiers. PLDC is the developmental • Performance-based learning using the
experience that transitions the Soldier to concept of leader labs
becoming an NCO. Feedback from the Army
indicates the current PLDC is not sufficiently • A clearer focus on leading and training
performance-oriented. A new PLDC POI within platoons and squads
addresses that concern. As we evolve the
PLDC, we will field a course of instruction that: • Enhanced MOS technical and tactical skills

• Is more experiential-/performance-oriented • Multi-echelon, shared training events with

other ranks
• Has a clearer focus on the NCO’s
responsibility to lead and train • Exposure to staff skills needed in the
battalion and brigade tactical operations
• Emphasizes the “Be and Do” aspects of centers (TOCs)
NCO leadership
Advanced NCO Course (ANCOC)—
• Emphasizes troop-leading procedures and Educating the Sergeant First Class. At the
field craft SFC level, the focus needs to expand from
MOS-specific training to the battlefield
• Provides the NCO with the capability to operating system. The focus becomes leading
actively participate in the after action review and training inside the company formation and
(AAR) process expanding the NCO’s staff skills to those
needed inside the brigade formation. The

2004 Army Modernization Plan C-7

officer-NCO relationship receives more additional tracks of Technical, First Sergeant,
attention at this level. At this level, we will train or Staff Skills.
the SFC on:
Sergeant Major Course (SMC)—Educating
• Common and MOS-specific skills the SGM/CSM. The capstone of NCOES
continues to be the Sergeant Major Course.
• How to lead and train the platoon However, some of the same deficiencies
mentioned about PLDC are also true of the
• Expanded battle staff skills at the battalion current SMC. Teaching by VGT will be replaced
and brigade level by problem solving activities, where students
learn by doing. Training for the SGM/CSM will
• Leading and training inside the company include:
and platoon formation and the relationship
to the company team and battalion task • Battle staffs inside the Brigade Combat
force Team

• A broader understanding and capability • How the Army runs

beyond the specific MOS
• Sister Services’ roles and missions
Leader Development

• More multi-echelon, common/shared

training events with other ranks • Operations within a joint context
Training and
Annex C

• Skills, knowledge, and attributes (SKA) that • How to lead and train at the battalion level
foster conceptual thinking and reasoning and above

• Focus on officer-NCO relationship inside • Team building/building high-performance

the company/battery/troop teams

Educating the Master Sergeant and First • Command team relationships

Sergeant. Today, the NCO does not receive
any formal training between the ranks of SFC • Training and education on both analog and
and MSG. In the past, two functional courses, digital operations
First Sergeant Course and Battle Staff NCO
Course, have attempted to fill this void. Since • Leading complex organizations/group
neither is tied to promotion and not all NCOs dynamics
attend, many newly promoted MSGs must
learn to succeed at their new rank the hard way. • More performance-based simulation,
The Army is currently analyzing the potential simulation-driven exercises to explore full
need to develop and implement a new standard spectrum operations
Skill Level 5 course for SFC(P). This potential
course would provide all newly promoted Department of the Army Civilians (DACs)
MSGs and 1SGs a core education consisting
of leading, training, and some tactical skills. The ATLDP civilian study revealed that DACs
Based on their MOS or assignment, these are committed to the Army, want to be held
NCOs would also take one or more of three accountable for their performance, seek

C-8 2004 Army Modernization Plan

training and development opportunities and career-long process. It takes place during
desire good leadership. A robust civilian leader institutional training and development and
development program, directly linked to during operational assignments and should
readiness, is under development to support the stretch and broaden the leader beyond the job
increased requirement for civilians in or training requirements. Self-study,
leadership roles as military positions in the professional reading programs, and civilian
institutional Army are civilianized. The panel education courses support the individual’s
study reflects that our DACs want a leader developmental goals. Self-development
development system similar to the system that supports the requirement for all leaders to be
exists for Soldiers—a system consisting of self-aware—to know their strengths and
mandatory, structured, progressive, and weaknesses in order to take the necessary
sequential training and education courses with steps to improve their skills, leadership, and
a timeline for attendance. Major initiatives attributes.
currently being worked are:
The focus of self-development is twofold: to fill
• Moving proponency for Civilian Leader individual Soldier or leader training, experience,
Development from the G-1 to the G-3 and education voids; and to ensure the Soldier
meets personal and professional goals. The
• Integration of civilian and military training individual self-development portion of the

Leader Development
where possible and the creation of a leader development program is a joint venture
Civilian Education System which will have between the individual and his or her chain of

Training and
Annex C
commonality with OES, NCOES, and command.
Self-development is empowered by individuals’
• Develop leader training and education that acceptance and commitment to Lifelong
supports a civilian leader’s career path Learning wherever they are located. Lifelong
requirements and professional Learning fills knowledge gaps and provides
development greater depth and breath of knowledge that
educational and operational experiences do
These changes will insure that the Army will have not provide. The single most critical element
the trained competent and confident civilian of Lifelong Learning is feedback. Feedback
leaders it needs to support the Army mission, sets the basis for increasing self-awareness
readiness, and other requirements of the 21st and identifying individual Soldier and leader
century Army. developmental needs. This strategy must
integrate training and education content and
Self-Development materials with operational experiences,
assessments, and feedback to ensure effective
learning of required skills, knowledge, and
The Army must have Soldiers and leaders who
continually seek to improve their knowledge,
skills and abilities. Self-development initiatives
contribute to a leader’s development by Army Distributed Learning
focusing on maximizing strengths, minimizing
weaknesses, and ensuring that professional Distributed Learning (DL) is the delivery of
and personal goals, needs, and objectives are training to Soldiers and units through multiple
realized. Self-development is a continuous, means and technology. DL allows students,

2004 Army Modernization Plan C-9

leaders, and units centralized access to Courseware
essential information and training. It represents
a powerful capability in which the proper Selected courses are being redesigned to
balance of course content and delivery provide DL training phases/modules. These
technologies are provided when and where courses will allow students to participate in both
they will have the greatest impact on force synchronous and asynchronous multimedia
readiness. training. Selection of courses for DL redesign
is based on Army readiness requirements and
The Army Distributed Learning Program high-level interest of the senior Army leadership.
(TADLP) is a Department of the Army (DA) Under the current plan, over 525 courses will
program that was approved for implementation be redesigned for DL delivery by FY10.
in 1996. TADLP is funded in FY98-10 to field
DL classrooms and convert selected Army The Army provides a comprehensive library of
courses to DL delivery media. The mission of computer-based training courses in many
TADLP is to improve training, enhance force functional areas. An interface developed
readiness and support Army Transformation by among Army Knowledge Online (AKO), Army
exploiting current and emerging technologies Training Requirements and Resource System,
to facilitate the development of self-aware and and the computer-based training program
adaptive leaders through Lifelong Learning and provides one portal entry (via AKO) for these
Leader Development

the delivery of the right training and education programs. The one-portal entry makes
to the right Soldier and leader at the right time
Training and

computer-based training visible in formal Army

Annex C

and place. The TADLP Campaign Plan school catalogs and greatly expands the
contains the requirements, policies, and marketing of the online courseware. All Army
management tasks to ensure the program’s users have access to mentoring services,
support of Army readiness. technology, and learning resources by linking
to the global web.
The Classroom XXI Program (CRXXI)
TADLP is an approved Army acquisition
program that is integrated with the Army Although separate from TADLP, CRXXI
National Guard (ARNG) Distributed Training provides training modernization that enhances
Technology Project (DTTP). The DTTP is a the TADLP Digital Training Facility (DTF) at
congressionally directed assistance program Army resident schools. This program improves
with an acquisition component. TADLP and training provided through the schools and
DTTP complement each other but have allows the broadcast of training to remote
different missions and objectives. TADLP TADLP/DTTP DTFs. In addition, CRXXI
focuses on military readiness training for AC establishes Army standards for courseware
and RC forces. The DTTP supports and development and playback, instructional
extends TADLP’s military readiness training technology capabilities that are Soldier-
goal while also supporting multiple ARNG centered, and design and architectural
missions to include command and control of standards for classrooms. CRXXI is scheduled
state Guard units, and providing shared for completion by the end of FY09, with a total
community access to electronic technology. of 270 classrooms to be fielded.

C-10 2004 Army Modernization Plan

Army Training Home Station Training

The Army requires Soldiers and leaders, Units will be trained to execute dominant
steeped in the warfighting capabilities and maneuver. Unit standard operating procedures
doctrine, to be knowledgeable and (SOP) must reflect TTP standards, and
processes that apply
across the force.
practices will better
contribute to force
tailoring and enable
commanders to be
more effective at
campaign planning.
Future Force units
must be prepared to
deploy with units
stationed anywhere
in the world. Early

Leader Development
deploying units will

Training and
plan training based

Annex C
Figure C-2. Soldier and Leader Development
on a train–alert–
experienced in how to analyze the ability of their deploy–execute model. Home station battle
units to operate and sustain themselves on the command training gives battle staffs the
battlefield. Warfighting modules will teach opportunity to practice and gain competency
leaders standard U.S. Army techniques and and proficiency while reinforcing knowledge
procedures for tactical decision-making and the learned in the institutional training base.
tactical employment of companies, battalions
and brigades in combined arms full-spectrum The critical nature of the sustainment mission
operations. Warfighting training will be tactically sets it apart from the other functional areas and
focused, hands-on, execution-oriented, and will requires emphasis during training and leader
culminate with an exercise that stress and development. In carrying out maneuver
develop the leaders’ ability to rapidly make sustainment, an important area of responsibility
decisions and to apply the elements of combat rests in training for focused, anticipatory
power within the operational framework of full- logistics. In the areas of leader development
spectrum operations. The intent of the and education, unit and collective training, and
warfighting curriculum is to produce leaders individual Soldier self development, increased
who are highly skilled in combined arms emphasis will be placed on preparing training
maneuver, support, and sustainment of support packages (TSPs) and simulation
companies, battalions and brigades as part of scenarios for distribution through embedded
the joint team. battle command training systems at home
station and when deployed. This will ensure
logistical requirements on the battlespace for
the maneuver forces are correctly anticipated
and positioned.

2004 Army Modernization Plan C-11

Enhancing battle staff abilities is achieved the training of Soldiers, leaders, and battle staff
through training in an environment that uses will incorporate consideration of JIM and SOF
assigned C4 and ISR systems and planning, command and control and execution.
approximates the intensity and decision Home station and deployed training
making of the operational environment. The capabilities will provide Soldiers, leaders, and
synthetic training environment (STE) will bring battle staffs with the means to conduct full
the constructive and virtual capability needed spectrum of operations (to include the
to augment the live training environment integration of SOF) in a JIM environment.
improving the realism of home station training.
Advanced simulators and simulations are Training While Deployed
needed to fully stress battle staff proficiency.
Our Soldiers, leaders, and units must have the
As the Army begins to integrate the current and capability to train while deployed to sustain
developing C4 and ISR systems into the operational readiness and/or train new tasks
training environment, it must ensure the as required by the mission. Our training
certification and accreditation standards are support systems must be built to support the
met for information assurance purposes. The home station training strategy, training at the
additional costs associated with providing combat training centers, and for mission
security for systems normally operating in a planning and rehearsal while deployed. The
Leader Development

Secret System High (SSH) environment must embedded training system design for the future
be identified and provided to maintain the
Training and

force systems will go a long way in meeting

Annex C

integrity of the operational capabilities. these requirements. In the meantime, the Army
must provide training support and kits in support
Joint Training of current operations in Iraq, Afghanistan, and
Bosnia. This could include range targetry,
Contemporary operating environments MILES, Mobile MOUT, Engagement Skills
increasingly require seamless integration of Trainers, virtual simulations and other training
JIM operating elements. Army leader aids, devices, simulations and simulators
development and training programs, which are (TADSS).
being executed more in a joint context, are
incorporating broader knowledge and Combat Training Centers (CTCs)
perspectives. The end state will be Army
leaders who demonstrate the values, character, The CTC Program comprises the Battle
competency and confidence to lead Soldiers, Command Training Program (BCTP); Combat
sailors, marines, airmen, and coastguard—in Maneuver Training Center (CMTC); Joint
any mission. In addition, Army leaders will be Readiness Training Center (JRTC), National
able to successfully participate in coalition Training Center (NTC), Joint Air-Ground Center
operations throughout the world. of Excellence (JAGCE), and parts of the JNTC.
The CTC rotations remain the Army’s capstone
Using commonly shared TTPs, units will be able training events for battalions and brigades,
to adapt to an operational environment that divisions, and corps. Their focus remains
includes government, nongovernmental leader development and readiness. The
organizations (NGO), private volunteer primary purpose of the CTCs is to develop self-
organizations, and Special Operations Forces aware, adaptive leaders and ready units for full-
(SOF). When required by assigned missions, spectrum JIM operations. CTCs will

C-12 2004 Army Modernization Plan

accomplish this by integrating a contemporary Implementation Plan. The JNTC links
and joint operational environment into all designated Services’ training centers, training
training. This environment will include: facilities and training enabler support
simultaneous, noncontiguous, and continuous capabilities into a net-centric readiness
operations in a distributed, global, LVC training training capability across the LVC Training
capability under a JIM context. Army units will Environment (LVCTE). Four specific thrust
get a rigorous fight in the COE including events for the Horizontal, Vertical, Integration
offensive, defensive, and stability and support and Functional will establish the initial
operations against a freethinking and operational capability of the JNTC under
adaptable OPFOR. The battlefield will be USJFCOM. The Unified Command Plan (UCP)
arrayed in depth to
maximize stress on digital
C4ISR systems. Complex
terrain including MOUT
operations will be a part of
each rotation. SOF
operations will be
integrated throughout the
rotation as well as realistic

Leader Development
combat service support
(CSS) play to stress the

Training and
Annex C
logistics structure.
Instrumented feedback for
both formal and informal
AARs will facilitate sharing
of lessons learned to
home station, institutions,
and deployed units.
Deployment training will Figure C-3. How We Will Train in the Future
remain a paramount
aspect of CTC training to include realistic has been revised to reflect this new role for
TPFDD flow. The Army fully supports the JNTC USJFCOM. The Army G-3 issued guidance
where joint integration will become the norm. and tasking to achieve this JNTC and its key
Finally, expanding global reach of the CTCs will enabler of LVCTE.
be necessary to rapidly respond to future
training challenges to support units preparing Future Force
for or in combat. As a result, the Army will
explore exportable CTC capability with
The Future Force will be highly trained to be
deployable instrumentation and AAR enablers
strategically responsive, deployable, agile,
to support a joint expeditionary mindset.
versatile, lethal, survivable, and sustainable
across the entire spectrum of military
The U.S. Joint Forces Command (USJFCOM)
operations. Soldiers and leaders will be
is designated as the implementing Combatant
confident and competent, capable of rapid
Commander for the Joint National Training
synthesis and assessment of information and
Capability under the Training Transformation
immediate situational understanding.

2004 Army Modernization Plan C-13

Commanders will be able to clearly define their linked to joint training capabilities. At end state,
information requirements, shape the situation, our Army will enjoy training capabilities with
effectively communicate their intent and seamless links between institutions, home
mission-based orders, and execute with station, combat training centers, and when
precision. Future Force Soldiers and leaders deployed. By achieving these capabilities, the
will form the core of lethal and effective units Army will be able to train, alert, deploy, and
capable of exploiting information dominance execute to meet our nation’s complex national
and employing warfighting systems of systems security requirements.
to meet the Future Force operational
requirements. They will be adaptive and self- While there will be changes in the framework
aware—able to master transitions in the of the strategic environment, the contemporary
diversity of 21st century military operations. and future operational environment, doctrine,
and force structure, the most significant
The Future Force requires units trained to difference will be how we apply advanced and
rapidly transition from one mission to the next dynamic technology to create a full-spectrum
and conduct mission planning en route while capable Army and a fully integrated, relevant
assembling a task organization tailored into training support system that seamlessly merges
force packages for mission execution. training across the institution, unit, home station,
Commanders and battle staffs must be trained CTCs, and deployed theaters. This use of
Leader Development

to see and understand the battlespace. technology will help streamline the operational
Organizations need to be skilled at the rapid planning and training management process
Training and
Annex C

collection and fusion of information from and enhance training capabilities, ultimately
manned/unmanned systems coupled with ensuring competent, trained, and ready
human intelligence (HUMINT) that enable Soldiers and units for more rapid deployments
situational understanding and decisive across a full spectrum of operations. The
operations. Commanders and battle staffs difference between operations today and
must synchronize and integrate joint fires to Future Force operations is a requirement for
allow Future Force units to mass effects at the greatly enhanced Doctrine, Training, and
critical space and time. Training must enhance Leader Development (DTLD) capabilities,
air and ground maneuver in complex terrain and enabled by improved processes and an
enable sustained combat operations without a integrated training support system (TSS) that
loss of momentum. supports Soldiers and leaders whenever and
wherever required.
The training environment must be developed
to approximate the operational environment. Future Force Concepts and Capabilities
Our modernization effort must allow for the
implementation of the Future Force soldier Training and developing the Future Force
model and transform initial military training. It Soldier and leader require available doctrine
must also implement the Future Force leader and a fully linked and integrated training and
development framework and transform leader development capability. This capability
professional military education. We will embed is derived from an assessment of Future Force
training in our operational platforms and warfighting concepts and capabilities. The
resource the institution to meet “reach” strategic concepts derived from this analysis
requirements mandated by the force. Our LVC are:
training capabilities must be integrated and

C-14 2004 Army Modernization Plan

• Sustain a doctrine and standards-based assignments. During PME, centers and
Army schools will continue to develop leaders
through NCO, Warrant Officer, and officer
• Be capable of full-spectrum training education programs. Additionally, in times of
crisis and need for Army expansion, centers
• Develop Future Force Soldiers and schools will remain vital to the mobilization
requirements of the Army.
• Develop Future Force leaders
The goal of unit training is mission readiness.
From these concepts follow seven strategic Field commanders will continue to employ the
capabilities, which include: principles of Army training to ensure proficiency
on mission essential tasks. Training will be
• Develop technologically enabled, highly standards-based and prepare units to operate
responsive, flexible, tailored, dynamic in a JIM environment. The intent will be to
knowledge depositories containing provide leaders and Soldiers with a realistic,
doctrine, TTPs, and training support operationally relevant training capability that
publications, products, packages and can replicate the full spectrum of operations.
modules Meeting these requirements will require an
integrated enhanced Training and Leader

Leader Development
• Embed training tools in operational and Development Model, enabled by an integrated
institutional systems of systems Training Support System (TSS) that will link the

Training and
Annex C
Soldier and leader to the centers and schools
• Integrate Army LVC training capabilities and the CTCs through a global information
and link to joint training capabilities infostructure (GII).

• Make training and training support available Training Modernization

on demand
The Training Support System (TSS)
• Link training environments and domains
through the infosphere and the Global
The Army TSS is a system of systems that
Information Grid
provides the networked, integrated,
interoperable training support necessary to
• Implement the Future Force Soldier model
enable an operationally relevant training
and transform initial military training
environment for warfighters. In short, it is an
integrated training support enterprise. It is
• Implement the Future Force leader
comprised of product lines, architectures and
development model and transform PME
standards, and management, evaluation, and
resource processes that enhance training
Centers and schools of the institutional Army
will continue to provide baseline proficiency of
Soldiers and leaders assigned to operating
Product lines are the integrated, interoperable
units. During initial military training, centers and
capabilities that enable the conduct of training
schools will continue to train new recruits and
and education. They consist of training
officers, instilling the Army values and warrior
information infrastructures; TADSS; training
ethos, and preparing them for their operational

2004 Army Modernization Plan C-15

products; training facilities and land; and effectiveness, accessibility, interoperability,
training services. The product lines provide the and supportability
capabilities that trainers and soldiers need to
train in the institution, operational, and self- • Support the development of training and
development domains. doctrine products while minimizing
duplication by horizontally and vertically
Architectures and standards provide the integrating the course content and delivery
means to ensure integration and methods
interoperability across product lines.
Architectures are the structure of components, • Provide the means for training as we fight,
their relationship, and the principles and injecting battlefield realism through
guidelines governing their design and evolution exercise control, training and scenario
over time. There are three types of management; automated data collection
architectures—organization, functional, and and reduction; and application strategies
systems—each of which may have operational, and remediation tools—that include
technical, and systems views. The TSS automated training instrumentation
focuses on the training domains, which have a systems, models and simulations, and
direct correlation with the views. Standards are tactical engagements systems
the technical rules and specifications necessary
Leader Development

to build and ensure interoperability in an • Provide the means to rehearse mission

integrated training environment and are related execution during real-world operations
Training and
Annex C

to the views. They are addressed as part of

the technical view. Live, Virtual, Constructive (LVC) Training

Management, evaluation, and resource Live training, carried out effectively to a high
(MER) processes employ best business doctrinal standard, is the cornerstone of
practices to plan, implement, and sustain the operational success. It is essential to maximize
TSS. They are the overarching business the capability, availability, and accessibility of
practices that enable informed training support ranges and training land to support doctrinal
decisions in support of training requirements. training, mission rehearsals and deployment
These processes consider both internal and training. The Army’s Range and Training Land
external drivers that impact TSS and guide the Strategy establishes priorities for investments
development, maintenance, and sustainment in the transformation of ranges and training land
of the TSS. to support the COE and Future Force. This
strategy reflects Army training priorities and
The TSS will: serves as a roadmap common to MACOMs
carry out the Army’s training missions, and the
• Enable self-development, institutional, and Installation Management Agency (IMA), that
operational training at any location manages range and training land infrastructure
including, home station, deployed in support of those training missions. Key range
operational theater, and CTCs transformation initiatives include: the Digital
Multi-Purpose Range Complex (DMPRC),
• Enhance training by providing standards Battle Area Complex (BAX), and NGATS are
and technologies that increase the first tie into training the Future Combat
Systems (FCS) weapon systems and

C-16 2004 Army Modernization Plan

Leader Development
Training and
Annex C
Figure C-4. Future Training Environment

maintaining the edge for current weapon weapon systems and can be linked to expand
systems such as the M1A1AD. The the scope of the training event. Virtual training
instrumentation of the ranges, such as the systems provide commanders with “walk-level”
DMPRC and BAX, is the critical step of testing training, sustainment training, gated training
the networked systems of the FCS Unit of events, leader development, and mission
Action. These specific Current Force ranges rehearsal capabilities. Through frequent and
will evolve to the Future Force Range concept repetitive use and an immediate and total
being developed by TRADOC. The successful replay AAR capability, virtual training systems
implementation of the business end of FCS is assist commanders with the building and
when the sharing of information in the FCS sustaining of training readiness. Virtual training
sensor array allows for the precision targeting also has the advantage of allowing Soldiers to
and grouping of precision fires for target kills. perform tasks too dangerous for the live
environment (such as calling for artillery fires
Virtual simulation training is executed on on or near an occupied friendly position),
computer generated battlefields and provides provides the capability for rapid changes to
crews, leaders and units with realistic, scenarios, and facilitates retraining specific
immersive training experiences using tasks until training objectives are met. Virtual
embedded training capability or man-in-the- simulations allow repetitive training under
loop simulators that approximate the physical varying conditions to enable the individual or
layout of tactical weapon systems and team to conduct live training at a higher state
platforms. In the virtual environment, simulators of readiness, potentially reducing OPTEMPO
operating on virtual terrain take the place of costs. Many virtual simulations also provide a

2004 Army Modernization Plan C-17

link to the Army Battle Command System and virtual training capabilities into systems.
(ABCS), thereby providing a realistic training Unit commanders will be able to conduct
environment for the digitized units and battle mission planning and rehearsal, gunnery
staffs. practice, and force-on-force maneuver
exercises with live and virtual players at home
Constructive simulation training is the use station or deployed. While embedded training
of computer models and simulations to will not replace the need for live training, it will
exercise the command and staff functions of significantly expand the opportunities for
units from platoon through Joint Task Force. realistic practice on limited terrain and with
Constructive simulations permit multiple limited availability of the full component of Army
echelons of command and staff to execute their and JIM participants while decreasing reliance
normal warfighting tasks in an extensive on stand-alone TADSS and the infrastructure
exercise without the resource constraints of required to support them.
large bodies of troops, and provides a versatile,
cost-effective, low-overhead training Embedded training at the platform level will
environment that trains leaders how to visualize provide a full task training capability for
the battlespace and to make tactical decisions operators/crews to include an embedded high
in a time-constrained, digitized environment. fidelity tactical engagement simulation
It also provides the “wraparound” for LVC capability for force-on-force and simulated
Leader Development

integrated events and extending the gunnery training. It will have simulation/
battlespace to provide more realistic stimulation drivers and a software capability to
Training and
Annex C

scenarios. Through the repetitive execution of create computer generated forces providing
tactical scenarios followed by AARs, units the ability to conduct collective training of
commanders and staff officers gain a realistic tactical formations and battle staffs from
understanding of how to take advantage of the organic platforms. A reach capability to support
enhanced situational awareness afforded by mission planning, current operations, and
the ABCS. training will be embedded and linked to the
institution through the Army Knowledge
The LVC training capability must be fully Enterprise. The embedded system will also
integrated and networked, at the appropriate include a standard AAR capability and a
echelon and at the appropriate frequency to training management system for individual,
support full spectrum training. A deliberate crew, and unit.
linkage of LVC with the C4ISR system-of-
systems architecture must be developed to Deployed Training Support
support training of the Soldier on demand,
anywhere or anytime. The goal is a near- The Army will provide for appropriate live, virtual
seamless integration of the training and constructive training support capabilities
environments to more realistically replicate the for deployed units. The degree and depth of
operational environment. such training support will be based on
standards reflected in Army training strategies.
Embedded Training Examples include, deployable range packages
in the form of Contingency Augmentation
The embedded training vision will give units an Range Packages (CARP) for specific units,
expanded range of training options that will and Training Augmentation Range Packages
enhance readiness by building constructive (TARP) for MACOMs and theaters to adapt to

C-18 2004 Army Modernization Plan

changing live fire training standards driven by Nonsystem TADSS that Support the
the COE. Operational Domain

Training Aids, Devices, Live Training

Simulations, and Simulators
(TADSS) Army Targetry Systems (ATS)/New
Generation Army Targetry Systems
System and nonsystem TADSS support the (NGATS). ATS provides nondigital, live-fire
major objective of an overarching Army training ranges that incorporate infantry and armor
strategy, that being the establishment of policy targets, both stationary and moving, that portray
supported by adequate resources to realistic opposing target threat scenarios to the
accomplish defined training and mission Soldier under simulated battlefield conditions.
rehearsal capabilities for the Current and NGATS is the future Army ground targetry
Future Forces. Training transforms people, system that will provide high-fidelity target
equipment, and doctrine into capabilities. From signatures, evasive targets, shoot-back
a modernization viewpoint, this objective is capability, and remote scoring. Using
supported by the effective and efficient commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology,
integration of systems and nonsystems training NGATS will provide a more reliable system at
technologies and development within the live, lower cost. The NGATS will be mobile,

Leader Development
virtual, and constructive simulation transportable, deployable, and capable of

Training and
environments across the home station, continuous support during designated training

Annex C
deployed, CTC, and institution domains. periods.
TADSS provide the commander with
deployable and portable combined-arms Air Defense Artillery (ADA) Targets provide
collective training and mission rehearsal targets and ancillary devices for gun live-fire
capabilities, to include joint operations, and crew weapon qualification and training events
enable units to train and rehearse missions in currently resourced under the Standards in
a resource constrained environment at home Training Commission (STRAC). They provide
station and deployed locations. The vision is required training and opportunity training to the
to build a synthetic training environment that Air Defense Soldiers for gun and Stinger
links LVC simulation training capability with “fair missile live fire.
fight” capability. “Digitizing the battlefield” to
provide seamless, digital command and Instrumented/Digital Ranges. Instrumented/
control (C2) capabilities for the entire fighting Digital Multi-Purpose Training Range and
force is one of the Army’s top priorities. To meet Range Complex provide new and modern
this requirement, multiple initiatives are ranges capable of training and stressing
underway to harness the power of the today’s Soldiers and their modern equipment
microprocessor and information technology for with a realistic train-as-you-fight environment,
warfighters. The goal is to use digital using all available combat systems capabilities,
technology to maintain a continuous edge in and digitally integrating those systems to
projecting and employing combat power on manage all forces undergoing individual and
future battlefields. Mirroring this effort are collective live fire training and qualification.
initiatives to embed the complex, combined Battle Area Complex (BAX) is a training range
arms structured training of the future into the designed to support the newly established
systems of the digitized force. Stryker Brigade Combat Teams (SBCTs). The

2004 Army Modernization Plan C-19

BAX will provide the SBCT commander a theaters to adapt to changing live fire training
venue to train the majority of his force in one or standards driven by the COE.
a combination of linked training facilities. While
the layout is typically to support combined arms Range MILCON Projects provide for
training scenarios, the individual and crew construction of major ranges and acquisition
requirements were incorporated to allow of training land at Home Stations in the AC and
specific weapons platform qualification. RC to support Transformation. Range and land
projects are contained in the Army Master
Integrated Military Operations on Range Plan (AMRP). These MILCON projects,
Urbanized Terrain Training System (IMTS) for the most part, drive Non-System Training
provides a melding of three separate but similar Devices (NSTDs) investments.
thrust efforts into a combined umbrella
program. These programs are the transition Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement
Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) Systems (MILES) replacement provides
sites, the Combined Arms MOUT Task Force tactical engagement simulation for direct-fire,
training sites, and other MOUT facilities force-on-force training using eye-safe laser
programs. The program will reduce acquisition “bullets.” MILES training has been proven to
and sustainment costs, leverage technologies dramatically increase the combat readiness
and acquisitions, solve complex and common and fighting effectiveness of military forces.
Leader Development

problems, foster Horizontal Technology Enhancements include discrete player

Integration (HTI) through commonalties and identification for all participants, enhanced
Training and
Annex C

standards, synchronize and integrate the audio-visual cueing effects, event recording
collective efforts of the Common Training and display, increased programmability of
Instrumentation Architecture (CTIA) by weapon characteristics, and increased ability
leveraging near-term requirements, and to account for side, flank, corner, and rear
support the objectives of the Urban Operations shots.
Training Strategy.
Fixed Tactical Internet (FTI) is a permanently
Precision Marksmanship provides for installed network of Enhanced Position
enhanced individual weapons proficiency Location Reporting System (EPLRS) radio sets
training in the institutional base and in units. with an EPLRS Network Manager that enables
Specific individual weapons type ranges are digital communications across the Army’s
provided with precision scoring capability to Tactical Internet. The FTI acts as an alternative
support basic and specialized skills. means to provide on-demand digital
communications in support of testing, training,
Aerial Weapons Scoring System provides maintenance, and experimentation at Brigade
a live fire qualification capability for Attack and below. The FTI can significantly reduce
Helicopter units. deployment of Signal Company assets during
training events. It is being fielded to installations
Contingency Augmentation Range fielded with the Stryker, M1A2, and M2A3
Packages (CARP) for specific units, to vehicles as well as Fort Benning, Fort Knox,
construct live fire training infrastructure in and Fort Gordon. FTI does not provide a
theater, and Training Augmentation Range capability to train with Blue Force Tracker or
Packages (TARP) for MACOMs, the IMA and other non-EPLRS-based communications

C-20 2004 Army Modernization Plan

One Tactical Engagement Simulation Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT) uses
System (OneTESS) OneTESS is a family of various simulators, emulators, and semi-
tactical engagement simulation systems that automated forces replicating combat vehicles,
supports force-on-force and force-on-target weapon systems, dismounted forces, combat
training exercises at brigade and below, in all support (CS), CSS, C2, and opposing forces.
battlefield operating systems at home station, It is networked to provide fully interactive unit
maneuver CTCs, and deployed sites. The task training (collective training) on computer-
system will require execution of proper generated terrain. It is being fielded in mobile
engagement procedures. It will simulate configurations (platoon level) for the ARNG and
weapon systems’ accuracy and effects and United States Army, European Command
stimulate detectors, sensors, monitors, and (USAREUR) and at fixed sites (company/team
countermeasures. OneTESS will use a level) to support armor and mechanized infantry
common architecture compliant with the training for the rest of the AC. CCTT supports
Common Training Instrumentation Architecture virtual, collective, combined arms training of
(CTIA). Embedded training in the Future Force armor, mechanized infantry, and cavalry units
end state will incorporate OneTESS. from platoon through battalion/squadron level.

Home Station and Instrumentation Aviation Reconfigurable Manned Simulator

Training System (HITS) is being reevaluated (AVCATT-A) is a mobile, transportable,

Leader Development
for an accelerated fielding. It provides objective trailerized virtual simulator with the capability
data collection of unit performance in force-on- to conduct realistic, high-intensity, task-loaded,

Training and
Annex C
force, force-on-target, live fire, and associated collective and combined-arms training
command post exercises. HITS supports exercises and mission rehearsals in a
combined arms training and exercise events. simulated battlefield environment. AVCATT-A
HITS will be the data transfer bridge between system capabilities directly support the “train
live training and the other training environments as you fight” concept and allow commanders
through CTIA and the LVC IA. to focus on and tailor training to specific battle
focused training requirements, the unit’s
Virtual Training mission essential task list, and combined arms
wartime mission requirements. Units will train
Engagement Skills Trainer (EST) 2000 as units, not as individuals or aircrews.
provides a capability to conduct virtual Commanders and staff personnel will plan and
marksmanship training at all skill levels for command and control, and aircrews will plan
individuals, fire teams, and squads. It offers and execute. Training is observed, recorded,
an opportunity to conduct and evaluate tactical evaluated, and repeated as necessary to train
training in a virtual environment. EST 2000 collective tasks to standard and to reach the
replicates small arms and crew-served desired level of proficiency at the desired level
weapons, as well as multiple shooting courses, of complexity. The AVCATT-A system is a
can support training of up to 15 Soldiers at the critical element of the Aviation Combined Arms
same time, and provides an immediate AAR Training Strategy and Flying Hour Program. It
capability. EST 2000 also provides a supports institutional, home station, deployed
judgmental use of force training capability and CTC training for AC and RC aviation units
through instructor-manipulated shoot–don’t worldwide. The AVCATT-A system will
shoot scenarios. interoperate with other virtual and constructive
simulation systems through local area networks

2004 Army Modernization Plan C-21

and wide area networks utilizing broadcast and specifically to train Army corps and division
multicast modes. It will be Distributed commanders and staffs. This simulation also
Interactive Simulation/High Level Architecture supports joint training serving as the ground
(HLA), Joint Technical Architecture–Army, and model when linked in the Joint Training
Synthetic Environment Core compliant, and Confederation with models from other Services.
achieve air-ground, combined arms CBS models ground movement, ground
interoperability with the CCTT. The AVCATT-A combat, artillery, air defense, engineering,
system provides six reconfigurable manned NBC, supply, medical support, maintenance,
modules, semiautomatic forces, after action transportation, radar, and fixed and rotary-wing
review, battlemaster controller, and role player air operations, special operating forces, and
capabilities for fire support, ground maneuver, airlift/airdrop. CBS is used during Battle
battle command, close air support, engineer, Command Training Program (BCTP)
and logistics functional areas. Each manned warfighter exercisers and allows the
module is reconfigurable to current Army attack, commander to fight his organization and
reconnaissance, utility and cargo aircraft. assess its training proficiency. Recent
developmental efforts are focused on COE
Intelligence Electronic Warfare Tactical enhancements such as improved terrain, multi-
Proficiency Trainer (IEWTPT) provides high sided combat, universal systems, civilians on
fidelity, tactical proficiency sustainment training the battlefield, enhanced Army Tactical C2
Leader Development

and completes interaction between battle Systems (ATCCS) linkage, small unit
command staff and intelligence system operations, and improved aviation and Air
Training and
Annex C

counterparts. It also supports vertical and Defense Artillery (ADA). The simulation can be
horizontal digital battle staff training, and live linked to ATCCS using Run Time Manager
and constructive simulations (ACTF and (RTM) simulation-to-ATCCS interface boxes.
Joint Deployment Logistics Model (JDLM)
Call For Fire Trainer (CFFT) provides quality is an exercise driver used to stimulate exercise
training for MOS 13F skill levels 1-4, as well as play for the collective training of AC and RC
a common task trainer for all Soldiers. The commanders and their staff in command,
system will be HLA interoperable and will control and coordination of CSS. The training
operate in a stand-alone mode to train from audience includes the CSS commanders and
one to thirty students in an institutional training staffs in echelons above corps, corps support
environment. CFFT will operate at the unit level commands, and division support commands,
to train forward observers without the use of as well as their subordinate headquarters down
live ammunition. It will be interoperable with to battalion level. The simulation is both
other CATTs locally and via long-haul networks. stochastic and deterministic and will
It will monitor performance and provide accommodate any theater, depending on the
feedback in accordance with the Army AAR database. JDLM is the only existing Army-
process. CFFT replaces GUARDFIST II and approved training simulation capable of
training set, fire observation (TSFO). providing the detailed logistics information
needed to train CSS staffs. Information is
Constructive Training provided in detailed levels in Standard Army
Management Information System (STAMIS)
Corps Battle Simulation (CBS) provides a report format where appropriate. It is also able
discrete event simulation that is designed to provide emulated STAMIS data feeds to the

C-22 2004 Army Modernization Plan

Battle Command Sustainment Support System rotations. DBST simulates all ABCS, various
(BCS3). JDLM can run in a stand-alone mode, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance
driving just logistics staffs, or can be linked to systems, and the Force XXI Battle Command
the CBS to drive combat commanders and their Battalion/Brigade and Below (FBCB2). The
logistics staffs. This allows the combined arms CTCs are using DBST to support rotational
team to cope with realistic logistics units with wraparound scenario data and digital
constraints. higher headquarters which allows a
commander to fight his live unit at the same
Tactical Simulation (TACSIM) is a military time he is fighting a simulated deep enemy or
intelligence training simulation used worldwide operating with simulated friendly units on his
to provide training in the intelligence analysis, flanks.
collection management, and intelligence
portion of battle command. TACSIM Army Constructive Training Federation
accomplishes this mission by simulating and/ (ACTF) is the next generation simulation being
or stimulating a wide spectrum of intelligence developed to provide U.S. Army command and
operations to include communications staff training and the land component for joint
intelligence (COMINT), electronic intelligence training. ACTF will use advanced modeling and
(ELINT), imagery intelligence (IMINT), and simulation techniques to train Army divisions
human intelligence (HUMINT). While TACSIM through echelons above corps commanders

Leader Development
can operate in a stand-alone mode, it typically and battle staffs.
works in conjunction with other simulation

Training and
Annex C
models, such as CBS and Digital Battle Staff One Semi-Automated Forces (OneSAF) is
Sustainment Trainer (DBST), to support multi- a composable, next generation Computer
echelon collective training. In addition, TACSIM Generated Force (CGF) that will represent a
fully interfaces with virtual systems employing full range of operations, systems, and control
Multiple Unified Simulation Environment process from entity to brigade level, with
(MUSE)/Air Force Synthetic Environment For variable level of fidelity and support for all
Reconnaissance And Surveillance (AFSERS) models and simulations domain (Advanced
like META-VR (UAV), and the Synthetic Concepts and Requirements (ACR), research,
Imagery Generation System (SIGS) to garner development, and acquisition (RDA), Training,
greater fidelity of intelligence systems. TACSIM Exercises, and Military Operations (TEMO))
stimulates most active Army, multi-service, and applications with an emphasis on human-in-the
national intelligence sensors and stimulates loop and no-human-in-the-loop. It also will
training audience organizational ABCS represent the physical environment and its
equipment such as the All Source Analysis effect on simulated activities and behaviors.
System (ASAS). OneSAF will be the future entity level brigade
and below constructive simulation. It will be
Digital Battle Staff Sustainment Trainer interoperable with The Army Constructive
(DBST) allows ABCS to interface with training Training Simulations and part of the ACTF.
simulations in major brigade Command Post OneSAF will be interoperable with Army Battle
Exercises (CPX) in a staff exercise Command System (ABCS) and FBCB2.
environment. DBST uses Joint Combat and OneSAF will replace Janus-T and CCTT and
Tactical Simulation (JCATS) as the maneuver AVCATT SAFs and interoperate with CCTT/
driver and is currently being used as a rehearsal AVCATT simulators. It will interoperate with
tool by units preparing for NTC and JRTC OIS/HITS. OneSAF enables a seamlessly

2004 Army Modernization Plan C-23

integrate LVC simulations into realistic instrumentation and support systems (such as
synthetic battlespaces. OneSAF will represent DAARTs, OIS, etc.) to be connected to the
C4I, combat, CS, and CSS. Its fielding will rotational unit’s ABCS. CTC instrumentation
significantly reduce exercise overhead. and other supporting systems were developed
OneSAF will be incorporated into the ACTF as training devices and as such, were not
after it is fielded. considered automated information systems
(AIS). The increasing use of automated
Synthetic Environment Core (SE Core). SE systems to support command and control
CORE integrates OneSAF into the CCTT and functions, and changes in the regulations
AVCATT. It will provide for the generation of concerning information assurance have
run time databases for CCTT and AVCATT that resulted in new requirements for certification
are formatted to provide other virtual simulators and accreditation of CTC instrumentation and
with a master set of available databases. supporting systems. The security environment
Virtual TADSS will interact with live and at each CTC must be significantly upgraded to
constructive TADSS and with the Joint training continue to support realistic training by rotation
community through SE Core’s interaction with units.
the LVC IA.
National Training Center Objective
Nonsystem TADSS that Support the Instrumentation System (NTC-OIS)
Leader Development

Combat Training Centers (CTC) replaces aging components and provides a fully
instrumented battlefield with feedback on
Training and
Annex C

Digital After Action Review Tool (DAART) position location and weapons engagements.
enables the CTC instrumentation system to It is CTIA-based and OneTESS-compliant and
monitor digitized unit communications and provides digital functionality. It serves as a
collect digital data to prepare the AAR for digital basis for JRTC and Combat Maneuver Training
units. This program is critical in providing a Center systems. Fielding is in FY07.
bridge between the current and Objective
instrumentation Systems (OIS). It enables the Common Training Instrumentation
CTC current instrumentation systems to collect Architecture (CTIA) is a component-based
digital data for the preparation of AARs for architecture that uses common standards,
ABCS-equipped units. interfaces, and protocols with other STE
training systems. Along with the OneTESS,
CTC Battle Command (BC) Security. CTCs CTIA is the foundation of the Army’s Live
are required to be able to connect to ABCS Training Transformation (LTT) product line for
for the purpose of (1) playing the higher training instrumentation systems that support
headquarters and adjacent units; (2) extracting home station (DMPRC, MOUT, force-on-force,
critical information from the ABCS for the etc.), deployed and maneuver CTCs live
purpose of AAR and take home package (THP) training requirements. CTIA’s common
development; (3) maintaining safety during the component-based architecture approach
exercise; (4) and controlling the exercise. ensures cost-effective modernization in
Instrumentation and AAR product systems support of digital Current and Stryker training
(such as DAARTs) are currently required to instrumentation systems and will evolve to
operate in the Secret System High (SSH). CTC support Future Force’s training requirements.
BC Security provides a capability to allow CTC

C-24 2004 Army Modernization Plan

Combat Maneuver Training Center- surrogate BMPs. These systems will be fielded
Objective Instrumentation System (CMTC- to NTC, JRTC and CMTC.
OIS) replaces aging components. It is CTIA
based and OneTESS-compliant, and provides OPFOR Combat Wheeled Vehicle. A change
digital functionality. Failure to fund will result in in the operational environment reduces the
lack of a replacement system for CMTC number of combat tracked vehicles but
instrumentation system, which reaches wear increases wheeled systems. These systems
out in FY08. CMTC-OIS will support digital and reflect changing real-world conditions and
analog units training at the CMTC by integrating provide full-spectrum capability to the
C4I and virtual and constructive simulations and maneuver CTC OPFORs. This includes both
be able to link external sources such as home tactical and technical vehicles.
station, schools, and joint exercises.
OPFOR Aviation provides OPFOR rotary wing
Joint Readiness Training Center Objective aviation and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
Instrumentation System (JRTC-OIS) that replicate emerging threats. UH-1s are
replaces aging components of the current aging, near wear out, and scheduled to leave
instrumentation system. JRTC-OIS will support the inventory in FY08. There is no UAV program
digital and analog units training at the JRTC by for OPFOR. These systems will replicate real
integrating C4I and virtual and constructive world conditions and provide full spectrum

Leader Development
simulations and be able to link external sources capability to the maneuver CTC OPFORs.
such as home station, schools, and joint

Training and
Annex C
exercises. It is CTIA-based and OneTESS- OH 58D TESS is needed to support aviation
compliant, and provides digital functionality. systems during normal rotations (NTC, JRTC
This is the replacement system for JRTC and CMTC) as well as at the Joint Air-Ground
instrumentation system, which reaches wear- Center of Excellence (JAGCE). OH 58D TESS
out in FY10. would allow realistic play and provide valuable
AAR feedback.
NTC Live Fire Targets provides for the
development and acquisition of replacement Nonsystem TADSS that Support the
targets systems on the live fire ranges. Institutional Domain
Program will replace existing target systems
with state-of-the-art capabilities; integrate and Basic Electronics Maintenance Trainer
be compliant with NTC OIS live fire C2; and (BEMT) provides basic electronics training of
improve the C2 target array. missile electronics repair and test,
measurement and diagnostic equipment repair
OPFOR Surrogate Tank Vehicle (OSTV)/ at Ordnance Missile and Munitions Center and
OPFOR Surrogate Vehicle (OSV). Both are School, Redstone Arsenal, and electronics
based on the M113A3 chassis with visual maintenance repairer training at the Ordnance
modifications to include an OSV turret that is Electronic Maintenance Training Department
driven by Bradley Fighting Vehicle at Fort Gordon.
components. Excess M60 thermal sights are
utilized. The OSTV replaces M551 Sheridan Institutional Digital Education Plan (IDEP)
and M60 tanks used as surrogate tanks and integrates ABCS training throughout TRADOC
the OSV replaces M551s and M113s used as centers and schools to support and sustain the
U.S. Army’s digitization strategy with

2004 Army Modernization Plan C-25

appropriately trained Soldiers and leaders. The NTC Land Expansion. In the 20 years that
IDEP describes the intent for transition from NTC has been in operation, the speed and
the current New Equipment Training Team/ power of weaponry have increased
Central Technical Support Facility-based significantly, requiring larger training areas.
training system into the long-term solution—the The House Armed Services Committee
TRADOC institutional training system. It expanded the NTC by adding over 110,000
identifies a digital training model and defines acres of open maneuver space in a manner
the categories of ABCS training appropriate that recognizes the Army’s critical training
for integration into TRADOC institutions through needs as well as the needs of the environment.
resident and distance learning applications, The Departments of Defense and Interior will
and defines the anticipated end state for the look at a variety of conservation measures—
training system and a transition plan to reach such as acquisition of private and state lands;
the objective system. construction of barriers, fences, and other
structures; and funding of research studies—
CTC MCA Projects to ensure compliance with the Endangered
Species Act. The NTC Instrumentation
NTC MOUT Combined Arms Collective System, to include Observer/Controller
Training Facility. To support the contemporary Communications, will require expansion to
operational environment, NTC requires a include Military Construction Army (MCA)
Leader Development

MOUT site of sufficient size to support projects.

Training and

combined arms brigade-level operations.

Annex C

JRTC Administrative/Operations Facilities.

NTC “Star Wars” Building. NTC will require Based upon OPS GRP expansion to support
a new Training Analysis Facility (TAF) to house third rotational TF, JRTC will need additional
their new Objective Instrumentation System. administrative and TAF facilities.

BCTP Seminar Facility. With the demolition JRTC Vehicle Maintenance Facility/
of Bell Hall in FY05, BCTP loses their seminar Hardstand. This facility will be used to support
facility located in that facility. A seminar facility O/Cs during rotations in the southern portion
is required to adequately train division and of the training area. This training area includes
corps staffs prior to their BCTP warfighter the intensive use area (IUA) and limited use
exercise. areas (LUA). Facilities will reduce O/C travel
time for maintenance of their vehicles.
CMTC “Star Wars” Building. CMTC will
require a new training analysis facility to house JRTC AAR TRIPLEX. This facility (located
their new Objective Instrumentation System. on South Fort) is able to conduct three AARs
simultaneously. This facility is used to support
NTC Railspur. NTC requires a rail spur to AARs for rotational units, thus cutting down on
facilitate deploying and redeploying units to travel time to more distant main post facilities.
more efficiently use the NTC. Additional
railhead space is required for larger numbers JRTC Forward Operating Base (FOB).
of deploying and redeploying vehicles Current FOB is housed in WWII billets that are
necessitated by the downsizing of the PREPO scheduled for demolition. A new FOB is
fleet. Additionally, it supports NTC mobilization needed in a secure location (away from

C-26 2004 Army Modernization Plan

BLUFOR). FOB is needed to provide required Soldiers with the warrior ethos, and well-trained
SOF play during rotations. units. Soldiers of the 21 st century will be
expected to achieve these results across the
Critical Operations and Maintenance, full spectrum of operations. The nature of future
Army (OMA) Project threats demands that the Army place its highest
priority on training the nation’s Soldiers.
JRTC Land Use Area. This additional area is
critical to the continued success of the JRTC People are central to the Army—they are the
to accomplish its mission to train the Army’s keys to achieving ready forces today and a
light fighting forces, including three battalion transformed Army tomorrow. Effective Soldiers
Brigade Combat Team conventional rotations and leaders—those who are self-aware,
and SBCT rotations, which require a adaptive, and innovative—will solve unforeseen
50kmX50km battlespace. Annual recurring operational problems. Developing and
requirements are needed to sustain use of LUA maintaining this edge in the human dimension
training lands and land use agreements with is critical to the success of Army Transformation
the U.S. Forest Service. and sustaining day-to-day operational
readiness. The Army is committed to the
Conclusion development of its leaders at all levels. This
commitment extends equally to all officers,

Leader Development
warrant officers, NCOs, and Department of the
Army training must change to remain relevant Army civilians of the Active Army, Army National

Training and
as changes occur in the operational

Annex C
Guard, and U.S. Army Reserves. Leaders must
environment. The Army must train Soldiers and be appropriately developed before assuming
units for situations and missions they will face and while occupying leadership positions to
today and in the future. The Army must provide ensure they are competent in and confident of
leaders, Soldiers, and units tough, realistic, their ability to lead at the level assigned. In short,
multi-echeloned, and fully integrated training the goal is to develop competent, confident
that will produce bold and innovative leaders leaders who can exploit the full potential of
to deal with complex situations, flexible present and future doctrine.

2004 Army Modernization Plan C-27

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Leader Development
Training and
Annex C

C-28 2004 Army Modernization Plan


Introduction • Recapitalize the Current Force, to include

RC forces. This includes actions to reset
the Current Force.
This annex provides a brief description and
status of key Army materiel programs contained
• Develop capabilities consistent with joint
in the Fiscal Year 2005 President’s Budget
interdependence and conducting
(PB05). These programs develop and field
operations in a joint, interagency, and
new equipment systems, provide incremental
multinational (JIM) environment. Accelerate
improvements to existing systems, or
spiral development and fielding of Future
recapitalize existing fielded systems by
Force capabilities to insert them where
rebuilding to a zero miles/hours condition and
feasible into the Current Force.
upgrading system capabilities.
• Field Stryker, Future Combat Systems, and
These materiel programs are part of a
other systems by Unit Set Fielding (USF)
comprehensive and integrated Doctrine,
to meet established timelines for achieving
Organization, Training, Materiel, Leadership
an initial operational capability (IOC) for the
and Education, Personnel, and Facilities
unit and its interdependent system of
(DOTMLPF) modernization solution to execute
systems set.
the Army’s core competencies: (1) train and
equip Soldiers and grow leaders, and (2)
• Continue modernization efforts for two
provide relevant and ready land power
current force divisions (4ID and 1 CAV), 3rd
capability for
to the Combatant Tomorrow
Commander as . . . Ensuring Security for Today
ACR, selected units in the digitized III
part of the joint team.
Corps, and Army Special Operations
Forces (ARSOF).
Equipping Objectives

Annex D
• Support Army initiatives that require
Army equipping efforts are focused to support equipping solutions (i.e., modularity,
the following objectives: network, AC/RC balance, joint logistics).

• Support current operations. Ensure These objectives are supported by a host of

Soldiers deployed or scheduled to deploy initiatives and plans that include Rapid Fielding
in support of operations are equipped with Initiative (RFI), Rapid Equipping Force (REF),
the critical equipment and materiel needed setting the force/reset plans, Stryker Brigade
to execute assigned missions. Combat Team (SBCT) and Unit of Action (UA)
USF plans, recapitalization plans, Software
• Equip the highest priority units (ALO 1) at a Blocking, modularity and force stabilization
required = authorized level with critical plans, AMEDD transformation initiatives, Army
equipment and materiel needed to execute Materiel Command (AMC) restructuring,
assigned missions. logistics transformation initiatives,

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-1

infrastructure plans, and Unit Focused Stability Evolutionary acquisition is the DOD preferred
and rotation plans. Most of these initiatives and strategy being used by the Army to rapidly
plans are highlighted throughout the 2004 Army acquire materiel systems with mature
Modernization Plan. technologies for the user. This strategy delivers
capabilities in increments, with the recognition
The Acquisition Phases and that future improvements in capability will be
Developmental Processes needed. The objective is to balance needs and
available capability with resources, and to put
The materiel programs described in this annex capability into the hands of the user quickly.
are in various phases of the acquisition Success of this strategy is dependent upon
management life cycle. Figure D-1 depicts the consistent and continuous definition of
acquisition management process and requirements, maturation of technologies, and
management milestones for reference. Both continuous collaboration between the user,
the new and old terms are provided because tester, and developer to develop and produce
programs initiated under the old life-cycle model systems with increasing capability towards a
still use those terms. Definitions for these materiel concept. Figure D-2 depicts this
phases and other acquisition terms can be requirements and acquisition process.
found in the Department of Defense (DOD)
5000 Defense Acquisition Policy Documents.
Annex D

Figure D-1. System Acquisition Management Process

D-2 Army Modernization Plan 2004

Figure D-2. Requirements and Acquisition Process
Evolutionary acquisition uses two key and continuous user feedback to provide the
processes, incremental and spiral best possible capability within an increment.
development, to provide for continuous The requirement for future spiral development
discovery and development of technology for is dependent upon user feedback and
military applications that enhance Joint Force technology maturation.
Both spiral and incremental development
Through the incremental development process, require close coordination between materiel

Annex D
a desired capability is identified and the and training developers to ensure training
required end state is defined. That requirement products and plans are developed to support
is met over time by the development of several the new capabilities provided by each
increments, each dependent on available increment and any spiral developments applied
mature technology. The requirement for future outside an increment cycle to existing systems.
increments is based upon the ability to fill the
gap between the current capability and the Developing Capabilities for the Future
objective capability (100 percent design Joint Force
concept) for a system.
The Army is modernizing its Current Force to
Through the spiral development process, a remain a relevant and ready component of the
desired capability is identified, but the end- Joint Force that meets near-term operational
state requirements are unknown at program challenges while continuously pursuing truly
initiation. Those requirements are refined transformational changes to develop a Future
through experimentation, risk management, Force over time. The Joint Capabilities

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-3

Integration and Development System (JCIDS) lessons learned to guide future joint and
is the new top-down joint capabilities-based Service led modernization efforts.
requirements generation process that will guide
Army and the other Services’ investment in Joint Functional Concepts
transformational capabilities for the future Joint
Force. The Joint Operations Concepts There are five appendices to this annex. Each
(JOpsC) is the first step in this process that appendix is aligned with one of the five
translates strategic guidance to desired joint functional concepts of Force Application,
capabilities. It is an overarching concept and Protection, Focused Logistics (FL),
construct that provides the operational context Battlespace Awareness (BA), and Command
for transformation by linking strategic guidance and Control (C2). Each functional concept
with the integrated application of Joint Force describes the approach for providing a
capabilities. The JOpsC describes how the particular military capability across the range
Joint Force intends to operate 15-20 years in of military operations. Under JCIDS, the J8 is
the future across the entire range of operations. using these functional capability categories to
focus joint analysis. Programs that provide
The JOpsC is a unifying framework for more than one functional capability are
developing supporting Service concepts, assigned a lead functional capability working
subordinate joint operational, functional, and group with one or more supporting working
integrating concepts, and a set of integrated groups to do the analysis up front of proposed
operational, technical, and system concepts and DOTMLPF solutions. A
architectures that look at existing, evolving, and designated Functional Capability Board (FCB)
future Joint Force requirements. These that is also aligned with one of these five
concepts and architectures will be validated emerging joint functional concepts, validates
through joint analysis, experimentation and this analysis and forwards recommendations
Annex D

Figure D-3. Joint Operations Concepts (JOpsC) Framework

D-4 Army Modernization Plan 2004

to the Joint Requirements Board and Joint Air Ground Support Equipment (AGSE)
Requirements Oversight Committee that Aircraft Component Improvement Program (ACIP)
provides top-down guidance and direction to Aviation Training Aids, Devices, Simulators,
the Services on their modernization programs. and Simulations (TADSS)
The JCIDS process is continuing to evolve and
further delineations are expected of the Soldier Modernization:
functional concepts (i.e., addition of Net-Centric
Operations, other). Land Warrior (LW)
Mounted Warrior (MW)
In this annex, Army materiel programs with Air Warrior (AW)
more than one functional capability are Enhanced Night Vision Goggles (ENVG)
described only once within a functional Thermal Weapon Sights ((TWS)
capability appendix that best follows the current XM29 Rifle, Integrated Airburst Weapon
portfolio of the five FCBs as described below System
and as binned in the equipping resourcing XM307 Objective Crew Served Weapon
framework used to organize the Army equipping (OCSW)
program. Nonlethal Capabilities Set (NLCS)
Ground Force Modernization:
Force Application capabilities are those that
cause an effect on the enemy. The Force
Application FCB portfolio includes land, Abrams Tank
maritime, information, space, psychological, Bradley Fighting Vehicle (M2/M3)
deception, and special operations; joint Stryker Family of Vehicles
targeting and fires; conventional, nuclear, and Lightweight 155 Howitzer (M777)
electronic attack; and suppression against Future Combat Systems (FCS)
enemy air defense. Appendix 1, Force Non-Line-of-Sight Cannon (NLOS Cannon)
Application, provides a description and status Non-Line-of-Sight Launcher System
on the following PB05 funded materiel (NLOS-LS)
programs: High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS)
Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS)
Aviation Modernization: Family of Munitions

Annex D
Chemical Energy Missiles (Javelin and
AH-64 Apache
Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System
UH-60 Black Hawk
(GMLRS) Rocket
CH-47 Chinook
120mm XM395 Precision Guided Mortar
Fixed Wing
Munition (PGMM)
Hellfire (HF) Family of Missiles
Excalibur (Extended Range 155mm Munition)
Joint Common Missile (JCM)
Kinetic Energy Missiles [Line-of-Sight Anti-Tank
Advanced Precision Kill Weapon System
(LOSAT) and Compact Kinetic Energy
Missile (CKEM)]
Aircraft Survivability Equipment (ASE)
Mid-Range Munition (MRM-KE or MRM-CE)
Aviation Electronics (Avionics)
Aircrew Integrated Systems (ACIS) Protection capabilities prevent an enemy’s
Air Traffic Services/Air Traffic Control (ATS/ effect on us. The Protection FCB portfolio
ATC) includes personnel and infrastructure

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-5

protection; nonproliferation and counter- Joint Portal Shield Detector System (JPS)
proliferation; and consequence management. Joint Chemical Agent Standoff Detection
Appendix 2, Protection, provides a description System (ARTEMIS)
and status on the following PB05 funded Joint Service Lightweight Standoff Chemical
materiel programs: Agent Detector (JSLSCAD)
Joint Chemical Agent Detector (JCAD)
Air and Missile Defense (AMD) Joint Service Lightweight NBC Recon System
Modernization: (JSLNBCRS)
Joint Warning and Reporting System (JWARN)
Patriot (PAC-3) Joint Service Family of Decontamination
Medium Extended Air Defense System Systems (JFSDS)
(MEADS) Joint Service Sensitive Equipment
Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) Decontamination (JSSED) System
Ground Based Midcourse Defense (GMD) Sorbent Decontamination System (M100)
Segment Joint Biological Agent Identification and
Sentinel Radar System Diagnostic System (JBAIDS)
Surface Launched Advanced Medium-Range Non-invasive Filler Identification (NFI) System
Air-to-Air Missile (SLAMRAAM) Large Improvised Explosive Device (IED)
Joint Land Attack Cruise Missile Defense Countermeasures Family of Systems
Elevated Netted Sensor System (JLENS) Man-Transportable Robotic System (MTRS)
Mobile Tactical High Energy Laser (MTHEL)
Joint Tactical Ground Station (JTAGS) Multi- Focused Logistics (FL) capabilities sustain
Mission Mobile Processor (MP3) and support the force. The FL FCB portfolio
includes deployment distribution; sustainment;
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, medical; mobility; and logistics command and
Nuclear, and High Yield Explosives control. Appendix 3, Focused Logistics,
(CBRNE) Defense Modernization: provides a description and status on the
following PB05 funded materiel programs:
Vehicle Obscuration Smoke Systems (M6 and
Lift Equipment Modernization:
Annex D

M56 Wheeled Smoke System (Coyote)

Chemical Biological Protection Shelter (CBPS) Theater Support Vessel (TSV)
Collectively Protected Deployable Medical Precision, Extended Glide Airdrop System
Joint Vaccine Acquisition Program (JVAP)
Joint Service General Purpose Mask (JSGPM) Assured Mobility Modernization:
Joint Service Lightweight Integrated Suit
Technology (JLIST) AN/PSS-14 Handheld Mine Detection System
M93/M93A1 Nuclear, Biological, Chemical (HSTAMIDS)
Recon System (Fox) Ground Standoff Minefield Detection System
M31/M31A1/M31E2 Biological Integrated (GSTAMIDS)
Detection System (BIDS) Improved Ribbon Bridge (IRB)
Stryker NBCRV (NBC Recon Vehicle) Rapidly Emplaced Bridge System (REBS)
Joint Biological Standoff Detector System Dry Support Bridge (DSB)

D-6 Army Modernization Plan 2004

Sustainment Modernization: Distributed Common Ground System-Army
Transportation Coordinator's Automated All Source Analysis System (ASAS)
Information for Movement System II Aerial Common Sensor (ACS)
(TC-AIMS II) Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System
Movement Tracking System (MTS) (AFATDS)
Battle Command Sustainment Support System Long-Range Advanced Scout Surveillance
(BCS3) System (LRAS3)
Global Combat Service Support (GCSS) Army Tactical Exploitation System (TES)
Combat Service Support Automated Integrated Meteorological System (IMETS)
Information System Interface (CAISI) Prophet
Authorized Stockage List Mobility System Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (TUAV)
(ASLMS) Shadow 200
Tactical Electric Power (TEP) Phoenix Battlefield Sensor System (PBS2)
Standard Automotive Tool Set (SATS)
Command and Control (C2) capabilities
Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV)
plan, prepare, and direct execution of missions.
High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle
The C2 FCB portfolio includes common
operational picture; Joint C2; communications
Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck
and computer environment; and own force
information collection. Appendix 5, Command
Palletized Load System (PLS)
and Control, provides a description and status
Rapid Manufacturing System (RMS)
on the following PB05 funded materiel
Forward Repair System (FRS)
Lightweight Water Purifier (LWP)
Future Tactical Truck System (FTTS) Army Battle Command System (ABCS)
Unit Water Pod System (CAMEL) Global Command and Control System-Army
Load Handling System (LHS) Compatible (GCCS-A)
Water Tank Rack System (HIPPO) Maneuver Control System (MCS)
Load Handling System Modular Fuel Farm Air and Missile Defense Command and Control
(LMFF) System (AMDCCS)
Rough Terrain Container Handler (RTCH)

Annex D
Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and
Maintenance Support Device (MSD) Below (FBCB2)
Medical Communications for Combat Casualty Grenadier BRAT (GB) and Mini-Transmitter
Care (MC4) System (MTX) Blue Force Tracking System
Force Provider (FP) Satellite Communications (SATCOM)
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Battlespace Awareness (BA) capabilities Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio
collect, analyze, and process battlespace System (SINCGARS)
information. The BA FCB portfolio includes: Warfighter Information Network-Tactical
all source intelligence collection; environmental (WIN-T)
data collection; predictive analysis; and Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS)
knowledge management. Appendix 4, Army Common User System (ACUS)
Battlespace Awareness, provides a Modernization Program [Mobile Subscriber
description and status on the following PB05 Equipment (MSE) and Tri-Service Tactical
funded materiel programs: Communications System (TRI-TAC)]

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-7

Appendix 1: Force Application conducting mobile strike operations; closing
with and destroying enemy forces; applying
Force Application is the sum of all actions taken precision fires and maneuver; exercising
to cause desired effects on our adversary. information superiority; commanding and
Force Application encompasses all aspects of controlling joint and multinational forces; and
fires and maneuvers that suppress, neutralize, providing direct, continuous, and
seize, or destroy an objective. These effects comprehensive control over terrain, resources,
are conducted with precision, in time, and people.
sequence, location, duration, and intensity, in
order to apply immediate and continuous The Army is equipping the Soldier to continue
pressure on enemy capabilities. These actions to provide Force Application capabilities
occur in all domains; land, maritime, space and required in the evolving security environment.
cyberspace; and include conventional and This appendix provides a brief discussion of
unconventional operations using conventional the Army’s Force Application capabilities that
weapons, nonlethal weapons, or nuclear provide the Joint Force dominant air and
weapons. These actions are enabled by ground maneuver coupled with precision
offensive information operations (IO). engagement and the key materiel programs
associated with these capabilities. While
The Joint Force—adept at overcoming anti- materiel programs that support operational
access and area denial strategies, attacking maneuver from strategic distances and assure
throughout the depth and breadth of the mobility are Force Application capabilities
battlespace, and defeating fixed and mobile supporting dominant maneuver, these
targets in all terrain and weather conditions programs are described in this annex under
across the full spectrum of conflict—requires a Appendix 3, Focused Logistics, given that
broad range of Force Application capabilities. deployment distribution and mobility are areas
The Army provides significant Force within the current FL FCB portfolio.
Application capabilities through sustained land
dominance using conventional and Aviation Capabilities
unconventional air and ground maneuver forces
that gain and maintain a positional advantage Aviation’s strength is its ability to deploy quickly,
Annex D

with decisive speed and overwhelming maneuver rapidly, focus tremendous combat
operational tempo (OPTEMPO). This dominant power, and achieve surprise and positional
maneuver capability enhances the timeliness, advantage. It is instrumental in achieving
range, precision, and impact of joint fires. simultaneous, distributed, continuous,
Enabled by space, airborne, and ground- combined arms air-ground operations.
based systems that provide robust C4 and ISR
and an enhanced suite of kinetic and nonkinetic With its manned and unmanned assets, aviation
munitions, the Army provides lethal and precise organizations develop situations out of contact,
fires for the Joint Force Commander (JFC). maneuver to positions of advantage, engage
enemy forces beyond the range of their
In conjunction with the Joint Force, the Army weapons, destroy them with precision fires, and
provides full-spectrum forces able to integrate provide close support. Its inherent mobility,
maneuver, fires, and IO across the full range of flexibility, agility, lethality, and versatility are
military operations, including conducting instrumental in enabling the air-ground task
operational maneuver from strategic distances;

D-8 Army Modernization Plan 2004

force commander to conduct decisive joint • Restructures and standardizes attack and
operations. lift formations across the force

Aviation conducts maneuver, maneuver • Adjusts RC stationing and alignment to

support, and maneuver sustainment operations better fit the Army’s force structure and
across the spectrum of conflict. Highly skilled mission focus for Reserve forces
and knowledgeable aviation Soldiers,
employing aviation systems from entry • Leverages new training technologies to
operations to decisive action, provide a maintain crew proficiency
significant contribution to the quality of firsts
(see first, understand first, act first, and finish • Invests in improvements for aircraft
decisively). Aviation operations develop the reliability/maintainability
common operating picture (COP), shield the
maneuver force, shape the battlefield, extend The last several years have seen great
the tactical and operational reach of the progress in modernizing Army Aviation.
maneuver commander, and sustain the force. Fielding of the AH-64D Longbow Apache is
Aviation is critical to the Army’s stability and well underway. Recapitalization programs for
support requirements, to include the homeland the CH-47 Chinook and UH-60 Black Hawk
security requirements of our nation. begin production in the near term. The OH-
Modernization and sustainment of Army 58D Kiowa Warrior, planned to remain in the
Aviation ensures these capabilities are fleet until the 2012 time frame, is being
maintained. provided safety enhancements and software
upgrades to maintain compatibility with the
Aviation Modernization ground force. Fixed wing is retiring its aging
fleet of C-12 and RC-12 aircraft and
Aviation modernization and recapitalization of modernizing with Global Air Traffic
existing aviation systems projected to remain Management (GATM) as well as other safety
in the fleet into the 2015-25 time frame are and cockpit management systems for those
essential to supporting current as well as future aircraft that will remain in the inventory. The
operations. The urgent need to address the Army is successfully retiring aging and obsolete
aircraft from the force, and lessons learned from

Annex D
steadily deteriorating condition of the aviation
fleet and accelerate RC modernization is being previous and current military operations and
addressed through an Aviation Transformation deployments are being addressed. The Army
initiative. This initiative: is continuing to examine the best means to
achieve the vertical envelopment capability
• Rapidly accelerates Active and Reserve required to rapidly project the Units of Action
Component (AC and RC) aviation across difficult or distant geographic locations.
modernization efforts this decade An Air Maneuver and Transport concept
(previously referred to as Joint Transport
• Aligns aviation structure and resources to Rotorcraft) represents one solution for an
comply with Future Force requirements organic Army system. Future Force
requirements for a robust, fully modernized
• Accelerates divestiture of nonmodernized aviation force are continuing to be developed.
aircraft (AH-1, UH-1 and OH-58A/C)

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-9

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems vehicles and associated payload and ground
(UAVS) control stations. The Hunter is a RSTA and
battle damage assessment (BDA) asset
As the Army transforms to a more flexible, providing ground forces with near real time
responsive, and lethal Future Force, Army imagery via electro-optical/infrared (EO/IR)
UAVS will also transform to provide integrated, intelligence at ranges up to 200 km. The Hunter
responsive, and lethal capabilities to UAVS, while being used extensively as an ISR
commanders at all echelons from the Current platform, has recently been upgraded to
to Future Force. Future commanders will employ weapons like Viper Strike on a test
require a UAVS with a command and control basis. The Hunter UAVS capability will be
capability that facilitates the flexible and rapid sustained until a Future Force ER/MP UAVS
application of overmatching, decisive land is fielded at the Unit of Employment (UE) level
power at specific times and locations as a RSTA and C3I system.
throughout a greatly expanded battlespace. On
battlefields of the future, UAVS will support all Current UAVS modernization efforts focus on
Army echelons, across the spectrum of conflict, accelerating Shadow fielding and providing a
on varied terrain and across the Battlefield small UAVS like the Raven to meet today’s
Operating Systems. Redefining the Army’s operational needs, accelerating Future Force
UAVS requirements reflects an evolutionary UAVS development and fielding into the
process to ensure the support required for Current Force, continuing development of the
tomorrow’s Army while providing the best ER/MP UAVS to replace the Hunter, and
support possible to our forces engaged in the science and technology (S&T) efforts that
global war on terrorism. leverage technologies for improved UAVS
In Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and
Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), UAVS such as To prepare for the future operational
the Raven, Shadow 200 and Hunter are environment, the Army is identifying the latest
providing a new dimension to maneuver forces. advances in relevant UAVS technology
The Raven small UAVS is being provided in (airframes, payloads, payload management, as
theater to OEF and OIF units to enhance small well as precision weapons delivery) and
integrating these new capabilities into an
Annex D

unit reconnaissance, surveillance, and target

acquisition (RSTA). The Shadow 200, the architecture that is consistent with Army and
Army’s first tactical UAV (TUAV) to go into full DOD transformation. Extensive S&T work is
rate production (FRP), is also in use as it also being conducted on VTOL UAVS to
continues to be fielded to the Military provide a hover and stare capability. The
Intelligence Company within the Army’s continued development and fielding of UAVS
maneuver brigades, including the new Stryker with advanced payloads is an important
Brigades. The Shadow program is further component of the Future Force’s operational
described in this annex at Appendix 4, concept.
Battlespace Awareness.
The Future Force will include an integrated
The interim extended range/multipurpose (ER/ family of UAVS that provides support from the
MP) Hunter UAVS is fielded within three Corps platoon-level to the UE (Figure D-4). The FCS
Aviation Exploitation Battalions, with one UAVS classes of UAVS will be fully integrated
company per corps consisting of six air elements of the Unit of Action (UA) organic

D-10 Army Modernization Plan 2004

Figure D-4. UAVS Future Force Footprint
Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance brigade. Teaming UAVS with manned systems
(ISR) capabilities. The FCS Classes I and II will enhance operational fires, maneuver, and
UAVS will provide the small unit commander intelligence collection capabilities for the
the capability to see over the next terrain feature commander. Future Force aviation
from the squad to company level. FCS Class modernization efforts incorporate lessons
III UAVS will enable a variety of combat functions learned, the changing operational environment,
such as precision fires, route reconnaissance and emerging Joint Force requirements. These
and situational development at the battalion efforts leverage key technologies in areas such

Annex D
level. The FCS Class IV UAVS will serve as as electronics, UAVS interoperability, air

the UA’s ISR workhorse to facilitate situational platforms, propulsion systems, and
awareness, battle command, targeting support, weaponization. These efforts include:
lethal engagement, battle damage assessment
(BDA), and force protection. The FCS LSI • Fielding FCS Classes I through IV UAVS,
recently selected the Northrop Grumman ER/MP and Small Unit UAVS
FireScout as the Class IV UAVS. While the
path to the transformed Army of the future will • Ensuring digital interoperability for effective
focus on the Future Force, interoperability with joint/combined force operations
fielded current systems will be maintained.
• Fielding effective, affordable systems that
Future Force Aviation enhance aviation survivability and improve
soldier stamina
The Army envisions organizing Aviation assets
at all UE levels and at the UA maneuver • Improving aircraft operational readiness

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-11

• Developing the Joint Common Missile to maintenance diagnostics and sensor fusion
replace the Hellfire (HF) air-to-ground advancements. We are also investing in
missile system and developing a lower- Aviation Munitions to fund APKWS, unguided
cost, lighter-weight system for use against rockets and Hellfire missile procurement
less heavily armored targets
Another important result of this review is
• Replacing obsolete air traffic services restructuring of the Army’s AC and RC aviation
equipment and maintaining compliance brigades to make them standardized multi-
with future airspace usage requirements functional modular aviation formations. The
new brigade design will contain two attack
• Digitizing Aviation Logistics and battalions of 48 or 60 aircraft (heavy or light
modernizing aviation ground support division, respectively), a general support
equipment battalion of eight command and control
helicopters, 12 CH-47 Chinooks, 12 medical
• Developing the technologies to ensure evacuation aircraft, a self-sustaining aircraft
fielding of unmanned systems, support battalion and a Class IV UAV unit.
interoperability of manned/unmanned
aircraft, and Next Generation/Future System Discussion of Key Aviation Materiel
development Programs

• Leveraging technology to reduce costs, AH-64 Apache

extend aircraft service life and improve
training Description. The AH-64 Apache is the Army’s
heavy attack helicopter for the Current and
Army Aviation will transform into a modular, Future Forces. Under current projections, the
capabilities-based maneuver arm with a AH-64 Apache will remain in the fleet until at
reduced logistics tail optimized for the joint least 2020. It is assigned to attack battalions,
fight. The current Army Aviation modernization Regimental Aviation Squadrons, and Army
plans are being reviewed and adjusted to National Guard division cavalry organizations.
ensure joint interoperability, modularity, Apache is a two-pilot, twin-engine attack
deployability, and affordability.
Annex D

helicopter designed to meet the current force

mission requirements for reconnaissance and
One recent result of this review was the Army’s attack worldwide, day or night and under
termination of the Comanche (RAH-66)
program. The Army will reprogram the
Comanche funds to fix Army Aviation programs.
This includes purchasing additional UH-60
Black Hawk helicopters, CH-47 Chinooks, and
initiating a Block III Apache upgrade. Three
new programs will be started: a Light Utility
Helicopter, an Armed Reconnaissance
Helicopter, and a Cargo Fixed Wing aircraft in
addition to a Joint Multi-Role Helicopter
program designed to leverage Comanche
technology such as Fly-By-Wire, onboard

D-12 Army Modernization Plan 2004

obscured battlefield and/or adverse weather UH-60 Black Hawk
conditions. It is a highly mobile and lethal aerial
weapons platform with an array of armaments
to destroy armor, personnel and materiel. The
Apache has been in the Army inventory since
1986 and an upgraded AH-64D Longbow
began fielding in 1998. The AH-64D upgrades,
among other improvements, adds a millimeter
wave Fire Control Radar (FCR), Radar
Frequency Interferometer (RFI), fire and forget
radar-guided HF missile, and cockpit
management and digitization enhancements.
The combination of the FCR, RFI, and the
advanced navigation and avionics suite of the Description. The UH-60 is the Army’s Current
aircraft provide increased situational and Future Force utility and medical evacuation
awareness, lethality and survivability. The (MEDEVAC) helicopter. The UH-60 fleet is
Apache focused recapitalization program composed of 968 UH-60As, which began
integrates a number of related initiatives to production in 1977, and just over 600 UH-60Ls,
produce and/or retrofit aircraft across the which began production in 1989. Black Hawk
Apache fleet to meet the objectives of the can transport 11 fully equipped combat troops
Army’s recapitalization policy and address and external loads up to 8,000 lb. for the UH-
lessons learned from recent combat 60A and 9,000 lb. for the UH-60L. The UH-60
operations and deployments. This program provides the force commander rapid and agile
increases aircraft life by addressing high maneuver through air assault, general support,
maintenance demand/O&S cost drivers and airborne C2, and MEDEVAC. It gives
incorporating a 2 nd Generation Forward commanders the ability to initiate, conduct, and
Looking Infrared (FLIR) with the Modernized sustain combat operations by providing internal
Target Acquisition Designation Sight/Pilot Night and/or external lift of troops, weapon systems,
Vision System (M-TADS/PNVS). The program supplies, and equipment. In the airborne C2
goals are to reduce the overall average role, it provides full joint and combined
airframe age of the fleet to the half-life metric interoperability with other C4 and ISR elements

Annex D
of 10 years by 2010, increase the unscheduled to commanders at all echelons. The UH-60 is
mean time between removal by 20 percent for also heavily utilized in disaster relief operations,
selected recapitalized components, and fire suppression, personnel recovery, and VIP
maximize the return on recapped components transport. The UH-60 is vital to the homeland
by 20 percent. security needs of our nation.

Program Status. The recapitalization of 501 The UH-60M/HH-60M (MEDEVAC variant)

AH-64As to the AH-64D Longbow recapitalization program rebuilds and
configuration will be complete in FY06. Multi- upgrades aging UH-60 aircraft to bring these
year I delivered 232 AH-64Ds through FY02. aircraft up to UH-60L lift/range capabilities,
A second multi-year contract was signed in Oct reduce O&S costs, improve transportability,
01 for an additional 269 AH-64Ds with enhance survivability, improve strategic
deliveries through FY06. Fielding of the transportability, integrate Air Warrior, digitize
M-TADS to the total fleet began in FY04. avionics and flight management systems that

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-13

incorporate Global Air Traffic Management an FRP decision in FY05. The AAO for A2C2S
(GATM) requirements, and extend aircraft life. is 120 systems with initial fielding scheduled
The UH-60M/HH-60M is expected to meet for III Corps and the 160th Special Operations
utility and MEDEVAC mission requirements Aviation Regiment (SOAR).
until the 2025 time frame.
CH-47 Chinook
Another significant upgrade is the Army
Airborne Command and Control System Description. The CH-47 Chinook is a twin-
(A2C2S). This mission kit will convert selected turbine, tandem-rotor, heavy-lift transport
UH-60s into an airborne tactical operations helicopter with a useful load of up to 25,000 lb.
center, providing the maneuver commander a As the Army’s only heavy lift helicopter, the
highly mobile, self-contained and reliable mission of the CH-47 is to transport troops
airborne digital command post. A2C2S will (including air assault), supplies, weapons, and
provide a rapidly deployable means of other cargo in general support operations. The
command and control that can be deployed CH-47 is vital to the homeland security needs
worldwide on short notice to support missions of our nation. Secondary missions include
ranging from low-intensity humanitarian medical evacuation, aircraft recovery,
assistance to high-intensity conflict. parachute drops, disaster relief, and search
and rescue. These aircraft are fielded to heavy
The UH-60 modernization Operational helicopter companies and Special Operations
Readiness Document (ORD) calls for a Block 2 Aviation. The CH-47F is expected to remain
upgrade of the fleet to a UH-60X. However, the Army’s heavy lift helicopter until at least the
emerging analysis points toward requirements 2020-2025 time frame. The CH-47
for a Future Utility Rotorcraft (FUR), with recapitalization program will provide a more
capability requirements not feasible through reliable, less costly to operate aircraft
UH-60 upgrades. As requirements mature, it compatible with Army digital connectivity
is likely that the Army will defer the validated requirements with an extended aircraft life of
UH-60 Block 2 requirements in favor of a new- approximately 20 years. Key modifications
start FUR. The FUR is envisioned to fill priority integrate an upgraded T55-GA-714A engine
air assault, aerial MEDEVAC, special to restore performance capability, digital
operations and general support, and airborne avionics, Air Warrior, emerging GATM
Annex D

command and control requirements in the far requirements, enhanced air transportability,
term. and an Extended Range Fuel System II (ERFS
II) for self-deployment missions. It will also
Program Status. The UH-60 fleet is expected
to reach its current AAO of 1,680 in FY09 with
the additional procurement planned as a result
of Comanche termination. The UH-60M and
HH-60M programs are currently in the System
Development and Demonstration (SDD)
Phase. The Milestone C decision is scheduled
for the 2QFY05 with FUE in FY08. Initial fielding
is scheduled in the Special Operations and
conventional light forces. The Milestone C
decision for A2C2S is scheduled for FY04 with

D-14 Army Modernization Plan 2004

incorporate reliability and maintainability Intelligence Assets. Fixed wing aircraft are
improvements to include airframe tuning for heavily utilized in disaster relief operations, air
vibration reduction, corrosion protection, digital movement, (personnel, supplies), peace
source collector, and replacement of 113 enforcement missions, nations assistance, civil
components. Currently there are 461 CH-47s support, counter-drug, weapons of mass
in the inventory (427 CH-47D, 34 MH-47D/E). destruction (WMD)/National Missile Defense
This program rebuilds and upgrades 301 CH- (NMD), PSYOPS material delivery, security
47Ds and 36 Special Operations Aviation MH- assistance, VIP transport, and homeland
47s to the CH-47F/MH-47G configuration. The security.
decision to recapitalize the remainder of the
CH-47D fleet is dependent on funding and Program Status. The UC-35 is a medium-
fielding timelines for the Air Maneuver and range aircraft currently in procurement, with 26
Transport aircraft. The impact of the decision on hand with an AAO of 67. Currently, there is
to terminate the Comanche program results in one UC-35 programmed for procurement within
an acceleration of this remanufacturing the FY05-09 program plan. The Aerial
program; also, it adds Chinooks to equip Common Sensor (ACS) is being developed
Reserve Component companies at full as the replacement for the SEMA RC-12 and
authorization. RC-7 aircraft and is scheduled to begin fielding
60 aircraft in FY09. The ACS is described in
Program Status. The CH-47F completed a this annex at Appendix 4, Battlespace
Milestone 0/II decision and is currently in the Awareness.
EMD phase with two aircraft conducting
developmental and operational testing. Initial The Army is currently reviewing its fixed wing
fielding is to the 160th SOAR (MH-47G), the requirements for the Future Force. The
101st Airborne Division, and the XVIII Airborne cornerstone of this review is gaining approval
Corps. The impact of the decision to terminate of the Fixed Wing Operational and
the Comanche program results in an Organizational (O&O) Plan that outlines the
acceleration of this remanufacturing program; three major Fixed Wing missions of personnel
also, it adds Chinooks to equip RC companies transport, logistical support and SEMA
at full authorization. intelligence gathering. Approval of this O&O
in FY04 will enable Fixed Wing to plan and

Annex D
Fixed Wing execute a balanced modernization plan to
address the current inadequacies of cargo
Description. The Army Fixed Wing program capability within its current fleet and determine
is composed of approximately 300 aircraft. the replacement for the aging C-12 (short-range
Fixed wing aircraft provide efficient, effective aircraft) and C-23 (cargo aircraft).
transportation during peacetime and wartime
operations. Fixed wing aircraft provide for Hellfire (HF) Family of Missiles
rapid movement of critical personnel, logistics
support, and intelligence collection. Special Description. HF air-to-ground missiles are
Electronic Mission Aircraft (SEMA) collect, employed to destroy armored and high-value
analyze, and disseminate signal point targets. Semi-active laser (SAL) HF
communications and imagery intelligence in tracks laser energy delivered by ground or
support of wartime requirements for Combatant airborne designators while Longbow HF uses
Commanders, field commanders and National internal millimeter wave radar frequency (RF)

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-15

for autonomous guidance. AH-64 Apache and primary weapon system for Apache, Cobra,
OH-58D Kiowa Warrior utilize HF as their Hornet, and Seahawk and is planned for the
primary air-to-ground weapon for destruction FCS Robotic Vehicle Assault. Modernized
of high-value point targets. The complementary Hellfire requirements are being integrated into
precision-point target engagement capability the JCM program with the following IOCs
of the SAL HF and the fire-and-forget, adverse scheduled: 2009—Apache and Cobra,
weather capability of the RF HF provide the 2010—F/A-18E/F, and 2011—Seahawk.
commander with flexibility across a wide range
of mission scenarios, permitting fast and Advanced Precision Kill Weapon System
decisive battlefield response. (APKWS)

Program Status. SAL HF is no longer in Description. APKWS incorporates laser

production. Longbow HF completed guidance into the 2.75 in. Hydra-70 rocket to
production of 12,905 missiles in FY03 with final provide a lower-cost, lighter-weight, precision
deliveries by FY05. weapon capable of engaging non-armored to
lightly armored targets and providing an
Joint Common Missile (JCM) alternative to HF against targets such as
buildings, command posts, ADA sites and other
Description. The JCM is an air-to-surface targets not requiring the HF. The APKWS
weapon system employed from rotary and program provides accuracy and lethality
fixed-wing platforms, and potentially as a improvements to the family of unguided
ground-launched missile, designed to target rockets. The AH-64 and OH-58D will use
tanks, light armored vehicles, missile launchers, APKWS to significantly improve aircraft stowed
command, control, and communication kill capability in scenarios requiring area/
vehicles, bunkers, buildings, and patrol boats. suppressive fires or precision engagement
JCM features line-of-sight (LOS) and beyond- against non-armored or lightly armored targets.
line-of-sight (BLOS) capabilities and can be
employed in a fire-and-forget mode, providing Program Status. APKWS production is
maximum survivability, or a precision attack scheduled to begin in FY05.
mode, providing the greatest accuracy and
lethality. The Army is the lead Service in Discussion of Aviation Supporting Materiel
Annex D

development and procurement of JCM as a Programs

joint program with the Department of the Navy,
including the U.S. Marine Corps’ (USMC’s) Aviation’s supporting programs are essential
participation, and is a cooperative program with to the support, sustainment, and modernization/
the United Kingdom. recapitalization of the aircraft programs
discussed above. These programs are
The JCM will be the next generation air-to- essential to sustain and protect crews/aircraft,
ground missile and is a candidate lethality maintain interoperability with supported
solution for the Future Force and other joint/ organizations, and field Future Force
allied systems. capabilities.

Program Status. The SDD RFP was Aircraft Survivability Equipment (ASE).
released on 17 Sep 03, with contract award The Suite of Integrated Infrared
planned for the end of Mar 04. JCM will be the Countermeasures (SIIRCM) will provide an

D-16 Army Modernization Plan 2004

enhanced IR countermeasure capability to the position tracking with the AN/ARC-220;
CH-47, AH-64 and UH-60 platforms. The total equipping aircraft with the Joint Tactical Radio
SIIRCM system provides advanced missile System (JTRS); fielding of improved Global
warning with an improved countermeasure Positioning System (GPS) equipment for
dispenser system with an enhanced flare improved weapons accuracy and navigation;
capability. Developmental efforts continue and and meeting mandated GATM requirements for
will culminate with the acquisition of a multi- civil airspace utilization.
band solid-state laser jam head capable of
defeating all known and potential future IR Aircrew Integrated Systems (ACIS). The
threats. Aircraft undergoing recapitalization will ACIS program develops and fields equipment
have the required supporting wiring and required to protect, sustain, and enhance
hardware installed for the SIIRCM devices. The aircrew performance in sustained operations,
Army’s RF guided missile protection program on the ground, and during survival-evasion
was reinstated in the FY05-09 program plan operations. Air Warrior is the primary ACIS
and will employ the same acquisition strategy program that provides integrated, modular life
as the IR program. The Army has also support equipment and chemical/biological
accelerated the fielding of critical equipment protection, reduced weight/bulk, and
to enhance the Special Operation Forces significantly improved flight time in MOPP 4
(SOF) aircraft by equipping them with gear. Air Warrior is described under the
Advanced Threat Infrared Counter Measures “Discussion of Key Soldier Modernization
(ATIRCM) and the Suite of Integrated Radio Programs” in this appendix.
Frequency Countermeasures (SIRFC). The
Army maintains that SOF modernization is Air Traffic Services/Air Traffic Control (ATS/
among its highest equipping priorities, ATC). ATS organizations must be specially
recognizing the critical role of SOF to the joint equipped, highly trained, rapidly deployable on
team. short notice, and capable of operating within
the United States and international airspace.
Aviation Electronics (Avionics). Avionics They provide the full range of air traffic services
programs are designed to ensure aviation from homeland security to major combat
platforms meet combined arms and joint operations. Army ATS remain the core enabler
requirements for C2, mission planning, for Army airspace C2, ensuring synchronized

Annex D
communications, navigation (to include access of the increasingly congested joint
worldwide civil airspace), information airspace. ATS/ATC modernization fields
interchange, and interoperability. Major smaller, lighter, more efficient, digitally
avionics initiatives include fielding a modern connected terminal and en route
airborne C2 system for the UH-60 and a digital communications and precision navigation
TOC for aviation organizations (A2C2S), systems for tactical and fixed base operations.
ensuring Force XXI Battle Command Brigade Major programs include the Tactical Airspace
and Below (FBCB2) interoperability Integration System (TAIS), the Air Traffic
requirements are achieved by using the Navigation, Integration, and Coordination
Improved Data Modem (IDM) common System (ATNAVICS), Mobile Tower System
gateway on all aircraft; migrating from Aviation (MOTS), Joint Precision Approach Landing
Mission Planning System (AMPS) to the Joint System (JPALS), and Global Air Traffic
Mission Planning System (JMPS); providing Management (GATM). JPALS and GATM are
non-line-of-sight (NLOS) communications and mandated by civilian air control authorities and

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-17

joint services to operate within 21st century systems they replicate. Simulator concurrency,
airspace. fidelity, and combined arms tactical and
mission rehearsal simulators/simulations that
Aviation Ground Support Equipment network virtual, constructive and live simulation
(AGSE). To support and sustain full-spectrum systems are major initiatives.
operations, aviation logistics must be as
responsive and capable as the force it Army Aviation Summary
supports. To improve responsiveness, reduce
vulnerability, and increase operational Army aviation’s modernization efforts are
momentum, aviation must reduce the current focused on fixing warfighting deficiencies
in-theater aviation logistics footprint and digitize (particularly those uncovered during recent
its logistics systems. The goal of AGSE operations), aligning the aviation force with the
modernization is to reduce logistical support Army’s Future Force concept, and fielding
requirements and improve aircraft operational aircraft/subsystems required to achieve full-
readiness. Initiatives focus on improved spectrum operational capability. Aviation
automation and efficiency in three areas of modernization is being achieved through force
development: modernization of Test, structure changes, training initiatives, and
Measurement, and Diagnostics Equipment materiel modernization (AH-64D, UH-60M/HH-
(TMDE); integration of seamless logistics 60M, CH-47F, UAVS, Air Warrior and other
management through automation systems such subsystem programs). Aviation is supported
as the Global Combat Service Support (GCSS) by S&T programs designed to provide the
Army, and replacement of aging ground knowledge base required to upgrade existing
support equipment. aircraft and meet the challenges of new aircraft/
weapon system developments. The Army’s
Aircraft Component Improvement Program commitment to divesting current, obsolete
(ACIP). ACIP sustains engineering efforts to aircraft and ensuring balanced modernization
investigate, correct, and qualify turbine engine across both AC and RC is being realized
and Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) field-identified, through the Aviation Transformation initiative.
safety critical and reliability deficiencies. ACIP The Army continues to review near-term aviation
inserts emerging technology, extends service funding issues (aircraft survivability equipment
life, drives down O&S costs, and improves modernization, digitization, aircraft operational
Annex D

readiness by keeping engines operational and readiness) to best align programs, create more
on-wing. Return on investment is greater than executable strategies and identify acceptable
12:1 based on historical data using standard, risks that allow tailoring of program
approved costing models. requirements. Future challenges are ahead
with emerging GATM requirements for airspace
Training Aids, Devices, Simulators, and utilization, interoperability requirements for
Simulations (TADSS). TADSS UAVS, GCSS Army, FBCB2 and the
modernization is critical to the combat conversion to a Future Force aviation force
effectiveness of our aircrews and maintainers, structure.
and to reducing operational costs. Aviation
TADSS will leverage technology to provide Ground Force Capabilities
effective and affordable combined arms/joint
training and mission planning and rehearsal Army ground maneuver forces with the
simulators that are current with the aircraft/ capability to obtain a positional advantage and

D-18 Army Modernization Plan 2004

bring overwhelming combat power on the functions in the role of a sensor, decision maker,
enemy with joint fires are essential to joint shooter, and assessor.
warfighting. Committed ground maneuver
forces can rob an adversary of initiative and The individual Soldier is the ultimate sensor. A
remove their freedom to continue hostilities. Soldier observes, listens, feels, and processes
Sea, air, and space dominance are invaluable, information. He analyzes, judges, thinks,
but only land dominance brings hostilities to a prioritizes, decides, and communicates what
decisive conclusion—establishing and he knows and does so in real time. The Soldier
maintaining favorable security conditions for is a shooter, who designates, directs, or calls
more comprehensive and enduring solutions for precision engagement. He does this from
to complex crises. inches to the limit of his technology-enhanced
line-of-sight, in all weather conditions and
Our enemies seek sanctuary by hiding in terrain sets. Most importantly, he is disciplined
protected facilities (schools, churches, and and trained, understands purpose and intent,
hospitals) to make it difficult for the commander and can assess, first hand, the battle damage
who must discriminate among combatants and and the effects of precision engagement. In
noncombatants. They create dug-in, effect, the Soldier on the ground is the ultimate
camouflaged, concealed, hardened positions precision weapon.
in caves or deep bunkers and mask these
positions around innocent populations to avoid On the asymmetrical, chaotic and nonlinear
detection and attack by fires. With battlespace battlefield, the Soldier on the ground operates,
understanding and precision fires, Soldiers on and will continue to operate, as an
the ground are often the only precise instrument indispensable part of the joint team. Today,
that can locate, track, identify conflicted targets operations in Afghanistan and Iraq reaffirm the
and attack them with lethal, accurate, and timely Soldier’s role as the centerpiece of our combat
effects using sensors linked to weapon delivery systems and formations. Soldiers enable
systems, Soldiers and decision makers. persistent surveillance, reconnaissance and the
right combination of maneuver, fires, and
The ground force’s dominant maneuver and information operations to achieve precision
organic high-volume precision fires coupled engagement. Soldiers bring the essential
with other joint precision fire capabilities for the human dimension to warfighting dominance.

Annex D
close fight, will overwhelm the adversary, They are the centerpiece of our systems and
compelling him to flee his sanctuary or face formations, now and in the future.
battle to avoid defeat in detail. In either case,
enemy dislocation, disintegration, and With the Soldier as our critical link to success,
destruction are inevitable through the it is imperative to continuously develop Soldier
combination of maneuver and fires enabled by systems that will enhance the Soldier’s combat
ground force organic and joint ISR, and effectiveness. The Army’s Soldier
precision engagement capabilities. modernization program is a critical component
to transforming today’s Soldier into the Soldier
Employing land force provides additional envisioned in the Future Force.
magnitudes of precision, perhaps impossible
by other means, and is particularly effective in Soldier Modernization
demonstrating national resolve. At ranges of
just inches to strategic distances, the Soldier Soldier modernization encompasses the
integration of Soldier systems and equipment
Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-19
that consist of everything that is worn, carried, goal of three years to field to Soldiers. The
or consumed for individual use in a tactical CIE program encompasses all combat, life
environment. support, ballistic, and environmental protection
items worn or carried by the Soldiers for
Soldier modernization uses the “Soldier as a individual use that are not addressed by the
System” concept. In this concept, the Soldier, SEP or Warrior programs. Central Funding and
analogous to a combat platform, has numerous Fielding (CFF) is the procurement mechanism
component parts that must work in concert for that acquires and fields SEP and CIE program
full effectiveness. Yet, modernizing the Soldier life-support and mission enhancing equipment
is uniquely different from modernizing all other for individual Soldiers.
major weapon system platforms in two
significant respects. First, the Soldier system Rapid Fielding Initiative (RFI). In an effort to
frame is human; its loss is not measurable in accelerate Soldier system fielding to
dollars. Second, the Soldier is the common operational forces, the Army is utilizing the
element for all Army major weapon system Rapid Fielding Initiative (RFI) that leverages
platforms and the operation of every system is COTS technology and current SEP/CIE
affected by the quality of the Soldier and the programs. RFI focuses on enhancing several
synergy created by his ability to interface areas of Soldier equipment: Lethality (includes
effectively and efficiently with the equipment enhanced optics, weapons rails, target locators
and systems. and communications); Force Protection/
Mobility (includes; Advanced Combat Helmet,
The Land Warrior is a principal program under Knee and Elbow pads, MOUT kit); and Soldier
the “Soldier as a System” concept that includes: Mission Essential Equipment (includes
a modular fighting system for Soldiers that enhanced clothing items, hydration system and
integrates many components and technologies individual combat shelter).
into a lethal, survivable, mobile, and situationally
aware Soldier system. The Army has Rapid Equipping Force (REF). In addition
successfully demonstrated the value of the to RFI, there are many other activities that
Land Warrior system and is examining ways provide equipment items to our operational
to accelerate its production and fielding. forces. One such activity that is being
institutionalized within the Army is the Rapid
Annex D

The Soldier modernization process is Equipping Force (REF). The REF provides a
accomplished through the use of one of three critical link between operational commanders
Soldier system development paths: the Soldier and the PM shops, laboratories, national labs,
Enhancement Program (SEP), the Clothing and defense industry to find the best near-term
and Individual Equipment (CIE) program, and solutions to equip commanders with their
the Warrior Programs (represented by Land operational needs. This VCSA initiative,
Warrior, Mounted Warrior, and Air Warrior). Also originally RIRS (Rapid Integration of Robot
in development are the Combat Support (CS) Systems), began as an effort to quickly find an
and Combat Service Support (CSS) Soldier. operational solution that leverages technology
The SEP requires minimal Research, to supplement or replace the age-old use of a
Development, Test, and Evaluation (RDT&E) grapnel hook and rope to conduct searches in
effort and shortens the developmental phase caves, holes, buildings and other hideouts. The
of the life-cycle process through the use of iRobot, a small robot developed by DARPA for
commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) items with a ordnance disposal and search and rescue

D-20 Army Modernization Plan 2004

Figure D-5. Protecting Army Forces

operations was the immediate solution. Force and those inserted to inform the next
Modified to be a man-portable “PackBot”, OEF acquisition spiral development plan.
Soldiers were quickly equipped and trained to
use this solution. Another off-the-shelf solution Force Protection. The REF and RFI, as well
was the “Well-Cam”, a web-camera attached as other efforts that accelerate equipment to
to an Ethernet cable and a laptop to allow OEF operational forces, are critical to enhancing our
Soldiers to search wells for weapon caches. Soldiers’ combat effectiveness and protection.
Since its initiation, the small REF coordination In Iraq, the widespread use of Improvised

Annex D
staff has fulfilled over 50 operational Explosive Devices (IEDs) by enemy forces has
requirements that provide immediate solutions created the need to immediately provide
to our operational forces in OEF and OIF. The additional force protection capabilities that
REF is not a replacement of the existing include Add-on Armor kits for tactical wheeled
acquisition and fielding processes, it as an vehicles such as the HMMWV, HEMTT, PLS
alternative means to rapidly equip Soldiers and and FMTVs. Crew Protection Kits, which are
insert into our Current Forces the latest integrated into the vehicle design, like the Up
technologies and capabilities that become Armored HMMWV, currently offer the best
available through our spiral development solution. The Army is pursuing the procurement
efforts. The CSA has recently expanded upon and fielding of kits that provide steel doors with
the REF mission to include determining what windows, back plate and steel plates for lower
Future Force capabilities under development perimeter of the vehicle and ballistic
can be inserted now, rather than later and to windshields that provided the highest level of
assess the technologies already in the Current protection while maintaining equipment

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-21

payload requirements for these vehicles. The measures. In OEF and OIF, the widespread
add-on Armor kit is currently funded for 8400 use of GPS systems and Blue Force Tracking
HMMWVs, 453 HEMTTs, 306 FMTVs, 594 (BFT) systems such as FBCB2 have proven
PLS and 71 HET kits in FY04-05. The Army to significantly reduce fratricide incidents
continues to pursue add-on armor kits for all through an improved capability in locating and
families of tactical wheeled vehicles. identifying friendly forces on the battlefield.
These systems and other CID measures are
EOD Family of Systems. Another area of critical today in the fast-paced, nonlinear,
emphasis to enhance Soldier protection is the distributed, simultaneous, offensive-oriented
family of systems available to Soldiers in the battlefield environment.
Army’s Explosive Ordnance Detachment
(EOD) units. These systems are critical to In FY02, due to technical challenges, the Army
homeland security, force protection and support terminated the Battlefield Combat Identification
of the global war on terrorism. They provide System (BCIS) designed to improve Current
EOD soldiers at home and abroad with the Force CID capabilities. The millimeter wave
capability to effectively and safely examine, technology being developed under this
identify, and render safe ordnance. Lessons program was transferred to Future Force
Learned from OEF and OIF have increased the development efforts. In an effort to reinitiate a
awareness and priority of EOD systems. CID program, the G-3/G-8 have established a
Future acquisitions will include: the Non- CID Overarching Integrated Process Team
invasive Filler Identification (NFI) system, the (OIPT) to update the strategy and concept for
Man Transportable Robotic System (MTRS), proceeding forward with a DOTMLPF
and the Large Improvised Explosive Device integrated CID program that leverages
(IED) Countermeasures family of systems. advanced technology. This OIPT will provide
Annex D

Each acquisition will be a modified commercial an updated and approved CID concept and
buy. NFI and Large IED Countermeasures are strategy; a CID Action Plan for the Current and
new critical capabilities; MTRS will provide an Future Forces in a joint, interagency,
improved capability. These systems are multinational (JIM) environment, and a funding
described in this annex at Appendix 2, strategy to support a CID program in the
Protection, under “Discussion of Key CBRNE FY06-11 FYDP. An Analysis of Alternatives
Defense Materiel Programs.” (AOA) will be used to develop investment
strategies properly focused on mission, task,
Combat Identification (CID). CID measures and purpose to meet joint warfighter
are another means to enhance Soldier requirements. Additionally, the Army Science
protection. As a result of past CID efforts and Board will conduct an ad hoc study to assist
lessons learned during Operation Desert the Army staff in their review and
Storm (ODS), significant efforts have been synchronization of CID efforts. A Coalition
made to reduce fratricide with improved CID Combat Identification Advanced Concept

D-22 Army Modernization Plan 2004

Technology Demonstration (ACTD) is Soldier’s combat load or logistical footprint.
scheduled for FY04-05 to demonstrate all S&T advanced technology components in
technology capabilities in a networked system areas such as enhanced navigation, system
of systems framework. This ACTD will inform voice control, weight reduction, digital
the most effective DOTMLPF solutions that connectivity, and power will be inserted over
merit affordable investment profiles. time as the technology matures to meet LW
objective requirements.
The Army’s RFI, REF, EOD, CID, and a host of
other equipping efforts are challenging existing Program Status. In Feb 03, the Army
assumptions and processes to demonstrate a terminated developmental testing and
commitment to equipping Soldiers with the best cancelled operational testing and production
equipment available and providing relevant and of the LW Initial Capability (Block 1) system as
ready forces to the Combatant Commanders. a result of poor demonstrated reliability. The
We are an Army at war and will meet the current Other Transactions Agreement (OTA) contract
demands while always changing to meet future effort ended shortly thereafter, and General
challenges. Dynamics Decision Systems was
awarded the contract for LW-Stryker
Discussion of Key Soldier Interoperable (Block 2) SDD. A
Modernization Programs restructured LW program provides
additional time and resources for risk
Land Warrior (LW) reduction and spiral development
activities. Throughout LW
Description. LW is a first- development, the Army will seek
generation, modular, opportunities to field mature
integrated fighting system capabilities to the force early
for ground combatant before the fully integrated LW
Soldiers that integrates system is available for fielding.
many components and
technologies into a Mounted Warrior (MW)
lethal, survivable, mobile, and
more situationally aware Soldier

Annex D
Description. The MW Soldier

system. LW systems/components Systems (MWSS) encompasses all
include a modular weapon system with CIE required for use by combat
thermal weapon sight, multifunctional vehicle crewmen (CVC) in eight
laser with digital compass, video functional areas: armor, artillery, air
camera, and close combat optic; defense, mounted infantry, chemical,
integrated headgear with helmet- military police, ordnance, and combat
mounted display and image intensifier; medics. The MWSS ensemble
enhancements to protective clothing includes the CVC helmet, flame-
and individual equipment; and integrated protective uniform, cordless
individual Soldier computer/radio/GPS. communications, heads-up display
The systems approach optimizes and (for vehicle commanders), and eye
integrates these capabilities, to protection.
include interface with the Army
Tactical Internet, without adding to the

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-23

Program Status. The Army Requirements protective mask with blower unit, gloves,
Oversight Committee (AROC) has and overboots
recommended approval of the ORD. The FUE
is required in FY07. • Aviation clothing items that include modified
Aircrew BDU and the Aircrew Cold
Air Warrior (AW) Weather Garment System

Description. AW is a Soldier system for Future AW system spiral development

helicopter crewmen that provides a new improvements focus on the technology insertion
generation of integrated, mission-tailorable, of improved and/or enhanced components
combat-effective life support equipment and reflecting emerging technologies defined in AW
chemical/biological protection with reduced Blocks 2 and 3.
weight/bulk designed to improve aircrew
endurance, mobility and performance. AW Block 2 developmental efforts are underway
significantly improves flight time in MOPP 4 and will add an Aircraft Wireless Intercom
gear from 1.6 hours to 5.3 hours. AW systems/ System (AWIS) and the Electronic Data
components include: Manager (EDM). The AWIS will enhance
crewmember performance by providing the
• Microclimate Cooling System (MCS) that capability for wireless communications within
includes a Microclimate Cooling Garment the aircrew and with ground crew or ramp
(MCG) and a small Microclimate Cooling support personnel such as in a tactical Forward
Unit that chills water and pumps it through Area Rearm and Refueling Point (FARRP).
small tubes embedded in the MCG The EDM, in the form of a digital kneeboard,
will provide a capability to the aircrew to
• Survival Equipment Subsystem that includes generate, store, display, and distribute digital
a survival gear carrier, soft and hard body information and will interface with BFT systems.
armor, PRC90/PRC112 radios, M9 9mm
defensive weapon in thigh holster and Block 3 efforts will increase performance and
survival knife in ankle sheath capabilities by adding a fully compliant MIHDS
helmet. The MIHDS helmet will provide, as a
• Interim Modular Integrated Helmet Display baseline, the same safety performance
Annex D

System (MIHDS) with laser eye protection characteristics as the HGU-56/P helmet
and a night vision device mount (impact, sound attenuation, retention, etc.). The
MIHDS will be tailorable and compatible with
• Over Water Survival Subsystem that the Apache helmet-mounted displays and head
includes a personal flotation device, tracking technologies and will also provide an
Survival Egress Air (breathing oxygen), and improved day/night helmet mounted display
an inflatable raft (LRU-18U) that is symbology for those aircraft that currently lack
integrated into the ensemble and worn by this feature. These helmet-mounted displays
the crewmember will be compatible with aircrew prescription
spectacles, chemical/biological (CB)
• Nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protection, oxygen masks and laser eye
protection with a Modified Chemical protective technologies. CB protection will be
Protective Undergarment, M45 or M48 donned in flight without removing the helmet.
MIHDS will provide the user complete laser eye

D-24 Army Modernization Plan 2004

protection in the visible through the near devices of high resolution to be used for
infrared portion (400 nanometer-1400 surveillance and fire control of individual and
nanometer) of the spectrum and will also crew served weapons during both daylight and
provide nuclear flash protection. darkness. TWS operate in adverse weather
and dirty battlefield scenarios including light
Program Status. AW Block 1 production foliage, smoke, dust, and camouflage and will
began in FY03 and fielding began in 2QFY04 be fielded to Current and Future Forces as a
to the 160th SOAR(A). Block 2 development component of the LW program.
began in FY02, and Block 3 began in FY04.
Program Status. Medium and heavy TWS
Enhanced Night Vision Goggles (ENVG) were fielded to the Special Operations Forces;
101st Airborne Division; 82nd Airborne Division;
Description. The next generation of night 3rd Infantry Division; 1st Armored Division; 1st
vision goggles for the Soldier is the ENVG. It Cavalry Division; 4th Infantry Division; 81st, 39th,
combines both an uncooled thermal and an and 30th enhanced Separate Brigades; 3rd
image-intensification (I2) Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division; 2nd Brigade, 25th
capability into a Infantry Division; and will field to the 10th
single device. Mountain Division in Feb 04, all in support of
The ENVG OEF and OIF and as a significant contribution
provides to Soldier survivability and lethality. Light TWS
Soldiers with is being fielded to the Rangers in 2QFY04.
the ability to
engage and XM29 Rifle, Integrated Airburst Weapon
execute close System (formerly the Objective Individual
combat in all Combat Weapon (OICW))
levels of light, to
include the zero- Description. The XM29 is under consideration
illumination to replace selected M16 rifles and M4
condition found carbines. The modular, dual-barrel XM29 will
in caves and combine the lethality of 25mm High Explosive
underground environments, adverse weather Air Burst munitions and 5.56mm NATO

Annex D
conditions and under battlefield obscurant ammunition with a full-solution fire control to
conditions. This is a system component of the effect decisively violent and suppressive target
Soldier Warrior programs. results and to greatly improve small arms
performance. This fire control will incorporate
Program Status. This program is in direct view optics, thermal sighting, an
Technology Development phase with a electronic compass (bearing, tilt, cant), a laser
Milestone B decision in early FY04. The rangefinder, a fuze setter, a ballistic processor
Milestone C decision is scheduled in late FY05 and an internal display. The XM29 will be
with production beginning in FY06. compatible with the digital battlefield and will
provide the lethality upgrade for the LW
Thermal Weapons Sights (TWS) program. The XM29 development program is
a spiral development effort to bring the 5.56mm
Description. TWS is a family of low-cost, kinetic energy (KE) module (XM8) online in the
lightweight, man-portable infrared imaging near future while efforts continue with the

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-25

refinement of the bursting munition module The XM307 weighs approximately 50.3 lbs and
(XM25) and the Target Acquisition/Fire Control is capable of firing 25mm air-bursting munitions
module (XM104). The Army is still conducting designed to defeat defilade targets out to 1000
mission analysis and updating the capabilities meters and suppress area targets out to 2000
documentation for this system. meters. It includes a full solution fire control
that includes direct view optics, full-solution
Program Status. The XM29 is a major system ballistic calculation; digital rangefinder; CCD
acquisition program (ACAT II) in the SDD video; tracker module; digital compass; and
phase with a Milestone C decision scheduled environmental sensors, as well as many other
in FY08 and FUE in FY10. options. It is being considered to replace
selected M2 and MK19 Grenade Machine
XM307 Objective Crew Served Weapon Guns. The Army is still conducting mission
(OCSW) analysis and completing capabilities
documentation for this system.
Description. XM307 is a close-combat
support weapon that will enable platforms to Program Status. The XM307 program
quickly react with a high-volume fire against transitioned from the tech base in FY04. The
troops in the open and lightly armored vehicles. Milestone C decision is scheduled in FY07.
The XM307 will provide 360-degree
engagement out to 800 meters under day/night Nonlethal Capabilities Set (NLCS)
and adverse weather conditions while
stationary and on-the-move at elevations from Description. U.S. forces increasingly operate
-20 degrees to +60 degrees. The XM307 fired in challenging environments known as military
remotely and by the crew from a protected operations other than war. These operations
position will fire high-explosive air burst, armor- include humanitarian assistance, military
piercing, KE, thermobaric and nonlethal support to civil authorities, peacekeeping and
ammunition from a common magazine, peacemaking operations, and noncombatant
selectable by the crew. This weapon will have evacuations. Nonlethal capabilities expand the
an automatic ammunition loading system with number of options available to commanders
a manual backup to allow ammunition to be fed confronting situations in which the use of deadly
from the right or left sides of the weapon and force is not the preferred response. Nonlethal
Annex D

provide self- or remote-correction of capabilities provide flexibility by allowing forces

malfunctions. It will contain a T&E mechanism to apply measured force with reduced risk of
capable of providing rapid target acquisition. serious noncombatant casualties, but in a
manner that provides force protection and
effects compliance, ensuring the success of the
military mission. The NLCS can be rapidly
deployed by military transport or commercial
carrier to provide commanders with a variety
of options tailored to a specific mission or
threat level. The NLCS provides the operational
commander the ability to employ levels of force
proportional to the threat by selecting items
from the following six categories:

D-26 Army Modernization Plan 2004

• Counter Personnel Systems allow the Shotgun, M202 Grenade Launcher and
application of force to accomplish tasks with vehicle-mounted smoke dischargers.
reduced risk of fatalities or serious
casualties among noncombatants or, in Program Status. The NLCS was fielded to
some instances, among enemy forces. units deployed in support of OIF1/OEF and
These include the Modular Crowd Control currently to units preparing to deploy for follow-
Munition, the M1006 and M1029 40mm on missions. Plans are in place to field 438
nonlethal rounds and the M37 Riot Control platoon-sized sets during the FY06-11 time
Agent Disperser. frame.

• Counter Material Systems provide U.S. Ground Force Modernization

forces with the capability to deny vehicle
access to critical facilities through The main body of the 2004 Army Modernization
roadblocks and checkpoints. These would Plan provides details on the Army’s two primary
include the Portable Vehicle Arresting ground force modernization efforts, the
Barrier and Caltrops. accelerated development and fielding of six
SBCTs from 2001-2008 and the development
• Protective Equipment is designed to and initial fielding of a UA maneuver brigade
protect the individual from a wide range of equipped with FCS from 2003-2010 to bring
threats (e.g., debris, liquids, hand-thrown Future Force capabilities into the Current
objects) that can be used by hostile Force. The USF process will field these units
individuals or groups. Equipment includes with capabilities achieved from a complete set
the nonballistic face shield, body shield and of unit equipment. Under the system-of-
shin guards. systems approach, the unit must demonstrate
the ability to operate interdependent systems
• Enhancement Devices facilitate together to achieve an IOC for the unit. In FY03,
command, control, and communication the first SBCT completed fielding and
capabilities, and provide area and/or point operational testing to achieve IOC. It has since
illumination to the operational area. These been deployed in support of OIF.
include the Ground Mounted Bullhorn and
High Intensity Light.

Annex D
Stryker Brigade Combat Team (SBCT).
The SBCT is inherently a precision unit. The
• Training Devices/Allocations are used to force design of the SBCT provides the Army
train the force to properly employ the set with dominant maneuver and precision
and maintain proficiency. Included are the engagement capabilities not found in any other
Riot Training Suit, instruction manuals and Army brigade. Specifically, the
munitions allocations for training purposes. Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target
Acquisition Squadron, equipped with TUAVs
• Support Equipment includes individual and ground-based HUMINT specialists,
and crew served weapon systems and the provides the commander with unequalled
family of military tactical vehicles. These situational understanding. The networked
items are associated with the set, not command and control architecture, which
issued with it. These include the 12-gauge features FBCB2, allows the commander to
provide the same picture to lower echelons and

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-27

major combat platforms, such as the Stryker Future Force Development. The Future
vehicle, thereby establishing a real-time friendly Force concept embodies precise and
force operational picture for the unit. The SBCT dominant maneuver coupled with precision
also features organic ground-based sniper engagement through a combination of
teams —the essence of precision strike and a maneuver, fires, and information dominance.
critical combat requirement that has once As an offensive-oriented force, it conducts
again been validated during the ongoing global operational maneuver from strategic distances
war on terrorism. executing synchronized, distributed operations
as part of a Joint Force to destroy key enemy
The SBCT’s Force Application capability is truly capabilities in a distributed, nonlinear
global. C-130-transportable, the unit can battlespace. It provides seamless C4 and ISR,
rapidly deploy to austere environments, thereby FCS, integrated sensors, attack and
overcoming enemy area-denial and anti- reconnaissance helicopters, expanded
access efforts, and can quickly mount offensive maneuver and fires with standoff, LOS, and
operations with minimal reception, staging and NLOS capabilities. These attributes enable the
integration. Although it excels in the midpoint Joint Force to achieve total disintegration,
of the operational spectrum, it can fight dislocation, and destruction of enemy forces
effectively as a fully committed unit in major from tactical through operational levels. Direct
engagement and battles with augmentation lethal action will contribute to the following joint
(such as attack aviation and/or rocket artillery). efforts:
With its superior tactical mobility and excellent
battlefield situational awareness, the SBCT can • Destroy and degrade enemy anti-access
also execute difficult security missions such as systems such as long-range missiles and
guard, cover, screen, counterreconnaissance artillery, unconventional forces, enemy
and rear-area combat operations. The superior surveillance and targeting capabilities
off-road maneuverability of the Stryker vehicle
combined with its dismounted infantry assault • Participate in the destruction of enemy
capability featuring robust anti-tank weaponry, precision engagement systems. This
ensures the SBCT can very effectively engage represents a key task, given the significant
and destroy enemy armor in close, complex threat that enemy systems represent to Joint
and/or urban terrain. Force freedom of action and maneuver
Annex D

The Army is exploring alternatives in the • Seize key terrain and facilities required to
upcoming program years that will further support force flow and decisive operations,
enhance the SBCT’s ability to track and surveil extension of the area of influence, and
and ultimately engage and destroy targets. isolation of enemy forces
Among the systems being examined are
precision mortars, advanced artillery munitions • Degrade key enemy capabilities (C4, ISR,
such as Excalibur, and initiatives designed to and logistical structures) essential to enemy
further enhance the SBCT’s situational offensive operations
awareness: Joint Tactical Radio System
(JTRS), Warfighter Information Network– • Provide essential C4, ISR, and logistical
Tactical (WIN-T), and the Distributed Common support to the Joint Force
Ground System–Army (DCGS-A).

D-28 Army Modernization Plan 2004

• Support the JFC’s information operations Discussion of Key Ground Force Materiel
to gain momentum superiority Programs

FCS-Equipped Unit of Action (UA) Abrams Tank

Maneuver Brigade. Although the Army has
not finalized a complete Future Force design, Description. The Abrams Recapitalization
it has approved an Organizational and program is a modernization program of the
Operational (O&O) Plan for a UA maneuver current armored force that seeks to ensure it
brigade equipped with FCS. remains relevant to the developing Future
Force until fully replaced by the Mounted Gun
This UA’s organizational design includes UAVS System (MGS) variant of the FCS by
at each echelon to enhance the organization’s maintaining combat overmatch and reducing
RSTA capability. This capability is viewed as O&S costs. The core of this program is
essential to the success of UA operations to embodied in the M1A2 SEP and M1A1 Abrams
build and maintain situational awareness and Integrated Management (AIM) programs. The
understanding before, during and after tactical M1A2 SEP program began in FY99 and
operations. The Aviation UA will provide aircraft selectively upgrades M1 tanks or retrofits
resources, as necessary, to FCS UAs. These M1A2 tanks with rebuilt critical components that
will include attack/reconnaissance, utility, cargo bring the tanks to a near zero hours/miles
and UAVS in support of the brigade’s mission. condition. M1A2 SEP tanks have 2 nd
Generation FLIR (2GF) sensor in the
The NLOS Battalion is the UA’s primary Commander’s Independent Thermal Viewer
provider of destructive, suppressive, protective (CITV) to enhance target acquisition and
and special purpose fires that enable the UA significantly improve lethality; hardware and
to conduct decisive operations. It is envisioned software that supports Army digitization and the
that the NLOS Cannon will provide accurate, FBCB2 system; digital diagnostics system that
reliable, responsive on-demand, 24 hour, all enhances tank maintenance and sustainment;
weather, all terrain and close supporting fires thermal management system that reduces the
with a wide array of precision and nonprecision tank’s battlefield signature and an improved
munitions. The NLOS Launcher System armor system that improves survivability
provides a networked system of missile

Annex D
against emerging threats. A major
launchers with command and control systems improvement to be incorporated in all M1A2
that will provide both precision and loitering SEP tanks is an improved AGT 1500 engine.
attack munitions. NLOS Mortars (organic to The Abrams Engine Improvement Program will
the UA combined arms battalion) will also
provide supporting fires to the UA. The
combination of NLOS mortar, cannon, launcher
systems in the UA and HIMARS in the UE will
provide the future commander with a greatly
increased precision and lethality capability.

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-29

provide the tank with better agility and mobility, Efforts are underway to complete the
easier maintenance and reduced O&S costs modernization of III Corps by fielding M1A2
over the tank’s current and aging AGT 1500 SEP tanks to 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment
engine. The development of the improved AGT once additional funding is secured. Currently,
1500 engine will continue through FY05, with the Army is projected to procure 717 M1A2
procurement beginning in FY05, and will SEP tanks.
eventually replace all older versions of the AGT
1500 engines, thereby focusing this program The Army has completed fielding M1A1 AIMs
on the entire Abrams tank fleet. Other future to the 1st Armored and 1st Infantry Divisions in
capabilities intended for the M1A2 SEP include Europe. The next units to be fielded are the 2nd
2GF for the gunner to enhance target Infantry Division and brigades of the 1 st
acquisition and significantly improve lethality, Armored and 1st Infantry Divisions at Fort Riley
hardware and software that supports Army and the Army Prepositioned Stock (APS).
FBCB2 digitization, embedded digital Currently, the Army is projected to procure a
diagnostics system that enhances tank total of 1,065 AIM tanks. Modernization of the
maintenance and sustainment, and improved Army National Guard continues through
armor that increases survivability against cascading of M1A1s from the AC.
emerging threats.
Bradley Fighting Vehicle
Since the Army cannot afford to procure M1A2
SEP tanks for every crew, it is also pursuing a Description. The Bradley recapitalization
recapitalization procurement and program rebuilds and upgrades M2/M3A2s to
modernization strategy that provides M1A1 the most modernized M2/M3A3 configuration.
tanks with rebuilt AGT 1500 engines and The A3 adds two 2GF devices (one in the
improvements to selected tank subsystems Commander’s Independent Viewer (CIV) and
that bring the tanks to a near zero hours/miles one in the Improved Bradley Acquisition Sight
condition. In addition to being a rebuild (IBAS)), a position/navigation (POS/NAV)
program, the M1A1 AIM Program provides system, core electronic improvements, and
selective technology insertions designed to digital C2. These upgrades improve the crew’s
extend the service life of the fleet while reducing ability to navigate, pinpoint and identify friendly
O&S costs. Some of these improvements
Annex D

and enemy positions, and engage nearly

include: Revised Hull and Turret Network simultaneously targets in both day and night
Boxes, a Digital Electronics Control Unit, a conditions. Also, the digital C2 provides a near
Driver’s Hatch Interlock sensor system, an
Upgraded Tank Commander’s Panel, an Eye-
safe Laser Rangefinder, a Pulse Jet Air
System, and a Battlefield Override (mechanical
fuel and transmission bypass) system.
Incorporation of the improved AGT 1500 engine
is planned for in the FY05 time frame.

Program Status. The Army has completed

fielding of M1A2 SEP tanks to the 1st Cavalry
Division and is scheduled to complete the
fielding to the 4th Infantry Division in FY05.

D-30 Army Modernization Plan 2004

real-time integrated data link between the
M2A3 and other combat vehicles.

Program Status. The 1st Cavalry Division and

4th Infantry Division will be fielded with 595
recapitalized M2A3 Bradleys. The 3rd ACR will
be fielded with 131 recapitalized Bradley
Cavalry/Scout vehicles (M3A2 OIF
configuration) containing FBCB2, the IBAS,
and a ballistic fire control system. Selected III
Corps engineer battalions will be fielded with
342 converted M3A2 ODS-D vehicles. These
digitized vehicles will vastly improve the lethality,
survivability and situational awareness for • Survivability enhanced by all around
engineers and supported units. Further 14.5mm armor piercing and 152mm
digitization to the active fleet will be determined artillery airburst protection (add-on armor
as the Army builds the FY06-11 program plan. provides protection against rocket-
propelled grenade (RPG) anti-tank
Stryker Family of Armored Vehicles weapons)

Description. The Stryker Family of Armored • Accurate target acquisition with Long
Vehicles is the centerpiece combat and combat Range Advanced Scout Surveillance
support platform for the SBCTs. Two variants System (LRAS3) mission package
of the Stryker will be fielded: the Mobile Gun
System (MGS) and the Infantry Carrier Vehicle • Accurate target engagement with Remote
(ICV). There will be eight additional Weapon Station (Mk 19 grenade launcher
configurations of the ICV: Reconnaissance and M2 .50 caliber machine gun)
Vehicle (RV), Mortar Carrier (MC), Commander
Vehicle (CV), Fire Support Vehicle (FSV), • Decisive offensive action with dismounted
Engineer Squad Vehicle (ESV), Medical infantry assault (ICV)
Evacuation Vehicle (MEV), Antitank Guided

Annex D
Missile Vehicle (ATGM), and Nuclear, • Bunker-busting capability with 105mm
Biological and Chemical Reconnaissance cannon (MGS) for roles in immediate fire
Vehicle (NBCRV). Stryker capabilities include: support of dismounted infantry operations
and with the TOW Bunker Buster munitions
• Strategically responsive and deployable on (ATGM)
the U.S. Air Force (USAF) family of tactical
aircraft • Responsive indirect fires with 120mm
dismounted mortar (MC)
• Roll-on/roll-off, combat-capable with
minimum preparation • Antitank capability with TOW 2B (ATGM)
and Javelin-equipped dismounted infantry
• Superior situational awareness with (ICV)
internetted communications

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-31

Figure D-6. SBCT Fielding Schedule

• Mobility enhanced by mine plow, roller and Lightweight 155 Howitzer (M777)
detector (ESV)
Description. The Army has a requirement for
• Integrated NBC sensor capability (NBCRV) an advanced, towed lightweight 155mm
howitzer, with self-locating and aiming
The Stryker provides a unique family of systems capability, that meets increased operational
approach that maximizes commonality and thresholds for mobility, survivability,
integrated capabilities while filling an deployability and sustainability. The M777A1
immediate capabilities gap in the Current lightweight 155mm howitzer is funded in the
Force. Supporting Stryker fielding is a FY05-09 program plan as a weapon system
complete new home station equipment training that meets this requirement. A joint Marine
package for both operators and maintainers. Corps/Army program, the M777 will provide
Annex D

accurate, reliable, responsive, on-demand, 24-

Program Status. Planned procurement is for hour, all weather, and all terrain close support
2,096 vehicles consisting of two variants: fires to maneuver forces.
Infantry Carrier Vehicle (ICV) and Mobile Gun
System (MGS). The Army has fully funded and Program Status. In Nov 02, the M777 entered
the Secretary of Defense has authorized the LRIP for 94 USMC, nondigitized howitzers to
procurement and fielding of six SBCTs to fulfill be delivered in FY03 and FY04. The FY05-09
the Defense Strategy and national security Army program plan funds the procurement and
requirements. Figure D-6 provides the current fielding of the digitized, self-locating, self-
SBCT fielding schedule. aiming/-pointing upgrade of this system
(M777A1) to selected Army units, beginning
with the SBCTs in FY06-08. USMC howitzers
will be retrofitted for the digitized upgrades
after fielding to Army units.

D-32 Army Modernization Plan 2004

Future Combat Systems (FCS) The FCS leverages advanced technologies
through spiral and incremental development.
Description. The FCS is a networked system An open architecture design enhances system
of systems that will serve as a core building versatility via an upgradeable and tailorable
block within modular maneuver echelons of the engineering approach that supports system of
UA maneuver brigade. The FCS (Figure D-7) systems engagement for different missions as
will consist of the combination of 18 manned needed. The program uses high-payoff
and unmanned air and ground platforms that advanced technologies and techniques in
are networked with each other and other areas such as survivability, lethal and nonlethal
supporting systems. effects, supportability, propulsion, mobility,
structures, robotics, human factors, training,
The FCS will provide lethal direct fire, indirect and modeling and simulation. The combined
fire, air defense, complementary nonlethal fires approach of innovation in operations and
and effects, and troop transport capability. The acquisition supports the fielding of FCS-
FCS will provide a secure C4 and ISR system equipped combat formations this decade and
to harness advances in the distribution and into the future.
effective use of information power that enable
it to see first, understand first, act first and finish Program Status. In May 03, FCS was
decisively. The FCS-equipped UA allows approved to move into the SDD phase. Key
Soldiers to operate as a coordinated part of a SDD events in FY04-05 include the System
distributed, networked force, enabling Requirement Review and Design Concept
innovative operational behaviors and Review in 2QFY04, the Initial Baseline Review
organizational structures. The FCS will provide II in 3QFY04, the System Functional Review in
overmatching combat power with the lethality, 4QFY04, Milestone B Update in 1QFY05 and
agility, sustainability, and versatility necessary a Preliminary Design Review in 3QFY05.
for full-spectrum military operations from small- Three critical developmental challenges within
scale contingencies to stability and support the FCS program are: C4 and ISR architecture
operations to major combat. (the Network); spiral development and field
experimentation; and tactics and doctrine

Annex D

Figure D-7. Future Combat Systems

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-33

Figure D-8. FCS-Equipped UA Fielding Schedule

development for a complete DOTMLPF support asset available to the UA commander,

solution. An important aspect of FCS it will provide sustained fires capability for both
development is the desire to take emerging precision (Excalibur) and area fires
technologies being developed for FCS and (suppression) to forces in combat and be
insert them into the Current Force. The FCS networked to joint fires. Its networked capability
will be fielded to the first UA to achieve an initial and high rate of fire enable it to provide rapid
operational capability by 2010. Figure D-8 fires at extended ranges. System development
depicts a projected fielding schedule out to will be integrated with the development of a
FY15. suite of munitions and complementary ISR
Annex D

capabilities that locate, track, identify, engage

Non-Line-of-Sight Cannon (NLOS and destroy all target types with effects scaled
Cannon) by the mission and target set.

Description. The NLOS Cannon is currently Program Status. The Army, in partnership
embedded in the overall FCS program with the Defense Advanced Research Projects
architecture. The NLOS Cannon will provide Agency (DARPA) has established an
accurate, reliable, responsive on-demand, 24- aggressive, collaborative demonstration
hour, all-weather, and all-terrain close program in support of the FCS initiative. This
supporting fires as an integral part of the Future demonstration included both live-fire and
Force. It will utilize the Modular Artillery Charge mobility phases. An FCS Program Manager
System (MACS) and inductively set fuzes, such has been assigned to DARPA and the overall
as the M762/A1, M767/A1 and Multiple Option management authority for the FCS program
Fuze, Artillery (MOFA). As the primary fire resides with the Program Executive Officer

D-34 Army Modernization Plan 2004

(PEO) for Ground Combat Systems. NLOS- Variants should be the smallest number that
Cannon transitions to SDD as a component of satisfies all requirements. The system has an
FCS. external mission planning software application
designed to operate on the future battle
Non-Line-of-Sight Launcher System command system for planning and execution
(NLOS-LS) of multiple and simultaneous missions
including engagement with different munitions.
Description. The NLOS-LS is currently part
the overall FCS program architecture. The Program Status. The Army, in partnership
NLOS-LS is a networked system of missile with the DARPA is involved in an aggressive,
launchers with an integrated command and collaborative demonstration program in support
control system that will provide precision and of the NLOS-LS initiative that will transition to
loitering attack munitions. It will provide an Army SDD effort in FY04. An NLOS-LS
accurate, reliable, responsive on-demand, 24- Task Force was formed under PEO Tactical
hour, all-weather, and all-terrain fires as an Missiles to facilitate the transition and
integral part of the Future Force. NLOS-LS will coordinate actions to ensure initiation of NLOS-
provide networked, extended-range targeting LS Block I SDD.
and precision attack of armored, lightly armored
and other stationary and moving targets during High Mobility Artillery Rocket System
day, night, obscured and adverse weather (HIMARS)
conditions. The system’s primary purpose is
to provide responsive precision attack of High- Description. HIMARS provides early entry
Payoff Targets (HPT) in support of the UA in Current and Future Forces with continuous all-
concert with other UA NLOS systems as well weather precision medium- to long-range
as other Army, joint, interagency and rocket and missile fires to a depth of 300km.
multinational system capabilities. Future HIMARS also provides fires in conduct of
technology improvements will allow the system TAMD IAW Joint and Army doctrine. Mounted
to provide discriminating capability via on an FMTV chassis, HIMARS is C-130-
automatic target recognition (ATR) and transportable combat loaded, and provides full
contribute to battle damage assessment MLRS family of munitions (including GMLRS
(BDA). The system has flexibility to respond

Annex D
and ATACMS) capability, yet requires 70
to all UA sensors, SOF, other UE joint and
multinational elements. The NLOS-LS will be
a self-contained system with multifunctional
munitions (NLOS, ground-to-air, counter-
mobility) capability. The system will be capable
of multi-modal transport and be fired from the
ground or from manned/unmanned tactical
transport vehicles. NLOS-LS consists of the
container launch unit (CLU) with individual
containerized munitions and an onboard
command and control capability. Operational
requirements may necessitate the
development of additional munitions variants
such as thermobaric and nonlethal applications.

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-35

percent fewer airlift resources to transport a Program Status. The FY05-09 program plan
battery than the current M270 MLRS launchers. limits Block II/BAT procurement to an LRIP level
HIMARS ACTD prototype launchers were of 96 missiles, funds procurement of ATACMS
successfully employed in OIF providing Unitary missiles and initiates a Service Life
precision fires in support of SOCOM and Army Extension Program (SLEP) for Block I and IA
operations. missiles that are approaching the end of their
shelf life. An ATACMS Penetrator (ATACMS-
Program Status. HIMARS is in LRIP with P) variant is being developed and
FUE programmed for 2QFY05 to the XVIII demonstrated as part of a cooperative Army/
Airborne Corps. Navy ACTD that will be completed in FY04 with
three test firings and delivery of six residual
Discussion of Key Ground Force missiles to U. S. Forces Korea (USFK). The
Munitions Programs future role of the ATACMS-P program in support
of the OSD-lead Hard and Deeply Buried
Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) Target initiative is unresolved.
Family of Munitions
Chemical Energy Missiles—Javelin and
Description. The TOW 2B.
ATACMS Family of
Munitions (FOM) Description. The Javelin missile provides
provides the Joint dismounted infantry with a medium-range, man-
Force Commander portable, shoulder-launched, fire-and-forget,
with a surface-to- anti-armor weapon system that provides a
surface, all-weather, highly formidable capability able to defeat all
responsive, deep known armor threats for the dismounted close
strike weapons fight. As a fire-and-forget missile with top and
capability for the direct attack modes and 2.5 times the range,
attack of area and Javelin is a leap-ahead improvement over the
point targets from Dragon system. Moreover, the Javelin’s
ranges of 25- Command Launch Unit incorporates an
integrated day/night sight and greatly improves
Annex D

300km. ATACMS has been produced since

1990 in a logical series of improvements to battlefield surveillance and survivability. Javelin
range, accuracy, and lethality. Missile has fire-and-forget technology that allows the
production is continuous with each new block gunner to lock on to the target, fire the missile,
improvement, when ready, cut into the existing and immediately take cover. Other features
production line. ATACMS Block I proved its include a tandem warhead, an imaging infrared
effectiveness during Operation Desert Storm; seeker and a soft launch that allows the missile
a significant number of Block I, IA and QR to be fired from enclosures. In addition to its
Unitary were successfully employed in OIF in high lethality, Javelin is ideally suited to rapid
support of USAF, USMC, SOCOM and Army deployment due to its size, its high reliability,
operations. The entire ATACMS FOM is and its very small logistics tail. The Javelin has
launched from improved MLRS M270A1 and won high praise from commanders engaged
HIMARS rocket and missile launchers. in combat operations during OEF and OIF. For
example, during the Apr 03 battle of Debecka
Pass in Northern Iraq, the Javelin missile

D-36 Army Modernization Plan 2004

played a decisive role in enabling a Special armored vehicles and other targets such as
Forces unit to destroy an attacking armor field fortifications. The TOW weapon system
formation. Lessons learned from these provides the heavy anti-armor/assault
operations are shaping the Javelin P3I capability for the Army’s Infantry forces
program. (Airborne, Air Assault, Light, SBCT, and
Bradley-equipped Mechanized) and the USMC
Program Status. Javelin FUE was Jun 96 forces with the TOW equipped HMMWV, LAV,
with full rate production beginning in May 97 and Cobra helicopters. The TOW family of
scheduled to continue through FY05. Javelin missiles provides a man-in-the-loop precision
is currently being fielded to Infantry, Armor point targeting capability, which serves to
Scouts, and Combat Engineer units. The minimize collateral damage—a preeminent
Block I program includes improvements in the consideration in current and emerging
Command Launch Unit for better target operating environments. During OIF, the TOW
detection, recognition and identification, and missile fired from the Improved Target
extended surveillance time; the missile includes Acquisition System (with 2GF), won accolades
improved performance at maximum range, from the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)
reduced flight time, reduced acquisition time for the decisive role these systems played in
and Counter Active Protective System enabling the division to employ precision fires
interface. The Javelin weapon system is part to destroy enemy forces while also avoiding
of the FCS, dismounted with the Infantry Carrier collateral damage. The modernized TOW 2B
Vehicle (ICV) and integrated with the Armored (Aero) missile will provide even greater range
Robotic Vehicle-Assault Light (ARV-A (L)) and countermeasure defeat to TOW-equipped
MULE, and provides risk mitigation paths for units and will mitigate TOW inventory risk. The
the ARV-A (6-ton vehicle). The Dec 03 AROC TOW Bunker Buster missile (TOW BB) was
approved Stryker ORD identified the fielded to the first SBCT in Nov 03 as an in-
requirement to integrate the capability to fire lieu-of mitigation item for the Stryker ATGM until
the Javelin from the Infantry Carrier Vehicle the Stryker MGS is fielded.
(ICV) as a future Block improvement.
Program Status. Procurement of 2,861 TOW
Description. The TOW Weapon System is 2B missiles from the projected requirement of
a crew-portable, vehicle-mounted, heavy anti- 12,332 missiles is funded in the FY05-09

Annex D
armor weapon system designed to defeat program plan. The Army will consider additional
procurement in the FY06-11 program plan build
to maintain the minimum production line
sustainment rate.

Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System

(GMLRS) Rocket

Description. The MLRS M26 basic rocket is

nearing the end of its shelf life and is now out-
ranged by many enemy artillery systems.
GMLRS is a major upgrade to the M26-series
rocket that integrates a Guidance and Control
package and a new rocket motor to achieve

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-37

from unexploded ordnance. The GMLRS
Unitary rocket will be an improved version of
the GMLRS DPICM rocket. The primary
difference is the replacement of the DPICM
submunitions payload with a unitary warhead
that will have a multi-mode (point detonating,
delay and proximity) fuze capability. The
GMLRS Unitary rocket will provide the ability
to attack critical area and point targets beyond
cannon artillery ranges or targets in restricted
terrain (under foliage, urban environments, and
heavy snow) that may require reduced collateral

greater range and precision accuracy. GMLRS Program Status. GMLRS development was
rockets are precision-guided munitions (GPS- an international program with the United
aided inertial measurement unit (IMU)) that Kingdom, Germany, France and Italy, with an
enable a force commander to engage and RDTE 50/50 cost-share agreement between
destroy the enemy at ranges out to and beyond U.S. and European partners. The United
60 km, with precision, and with fewer rockets. States managed the prime contract. GMLRS
The threats to be engaged include self- DPICM began LRIP in FY03 and will achieve
propelled and towed artillery; multiple rocket IOC by FY06. GMLRS Unitary is currently a
launchers; forward-positioned, surface-to- U.S.-only effort in SDD. The GMLRS Unitary
surface missiles; a wide variety of active and rocket will be developed and fielded using an
passive, soft or lightly armored vehicles; area evolutionary acquisition strategy and spiral
or point targets with no collateral damage development process. The evolutionary
constraints, or critical point hard/soft targets strategy approach will deliver a capability to
requiring low-collateral damage. In addition, the Soldier in increments, recognizing up front
GLMRS provides the capability to neutralize the need for or opportunity to integrate
or destroy enemy air defense at tactical depths. technologies to support future capability
Annex D

Launched from an M270A1 MLRS tracked or

HIMARS wheeled launcher, the GMLRS rocket 120mm XM395 Precision Guided Mortar
contributes to the Current and Future Forces Munition (PGMM)
by providing the warfighter with increased
operational capability through advanced Description. PGMM is a 120mm laser-guided
technology while reducing the logistical precision mortar munition, designed to defeat
resupply burden associated with unguided area high-payoff targets with low collateral damage.
munitions. The dual-purpose improved It is the maneuver task force commander’s “hip
conventional munitions (DPICM) version of the pocket” indirect precision effect, capable of
GMLRS contains 404 submunitions (M77 providing responsive, standoff defeat of high-
grenades) to attack area targets. Fuze value targets. Current military operations have
improvements, combined with the improved underscored the immediate and significant
accuracy, will also greatly reduce the hazard to need for an organic, responsive, indirect fire,
operational maneuver and collateral damage extended range, precision strike munition that

D-38 Army Modernization Plan 2004

increased range, lethality, and minimal
collateral damage.

Program Status. Excalibur is in SDD and is

a Cooperative International Development
program with Sweden. The first spiral of
Increment I will provide an initial capability to
the JLW 155 Howitzers (M777E1) for the
Stryker Brigades in FY06. The second spiral
has significant capability against a variety of of Increment I will provide an IOC to the
protected targets. Targets are threat infantry M777E1 and NLOS-Cannon in FY08. Future
protected by field fortifications, masonry walls, Unitary variant spirals will reduce costs, refresh
or lightly armored vehicles. 120mm mortars technology and enhance performance
are key, organic lethality platforms for the capabilities to reflect evolving requirements.
Current and Future Forces. PGMM is the key Similar strategies and processes will be used
lethality system for the close fight. for Excalibur Smart and Discriminating variants.

Program Status. PGMM transitioned into the Kinetic Energy Missiles—LOSAT and
SDD phase in 1QFY04 with production CKEM
scheduled to begin in FY08 and fielding in
FY10. Description. The Army is currently developing
two kinetic energy missiles: Line-of-Sight Anti-
Excalibur Tank (LOSAT) and the Compact Kinetic Energy
Missile (CKEM). LOSAT represents the first
Description. Excalibur is a cannon-delivered generation of kinetic energy missiles. LOSAT
precision-engagement, extended-range family provides light ,early-entry forces extended
of 155mm artillery projectiles that self-guide to range overmatch against armor and other
a programmed aim point using the GPS. hardened targets to greatly increase the
Munitions to be developed are Unitary, Smart lethality of these forces. CKEM will also
and Discriminating. Excalibur will deliver 10- provide this capability, but at approximately half
20 meter Circular Error Probable accuracy the size and weight of the LOSAT missile.

Annex D
from minimum (8km) to maximum (30-40km) CKEM capabilities will include auto tracking
ranges in all weather conditions. Anti-jam
technology and an Inertial Navigation System
are used to provide precision-strike capability
in a GPS jamming environment. Target and
fuze data are programmed into the projectile
via an inductive projectile programmer,
Enhanced Portable Inductive Artillery Fuze
Setter (EPIAFS). Excalibur uses an optimized
(near-vertical) terminal trajectory to engage
targets in urban and complex terrains with
minimal collateral damage. Excalibur will
overcome the limitations of current area
engagement munitions with precision,

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-39

of targets, overmatch lethality against projected or SAL, along with radial maneuver thrusters
threat systems to include those using explosive are used to acquire and guide the round
reactive armor active protection systems, and towards the target with high accuracy. The
a system ability to engage three targets within projectile uses fins to aerodynamically induce
ten seconds. The system launcher will slew to spin and accelerometers to provide body
target, track the missile, target during missile motion data to ensure proper dynamics for
flight and provide missile command guidance seeker search area processing.
updates to the missile.
MRM-CE is an advanced, guided, chemical
Program Status. LOSAT is scheduled to energy (CE) anti-armor smart munition capable
achieve IOC in FY08. The FY05-09 program of defeating current and advanced armored
plan funds development and procurement of threat vehicles from fairly close in to extended
one LOSAT battalion for the XVIII Airborne BLOS ranges. It utilizes a dual tandem, CE,
Corps Division Ready Force (DRF). CKEM is shaped-charge warhead at relatively slow
in the S&T phase of development with round impact speeds for target defeat. A dual-
technology readiness levels projected to mode MMW, Imaging Infrared (IIR) autonomous
support starting the SDD phase in FY06. seeker or SAL is used to acquire and guide
towards the target with high accuracy. The
Mid-Range Munition (MRM) sensors are mounted on a unique ball-joint
gimbal to accomplish sensor imaging and
Description. MRM is an autonomous and large sensor search areas for target
laser-guided smart munition concept fired from acquisition. The projectile uses canards and
an FCS Mounted Combat System Increment I fins to stabilize the round and IMU technology
vehicle. This munition extends the maneuver to allow it to glide accurately towards the target
commander’s battlespace beyond LOS to during seeker search and terminal impact.
more than 12 km. MRM exploits the ability of
the FCS-equipped UA to identify targets at Program Status. The MRM program is
greatly extended ranges, as well as pass currently completing the Advanced Technology
digitized targeting information, in real-time, to Demonstration (ATD) phase. A Milestone B
the maneuver commander or shooter. It also decision is schedule for 4QFY04. SDD phase
exploits autonomous Semi-Active Laser (SAL) will start in FY05 with a Milestone C decision
Annex D

and smart munitions technologies to provide a scheduled for FY09 and FRP in FY10.
munition capable of being fired from a platform
at extended range beyond-line-of-sight targets. Force Application Capabilities Summary
There are currently two MRM round concepts
being pursued, MRM-KE and MRM-CE. Stryker, FCS, HIMARS, and the other materiel
programs described in this appendix readily
MRM-KE is an advanced guided, boosted, demonstrate the Army’s modernization efforts
kinetic energy (KE) anti-armor smart munition to develop network-centric forces enabled by
capable of defeating current and advanced superior situational understanding and
armored threat vehicles from close in to decision-making speed, capable of dominant
extended BLOS ranges. It utilizes a KE rod maneuver and precision engagement (Force
and rocket motor technology to thrust the round Application) as part of the joint team.
towards the target at very high speed for defeat.
A millimeter wave (MMW) autonomous seeker,

D-40 Army Modernization Plan 2004

As the Army transforms to a Future Force The Army provides full dimensional protection
design and capability, it will explore new and against enemy effects at the strategic,
promising technologies that will provide operational, and tactical levels to the homeland,
enhanced Force Application capabilities. our allies and coalition partners, and the Joint
Inherent in this design is the requirement for all Force. The protection of national or host nation
means of precision engagement to operate assets and national centers of gravity is vital to
within a joint and combined system of systems the strategic level of operations from which
and to be strategically responsive so that it national or combat power is generated.
remains an effective partner in the joint fight.
This means that the Army must maximize The Army’s priority of efforts in force protection
commonality of organizations and equipment remain focused on supporting operational
as well as fully leverage information forces and equipment deployed and in-transit;
technologies. Army Transformation will meet capitalizing on threat reporting and
these key requirements. coordination with international/national
intelligence and law enforcement agencies;
Appendix 2: Protection enhancing detection and deterrence
capabilities for CBRNE threats;
Protection is the sum of all actions taken to institutionalizing installation access control for
prevent an adversary’s effect on the Joint personnel and vehicles; improving policy and
Force and the population that the Joint Force doctrine; strengthening training and exercises;
protects. These actions include protection of and expanding force protection assessments.
personnel, infrastructure and critical computer
networks. Because WMD pose a unique and Physical security programs continue to focus
catastrophic threat to personnel and on ensuring the adequacy of policy and
infrastructure, special measures taken to deter programs, physical security technology
and mitigate the effectiveness of an adversary’s initiatives, access control and civilian police
use of WMD. These measures include WMD and guard initiatives necessary to ensure the
counterproliferation, nonproliferation and our security of individuals and property in support
ability to conduct effective consequence of worldwide Army operations. The Army is
management following an attack using WMD. continuing to assess our critical infrastructure
to ensure adequate protection against potential

Annex D
Protection is accomplished through the planned threat actions.
and integrated application of several security-
related and supporting operations and This appendix provides a brief discussion of
programs including law enforcement, physical Army Protection capabilities, specifically, Army
security, protective services operations, critical AMD and CBRNE defense capabilities and key
infrastructure protection, information materiel programs associated with these
operations, crisis response, consequence capabilities. The importance of space-based
management, intelligence and capabilities and their role in force protection is
counterintelligence, intelligence fusion, counter also described.
terrorism and antiterrorism, and through Air and
Missile Defense (AMD) and Chemical,
Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and High
Yield Explosive (CBRNE) defense measures.

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-41

Army Air and Missile Defense (AMD) (SLAMRAAM) and integrated fire control.
Capabilities JLENS will provide an elevated, enduring,
wide-area surveillance and fire control sensor
A robust AMD program is a vital warfighting to the Joint Force.
requirement that protects our homeland,
deployed forces, friends and allies. This is Our Army is pursuing the most comprehensive
achieved through an integrated system set transformation of its forces in the past century
consisting of satellite sensors, early-warning as part of the Joint effort to transform America’s
radars, command and control centers, fire military to protect our national security interests
control systems, and missiles and warheads. in the Future Operational Environment. AMD
Missile defense efforts are focused on all transformation is an essential part of achieving
phases of missile defense operations; the the capabilities required for Joint and Army
boost phase, midcourse phase, and terminal Future Force success.
phase. The Army is a major contributor to the
joint capability of missile defense. AMD transformation is shaped by changes in
the future operational environment as well as a
The Army employs a holistic concept for air and number of other factors. Collectively, these
missile defense to counter theater ballistic factors compel comprehensive changes in
missiles (TBMs), cruise missiles (CMs), AMD DOTMLPF.
unmanned aerial vehicles, tactical air-to-
surface missiles, rockets, artillery and mortars, The desired warfighting end state of AMD
and rotary/fixed winged aircraft threats. The transformation efforts is the attainment of the
Army enhances Joint Force protection by following vision:
contributing to the Joint Force’s common
operational picture (COP) and the Joint Force We will provide joint
AMD architecture. The synergy of these and combined arms
activities, in concert with the Army’s active, warriors with mission-
passive, and offensive attack operations, tailored capabilities to
provides the Joint Force increased capabilities dominate, enable
to defeat the threat, along with advanced and exploit the third
warning of threat intents. dimension battlespace and integrate theater
Annex D

operational protection in support of UA, UE,

The Army AMD program is aligned with and Joint Commanders in the Future
recommendations of the Defense Planning Operational Environment.
Guidance and the 2001 Quadrennial Defense
Report and supports attainment of DOD’s AMD Transformation Imperatives. The four
critical operational goals, the Army elements highlighted in the vision statement—
Transformation Roadmap, and Joint Vision Dominate, Enable, Exploit and Protect—are
2020. The Army is accelerating its cruise imperatives that will help focus AMD
missile defense capability to meet this transformation. Each element of the Dominate-
emerging threat. The critical components of Enable-Exploit-Protect cycle contributes
this capability include Joint Land Attack Cruise synergistically to the other elements. The
Missile Defense Elevated Netted Sensor spiraling effect of this cycle will enable JIM
System (JLENS), Surface Launched Advanced forces to achieve four of the Defense
Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile Transformation Planning Guidance (TPG)

D-42 Army Modernization Plan 2004

Operational Goals—protecting critical bases launched; proactively kill in the air during ascent
of operation; projecting and sustaining U.S. and midcourse phases of flight while the threats
forces in distant anti-access and area-denial are still within the enemy’s battlespace; and
environments and defeating anti-access proactively kill in the air during the terminal
threats; denying the enemy sanctuary (third phase of flight, at sufficiently long ranges to
dimension), and leveraging information preclude target debris from harming friendly
technology for joint command, control, forces or assets.
communications, computer, intelligence,
surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) Enable the Third Dimension. AMD will help
operations. Current Joint AMD forces, while enable the third dimension by integrating its
performing superbly during OIF, are inadequate sensor and battle command elements into the
to meet the Dominate, Enable, Exploit, and joint distributed network and providing
Protect imperatives in the Future Operational continuous surveillance information to help
Environment. Army AMD transformation is develop the single integrated air picture portion
addressing applicable capability gaps as part of a three-dimensional common operational
of a larger Joint AMD transformation effort. As picture. These AMD sensors and battle
in any successful operation, the transformation command elements will provide Joint third
of AMD is led by Soldiers and leaders dimension situational awareness and
exhibiting the warrior ethos and an understanding (SA/SU); provide Army linkage
expeditionary mindset—Soldiers first, trained to the Joint airspace identification and
and educated on theory, history, doctrine, and engagement authority; facilitate planning,
achieving joint experience earlier in their coordination and synchronization of airspace
career. activities; help enable trajectory clearance for
ground-to-ground, ground-to-air and air-to
Dominate the Third Dimension. Army AMD ground fires; and protect friendly aerial objects.
will help dominate the third dimension, Mission tailored AMD will destroy enemy aerial
interdependently with JIM forces, at strategic, RSTA beyond standoff, contributing to friendly
operational, and tactical levels, through joint force ability to see first by forcing the enemy to
attack operations; joint, layered active defense see last.
operations; joint passive defense measures;
and integrated battle command. Modular, Exploit the Third Dimension. By dominating

Annex D
scalable, multifunctional AMD task forces will and enabling in the airspace, JIM forces can
be employed when and where required to deter better exploit it. AMD supported JIM forces will
and dissuade adversaries from using air and exploit the third dimension by using it to
missile threats against the Homeland, friendly conduct inter- and intra-theater Operational
nations outside a Regional Combatant Maneuver From Strategic Distances and to
Commander’s (RCC) area of responsibility sustain noncontiguous forces via air. Modular,
(AOR), and critical bases of operation and multifunctional AMD task forces will be C130-
selected JIM forces/high-value assets (HVAs) deployable and will help enable the force to
inside the RCC’s AOR. AMD forces will reduce project and sustain in an anti-access
the warfighting options available to adversaries, environment by protecting critical bases of
helping integrate and execute JIM offensive and operation and protecting Joint vertical entry
defensive operations to deny enemy launch forces. Army AMD ground and elevated
points, kill enemy asymmetric air and missile sensors will provide extended range
threats on the ground before they can be surveillance of aerial and ground targets that

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-43

can be exploited to support offensive and to optimize the JIM force’s protection stance
defensive NLOS engagements. AMD elevated and monitor execution. AAMDCs would be the
sensors will be multi-functional platforms logical nucleus of any newly formed Theater
providing long endurance communications Protection headquarters at Unit of Employment
relays and ISR to enable commanders to “Y” (UEy) level.
effectively integrate, coordinate and
synchronize warfighting operations with Discussion of Key AMD Materiel Programs
dispersed forces on the nonlinear battlefield.
AMD supported JIM forces will leverage space Patriot
and aerial ISR capabilities to support joint
attack operations and provide early warning of Description. Patriot is a corps and echelon
air and missile attack to at-risk forces and above corps (EAC) AMD system that can
civilian populations. simultaneously engage and destroy multiple
targets at varying ranges and altitudes. It is
Integrate Theater Operational Protection. the world’s only battle-proven theater AMD
AMD will play a key role in integrating theater system and will be a key AMD element for the
operational protection in support of the JFLCC next 25 years. The Patriot Advanced
and or Joint Force Commander. The functional Capability-3 (PAC-3) provides remote launch
tasks associated with operational protection capability; increases range, altitude, and
include offensive and defensive theater air and firepower with new hit-to-kill missile and ground
missile operations (TAMO), NBC support equipment; and engages multiple
reconnaissance and defense, HVA protection, maneuvering and nonmaneuvering theater
Joint Rear Area (JRA) route security, physical ballistic missile (TBM), air-breathing threat
security, operations security, defensive (ABT) and cruise missile (CM) threats. Patriot
information operations, anti-terrorism recapitalization is ongoing to maintain the
operations, host nation integration, and post- operational capability by bringing existing
attack impact mitigation. In addition to Patriot assets to a “like new” (zero miles/hours)
integrating operational protection, AMD forces state, thereby meeting the future Army
contribute to maneuver commander force requirements. PAC-3 system upgrades are
protection at tactical levels providing mission planned to counter evolving threats, improve
tailored forces for missions such as convoy joint interoperability, and increase surveillance
Annex D

protection and active Lines of Communication and detection capabilities are required as part
(LOC) protection. The Army Air and Missile of evolutionary development. Additional system
Defense Command Post (AAMDC) will
integrate and synchronize TAMO, with joint
attack operations, active defense, passive
defense and C4 operations in the theater. In a
role established during OIF, AAMDCs will also
integrate other aspects of operational
protection in the JRA to include: recommending
operational protection priorities to the
Commander; leading theater operational
protection boards; and overseeing vulnerability
assessments of JRA priorities. The AAMDCs
will recommend protection measures needed

D-44 Army Modernization Plan 2004

upgrades include the medium and high-range it requires 50 percent less airlift than Patriot
resolution waveforms, a dual traveling wave and can be moved intra-theater with C-130s
tube, and a new exciter to the radar; upgrades and helicopters. It will use a netted, distributed
to the battalion communications equipment; architecture and modular, configurable battle
and the ability to remotely locate launchers up elements, which allows it to integrate with other
to 30 km from the radar. These changes will airborne and ground-based sensors to provide
improve search, detection, track, and a robust, 360-degree defense. MEADS is born
discrimination by the radar, increase joint and will provide continuous coverage
battlespace awareness, and improve alone or integrated with other Army, joint, and
communications. The Army will use biennial multinational air and missile defense systems
increment/block development approaches to in the corps/division area. MEADS
increase the Patriot’s effectiveness. international development effort ensures
integration with our allies. The system’s
Program Status. The FY05-09 program plan distributed and open architecture facilitates the
funds the upgrade and modernization of PAC-2 continuous exchange of surveillance and fire
units to PAC-3 units and Patriot recapitalization control information to allow for a more effective
efforts. Currently, only eight of ten AC Patriot theater air and missile defense.
battalions are funded for upgrades to PAC-3,
resulting in a mixed force of battalions with
significantly different capabilities. PAC-3
Ground Support Equipment (GSE) upgrades
are in procurement. The PAC-3 missile is in
LRIP with 100 missiles contracted for FY03 and
108 missiles contracted for FY04. The AAO is
2,200 PAC-3 missiles; however, only 1,234
missiles are funded in the FY05-09 program
plan. The Joint Theater Air and Missile Defense Program Status. The current budget plan
Organization (JTAMDO) missile inventory funds the completion of the risk-reduction effort.
analysis pushes the PAC-3 missile requirement The next phase is SDD that will include the
above 3,200. Cost reduction initiatives for the development of prototype MEADS major end
PAC-3 missile are underway to produce cost items (MEI). Beginning in FY04, the Patriot

Annex D
savings that will be used to buy additional PAC-3 and MEADS programs were combined
missiles. to capitalize on the resources available to both
programs. This combined aggregate program
Medium Extended Air Defense System provides for the spiral development and
(MEADS) incremental fielding of MEADS MEI. This
incremental fielding approach reduces
Description. MEADS is an international sustainment costs while providing for fielding
cooperative effort with Germany and Italy. of increased AMD capability across the force
MEADS, designated by Army leadership as a earlier. This approach offers the most efficient
“clearly transformational” system, is a corps and use of valuable resources in that it eliminates
EAC AMD system that is scheduled to replace dual development and sustainment efforts while
Patriot starting in FY15 and completing in providing maximum flexibility in regards to
FY28. It offers a significant improvement in funding and changing warfighter requirements.
tactical mobility and strategic deployability, as Current program planning provides for the

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-45

introduction of the objective launcher and years. Neither MDA nor the Army has currently
BMC4I capabilities in FY09. The complete programmed procurement for THAAD, an
transformation of Patriot would begin in FY15 issue that must be addressed prior to fielding.
with the introduction of the ground-based
sensors. Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD)
Terminal High Altitude Area Defense
(THAAD) Description. GMD is a fixed, land-based
system designed to provide limited protection
to the United States against a ballistic missile
attack. The GMD design focuses on ensuring
high defense effectiveness against ballistic
missile attacks of limited scope (e.g.,
accidental, unauthorized, or authorized limited
launch) in a single operational configuration.
The GMD Architecture includes the following
system components: GMD Communications
Description. THAAD is designed to defend Network (GCN), GMD Fire Control (GFC)
against short- to medium-range ballistic Node, Missile Communications, Ground-
missiles at long ranges both inside and outside Based Interceptors, Upgraded Early Warning
the atmosphere. THAAD will provide near Radars, X-Band Radar, Aegis and the Space
leak-proof protection for largely dispersed Tracking and Surveillance System.
critical U.S. and allied forces and geopolitical
assets. THAAD’s capability to intercept at both Program Status. GMD is a segment of the
endo- and exo-atmospheric altitudes makes broader Ballistic Missile Defense System
effective countermeasures against THAAD (BMDS), a capabilities-based developmental
difficult. THAAD’s integration with joint and acquisition program utilizing a block approach.
lower tier systems allows for wide-area cueing The Army has served as lead service for GMD
and multiple intercept opportunities to (less acquisition) since 1999, and today has
significantly mitigate the effects of unitary and refocused its efforts to provide force protection
submunitions. The weapon system consists and operational personnel, facilities and
Annex D

of five major components: missiles, launchers,

radar(s), Battle Management/Command and
Control (BM/C2), and THAAD-specific support

Program Status. THAAD is a segment of the

broader Ballistic Missile Defense System
(BMDS), a capabilities-based developmental
acquisition program utilizing a block approach.
Flight testing begins in FY04. THAAD is
projected to begin transition from the MDA to
the Army after successful flight testing. The first
THAAD fire-unit capability is expected in FY06
with additional off-ramps happening in later

D-46 Army Modernization Plan 2004

resources for the deployment of a 24/7/365 rotation. It rotates at 30 rpm (2-second update).
GMD IOC by 1 Oct 04 with a secondary and The instrumented range and altitude are 40 km
non-interfering mission as a test bed. The and 4 km, respectively. The Sentinel data
Defense Planning Guidance directs the MDA utilizes SINCGARS AN/VRC-92A and EPLRS
to develop options for expanding GMD beyond AN/VSQ-2 radios. These can provide a track
the test bed. file of more than 60 targets.

Sentinel Program Status. The program completed its

primary procurement of Sentinel radars in FY01
and is currently undergoing a Preplanned
Product Improvement (P3I) program to improve
its surveillance and tracking capabilities.
Sentinel completed fielding in FY03 to Active
Army and National Guard units. Additional
upgrades and systems modifications are
currently scheduled through FY08 for many AC
and RC units to take advantages of advances
in technology and software upgrades.
Enhanced Target, Range, and Classification
(ETRAC) modifications will be applied to 20
radars by FY05. The ETRAC modifications
consist of two upgrades: Phase 1A improves
Description. Sentinel is a maneuver air the radar detection range against low
defense radar system that detects, tracks, observable and stealthy targets; Phase 1B
classifies and identifies cruise missiles (CMs), improves the radar classification of low
UAVS, helicopters, and fixed-wing aircraft to observable and stealthy targets at extended
cue short-range air defense (SHORAD) ranges. The Phase 1B capability for target
weapons. It is employed in the division and airframe classification will support the joint
corps area and is C-130-deployable. Data is identification and target classification function
passed through the FAAD C2 to SHORAD that allows SHORAD weapons to operate at
weapons. The Sentinel consists of a radar- maximum effectiveness.

Annex D
based sensor system with its High Mobility
Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) Surface Launched Advanced Medium-
prime mover, power, IFF, and command and Range Air-to-Air Missile (SLAMRAAM)
control interfaces. The Antenna/Transceiver
Group has an advanced three-dimensional
battlefield air defense radar housed aboard a
Light Tactical Trailer (LTT) chassis. The radar
employs a modern phased array antenna that
automatically detects, tracks, classifies,
identifies, and reports targets. Targets can be
hovering or fast moving, from nap of the earth
to the maximum engagement altitude of
SHORAD weapons. The radar operates at X
band, transmitting 1,100 pencil beams per

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-47

Description. SLAMRAAM is an air defense surveillance and fire control radars. JLENS
weapon system that will provide protection for provides over-the-horizon surveillance and
the maneuver force and designated joint critical precision track for broad area defense against
assets against aerial threats. SLAMRAAM is land attack cruise missiles and other low-flying
a lightweight, day or night, adverse weather, threats to ranges adequate to support both the
NLOS system for countering CMs, UAVS, UE and UA. It also functions as a multipurpose
RSTA platforms, and rotary and fixed wing aerial platform to enable extended range C2
threats with engagement capabilities to 30 km. linkages. JLENS is less expensive to buy and
SLAMRAAM consists of a HMMWV-mounted operate than fixed wing aircraft and can stay
launcher platform, launch rails, launcher aloft for up to 30 days, providing 24-hour
electronics, on-board command, control, battlespace coverage over extended areas.
communications, and computer (C4)
components, AIM-120 Advanced Medium Program Status. JLENS is in the EMD
Range Air-to-Air Missiles (AMRAAMs), and phase. It is using a spiral development
Sentinel (ETRAC) Sensor linkable to other joint approach. Milestone B decision is scheduled
and Army external sensors. for FY05 and Milestone C decision in FY09.
Under the VCSA-approved CMD acceleration
Program Status. The SLAMRAAM went into program both surveillance and fire control
the SDD phase in Sep 03. It is funded for radars will be available for contingency
development and fielding of one battery in deployment in FY08, with FUE in FY10.
FY06 and one battalion in FY08.
Mobile Tactical High Energy Laser
Joint Land Attack Cruise Missile Defense (MTHEL)
Elevated Netted Sensor System (JLENS)
Description. MTHEL is a combined U.S. and
Description. JLENS will be a UE or theater- Israeli effort to develop a mobile High Energy
based system using advanced sensor and Laser Weapon system prototype that is
networking technologies to provide wide-area optimized for acquiring, tracking, engaging,
surveillance and precision tracking of land negating or destroying rocket, artillery and
attack cruise missiles. JLENS is an Army lead mortar threats but will also provide a capability
joint program. As a key element of the SIAP, against short-range ballistic missiles (SRBM),
Annex D

JLENS integrates data from multiple sensors UAVS, CMs, and air-to-surface munitions. In
and C3I networks and provides correlated data the near term, deuterium fluoride chemical laser
to BMC4I nodes. JLENS consists of technologies equipped MTHEL will provide
cost-effective kills while the objective solid-
state laser technologies mature. The MTHEL
prototype may be further developed to integrate
into existing air defense architectures. A
primary objective of the effort will be to provide
a prototype capability for use in the
development of tactics, techniques and

Program Status. The FY05-09 program plan

funds the development of system technical

D-48 Army Modernization Plan 2004

5-ton tractor, three tri-band antennas, and one

Program Status. The JTAGS program is

incorporating a block acquisition approach to
upgrade to the M3P configuration and meet
objective performance requirements. This
approach secures an evolving and increasing
capability to access the similarly evolving data
provided by DSP sensors as the SBIRS
constellation replaces the aging DSP inventory.
Block 1 assures the M3P-DSP compatibility.
The Army will field six DSP-compatible M3P
requirements, extended lethality testing, and systems beginning in 4QFYO5. The transition
risk reduction to support preliminary and critical to Block 2 will occur as the SBIRS High Earth
design reviews and subsequent fabrication of Orbit (HEO) and Geosynchronous Earth Orbit
the prototype by the end of FY07. The prototype (GEO) satellites are launched and assume
development effort will culminate in operational operational capability. The Army will upgrade
and residual lethality testing through FY09. the six systems with GEO/HEO software
beginning in 2QFYO9. M3P Block 3 is planned
Joint Tactical Ground Station (JTAGS) to incorporate data from the technologies
Multi-Mission Mobile Processor (M3P) developed by the MDA and their development
efforts with the Space Tracking and
Description. The M3P is a P3I of the current, Surveillance System (formally SBIRS Low).
operationally proven JTAGS system. M3P is MDA is conducting technology demonstrations
being procured as the mobile ground segment that will lead to a Low Earth Orbit (LEO)
for the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS), constellation that will support the Ballistic Missile
the successor to the Defense Support Program Defense System and strategic and tactical
(DSP). M3P is a transportable missile warning missile warning.
and communications system that receives and
processes direct downlink data from DSP and

Annex D
SBIRS sensors. The system is capable of
supporting simultaneous operations in multiple
theaters and provides the theater combatant
commander with organic in-theater tactical
threat warning data for potential point targets
or the AOR in total. In addition, SBIRS and M3P
will provide battlespace characterization data
for situational awareness. JTAGS will interface
with DCGS-A to provide warning and
situational awareness data down to the tactical
command level. The M3P infrared data
processor and communications equipment is
contained in a 42-foot van and includes two 100
kW generators, three 5-ton cargo trucks, one

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-49

AMD Summary terrorist and CBRNE attacks through dedicated
force structure and training.
The Army is transforming its AMD capabilities
toward a network-centric system of systems The Army is activating a CBRNE operational
capability, which synergistically integrates all headquarters in FY04. This HQ will be a “one
sensors, weapons, and BMC4I. At the center stop shop” for CBRNE matters. They will
of this transformation is an Integrated Fire integrate, coordinate, deploy and provide
Control (IFC) capability, which integrates and trained and ready forces to respond to CBRNE
manages the fires of all the contributing incidents both at home and abroad. They will
systems to effectively and efficiently negate the command and control both the Explosive
threat. Implied in the implementation of the IFC Ordnance Disposal and Technical Escort Units.
capability is the standardization of the
interfaces between weapons, sensors, and CBRNE defense systems, smoke, and
battle managers. This future architecture will obscurants and their enabling technologies
enable the distributed support of engagements allow the Army to fully achieve force protection,
with available sensor assets not limited to information dominance, and full-dimensional
system-centric organic sensors. The recent protection in a WMD environment. The Army’s
acceleration of a CMD capability includes the CBRNE defense strategy is to employ focused
need to implement an IFC capability across defense against CBRNE threats so that only
Army and joint AMD, due to the low altitude units directly affected by the hazard would be
approach of cruise missiles and the necessity warned to take protective measures. Using
for elevated fire control sensors such as focused defense, large numbers of units will
JLENS. Without IFC, CMD would be neither no longer assume a full protective posture as a
effective, nor efficient. However, through the precautionary measure. Focused defense
integration of elevated fire control and allows units to operate in the lowest required
surveillance sensors, with multiple ground- protective posture without unacceptably
based interceptors, the Army will have a multi- increasing the risk to Soldiers. The Army’s
layered, distributed capability to negate not just obscuration strategy is to deny the threat’s use
cruise missiles, but all air-breathing threats. of the electromagnetic spectrum while
preserving our ability to exploit it at will.
CBRNE Defense Capabilities
Annex D

In addition to providing the means of general

The Army’s dedicated CBRNE defense units, CBRNE defense and obscuration common to
corps of trained defense experts, and all units, the Army provides increased CBRNE
enhanced nuclear, biological, and chemical defense and obscuration capability with
medical treatment capabilities, significantly specialized chemical units. CBRNE
mitigate the effects of threat CBRNE weapon reconnaissance and surveillance units with their
employment. The Army’s concept to employ point and standoff detectors and battlefield
“focused defense” against CBRNE weapons management/C2 procedures, are the principal
enables units to operate at the lowest required means for contamination avoidance. Biological
protective posture without increasing risk to the detection units provide shortened response
soldier. This protection extends throughout the times for divisions and corps to initiate their
full spectrum of operations to include homeland medical response to the growing threat of
security. The Army is augmenting installation biological warfare agents. Decontamination
commanders with the ability to respond to units restore combat power after units are

D-50 Army Modernization Plan 2004

contaminated. Information dominance is the three tenets of the Army’s overall
supported through development and modernization strategy of (1) focusing its S&T
employment of obscurants that are effective in efforts on the Future Force, (2) meeting
the visual, infrared, and millimeter ranges. immediate SBCT operational needs, and (3)
maintaining and improving the warfighting
The CBRNE defense mission area also capabilities of the rest of the Current Force
includes the Army’s efforts to address through a judicious combination of selected
homeland security. Today, the nation is modernization, recapitalization, and sustained
beginning to understand that CONUS maintenance of essential systems. The
installations and power projection platforms are following paragraphs elaborate on just some
no longer sanctuaries. The very ability to of the key CBRNE materiel programs in the
execute our force projection strategy requires Army’s modernization plans, realizing there are
CBRNE-focused defense over strategic forces numerous additional CBRNE programs in
and the means to employ them from development.
premobilization through conflict termination and
demobilization. Discussion of Key CBRNE Materiel
CBRNE Defense Modernization

The Army’s CBRNE defense modernization Vehicle Obscuration Smoke Systems (M6
effort is focused on minimizing casualties and and M7)
preserving combat power in a CBRNE
environment and creating information Description: Vehicle Obscuration Smoke
superiority through the use of obscurants. Systems provide an immediate smoke screen
Operationally, if the enemy has an offensive that can obscure threat surveillance, target
CBRNE capability, our primary goal is to deter acquisitions, and weapon guidance systems
threat use. If deterrence fails, our mission is to in the visual through the infrared spectrum. The
defend against a CBRNE attack with minimal system provides approximately 90-120
casualties and degradation, allowing seconds of obscuration, which enable the
commanders to quickly restore full combat vehicle to maneuver out of the immediate threat
power and continue their mission across the area. The M6 countermeasure discharger is

Annex D
full spectrum of operating environments. installed on Stryker platforms to provide this
capability. The M7 Light Vehicle Obscuration
The principles of CBRNE defense are sense, Smoke System provides this capability for Up-
shape, shield, and sustain. The principles of Armored HMMWVs. Both systems utilize
obscuration are sense, shape, shield, attack, 66mm grenades and a launcher configuration
and deceive. These principles support the of four tubes. Multiple launcher systems are
patterns of Army and joint operations designed utilized to provide all around screening
to provide full-dimensional protection and capability.
information dominance. In providing CBRNE
defense and obscuration systems in support Program Status: The M6 program is currently
of the Army’s transformation strategy, the Army funded to field all SBCTs. The M7 is currently
will equip its specialized Chemical units and funded to field approximately 20 percent of the
provide CBRNE defense and obscuration AAO.
items common to all units in accordance with

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-51

M56 Wheeled Smoke System (Coyote) Description. CBPS replaces the M51
Collective Protection Shelter. It consists of a
Description. The M56 Coyote is a wheeled Lightweight Multipurpose Shelter (LMS)
vehicle, which provides large area multispectral mounted on an Expanded Capacity HMMWV
screening for maneuver and support forces. variant and a 300 square foot air beam
The M56 Coyote can generate large area supported soft shelter. CBPS provides a
obscurants throughout the battlespace to contamination free, environmentally controlled
counter enemy reconnaissance, surveillance, working area for medical, combat service, and
and target acquisition systems. Missions combat service support personnel to obtain
include providing static and mobile visual, IR, relief from the continuous need to wear
and/or MMW screening in the form of a haze, chemical-biological protective clothing for 72
blanket, and curtain. Major components include hours of operation. All ancillary equipment
a turbine smoke generating system. The M56 required to provide protection, except the
uses a M1113 HMMWV chassis. The M56 generator, is mounted within the shelter.
carries enough fuel and obscurant material to
continuously produce visual smoke for up to 90 Program Status. Interim fielding of 64
minutes and 30 minutes of infrared screening systems were provided to OIF units. In Sep
smoke. A P3I will add a 30-minute MMW 03, CBPS received approval for Milestone III
obscuring capability that will defeat enemy and type classification and recommended for
radar on RSTA devices and weapon systems. full materiel release. FUE is scheduled for
A two-person crew operates the M56 and has 2QFY04. The CBPS P3I program was initiated
the capability to counter the threat arising form in FY02 to improve the CBPS system and
the wide proliferation of advanced visual and develop versions suitable for forward-deployed
IR sensors. medical units within airborne/air assault and
heavy divisions.
Program Status: Fielding of the M56
continues through FY05. Application of the Collectively Protected Deployable Medical
MMW P3I begins in FY06 with the application System (CP DEPMEDS)
of 291 modification kits to previously fielded
systems. In FY07, an additional 270 M56A1 Description. CP DEPMEDS enables field
systems will be produced containing the MMW Combat Support Hospitals (CSH) to sustain
Annex D

enhancement. Currently, 953 systems are medical operations in a chemical/biological

funded from the AAO of 1,036 systems. (CB) environment. CP DEPMEDS provides a
clean, toxic-free, environmentally controlled
Chemical Biological Protective Shelter patient treatment area, maximizing the use of
(CBPS) existing equipment to the Hospital Unit Base
of fielded Deployable Medical Systems/
Medical Reengineering Initiative CSHs for the
Army and to Air-Transportable Hospitals for the
Air Force. The program is a multi-Service effort
between the Army and Air Force. All Services
use field hospitals, which are comprised of the
same building block components. Hospitals
vary in size and configuration between the
Services. Collective protection is provided

D-52 Army Modernization Plan 2004

through the addition of M28 Collective which could be deployed against maneuver
Protection Equipment (CPE), CB protected units or stationary facilities in the theater of
environmental control units and heaters, CB operations.
protected latrines and water distribution
systems; low-pressure alarms and other Program Status. FY05 funding will procure
integration components necessary for a fully the FDA-licensed Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed
operational CB-protected hospital facility. All (AVA) doses to support the Secretary of
components are designed to integrate into Defense’s immunization program. Funding
fielded hospitals. Components will be also supports quality assurance efforts for the
packaged as a set to be provided to units IND vaccines transferred from the Salk Institute
fielding to threat areas. The CP DEPMEDS is to ensure their availability for contingency use.
installed during set up of the hospital.
Joint Service General Purpose Mask
Program Status. The FY05-09 program plan (JSGPM)
supports procurement of 13 CP DEPMEDS
and five CP DEPMEDS cold weather kits to
sustain operations in cold climates. The CP
DEPMEDS components being procured are
necessary to provide a fully operational
collective protection capability to fielded
hospitals. The components are being
packaged as a set that will be provided to
hospitals deploying to a CB threat area. Five
CP DEPMEDS will be prepositioned to
support rapid deployment and the remaining Description. JSGPM is designed to replace
placed in Army War Reserve. the M40/M42/MCU-2/P series mask. JSGPM
will increase the Soldier’s ability to perform
Joint Vaccine Acquisition Program mission essential tasks because physiological
(JVAP) burdens, such as breathing resistance, will be
substantially reduced and the field of vision will
Description. The JVAP manages full-scale be significantly improved. A key feature of the

Annex D
licensed vaccine production, stockpiling, mask will be reduced weight and bulk.
testing, and distribution. Products to be
procured and stockpiled under the JVAP Program Status. JSGPM replaces existing
include recombinant botulinum, next generation mask systems (M40/M42 and MCU-2/P series)
anthrax, plague, smallpox, tularemia, and at the end of their 10-15 year service life.
Venezuelan equine encephalitis. The program Fielding is scheduled to begin in 4QFY06.
also supports potency and integrity testing as
well as quality assurance for Investigational Joint Service Lightweight Integrated Suit
New Drug (IND) vaccines transferred from the Technology (JLIST)
Salk Institute. Medical programs such as this
under the Joint Biological Defense Programs Description. JLIST is an all-Service program
provides U.S. forces with Food and Drug and, like the Saratoga, provides both vapor and
Administration (FDA) approved vaccines to liquid protection from the damaging effects of
protect against current and emerging threats, all known biological and chemical agents and

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-53

radiological particles. The JLIST ensemble Radiac, and M22 Automatic Chemical Agent
includes a blouse, trousers, and protective Detector/Alarm (ACADA). The M93A1 Fox is
footwear (and a planned glove) and will replace also equipped with an advanced GPS/
the currently fielded Saratoga when the shelf Autonomous Navigation System (ANAV) that
life for that suit expires. The program provides enables the system to accurately locate and
state-of-the-art protection, reduced heat stress, report agent contamination. It has an over-
full compatibility with all interfacing equipment, pressure filtration system that fully protects the
longer wear, launderability, a single technical three-person crew while conducting its CBRNE
data package, and technical data manual, a reconnaissance mission.
standard tariff, split issue to improve fit and
reduce inventory, and flame retardancy. JLIST Program Status. The M93/M93A1 systems
promotes commonality and standardization to were deployed with every major combat
maximize resources. formation as part of OIF and continue to support
OIF units as well as elements of the Iraqi Survey
Program Status. Soldiers in OEF and OIF Group (ISG). The FY05-09 program plan funds
employed the JLIST ensemble. Procurement complete fielding of this system and upgrades
continues through FY05 for the JLIST of existing systems.
ensemble, which includes 342,400
overgarments and 246,154 boots. RDT&E will M31/M31A1/M31E2 Biological Integrated
continue through FY08 to provide upgrades and Detection System (BIDS)
improvements for heat stress reduction and
dusty agent protection. Description. The BIDS consists of a shelter
mounted on a dedicated vehicle (M1097A1
M93/M93A1 Nuclear Biological Chemical HMMWV) and equipped with a biological
Reconnaissance System (Fox) detection suite employing complementary
technologies to detect large area biological
Description. The Nuclear, Biological and attacks. It can detect all types of biological
Chemical Reconnaissance System (NBCRS)– warfare (BW) agents in less than ten minutes,
Fox Block I Modification (M93A1) contains an and identify any eight agents simultaneously in
enhanced CBRN sensor suite consisting of the less than 30 minutes.
M21 Remote Sensing Chemical Agent Alarm
Annex D

(RSCAAL), MM1 Mobile Mass Spectrometer, Program Status. The nondevelopmental item
Chemical Agent Monitor/ Improved Chemical (NDI) version of the BIDS is fully fielded. The
Agent Monitor (CAM/ICAM), AN/VDR-2 Beta BIDS (M31/M31A1) was extensively employed
in support of the global war on terrorism
(Operations Noble Eagle, Enduring Freedom
and Iraqi Freedom). The P3I version is in full
rate production with the anticipated completion
of fielding to the 13th Chemical Company in
3QFY04. Upgrades are continuing with both
the NDI and P3I versions. The M31E2 version
is completing final operational testing and
began fielding in 4QFY03 with a projected
completion in FY05.

D-54 Army Modernization Plan 2004

Stryker-NBCRV standoff detection, ranging, tracking,
discrimination (manmade versus naturally
Description. The Stryker-NBCRV will occurring aerosol), and generic detection
incorporate the Block II NBCRV integrated (biological versus nonbiological) of suspected
chemical and biological point detectors that will large area BW aerosol clouds for advance
allow on-the-move, standoff BC agent warning, reporting, and protection.
detection. The Chemical Biological Mass
Spectrometer (CBMS) Block II will improve the Program Status. The JBSDS Block I
detection and identification of liquid chemical program is on track for a Milestone C decision
agents while providing a first-time biological and LRIP contract award in 2QFY04.
agent detection capability to the
reconnaissance platform. The Block II sensor Joint Portal Shield Detector System (JPS)
suite will automatically integrate contamination
information with data from onboard navigation Description. The JPS is DOD’s first
and meteorological systems and rapidly automated, networked biological detection
transmit contamination hazard and clear area systems. The system uses an innovative
intelligence to the appropriate operations network of sensors to increase the probability
center. Integration of the common CBRN of detecting a BW attack while decreasing
technical architecture will allow for expansion/ false alarms and consumables. The JPS can
upgrading of the onboard computers at detect and presumptively identify up to eight
minimal cost, as well as the command and BW agents simultaneously in less than 25
control of CBRN-sensing UAVS and minutes.
Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) in the
Future Force system. Program Status. The JPS operates in Pacific
Command (PACOM) and Central Command
Program Status. Stryker-NBCRV Milestone (CENTCOM) areas of operation. Twelve
C decision in 2QFY04 will provide for LRIP. additional sites have been directed by the
Production Verification Testing (PVT) and Deputy Secretary of Defense (DEPSECDEF)
IOT&E are planned for FY04/05. The FY05-09 for PACOM and CENTCOM Combatant
program plan funds Stryker NBCRV fielding to Commanders. The Defense Emergency
all SBCTs. Response Fund (DERF) funds the upgrade of

Annex D
237 Portal Shield units with Biological Aerosol
Joint Biological Standoff Detector System

Description. The JBSDS is the first joint

biological standoff detection program. The
JBSDS will be a standoff, early-warning
biological detection system. The system will
be capable of providing near real-time detection
of biological attacks/incidents, and standoff
early-warning detection/warning of BW agents
at fixed sites or when mounted on multiple
platforms, including NBC reconnaissance
platforms. It will be capable of providing

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-55

Warning Sensor (BAWS). Fifty-four additional the-move vapor detection from a variety of
units will be procured as part of CB Installation tactical and reconnaissance platforms at
Protection Equipment. distances up to 5 km. Enhanced early warning
for contamination avoidance is the competency
Joint Chemical Agent Standoff Detection of the system. When avoidance is not possible,
System (ARTEMIS) JSLSCAD will provide extra time for Soldiers
to don full protective equipment.
Description. The ARTEMIS will provide an
autonomous active standoff sensor system that Program Status. The JSLSCAD is in a five-
will detect and identify chemical warfare agents year developmental effort that includes ground-,
and toxic industrial chemicals in the form of air- and sea-based platforms. Production is
vapors, aerosols, and rains in ranges and scheduled to start after Milestone III in 3QFY04.
sensitivity levels sufficient to institute applicable Three follow-on production options are planned:
contamination avoidance procedures and the first option is to refurbish the test units; the
conduct reconnaissance operations. The second option is for initial production; the third
system will have the ability to perform standoff option is for full-scale production.
detection and warning, agent identification, and
detailed mapping. The detailed mapping Joint Chemical Agent Detector (JCAD)
capability will provide predictive levels of
contamination based on agent concentration. Description. JCAD
will be a combined
Program Status. A formal requirements portable monitoring
document is currently submitted for approval and small point
for the ARTEMIS Increment 1 Milestone B chemical agent
review. detector for individual
Soldier applications.
Joint Service Lightweight Standoff This hand-held,
Chemical Agent Detector (JSLSCAD) pocket-sized detector
will be designed to
Description. JSLSCAD is a lightweight, automatically detect,
passive, standoff, chemical agent detector identify, and quantify
Annex D

capable of providing up to 360 degrees on- chemical agents.

Status. The contractor is currently building

prototypes, which are undergoing agent

Joint Service Light Weight NBC Recon


Description. JSLNBCRS provides point and

standoff intelligence for real-time field
assessment of NBC hazards. The system is a
vehicle-mounted suite of equipment and

D-56 Army Modernization Plan 2004

systems to remove, neutralize and
eliminate NBC hazards posing threats
to military operations. The JSFDS will
consist of a Joint Service Man-
Portable Decontamination System
(JSM-PDS), a small-scale and a
large-scale Joint Service
Transportable Decontamination
System (JSTDS), a Joint Service
software designed to detect, collect, analyze, Stationary Decontamination System (JSSDS),
mark, and disseminate NBC data. and a Joint Service Personnel/Skin
Decontamination System (JSPDS).
Program Status. IOC is scheduled for
1QFY05. FUE is projected for FY06. Program Status. The initial increment for
these systems will provide the warfighter with
Joint Warning and Reporting Network an enhanced fixed-site, equipment and
(JWARN) personnel decontamination capability. Follow-
on increments will increase the capability
Description. The JWARN provides standard through technology insertion. FY05 funding will
integration and analysis of NBC detection procure 169 LRIP decontamination systems for
information with command, control, use in operational testing and ultimate fielding.
communications, computers, information and
intelligence (C4I2) on the battlefield. JWARN Joint Service Sensitive Equipment
automates the NBC warning and reporting Decontamination (JSSED)System
processes now performed manually throughout
the Services. The JWARN will consist of COTS Description. The JSSED will fill a need to
hardware with JWARN software for C4I2. decontaminate chemical and biological
JWARN is being developed for deployment with
warfare agents from sensitive equipment,
NBC detectors in the following battlefield
vehicle and aircraft interiors, and associated
applications: combat and armored vehicles,
cargo. The JSSED will consist of at least two
tactical vehicles, vans, shelters, shipboard

Annex D
distinct systems: an XM25 system for sensitive
application, area warning, and fixed sites. items and equipment and a second system to
concentrate on aircraft/vehicle interiors. A
Program Status. IOC for the COTS was proposed P3I will include the ability to
completed in 4QFY99 and IOC with the C4 and
decontaminate the aircraft/vehicle interiors on
ISR systems within the Global Command and the move while the aircraft/vehicle remains in
Control System-Army (GCCS-A) is scheduled flight/operations.
for 3QFY04.
Program Status. The technology for the
Joint Service Family of Decontamination XM25 has transitioned to development with an
Systems (JFSDS) approved requirements document to be issued
in Mar 04 for Increment 1.
Description. The JSFDS program will provide
the warfighter with a family of environmentally
friendly decontaminants and application

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-57

M100 Sorbent Decontamination System will exercise production options for 25 JBAIDS
(SDS) with another 141 planned in FY05.
Description. The SDS is intended to replace
the M11 and M13 Decon Apparatuses: Non-invasive Filler Identification (NFI)
Portable (DAPs) currently employed in System
operators’ spray-down operations associated
with immediate decontamination. The SDS Description. The NFI System provides a
uses a reactive sorbent powder to remove nondestructive method of identifying the filler
chemical agents from surfaces. Use of the of unexploded ordnance (UXO) without having
SDS decreases decontamination time and to open the munitions case, which might result
eliminates the need for water. in detonation or release of chemical, biological
or radioactive material. NFI enables the
EOD Soldier to determine the appropriate
procedures and safety precautions to be
followed in eliminating the UXO hazard. It
is one-person portable, computerized and

Program Status. The AAO is 127. The

institutional training school and EOD units
Status. Currently being fielded to all users on in operational theaters will be fielded with 21
a free first issue basis. The M100 SDS is also systems in FY05.
currently available for purchase using normal
supply channels. Large Improvised Explosive Device (IED)
Joint Biological Agent Identification and
Diagnostics System (JBAIDS) Description. Large IED countermeasures is
a family of systems that allows EOD Soldiers
Description. The JBAIDS program is the first to rapidly access and disrupt large (vehicle)
effort by the DOD to develop and field a IEDs (over 100 lb net explosive weight) without
having to access the vehicle to employ a
Annex D

common medical test equipment platform

among all the Services. JBAIDS will identify disrupter. The FY05 fielding schedule includes
both BW agents and pathogens of operational acquisition of the Medium Directional Energy
concern, and will be used as a diagnostic tool Tool (MDET). The MDET fires a water charge
by medical professionals to treat patients. A from at least 2 feet away into the vehicle to
multi-block configuration, spiral development prevent it from detonating or to minimize
and fielding approach is proposed. JBAIDS damage of detonation (explosive yield). MDET
is comprised of platform test equipment brings a new capability to the battlefield; current
hardware (includes computer and case), assay procedures require the use of several small
test kits specific to BW agents, and protocols IEDs placed on the vehicle, risking immediate
for sample preparation and system operation. detonation.

Program Status. JBAIDS is currently in the Program Status. The AAO of 133 is to be
SDD phase. In FY04, the JBAIDS program fielded in FY05 to EOD units and to Army
Prepositioned Stock (APS).

D-58 Army Modernization Plan 2004

Man-Transportable Robotic System while conducting a robust S&T effort is critical
(MTRS) to preventing technological surprise from new
CB agents or different employment means.
Description. The MTRS provides a two- Recapitalizing and maintaining the Current
person portable, lightweight robotic system Force is necessary to enable transformation
capable of being helicopter transported, to give and mitigates risk by extending the useful life
EOD Soldiers remote reconnaissance of current systems within fiscal constraints. This
capability in situations where current Remote modernization plan assures a disciplined
Ordnance Neutralization System (RONS) is too approach to meeting mission-based
big to employ. Experience in the Balkans, requirements of the Current Force and
Afghanistan, and Iraq has shown the limitations developing enhanced CBRNE defense
of the current RONS. Small robots provided capabilities for the Future Force.
by OSD Office of Special Technology to EOD
forces of all Services for evaluation in Space Capabilities Enabling Force
Afghanistan and Iraq have demonstrated the Protection
need for smaller, portable, robotic systems.
Lack of this capability requires EOD Soldiers In addition to AMD and CBRNE defense
to physically approach the device and manually capabilities, military utilization of space
perform reconnaissance and render safe capabilities to enable force protection primarily
procedures in confined spaces. Requirements through warning and space control has steadily
for additional MTRS as well as classified grown. Space control is an evolving facet of
jamming systems were initiated and validated force protection that facilitates freedom of
in response to the increased threat and action for maneuver forces and space assets.
sophistication of the potential threats. It involves four interrelated objectives:
Surveillance of space assets to understand
Program Status. The MTRS AAO of 133 is their mission and operations; Protection
funded in FY05-06. Lessons learned from the (defensive or offensive) of our space systems
EOD mission in OIF/OEF identified additional from hostile actions; Prevention (active or
requirements for total of 313 MTRSs and block passive) of unauthorized access to and
upgrades for FY06-09. These requirements exploitation of our space systems; and, when
will be considered in the FY06-11 program plan

Annex D
directed, Negation (deny, disrupt, deceive,
build. degrade or destroy ground or space assets or
communications links between them) of hostile
CBRNE Defense Summary space systems that place our interests at risk.
Our ever-increasing reliance on space
Among the significant changes to the future combined with the advantages an adversary
strategic environment, proliferation of WMD is can garner from both foreign government and
recognized as a principal asymmetric threat commercial space capabilities makes space
capable of providing an adversary military control a long-term operational priority.
advantage to neutralize overwhelming
conventional superiority. Having an effective The Army contributes to the nation’s space
CBRNE defense is a necessary component of control capability through use of the ground-
any defense strategy that seeks to demonstrate based space surveillance systems on
to the adversary that use of WMD will not gain Kwajalein Atoll. When not committed to
the advantage sought. Modernizing the force Ballistic Missile Defense R&D, these radars

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-59

help the U.S. Strategic Command identify and Appendix 3: Focused Logistics
characterize potential adversary space (FL)
Focused Logistics is the ability to sustain the
The Army’s only current operational Space
Joint Force with the right personnel, equipment,
Control capabilities are embodied in Big Crow
supplies, and support in the right place at the
(BC) operated by the Army Space and Missile
right time, and in the right quantities, across
Defense Command (SMDC) Space Electronic
the full range of military operations. This is
Warfare Detachment. BC is a multifaceted,
made possible through a real-time web-based
multi-platform electronic warfare (EW)
information system that provides accurate,
capability used to assess and stress electronic
actionable events as part of a common
systems in development. The Army is
operational picture, effectively linking the
conducting S&T and RDT&E efforts,
operator and logistician across joint forces.
developing doctrinal, organizational, and
Key support functions include deployment,
operational concepts and planning an
distribution, global mobility and the ability to
acquisition strategy to bring new Space Control
sustain the force and provide medical support
capabilities to the warfighter. The Army has a
to combat forces.
joint partnership with the USAF to pursue
terrestrial-based space control solutions for
This appendix provides a brief discussion of
direct support of Army forces and is preparing
the Army’s FL capabilities that support required
for a Milestone A decision for Space Electronic
Joint Force capabilities and the key materiel
Warfare System (SEWS).
programs associated with these capabilities.
Highlighted are improvements to the
Summary of Protection
deployment distribution process, the
equipment-lift capabilities necessary to make
The Army’s Protection capabilities must the Army more strategically responsive, and key
continue to improve against an expanding, materiel programs that provide assured
significant threat arsenal, which includes mobility and force sustainment.
information operations, terrorist attacks, and
other asymmetric threats. The Army’s AMD Improving the Deployment Distribution
Annex D

and CBRNE defense modernization programs Process

and leveraging of space-based protection
assets are increasingly important to developing
The central responsibility of the Army under Title
these Protection capabilities. These critical
10, USC, is to conduct prompt and sustained
systems and the sound, doctrinal operational
operations on land as a component of the Joint
concepts they support will mitigate these threats
Force. Fulfilling this responsibility rests, to a
by improving freedom of action for friendly
very large extent, on the Army’s ability to rapidly
forces during deployment, maneuver, and
project lethal, survivable and sustainable
engagement and providing better protection at
combat power as part of the Joint Force. While
all echelons, both at home and abroad. In this
the Army is largely dependent on Joint Force
way, Army Protection capabilities will enable
projection capabilities, we continue our own
Force Application capabilities of the Joint
efforts to enhance our deployment capability
and responsiveness while reducing our
deployment requirements. Our efforts will

D-60 Army Modernization Plan 2004

continue to enhance our speed and agility in providing improved situational awareness and
today’s threat environment. the ability to respond faster to unforeseen
We have increased our capabilities to defeat
both anti-access and area-denial efforts Equipment Lift Capabilities
through speed of deployments, leveraging
information technology, modular force design, Extensive analysis and wargaming has shown
future concepts and improved equipment. The that both current as well as many planned
Army provides unique capabilities to gain, strategic and intra-theater air and sealift
enhance, and maintain assured access. We platforms do not support future warfighting
have reviewed the current security environment concepts. Many current sealift platforms require
and initiated actions to reposition forces and deep-water ports to berth and off load. The
equipment to support today’s security availability of such ports is limited
environment and tomorrow’s emerging threats. geographically to industrial nations and are
Forward-deployed forces, prepositioned conspicuously absent in most nations south of
stocks, regional bases/flotillas and facilities, the equator.
assured access through standing agreements
with allies and other nations, regional Further, the limited number of these ports
engagement by special operation and makes them more vulnerable to many anti-
conventional forces, and multinational access measures and jeopardizes the
exercises are all instrumental in shaping a deployment of the joint warfighting force.
position of strength in a given region. Advanced sealift capabilities that provide for
brown water and over-the-horizon sealift are
Improving deployment and sustainment of the critical to support efforts designed to defeat
force requires enhance command and control anti-access and area denial methods. High-
and information systems that network and speed, shallow draft vessels can leverage
integrate information and data across the Joint numerous ports in all areas of the world and
Force. The Army continues to work toward this thus support the concept of multiple, parallel
standard in our Future Force development. The seaports of debarkation which is fundamental
Army currently has a number of automation in overcoming anti-access challenges.
systems, each with a joint foundation, that are

Annex D
designed to assist in the overall command, Existing strategic air platforms such as the C-5
control, movement, and tracking of personnel Galaxy can carry enormous loads but are
and equipment during deployments and dependent on world-class airports for both
operations. embarkation and debarkation. The C-17 and
C-130 provide the only capability today of
The design and emergence of systems such bypassing these major choke points from
as the Global Combat Service Support (GCSS) appreciable distances while maximizing load
Army, Battle Command Sustainment Support capacities. Even so, they are still constrained
System (BCS3), and Transportation to at least a 3,000-foot runway and in many
Coordinators Automated Information for cases (weather, terrain, and environment
Movement System II (TC-AIMS II), will enhance dependent) may require 5,000 to 6,000 feet
the deployment and sustainment of forces by with sizeable loads. The venerable C-130 is
facilitating the exchange of data between Army further hampered by significant payload,
units and the Combatant Commanders thus altitude, and range limitations and cannot be

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-61

refueled in mid-air. These capability limitations in sufficient size and at a considerable speed
not only severely constrain our ability to execute to provide immediate combat power to the
assured access strategies, but they demand a Joint Force Commander. Because it has a
nearby intermediate staging base to transload shallow draft feature, it can bypass established
equipment, personnel and sustainment from seaports and discharge its combat power
inter- to intra-theater lift platforms. None of the wherever there is at least a 10-foot draft and
airlift platforms are suitable for air sustainment, an acceptable offload site. With a C4I suite
nor can they support rapid shift of maneuver onboard, commanders can conduct en route
forces and sustainment across the breadth and planning, receive intelligence updates, and
depth of the battlespace. integrate with the Joint Force Commander.

To overcome the limitations of these strategic Super Short Takeoff and Landing (SSTOL)
air platforms, larger capacity Super Short Take Aircraft. The SSTOL is a joint aircraft with the
Off and Landing (SSTOL) and/or Heavy Lift ability to carry two FCS platforms 3,500 miles.
Vertical Take Off and Landing (HLVTOL) It can land on 750 feet of road or field in the
platforms are required in substantial quantities joint area of operations, which avoids fixed
for air movement of the Future Force. Shallow airfields and adds innumerable points of entry.
draft high-speed sealift and advanced, intra- It provides the Joint Force Commander the
theater sealift designs are required for austere ability to achieve operational surprise.
seaport access. Whether the goals
encompass operational maneuver from Heavy Lift Vertical Takeoff and Landing
strategic distances, use of multiple (HLVTOL) Aircraft. The HLVTOL is an aircraft
simultaneous austere points of entry, vertical with the ability to deliver one FCS within a
maneuver and envelopment, dominant radius of 1,000 miles. The ability to insert
maneuver, precision engagement and focused combat vehicles vertically gives the
logistics, SSTOL and HLVTOL technology commander unparalleled speed and agility.
solutions are needed sooner rather than later. Generally independent of ground conditions, it
enables the Joint Force Commander to
These kinds of platforms further provide a conduct vertical envelopment and vertical
quality of versatility and adaptability necessary maneuver, as well as the ability to avoid
to enable Army and Joint Force Commanders predictable, linear patterns of operation. It also
Annex D

to adjust movement of forces and sustainment offers significant benefits to vertical joint
in stride in response to the evolution of the logistics over-the-shore.
campaign and the enemy’s own actions.
Funding the S&T and procurement required to Discussion of Key Equipment-Lift
bring advanced lift capabilities to the Joint Materiel Programs
Force is a joint challenge. The Army alone
cannot develop, procure and field such systems Theater Support Vessel (TSV)
due to both budgetary and regulatory
constraints. Instead, the Army encourages joint Description. The TSV is the operational
S&T emphasis on the following efforts. version of the strategic SDHSS. It is another
source of flexibility and agility within a theater
Shallow Draft High-Speed Ship (SDHSS). as it allows the Joint Force Commander to
An SDHSS is a strategic ship that can deliver insert combat power and sustainment into
troops, equipment, and sustainment together austere ports worldwide. Supporting Army

D-62 Army Modernization Plan 2004

efforts to determine advantages and
disadvantages of combining TSV/HSV into a
single joint program.

Precision Extended Glide Airdrop System


Description. PEGASYS is a high-altitude

capable, autonomously operated precision
airdrop system. The system consists of a
family of different-sized airfoils, allowing airdrop
of weight categories up to approximately
Prepositioned Stocks and Joint Logistics Over- 42,000 lbs. PEGASYS is not totally wind
the-Shore (JLOTS), the TSV expands the reach dependent and is releasable from altitudes up
and possibilities of prepositioning both on land to approximately 35,000 feet at mean sea level
and afloat. The TSV is a high-speed, 40+ (MSL). Based upon winds and release altitude,
knots, shallow draft sealift platform that will 50 km standoff distances are also possible.
maximize current commercial ferry technology. Space-based GPS technology provides for
The TSV provides the capability to conduct aerial navigation/maneuverability throughout
operational maneuver and repositioning of descent, steering into the wind as necessary,
intact unit sets while conducting En route and permitting highly accurate ground
Mission Planning and Rehearsal (EMPR). This touchdown locations. PEGASYS is a critical
intra-theater vessel provides the Combatant logistics transformation enabler that facilitates
Commander with increased throughput, dedicated aerial sustainment and helps
increased survivability, increased achieve full distribution-based logistics.
responsiveness, and improved closure rates.
This transport transformation enabler helps Program Status. The PEGASYS ORD is in
obtain force deployment goals as well as development and will be modified as needed
achieving full distribution-based logistics. during the upcoming FY04 Joint Precision Air
Drop System (JPADS) ACTD. This ACTD will
Program Status. Two vessels are being procure three to five of the candidate prototypes

Annex D
leased as experimentation platforms to support for use in the operational demonstration,
the objective TSV program. The first vessel, mature them to a level suitable for operational
USAV Joint Venture, High-Speed Vessel use, and assure interoperability and
(HSV)-X1, was shared with the Navy through communication.
FY03 and is now an Army only vessel. The
second vessel, USAV Spearhead, TSV-1X, is Assured Mobility Capabilities
the flagship of an OSD approved ACTD
program and is on deployment order to the Assured mobility capabilities support Force
CENTCOM AOR in support of OIF. Both Application by maneuver forces as well as
vessels are currently in Hobart, Australia for Focused Logistics by sustainment forces. A
annual maintenance period and ACTD critical factor in sustaining operations is the
modification. The current program of record ability of forces to move and to properly
purchases two vessels in FY08 and two in maneuver over the depth and breadth of the
FY09. The Army and the USMC are combining battlefield while impeding/slowing/blocking our

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-63

enemy’s movement. OEF and OIF highlighted Program Status. AN/PSS 14 production
the enduring importance of systems that began in FY03.
provide ground forces the capability of
detecting, defeating, and emplacing minefields Ground Standoff Minefield Detection
and other obstacle effects thus allowing System (GSTAMIDS)
unparalleled freedom of maneuver. This
capability supports the commander’s dominant
maneuver capabilities that are critical to
gaining the positional advantage needed to
retain the initiative and enhance joint precision
fires as well as ensuring sustainment force
movement remains effective across the
distributed battlefield environment.

Discussion of Key Assured Mobility Description. GSTAMIDS Block 0 clears a 20

Materiel Programs km route in 12 hours using a remote-operated
detection vehicle, Mine Protected Clearance
AN/PSS-14 Handheld Standoff Mine Vehicle (MPCV), and a towing vehicle with
Detection System (HSTAMIDS) proofing trailers. GSTAMIDS Block 1 clears a
40 km route in six hours. The detection vehicle
Description. The AN/PSS-14 is a handheld utilizes a multi-sensor mine detection suite
mine detector capable of detecting metallic and consisting of metal detection, ground
nonmetallic anti-tank (AT) and anti-personnel penetrating radar (GPR), quadruple resonance
(AP) mines. This system combines the (QR), and IR to locate all anti-tank mine types.
maturing technology of ground penetrating The MPCV provides Soldiers a blast-protected
radar (GPR) and improved metal detection vehicle from which to remotely operate the lead
(MD) to provide a high probability of detection detection vehicle and mine detection
for both large and small metallic and nonmetallic subsystems.
AT and AP mines. The AN/PSS 14 will
significantly Program Status. Production of two
GSTAMIDS Block 0 is complete and scheduled
Annex D

detection of for employment in FY04 to support current
the smaller, operations. GSTAMIDS Block 1 begins
low-metal production in FY07.
AP mines
with a Improved Ribbon Bridge (IRB)
probability of
detection for Description. The IRB, fielded to Multi-Role
all mine types Bridge Companies (MRBC), provides a
in excess of continuous roadway or raft capable of crossing
95 percent. assault vehicles or tactical vehicles over non-
fordable wet gaps. The capability of the bridge/
raft system is Military Load Class (MLC) 100
Wheeled and MLC 80 Tracked. The bridge
sections are transported by Common Bridge

D-64 Army Modernization Plan 2004

Transporters providing enhanced mobility for
site selection. Each MRBC will have the
capability of 210 meters of bridging. The
system is external airlift/transportable by CH-
47 and CH-53 helicopters. The bridge bays
are air transportable, partially disassembled,
in C-130s. The IRB has enhanced capabilities
of: current speeds up to 10.3 feet per second,
2.1 meter bank access, 4.5 meter roadway
width, improved hydrostatic capabilities, and
various other design improvements.
will have 4 REBS. This system is transportable
by CH-47 and CH-53 helicopters and C-130
aircraft. Two Soldiers can deploy the REBS in
the daytime within 10 minutes with little or no
site preparation.

Program Status. A five-year, multi-year

contract was awarded in FY01 for 18 systems
with an option for 22 systems. FUE is
scheduled for 4QFY04.

Dry Support Bridge (DSB)

Description. The DSB is a modular bridge

that can span a 40-meter gap in 90 minutes
with eight Soldiers. It significantly reduces the
manpower and time needed to construct a
tactical bridge when compared to current
systems, and possesses greater load
capability. One bridge set provides either a

Annex D
40-meter bridge or two 20-meter bridges. The
Program Status. A five-year, multi-year
bridge will cross MLC 96W/70T traffic and will
contract awarded in FY00 provides for 13 of
allow the crossing of a heavy-equipment
20 MRBCs with the IRB. Four units were fielded
transporter carrying an M1A1 MBT. One system
in FY03, with the remaining nine units being
includes a launcher permanently mounted on a
fielded with the IRB in FY04-05.
Palletized Load System (PLS), three CBTs and
three PLS trailers which carry the modular
Rapidly Emplaced Bridge System (REBS)
components as palletized loads. A bridge set
consists of six M1077 flat-rack loads of bridge
Description. The REBS provides a bridge
components, one M1077 flat-rack load of
with a four-meter roadway width, MLC 30
launch beams, and a launcher vehicle.
Tracked (T) and Wheeled (W) Normal and MLC
40(T)(W) Caution crossings across 13-meter
Program Status. A multi-year contract
gaps for the SBCTs. Transported on a
awarded in FY00 provides 15 of 20 MRBCs
common bridge transporter (CBT), each SBCT

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-65

the DSB. Fielding initiated in FY03 will continue enable the commander to develop and evaluate
at about two MRBCs per year for systems effective offensive and defensive courses of
funded. action in line with logistical parameters.

Sustainment Capabilities The COP produced by seeing first will allow

leaders of the Joint Force to understand current
Army forces must be sustainable across the logistics postures and supplies and the ability
spectrum of conflict. Sustainability to respond to known requirements. Leaders
requirements reflect the continuous, at all levels—strategic, operational and tactical
uninterrupted provision of combat service —will observe the COP and simultaneously
support to Army forces. A full-spectrum Army analyze and share assessments through a
will require a combat service support reach collaborative planning process enabled by
capability that allows commanders to reduce information technologies.
stockpiles in theater while relying on technology
to provide sustained velocity management and Future Force commanders will be able to
real-time tracking of supplies and equipment. leverage this information to enhance
collaborative planning, reduce the decision
Leveraging information technology and cycle and seize the initiative, and build combat
innovative concepts to develop an power prior to, during and after operations.
interoperable, joint C4 and ISR architecture is
also critical to development of a joint operational The BCS3 embedded within the Army Battle
picture that includes logistics information. Command System (ABCS), and the C4 and
Future Force units will “see first” by identifying ISR enhancements will improve the connectivity
current status of equipment readiness and and network between tactical, operational and
sustainment requirements and the flow of strategic units and provide a logistical COP to
logistics to enhance combat power. all commanders. ABCS is interoperable with
both joint and multinational systems and
The Current Force has employed advanced leverages theater assets, like JSTARS.
technologies coupled with a ubiquitous array
of networked ground, air, and space sensors Discussion of Key Sustainment Materiel
Annex D

to provide the commander an unprecedented

logistics operating picture. Sensors (RF tags
and interrogators) coupled with the Movement Transportation Coordinators’ Automated
Tracking System (MTS) have enabled a clear Information for Movement System II (TC-
picture of the movement of supplies to the AIMS II).
Description. TC-AIMS II is a Logistics
Future data fusion and systems, like the Joint Transformation enabler that establishes the
Global Information Grid (GIG), coupled with baseline for the deployment infrastructure
innovative leader training, will enable logistic needed to meet Future Force deployment
decision makers to view a synthesized, objectives. The Army is the lead for the
common operational picture (COP) of development of this joint system, which
sustainment requirements. This COP will addresses critical shortfalls in the movement
provide near real-time status and locations of of materiel and personnel in support of DOD
inventories to effect combat power. This will operations and the Joint Deployment Process.

D-66 Army Modernization Plan 2004

CJCSI 3020.01 directed the Services to field CSS) asset visibility and situational awareness
TC-AIMS II to their early deploying units by the for the Joint Logistics Corporate Enterprise,
end of FY03. TC-AIMS II merges the best enables Distribution-Based Logistics, and is
business practices of the current Service- a key step in achieving the sense and respond
unique transportation automated information capabilities required to support network-centric
systems into a single system that combines the warfare operations. MTS assists CS/CSS unit
requirements for Unit Movement, Installation commanders in planning and executing
Transportation Office/Transportation operations with the capability to identify and
Management Office, and Theater Distribution track positions, monitor progress and
functional areas as well as integrating several communicate with tactical wheeled vehicles
legacy systems of each of the four Services. supporting CS/CSS operations within the
TC-AIMS II improves joint capabilities for rapid tactical area. MTS is a satellite-based tracking/
worldwide deployment, and redeployment, and communications system consisting of mobile
enables individual units the autonomous units, transceivers, control stations, a global
capability to conduct rapid crisis response at positioning system, common operating
UA level. Each battalion and separate software and MTS unique software.
company will be trained on TC-AIMS II and
provided with a complete suite of computer Program Status. MTS is being procured in
hardware. blocks. MTS Block I is in full rate production
under a full materiel release. Fielding began
Program Status. The TC-AIMS II program with III Corps in FY01 and continues with priority
has been segmented into five blocks of fielding to OIF deploying units that are
requirements that support a spiral software supporting Coalition Forces Land Component
development strategy. TC-AIMS II Block I was Command (CFLCC) efforts.
fielded to USAREUR, fielding continues to the
Army and the USN to achieve a Full Battle Command Sustainment Support
Operational Capability (FOC) in all Services System (BCS3) (previously the Combat
by FY09. Service Support Control System (CSSCS))

Movement Tracking System (MTS) Description. The BCS3 is a decision support

system embedded within the overall Army’s

Annex D
Description. MTS is a critical logistics Battle Command System (ABCS) that assists
transformation enabler. It provides continuous commanders and their staffs in planning and
combat support/combat service support (CS/ executing CSS operations and is key to building
and sustaining combat power in a continuous
operational environment over extended
distances. BCS3 will rapidly collect, store,
analyze and disseminate critical logistics,
medical, and personnel information. BCS3 is
the CSS component of the Army Battle
Command System (ABCS), as well as a key
logistic enabler in the Army’s transformation
efforts and will be interoperable with GCSS
Army. BCS3 is comprised of computer units,
common operating software and unique

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-67

logistics readiness information. Improved
software will achieve CSS integration that is
currently lacking in the Army’s present business
systems/processes. Most importantly, the
modernization is targeted to improve business
operations up and down the supply chain while
providing the capabilities to meet Future Force
CSS objectives.

Program Status. The LMP is well underway

and due for completion in FY04. GCSS Army
commenced in 4QFY03 with implementation
in FY07 through FY09.

Combat Service Support Automated

Information System Interface (CAISI)

software. BCS3 is deployable in a tabletop Description. The Combat Service Support

configuration, with or without storage/transit Automated Information System Interface
cases, and in Standardized Integrated (CAISI) was developed to provide CSS
Command Post Systems (SICPS) Standard Army Management Information
configurations. Systems (STAMIS) with an automated access
to battle command systems and networks.
Program Status. BCS3 is in full production. CAISI uses off-the-shelf technology to enable
Fielding began with III Corps in FY96 and this capability.
continues to III Corps and the SBCTs through
2008. Program Status. CAISI is currently being
fielded to SBCTs and is being selectively
Global Combat Service Support (GCSS) fielded to other forward-deployed ABCS-
Army equipped units.
Annex D

Description. GCSS Army is the Army’s Authorized Stockage List Mobility System
primary enabler for CSS transformation. It (ASLMS)
supports the functions of manning, arming,
fixing, fueling, moving and sustaining Soldiers Description. With the potential to become the
and their systems. GCSS Army will be “Army Standard Logistics Mobility System,” the
integrated with the Logistics Modernization ASLMS provides seamless garrison-to-field
Program (LMP) at the national level to provide modularized storage for authorized stockage
a seamless enterprise-wide logistics list repair parts. This Modular Storage and
environment that spans from the factory to the Transportation (MS&T) container is a durable,
foxhole, fully integrated with emerging Joint fully mobile repair parts container that is
Battle Command architectures. Both LMP and compatible with the Army’s Load Handling
GCSS Army feature centralized total asset System and Palletized Load System. The
visibility, distribution-based supply, enterprise- ASLMS will reduce the logistics footprint by up
wide maintenance data, and near real-time to 60 percent by replacing ten tractor/trailer (or

D-68 Army Modernization Plan 2004

acquisition, life support,
sustainment, illumination, etc.
These functions are critical to
mission accomplishment across
the entire spectrum of military

van) systems with four tractors pulling up to Program Status. TEP Tactical Quiet
eight ASLMS 20-foot containers. The ASLMS Generators (TQGs) are currently in production
contains a multitude of modularized storage and fielding. The next generation of TEP
bins and cabinets for parts storage and generators, the Advanced Medium Mobile
supports uploaded automation capabilities. Power Sources (AMMPS) reached
Deployable by C-130 aircraft, it provides Milestone B in Nov 03 and begins production
deployment planners more deployment in FY08. To date, half of the older MIL-STD
options. Future models of the ASLMS will generators have been replaced by TQGs and
provide Class IV (barrier and construction over 30,000 remain to be replaced by TQGs
materiel), Class V (ammunition), and other and/or AMMPS.
class containerization.
Standard Automotive Tool Set (SATS)
Program Status. The ASLMS ORD has been
approved. Initial production and technical Description: Modular, flexible, and
testing has been completed, and the standardized, SATS replaces multiple field
Production Qualification Testing (PQT) is being level shop sets with a single, consolidated base
conducted at Aberdeen Test Center. The FUE tool set augmented with packages that are
is scheduled for 4QFY04. tailorable to unit mission requirements and
organizational design. SATS consists of a set
Tactical Electric Power (TEP) of professional-grade tools with lifetime
warranties, physical security, protection from
Description. TEP is all mobile, engine-driven, the elements, and rapid tool identification for
electric power generating sources, 750-kilowatt improved accountability and inventory as well
(kW) and smaller, which are skid-mounted, as deployability. The design and storage

Annex D
wheel-mounted, or man-portable and are method of SATS facilitate rapid inventory and
capable of independently producing electric enable the operator to verify within two hours
power when operating on diesel, gasoline, or or less that all items are present and secured
other fuel sources. Included are follow-on power in their designated storage locations. The most
sources, such as fuel cells and thermoelectric significant advantage gained through use of
devices. These mobile, tactical generators SATS is its impact on the logistics footprint;
provide quality power to operate DOD systems through standardization and modernization,
away from a fixed power grid and are found in SATS reduces the tool load weight by 18,000
nearly every organization in the Army. pounds in the Forward Maintenance Company
Generators directly support all field electrical (FMC) of the SBCT, eliminating the need for
systems, i.e., command, control, computer, four tactical wheeled vehicles and trailers. The
communication, intelligence, surveillance and same tool weight savings is realized in both
reconnaissance (C4ISR), medical, the Forward Support Company (FSC) and
maintenance, fire direction and controls, target Brigade Support Company (BSC) in the Force

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-69

XXI Division design along with a reduction of dump, and 8.8-ton Load Handling System
five tactical wheeled vehicles and trailers in (LHS) truck and companion trailer compatible
each company. with flat racks, Container Roll-in/Out Platform
(CROPs), and International Standardization
Program Status. SATS are in full production Organization (ISO) shelters/containers. The
with FUE scheduled in FY04. HIMARS launcher chassis production build
began in Oct 03.
Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV)
High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled
Description. The FMTV is built around a Vehicle (HMMWV)
common chassis and drive train, featuring over
80 percent commonality of parts and
components between models and weight
classes. Operating worldwide in all weather
and terrain conditions, the FMTV provides unit
mobility, resupply, and transportation at all
organizational levels. It serves as the weapon
system platform for HIMARS and the support
vehicle for Patriot. FMTV enhances crew
survivability through the use of hardened cabs,
three-point seat belts, central tire inflation, and
machine gun ring mount capability. It provides
enhanced tactical mobility and is strategically
deployable in C-5, C-17, C-130, and C-141 Description. The HMMWV is a light, highly
aircraft. FMTV reduces the Army’s logistics mobile, diesel-powered, four-wheel-drive
footprint by providing commonality of parts and vehicle that uses a common chassis. Using
components, reducing maintenance downtime, common components and kits, it can be
and lowering operation and support costs that configured as a troop carrier, armament carrier,
older trucks require. shelter carrier, ambulance, and TOW missile
carrier. It is a tri-Service program that also
Program Status. FMTV is in full production provides vehicles that satisfy USMC and USAF
Annex D

with over 18,500 trucks and 1,450 trailers requirements. The Up-Armored HMMWV is a
fielded as of Oct 03. A competitive multi-year key asset in the ongoing security and
contract was awarded in Apr 03 to the current stabilization operations in OEF and OIF with
producer, Stewart and Stevenson, adding new its increased ballistic (up to 7.62mm NATO AP)
models that include an expansible van, 10-ton and blast protection (12 lb. mine, front; 4 lb.
mine, rear).

Program Status. In full production since FY85,

current full production includes the HMMWV
A2, Expanded Capacity Vehicle (M1113), and
the Up-Armored variants (M1114). HMMWVs
are being fielded to MP units (M1114), Data
Interchange Customers (M1097A2/M1113),
SBCTs, and other select units.

D-70 Army Modernization Plan 2004

Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck winch. PLS is a key transportation component
(HEMTT) of the ammunition distribution system and
provides long range hauling, local hauling and
unit resupply of ammunition. The PLS is
capable of transporting multiple configurations
of cargo utilizing a variety of flat racks. The
M1077 and M1077A1 are sideless flat racks
used to transport pallets of ammunition and
other classes of supplies. The M1 flat rack
carries identical classes of supplies. It is ISO/
CSC certified and is suitable for inter-modal
transport, including transport on container ships.
Description. The HEMTT family of vehicles Ammunition can be loaded on the M1 at
provides all weather, rapidly deployable depots, transported via container ship to
transport capabilities for re-supply of combat theater, picked up by the PLS truck and carried
vehicles and weapons systems. There are six forward without the use of any material handling
basic configurations of the HEMTT series equipment. The PLS provides the Soldier with
trucks: M977 cargo truck with Material Handling an efficient and economic system with
Crane (MHC), M978 2500 gallon fuel tanker, capabilities similar to that of HEMTT-LHS and
M984 wrecker, M983 tractor, the M11120 is a major enabler in the Army’s drive to achieve
HEMTT-Load Handling Systems and M985 a distribution-based logistics system.
cargo truck with MHC. A self-recovery winch is
also available on certain models. HEMTT-LHS
provides the soldier with an efficient and
economic system with capabilities that cannot
be replicated in the light and medium truck
fleets. The HEMTT family of vehicles is
designated as a FCS complementary system
and is a key enabler to achieving a distribution-
based logistics system.

Annex D
Program Status. All variants of the HEMTT
are currently in production. The FY04-FY09
fielding schedule includes SBCTs 4-6, Army Program Status: The PLS is currently in
National Guard Division Redesign Units, and production. The FY04-FY09 fielding schedule
Air Defense units (Patriot and THADD). includes AC and RC Engineer Mission
Modules, Army Prepositioned Stocks (APS)
Palletized Load System (PLS) and OIF combat loss replacements.

Description. The PLS is composed of a prime Rapid Manufacturing System (RMS)

mover truck with integral self-loading and
unloading transport capability, a 16.5-ton Description. The RMS is a mobile compact
payload trailer, and demountable cargo beds communications and manufacturing system
(flat racks). The vehicle can also be equipped designed for deployment to remote locations
with materiel handling equipment and/or a for emergency fabrication of repair parts for

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-71

Description. The FRS is a high-mobility,
forward maintenance system that reduces
Repair Cycle time. The FRS places in one
package proven tools; test equipment and
heavy lift capability to support forces in the
forward battle area. The FRS includes the
prime movers as well as a maintenance
enclosure with 35kW generator, crane, welding
equipment, industrial quality power air and hand
tools, air compressor, tool cabinets and
accepts as a host platform FBCB2 and MTS
non-operational equipment. A combination of connectivity. The FRS meets the maneuver
advanced technologies enables the RMS to commander’s need for the repair system that
quickly and efficiently produce repair parts on is responsive, effective and reduces the
demand. The RMS retrieves manufacturing number of systems requiring evacuation.
data via satellite from an extensive engineering
and manufacturing database. In the event data Program Status. The FRS is in production
for a part is not available or a communications and fielding. The first units being fielded are III
failure, the RMS is capable of gathering its own Corps and the SBCTs.
geometric data through the use of a 3-D laser
scanning system. Lightweight Water Purifier (LWP)

Program Status. A prototype RMS has been Description. The LWP is a small, self-
developed and is currently in use in the contained, highly transportable water
operational theater. This rapid manufacturing purification system capable of producing 125
technology will be spread across many areas GPH of potable water from a freshwater source
of the military, and eventually into other fields and 75 GPH from a saltwater source. The LWP
such as medical, for the production of will be capable of dispensing potable water at
prosthetics, as an example. a minimum rate of 10 gallons per minute. The
LWP will also be capable of being transported
Forward Repair System (FRS) in a M1097A truck (HMMWV), sling loaded
Annex D

using a UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter and

airdropped by fixed-wing aircraft, to include the
C-130. The LWP provides the capability to
purify water as far forward as possible,
reducing the need to transport purified water
forward. Special Operations Forces (SOF)
detachments, medical detachments, and other
small units will use the LWP when operating in
locations that are isolated from standard water
support. It may also be used in civil affairs and
disaster relief operations. The LWP will sustain
the daily consumption and personal hygiene
water needs for populations of 70 to 225

D-72 Army Modernization Plan 2004

helps achieve full Distribution-Based Logistics.
The Army is in the process of conducting
mission analysis and refining the capabilities
documentation for this system.

Program Status. The Army has developed a

joint FY05 ACTD concept for the FTTS that
includes using FTTS maneuver and
sustainment vehicle “like systems” and two
FTTS Utility Vehicle “like systems” within an
Program Status. The LWP Milestone C (full SBCT in a side-by-side demonstration with
rate production) decision is in Feb 04. Seven currently fielded vehicles. The purpose of the
systems have been produced with the FUE ACTD is to develop insights for technology that
scheduled for 3QFY04. can be inserted into current and future fleets.

Future Tactical Truck System (FTTS) Unit Water Pod System (CAMEL)

Description. The FTTS is envisioned as the Description. The CAMEL system consists of
Army’s next generation tactical wheeled vehicle a minimum of 900-gallon storage capacity, a
that provides direct support to Future Force heater/chiller unit, government-furnished
units in terms of command and control M1095 (5-ton) medium tactical vehicle (MTV)
capability and transportation and distribution trailer, and contractor-developed components
of cargo, equipment, and personnel. The mounted to or carried by the trailer. It will
FTTS-Maneuver Sustainment Vehicle could provide a maneuver company operating in a
possibly replace the PLS, HEMTT, and temperate environment 2+ days of supply
selected FMTVs. The FTTS-Utility Vehicle may (DOS) of water at a minimum sustaining
replace the HMMWV. The FTTS will have consumption rate. It will have provisions for at
improved range, cross-country capability, least six retail dispensing points, and fully
reliability, ballistic protection, and integral cargo capable of stand-alone operation. CAMEL will
transport capability over current vehicles. Both be capable of transporting both full and partial
FTTS vehicles will have companion trailers. The loads of water, in accordance with approved

Annex D
FTTS objective is to have as much commonality standards, by C-130 and larger aircraft, external
with FCS as possible to achieve the reduction lift helicopter, and low-velocity air droppable.
in logistics footprint required for the Future CAMEL replaces the M107, M149, and M1112
Force. This critical logistics transformation series water trailers.
enabler provides commonality of platforms,
helps reduce the sustainment footprint, and Program Status. CAMEL entered the SDD
phase with contract award in 4QFY03.
Milestone C decision is scheduled for 3QFY05.

Load Handling System (LHS) Compatible

Water Tank Rack System (Hippo)

Description. The Hippo consists of a 2000-

gallon ISO framed potable water tank rack that

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-73

will be compatible with the Palletized Load is scheduled for FY04 with SBCT fielding
System (PLS), the HEMTT-LHS and the FTTS scheduled for FY06.
Maneuver Sustainment Vehicle (MSV). The
Hippo has an organic 125 GPM water pump, Rough Terrain Container Handler (RTCH)
filling stand, 70-foot hose reel for both bulk
suction and discharge and retail distribution.
The Hippo will enhance water distribution by
providing one system that enables both hardwall
bulk water transportation and unit retail water
support. It will allow for water transport directly
from water purification points to supported
maneuver elements and can be used as a water
distribution point.

Program Status. In Sep 02, the Hippo

received Milestone C approval to purchase five
low rate initial production units for testing. First Description. The RTCH is the primary Material
Article Testing is ongoing at Aberdeen Proving Handling Equipment capable of lifting standard
Ground with expected completion in Apr 04. 20- and 40-foot long ISO containers weighing
up to 53,000 pounds. The RTCH can be
Load Handling System Modular Fuel Farm operated on beaches, rough terrain, and
(LMFF) unimproved surfaces. The system is air-
deployable and can be used to lift containers
Description. The LMFF provides the ability and prepositioned PLS flat racks, break-bulk
to rapidly establish a fuel distribution and cargo, and heavy palletized Class V loads
storage capability at any location regardless (RTCH equipped with the forklift attachment).
of the availability of construction equipment or
material handling equipment. The LMFF Program Status. The RTCH is in full
consists of a 2,500-gallon ISO framed fuel tank production. Fielding began in Jul 01 to the 21st
racks and 400 GPM ISO framed pumping Cargo Transfer Company (CTC) in Ft Lewis to
modules. The pumping module will have a support the first SBCT. Since this initial fielding,
Annex D

pump, engine, fuel/water separator, control a total of 277 vehicles have been delivered to
panel, and hoses, nozzles, and other support mostly CTC units. This figure also includes 2
equipment. The 35,000-gallon capacity LMFF vehicles for the Australian Army and 22 vehicles
consists of 14 tank racks and two pumping for the United Kingdom Ministry of Defense
modules. The 45,000-gallon capacity LMFF under two separate FMS cases. Over 100
consists of 18 tank racks and two pumping vehicles have been deployed in support of OEF/
modules. The LMFF is compatible with the OIF.
PLS, the HEMTT-LHS and the FTTS MSV,
allowing these systems to recover the tank Maintenance Support Device (MSD)
racks and pumping modules, transport them
to the new location, and emplace the system. Description. Formerly the Soldier Portable
On-System Repair Tool (SPORT), the MSD is
Program Status. The LMFF ORD was a lightweight, rugged, portable tester employed
approved in Mar 02. A Milestone C decision at all levels of maintenance. It is the Army’s

D-74 Army Modernization Plan 2004

standard system tester used to automatically personnel deployment system using digital
diagnose weapon system operations, both medical information.
electronic and automotive, and identify faulty
components for immediate replacement. The Program Status. MC4 has an approved
MSD and its predecessor, the SPORT, are in ORD. The program is currently scheduled for
wide use throughout the Army’s ground combat a Milestone C decision in 1QFY04 and a full
and CSS vehicle fleets as well as in the Army rate production decision in 3QFY04.
aviation fleet.
Force Provider (FP)
Program Status. The MSD is currently in full
rate production and fielding. A recent change Description. FP is a high-quality deployable
in the basis of issue will provide the MSD to base camp designed to support the Combatant
organizational level maintainers at a ratio of 1:3 Commanders’ needs in remote areas of the
per maintainer military world. It provides in one package: billeting,
occupational food service, showers, latrines, laundry, and
specialty (MOS). recreational support services. Each system
consists of one stand-alone module that will
support 550 personnel plus 50 operators. In
addition, three modification systems exist to
improve FP capabilities: a Cold Weather Kit
for operations at –15º F, a Prime Power
Connection Kit that connects to a Power
Generation Kit consisting of 24 each 60kW
Tactical Quiet Generators (TQG).
Medical Communications for Combat
Casualty Care (MC4) System Program Status. The initial AAO of 36 FP
modules has been fielded and is currently
Description. The MC4 system is a theater, supporting OEF/OIF. The Army is now
automated Combat Health Support (CHS) addressing additional AAO and new
system that links commanders, health care requirements given emerging operational
needs and the use of FP as long-term base

Annex D
providers, and medical support providers at all
echelons with seamless, integrated medical camps. Improvements are being developed
information. It will receive, store, process, to reduce the FP logistical support
transmit, and report medical C2, medical requirements, shipping cube, set up time and
surveillance, casualty movement/tracking, module cost. These efforts will be
medical treatment, medical situational implemented during Reset and with any
awareness, and medical logistics data across additional module purchases.
all levels of care. The MC4 system is fully
operational with standard Army systems and Focused Logistics (FL) Summary
operates on standard commercial hardware.
The MC4 system is a joint system compatible Sustainment of forces, in any environment, is
with and supportive of all the Armed Services, critical to successful mission accomplishment.
provides joint software. The MC4 system This appendix focused on the lift-equipment,
supports the commander with a streamlined modernization programs for assured mobility
and sustainment systems. More important than

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-75

materiel programs, however, is the entire Observation and information collection occurs
redesign of the Army’s force to a Future Force throughout the battlespace from traditional ISR
design and the accompanying Logistics sensors and collectors, such as satellite
Transformation effort addressed in the main constellations, airborne and proximate sensors,
body of this 2004 Army Modernization Plan. and human intelligence (HUMINT), to
This new design will greatly enhance the Army’s nontraditional sites, such as commercial and
ability to rapidly deploy and successfully carry open sources. Each of these entities
out missions across the full spectrum of represents a node in the BA grid. Nodes
operations. provide information to the grid and draw
information as required from the grid. Nodes
As the Army continues to transform itself into a range from every Soldier in the field as a
Future Force design, the specific requirements potential sensor to the future Space-Based
needed to enhance mobility and sustainability Radar as a primary provider of an extremely
will become clearer. The current plan funds fine-grained depiction of the battlespace.
those programs with proven potential for the Through these nodes, intelligence on current
Future Force while enhancing the capabilities and future activities in the operational
and readiness of the Current Force. environment and updated baseline
environmental information is collected, fused,
Appendix 4: Battlespace analyzed and presented to create a
comprehensive battlespace picture. Baseline
Awareness (BA)
environmental data includes information on the
weather, cloud cover, vertical temperature
Battlespace Awareness (BA) is the ability to
profile, humidity, wind, precipitation, soil
sense and understand the operational
moisture, ice cover, sea ice, electron density
environment with its mix of friendly “blue” forces,
profile, vegetation, terrain, infrastructure,
enemy “red” forces, and “gray” non-aligned
resources (e.g., water, energy sources, building
actors/noncombatants as well as terrain and
materials), transient infrared sources, second
weather aspects that can aid or hinder friendly
order effects like trafficability, sensor field of
force operations. BA relies upon the continuous
view, as well as significant social aspects such
collection, processing, analysis and modeling
as the cultural, economic, political and security
of data from a large mix of highly responsive
situation. By utilizing the collection capability
Annex D

sensors (e.g., unattended, human, intrusive and

of all possible nodes, the reach, robustness and
remote) to provide the commander and his
persistence of the entire sensing network are
force elements with near real-time,
greatly enhanced to create a pervasive,
collaborated, tailored, actionable battlespace
detailed understanding of the battlespace.
information. Enhancing BA capabilities
provides the commander with more confidence
One significant area of joint development that
in his understanding of the operational
supports enhanced BA capabilities is space.
environment and the associated operational
Space is the backbone for the national and
risks. This translates to better and faster
military ISR architecture and the domain of
decision making in the planning and execution
choice for commercial broad area sensing
of operations. BA is the key to increasing the
enterprises with military utility. Space-based
reach, persistence, and agility of our military
communications provide reach and NLOS
capabilities while increasing the range of
connectivity while space-based ISR and
military options available.
commercial imagery platforms substantially

D-76 Army Modernization Plan 2004

enhance strategic, operational, and tactical management systems, and will be
intelligence collection, processing and disseminated to all levels of users through
dissemination. Soldiers in OEF and OIF use adaptable, flexible, networked communication
space-based systems to communicate, systems. Within this “producer interactive
navigate, target, find and fix the enemy, network,” force elements will subscribe to
anticipate weather, receive missile warning, products or data (including archival data).
avoid fratricide, and much more. Software agents will broker data and products,
posting some unprocessed information. In this
The Tactical Exploitation System (TES) manner, all joint, allied, and coalition warfighters
embedded in the corps and division force will have access to common data to construct
structures is providing vital space-based their own tailorable, relevant operational
imagery, SIGINT, Blue Force Tracking (BFT) pictures.
and communications reach for OIF. The Army
is currently developing the Distributed Below is a brief discussion of some of the key
Common Ground System–Army (DCGS-A), as materiel programs supporting BA capabilities.
part of the DOD DCGS concept, to incorporate
ISR data and information from all sensors and Discussion of Key Battlespace
Analytic Centers regardless of the source Awareness Materiel Programs
across the JIM force to provide the red and gray
portions of the COP to commanders and Distributed Common Ground System–
decision-makers down to the individual Soldier. Army (DCGS-A)

The shared visibility between operations and Description. DCGS-A is a family of systems
intelligence provides the venue to predict the and an integral component of the Army’s ISR
effects of threat actions and changes in the networking strategy. DCGS-A will migrate
operational environment as well as assess capabilities of disparate ISR systems into a
potential courses of actions against the threat joint common and interoperable multi-
operations. Decision making and forecasting intelligence architecture to improve the ground
tools will continuously evaluate changes in commander’s ability to act faster than the
environmental data to identify potential impacts enemy’s decision cycle, or ability to react.
on ongoing operations and alert the relevant

Annex D
DCGS-A software/hardware used throughout
decision authority to the perturbation. the Army and joint environment will task, post,
Predictive analysis and modeling will allow process and use Army, joint, national,
potential courses of action to be evaluated with interagency, and multinational ISR sensor data
a better understanding of the potential impacts and information in support of Future Force, Joint
on the operational environment. The Task Force and multinational operations.
simultaneous current and forecasted DCGS-A is an FCS complementary system,
depictions of the battlespace coupled with the providing capabilities required for the UA to
responsiveness of sensors will allow achieve IOC. Fixed and Mobile DCGS-A
commanders to quickly evaluate sensor transparently operate with embedded DCGS-A
mission utility and re-task multiple sensors to software applications within the FCS, operating
react to emerging operational situations. in a secure, collaborative, networked
environment. DCGS-A provides real-time
Current and projected operational information sensor-to-commander, sensor-to-shooter, and
will be continuously fused by robust knowledge

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-77

sensor-to-analyst information tailored to and direct ISR operations, produce relevant
mission, task, and purpose of the recipient. information and intelligence, and disseminate
intelligence and other critical information in an
Program Status. The DCGS-A program will understandable format to those who need it,
employ an evolutionary acquisition strategy, when they need it.
providing incremental milestone decisions
throughout the SDD phase based on validated/ Program Status. ASAS Block II is in SDD
approved requirements for DCGS-A with several components in full rate production.
capabilities and the DCGS-A capability needs The most significant of these is the ASAS Light,
inherent in other Future Force programs such the Intelligence Staff Support Tool currently
as Aerial Common Sensor and Future Combat being fielded to the force. The ASAS Block II
Systems. Milestone B decision is scheduled Analysis and Control Element (ACE) Light is a
for 1QFY05 to field an objective capability by software component of DCGS and will be
2010. The 525th MI Brigade, XVIII Airborne fielded with DCGS-A software upgrades.
Corps will demonstrate a DCGS-A Block 1 ASAS Block III development also will start in
capability in FY04 and a multi-echelon DCGS-A FY05 as it migrates to the DCGS-A program.
capability will be fielded to the 504th MI Brigade,
III Corps in FY05. Aerial Common Sensor (ACS)

The All Source Analysis System (ASAS) Description. ACS is the Army-led, joint
airborne ISR system that meets the Army’s and
Description. ASAS provides accurate, clear, Navy’s requirements for a worldwide, self-
relevant, timely, and predictive automated deployable asset that can begin operations
actionable intelligence about the current enemy immediately upon arrival into theater, in front of
situation. ASAS sets the environment that the or along side the Future Force. ACS will be
commander and his staff need to plan and organic to the UA and will merge the
execute battles, engagements, and other capabilities of Guardrail Common Sensor and
missions across the full spectrum of operations Airborne Reconnaissance-Low into a single
in both a structured and nonstructured threat multifunction platform to provide the requisite
environment. ASAS assists the commander networked situational awareness and joint
in visualizing the battlespace, organizing his network-centric and deep strike precision
Annex D

forces, and controlling operations to achieve targeting for the future JFC. ACS provides
the desired tactical objectives or end state. distributed, wide area, persistent surveillance
Inherent within ASAS is the capability to plan throughout the breadth of the Joint Operations
Area battlespace and multi-intelligence
precision targeting. Using the DCGS for the
ground station component, ACS, via robust
sensor-to-shooter and reach links will provide
commanders at every echelon the tailored,
multi-sensor intelligence required for dominant
maneuver, precision engagement, information
superiority and decision dominance throughout
a nonlinear framework and noncontiguous
battlespace. Onboard battle command and
communications relay packages will ensure

D-78 Army Modernization Plan 2004

the technical fire control
providing ballistic
solutions for cannons
and rockets. AFATDS
is a true joint system,
fully fielded by the
USMC, on USN ships
and interoperating with
the USAF via the
TBMCS. As such,
AFATDS provides the
capability to identify,
track and respond to
targets across the
entire battlespace,
using all fire assets
uninterrupted, joint integrated C4I. Through a
modular, open architecture, onboard COMINT, AFATDS also operates at echelon above
ELINT, IMINT and MASINT sensors, division levels, providing a strategic and
incorporating electro-optical (EO), infrared (IR), operational picture of the battlefield to meet the
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Moving Target commander’s top seven priorities. AFATDS
Indicator (MTI), multi- and hyperspectral provides the picture of the location and status
imagery sensors, as well as onboard of all friendly fire support (FS) assets; enemy
operators, will ensure sensor/processing situation tracking all enemy target locations,
technology enhancements maintain pace with and a running fire support logistics status
evolving threats via software vice hardware (munitions; rounds; petroleum, oil and lubricants
solutions. (POL)). AFATDS provides graphic control
measures, maintaining a complete database
Program Status. ACS is in the early stages of FS geometries and FSCMs and performing
of the SDD phase, with a Milestone C decision appropriate levels of coordination as required.

Annex D
scheduled for 4QFY08. FUE will be an aerieal The AFATDS FS target database and weapon
exploitation battalion in FY10, with four status tracking feed the commander’s Situation
additional systems fielded at a rate of one every Report (SITREP). AFATDS management of
two years. the FSCM and capability overlays ensure
optimal weapon target pairing and strategic
Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data attack analysis.
System (AFATDS)
Program Status. AFATDS is currently fielded
Description. AFATDS is the primary fire to seven USN ships, 100 percent of USMC FS
support system at division and below providing units, over 95 percent of the AC Army FS units,
tactical fire solutions, including weapon-target and will be fielded to 70 percent of the ARNG
pairing, mission planning and execution. FS units. Version 6.3.2 software will begin full
AFATDS provides the fires common material release in 2004. Future improvements
operational picture at each echelon, as well as will focus on increased joint interoperability, and
new weapons and munitions utilization.
Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-79
Long Range Advanced Scout Surveillance scalable, modular and network-centric
System (LRAS3) architecture with all elements fully transportable
by C-130 aircraft. TES tasks, receives,
Description. LRAS3 provides unmatched processes and exploits Electronic Intelligence
long-range target acquisition and far target (ELINT), Communication Intelligence
location capabilities to armor and infantry (COMINT) externals, Imagery Intelligence
scouts. It consists of Horizontal Technology (IMINT) and Moving Target Indicator (MTI) data
Integration (HTI) 2GF (cooled IR), long-range from selected national, theater, and tactical
optics, laser rangefinder, GPS interferometer, platform/sensors and generates timely
day video camera, and a link to FBCB2 for information, intelligence and targeting data.
automated handoff of target locations. As the The TES also is capable of limited MASINT
premier ground scout sensor system, it enables processing and analysis. The TES receives
the scouts and cavalry units to conduct space-based Blue Force Tracking data and
reconnaissance, surveillance, and target provides it to the GCCS-A. The TES has a
acquisition (RSTA) missions while remaining direct digital/network interface with the
outside of threat acquisition and engagement AFATDS and Artillery Deep Operations
ranges during all weather and dirty battlefield Coordination System (ADOCS). The TES
conditions (i.e., fog, dust, smoke, and sand). performs the preprocessor functions for the All
LRAS3 is also being integrated with a Laser Source Analysis System (ASAS), Common
Designator Module (LDM) as the Fire Support Ground Station (CGS), and Digital Topographic
Sensor System (FS3) for the Stryker Fire Support System (DTSS). Designed for split-
Support Vehicles and the Knight Fire Support base operations, TES supports joint, combined
Vehicles (M707). and early-entry operations.

Program Status. LRAS3 is in full rate Program Status. TES-Main and TES-
production and is funded to procure LRAS3 for Forward systems have been fielded to 18th
AC heavy and light divisions. LRAS3 is being ABC, V Corps, III Corps and 513th MI Brigade.
fielded to HMMWV-mounted scouts and is Distributed–TES (DTES-division level assets)
being integrated into the Stryker will be fielded to all AC divisions by Nov 04.
Reconnaissance Vehicles. Reduced capability TES Forward systems will
be fielded to the 501st MI Brigade and to I Corps
Annex D

Tactical Exploitation System (TES) in FY06. The FY03 TENCAP General Officer
Steering Committee (GOSC) agreed to provide
TES-FWD (-) to USFK. USFK will receive
Description. The Tactical Exploitation System
TES-FWD (-) in FY06. Twenty-one TES Light
(TES) is the Army’s Tactical Exploitation of
(TES-L) systems will be fielded to SOF, ACR,
National Capabilities (TENCAP) system that
ROK Army and selected brigade level elements
receives, processes, exploits, and
disseminates intelligence data from direct starting in FY05. A number of TES systems
were deployed in OEF and OIF and judged in
downlinks and other ground stations. The TES
after-action reports as being very supportive
family of systems is a key part of the emerging
of high OPTEMPO, ISR and dynamic targeting
DCGS architecture with TES variants in Army,
demands. TES systems were the primary
USN, USMC and limited USAF units. The TES
interface for missile launch notifications within
program combines the intelligence functions of
the corps and divisions. Although the draft
four previous stovepiped ISR collection
systems into an integrated downsized, open, DCGS-A roadmap contains TES-Forward

D-80 Army Modernization Plan 2004

configuration items, DCGS-A will replace TES Prophet
and reach its initial operational capability by
FY09. DCGS-A provides TES and other Description.
Program of Record capabilities to the Future Prophet provides
Force. Spiral development provides risk a near real-time
mitigation to the Current Force. view of the
Integrated Meteorological System SBCT area of
(IMETS) operations
through the use of
Description. IMETS supports the Current COMINT sensors
Force including Aviation, SOF, and SBCTs. It and includes the
will migrate through spiral development to capability to
DCGS-A in the Future Force in 2008. IMETS detect, identify,
ingests local aviation surface weather and and electronically
artillery upper observations, weather satellite attack select enemy emitters. It is a dedicated,
data, and unattended, automated observing dynamically retaskable asset, allowing the
equipment. IMETS receives transmissions of tactical commander to visually depict and
centrally prepared Air Force forecast products. understand his battlespace, now and in the
IMETS uses Army weather effects software future. It provides expanded frequency and
linked to current and forecast data to determine area coverage for situational development,
weather effects on personnel, equipment, and awareness and force protection operations.
operations. IMETS provides tailored weather Prophet can operate on the move mounted on
forecasts and space weather impacts for a HMMWV or stationary in a mounted or
planners and operations, including chemical dismounted configuration. It has an open
defense. Weather effects are linked to users architecture that supports programmed
within each supported tactical operations improvements and mission specific technical
center (TOC) by direct machine-to-machine insertion components. This makes Prophet
interface, enabling users to interact with the relevant throughout the entire spectrum of
database to determine details on the adverse operations. According to the Commanding
General, 101st Airborne Division, the Prophet

Annex D
weather effects. IMETS is the gateway and
communications interface to support major has been an invaluable and critical collection
subordinate commands and warfighters without asset, answering his priority intelligence
direct weather support. requirements in OIF.

Program Status. IMETS is primarily a Program Status. Prophet Block I passed

nondevelopmental item (NDI) which will have IOT&E in Dec 00 and began full rate production
three separate, distinct configurations: the in Dec 01 with initial fielding in Nov 02. Prophet
Vehicle Mounted, the Command Post (CP), and Block I was fielded to support deploying forces
the Light. The Vehicle Mounted and Light in support of OIF. Prophet Blocks II/III went into
configurations are in full rate production. The the SDD phase in Mar 03. IOT&E is scheduled
CP configuration is in the SDD phase, for 4QFY04 with FUE in 4QFY05.
scheduled to undergo testing in FY05 and
begin fielding in FY07.

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-81

Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (TUAV) The Shadow 200 TUAV currently has an
onboard EO/IR sensor payload. Objective
payloads may include but are not limited to
advanced EO/IR, all-weather synthetic aperture
radar (SAR) and moving target indicator (MTI),
and signals intelligence (SIGINT) sensors. The
threshold range is 50 km with an objective
range of 200 km and an on-station endurance
of four hours. The threshold payload is 60
pounds with an objective capacity of 100
pounds. OPTEMPO requires a threshold of
12 sorties per 24 hours and an objective of 18
Description. The RQ-7A Shadow 200 TUAV sorties per 24 hours.
provides the maneuver commander with a near
real-time, highly accurate, sustainable Program Status. TUAV IOT&E was
capability for over-the-horizon completed in May 02 followed by a Milestone
Reconnaissance, Surveillance, Target III full rate production decision in Sep 02. FUE
Acquisition (RSTA), and Battle Damage was 3/2 IN SBCT in May 02 and IOC was
Assessment (BDA). Each Shadow 200 TUAV achieved in Oct 02. Production and fielding to
system consists of four Shadow 200 air the remaining five SBCTs continues under the
vehicles, six HMMWVs, two Ground Control FY05-09 program plan. The TUAV is currently
Stations (GCS), one portable GCS, and four in use in OIF. Figure D-9 depicts the fielding
remote video terminals that can provide near schedules for both the Shadow TUAV and ACS,
real-time videos to commanders on the ground. both critical battlespace awareness sensors.
Annex D

Figure D-9. Critical Sensors Fielding Schedule

D-82 Army Modernization Plan 2004

Phoenix Battlefield Sensor System precision actionable intelligence to achieve
(PBS2) desired effects rather than physical destruction
alone, integration of multifunctional tactical and
Description. Phoenix Sensor System national intelligence sensors and sources,
replaces the aging AN/TPQ-37 artillery locating precision targeting and armed aerial
radar. The Phoenix system will be fielded to reconnaissance, and denial of enemy access
each of the SBCTs and as a one per one to friendly information.
replacement for existing Q-37 requirements. It
will be developed in blocks, the first leveraging Recent operations have shown the value of
technology from its predecessor. Phoenix space-based, airborne, and ground C4 and
Block II will incorporate technology ISR systems that are networked with manned
developments from the Multi Mission Radar ground systems to achieve Joint Force BA
Science and Technology Objective (MMR capabilities. The Army is developing
STO). Technically, the Phoenix will have double organizations and fielding equipment to
the detection range of the current AN/TPQ-37 capitalize on this operational experience in
radar while improving accuracy and target today’s Current Force as well as in the building
throughput. Additionally, the Phoenix will of tomorrow’s Future Force with future Joint
provide a broad spectrum of target detection Force BA capabilities.
by providing mortar detection to 15 km, rocket
detection to 150 km, and detection of missile Appendix 5: Command and
launches out to 300 km. Control (C2)

Program Status. The program has started C2 is the exercise of authority and direction by
construction of the first SDD Block I systems a properly designated commander over
with two systems expected by FY05. A Limited assigned and attached forces in the
User Test (LUT) in FY05 will support a accomplishment of the mission. To accomplish
Milestone C (LRIP) decision in 4QFY05. LRIP this effectively, the commander fuses
and IOT&E are scheduled to begin in FY06 with battlespace information with information on
a FUE in 1QFY08 and full rate production force locations and capabilities, as well all other
beginning that same year. information relevant to mission planning, into a

Annex D
common operational picture. The commander
Battlespace Awareness (BA) Summary develops alternative plans of action, selects a
course of action and directs force employment
BA supports and is supported by the other exercising C2. This can be either a deliberate
functional concepts. BA enables Joint C2, process, in preparation for a campaign or
Force Application, and Force Protection to battle, or a hasty process in response to
bring combat power to bear at critical points, battlefield opportunities or challenges. Key
avoid enemy denial and deception, break- elements of C2 are a decentralized, networked
through or circumvent anti-access and area- and collaborative communications and
denial strategies, and thwart enemy attempts computer environment and the precision
to harm U.S. interests worldwide. guidance and timing capabilities that
collectively support accelerated decision-
BA capabilities strive to achieve superior making processes throughout the Joint Force.
situational understanding of the threat and The synergy of this collaborative environment
battlespace, decision superiority using with the COP allows subordinate commanders

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-83

to self-synchronize their activities, based on operational requirements in order to resource
knowledge of the commander’s intent and of current Combatant Commander’s needs with
the current situation in the battlespace, and to a baseline command post capability as a first
execute actions seamlessly, with minimal or no step in bringing these capabilities to the
requirements for deconfliction or coordination. Current Force. This capabilities-based
baseline uses existing resources in the ABCS
Army Command and Control (Army C2) is a program to standardize software in 2004,
critical enabler for and a fully interoperable ensure joint interoperability of essential
component of Joint Command and Control capabilities, and distribute this capability
(JC2). Army C2 consists of Army Battle across the Current Force by FY07. This
Command (cognitive and technical aspects) initiative is part of an overall “Army Battle
and the Army network component of the Global Command Way Ahead” strategy that develops
Information Grid (GIG). The joint concepts for a single standardized battle command system
JC2 and Army battle command concepts are that incorporates operational lessons, the
complementary and commander-centric. Both requirement for Joint Battle Management
are focused on achieving better situational Command and Control (JBMC2), and
understanding and decision dominance. emerging joint requirements.

Battle Command The Network

The Army views battle command, the art and Concepts for network-centric warfare, full-
science of applying military leadership and spectrum dominance, and decision superiority
decision making, as the essential capability that are driving C2 modernization efforts for the
enables the conduct of future joint operations. Army’s Future Force and the Joint Force.
Enabled by C4 and ISR, battle command These concepts require a robust, modular,
enhances the commander’s ability to gain deployable, and always capable network that
information and decision-making advantages provides universal access to all relevant
over any adversary. Further, C4 and ISR authorities, assets, and capabilities. This
networks within the GIG will provide an inherently network consists of integrated information
joint, top-down network that provides common systems, supporting information infrastructure,
Annex D

situational awareness to improve battle and a knowledge-based force of individuals

command. Battle command is an integration located across the entire spectrum of the
of BA and C2 capabilities. battlefield from the Soldier on point, through a
variety of operations and support centers in
Army Battle Command modernization efforts theater, to home station operations and support
are designed to bridge the Current to the Future centers located worldwide.
Force, enable network-centric warfare, and
allow the operational and tactical commander To achieve this level of networking, the focus is
to see first, understand first, act first, and finish being shifted from a bottom-up to a top down
decisively with unprecedented situational approach that develops integrated C2 network
understanding and decision superiority. architectures designed to support battle
command capabilities for the Current and
One recent initiative to enhance Current Force Future Forces in the JIM full-spectrum
capabilities is termed “Good Enough” Battle operational environment. The Army is currently
Command. This initiative reviewed current identifying baseline network capabilities for the

D-84 Army Modernization Plan 2004

JIM environment and will use a single Army lead • Maneuver Control System (MCS)
for network development to enhance the Current
Force and accelerate network development for • Air and Missile Defense Command and
the Future Force. Control System (AMDCCS)

Below is a discussion of key Army C2 materiel • Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and
programs that support JC2 and developing a Below (FBCB2)
• All Source Analysis System (ASAS),
Discussion of Key Command and [described in Appendix 4, Battlespace
Control Materiel Programs Awareness]

Army Battle Command System (ABCS) • Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data
System (AFATDS), [described in
Appendix 4, Battlespace Awareness]

Additionally, common software products

enable information sharing with other
systems and provide situational
awareness of the battlefield to every

Program Status. An Army

working group is reassessing
ABCS distribution in the Current
Force based upon lessons learned
while providing support to the
Coalition Forces Land Component
The working groups are tasked to
assess the current distribution and

Annex D
sustainment strategy to see what initiatives can
take place in order to further promote ABCS
Description. ABCS is the Army’s component interoperability across the Army.
of the Global Command and Control System
(GCCS) and Combatant Commander Global Command and Control System–
Deployment C2. It is a complex system of Army (GCCS-A)
systems that receive and transmit information
among the Joint Force. ABCS consists of Description. GCCS-A is a computer-based
subsystem software that provides specific strategic command and control system that
support for the Battlefield Functional Areas, provides readiness reporting, mobilization, and
including : deployment of AC and RC forces. It also
provides detailed information on intra-theater
• Global Command and Control System– planning and movement. GCCS-A is a
Army (GCCS-A) seamless Army extension to the joint GCCS at

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-85

EAC level. GCCS uses a common open Air and Missile Defense Command and
systems hardware architecture that has a Control System (AMDCCS)
combination of government and COTS
hardware and software. The GCCS-A is an
integral component of the Deployable Joint
Command and Control System (DJC2), a
networked system of information systems to
facilitate JC2.

Program Status. GCCS-A is a fielded system

within the ABCS. GCCS-A upgrades are
based on operational needs and technical
interoperability requirements with joint GCCS,

Maneuver Control System (MCS)

Description. The AMDCCS provides both
Description. MCS is an automated C2 command and control and a sensor-to-shooter
system that provides a network of computer link for AMD operations. It consists of two
terminals to process combat information for components, the Forward Area Air Defense
battle staffs. It provides automated assistance Command and Control (FAAD C2) and the Air
in the collection, storage, review, and display and Missile Defense Planning and Control
of information to support the commander’s System (AMDPCS). AMDCCS fully automates
decision process. Both text and map graphics C4 and ISR linkages, integrates AMD sensors,
are provided to the user. weapons and C3I, and interfaces with ABCS,
GCCS and joint and allied C4I. It provides AMD
Program Status. The Army is preparing a test elements and ADA Brigades with a fire control
strategy in accordance with the ABCS Way system via the Air Defense System Integrator
Ahead Strategy. The IOT&E for MCS is TBD for monitoring and controlling engagement
based on a new Army test strategy. operations by subordinate battalions.
AMDCCS provides a common air and missile
Annex D

defense staff planning and battlespace

situational awareness tool via the Air and
Missile Defense Workstation (AMDWS), which
presents airspace situational understanding to
Army commands. This workstation also
provides interoperability with Joint Theater Air
and Missile Defense forces.

Program Status. FAADC2 is an ACAT II

program in procurement with an Aug 95
approved ORD. AMDPCS is an ACAT III
program in final development with a May 97
approved ORD currently under revision. The
FY05-09 program plan funds both FAADC2

D-86 Army Modernization Plan 2004

and AMDPCS to provide AMDCCS to all fielded in reduced quantities to every MACOM
SBCTs and III Corps units through the fielding as well as the USMC and UK Forces
of the Air Defense and Airspace Management participating in OEF and OIF. As a result of
(ADAM) Cells. lessons learned in OEF and OIF, the Army
revised its Army Battle Command plan to
Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and deliver a consistent solution across the force
Below (FBCB2) within 18-24 months in order to provide partial
“good enough” capabilities over time. FBCB2
requirements were refined to accelerate
fielding efforts (OIF-like capability) to the entire
Active Army and 15 eSBs by FY05. After initial
fielding efforts are achieved (thin fielding), the
rest of the Key Leader Option (KLO)
distribution efforts to the entire Active Army and
15 eSBs will be accomplished by FY07.

Program Status. FBCB2 is currently funded

to continue improvements in joint
interoperability, including migration to JTRS
and integration with future weapons systems.
The Army will execute a Developmental/
Operational Test in 2QFY04 to satisfy the
program’s IOT&E requirement and
Description. FBCB2 is a joint interoperable, subsequently proceed to full rate production in
digital, battle command information system for FY05.
brigade level and below. FBCB2 is designed
to provide mounted and dismounted combat Grenadier BRAT (GB) and Mini-
elements with near real-time, integrated Transmitter (MTX) Blue Force Tracking
situational awareness and C2 functionality. (BFT) Systems
FBCB2 enhances the ability of tactical
commanders to better synchronize their forces, Description. GB and MTX are BFT systems

Annex D
achieve agility, and gain a “feel” of the that take advantage of the existing national
battlespace through improved situational space infrastructure. They
awareness and better combat awareness give commanders
reporting, while on the move. FBCB2 is a key the ability to track
component of the ABCS. The FBCB2/BFT and receive status
operates over both terrestrial communications reports, in near
networks and SATCOM networks; the system real-time, from
consists of a ruggedized computer with a touch friendly forces that
screen and keyboard in which the Soldier sees require a Low
either a digital map or satellite imagery overlaid Probability of Intercept/
with icons representing the vehicle’s location, Low Probability of Detection (LPI/
other FBCB2/BFT vehicles, known enemy LPD) C2 link. GB and MTX
units, and objects such as minefields and systems substantially enhance security and
bridges. FBCB2/BFT was expeditiously reliability through the use of LPI/LPD COBRA

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-87

(collection of broadcasts from remote assets) tactical missions. SATCOM global connectivity
waveforms, NSA-certified encryption, and supports the command and control functions
military GPS. A space-based BFT Mission of planning, coordinating, directing and
Management Center (MMC) supports GB/MTX controlling. This capability is essential for the
use of the existing COBRA architecture by real-time direction of operations at each
coordinating with national system managers echelon of command. SATCOM enables
and warfighting units to help collect, process, tactical forces to exploit improved capabilities
and disseminate warfighter BFT data. During to coordinate fires, conduct operational
OEF and OIF, the GCCS successfully maneuver on the unstructured, asymmetric
integrated disparate BFT systems used by battlefields of today, assess the effects of
different units and services. SOF forces used previous operations and anticipate enemy
the COBRA-based BFT systems due to the actions. An integrated high-capacity SATCOM
security advantages while Coalition Forces backbone provides reachback connectivity that
Land Component Command (CFLCC) main allows implementation of split-based command
formations used FBCB2. BFT systems gave and control and logistics support concepts. This
operational level commanders the most robust architecture will also support interoperability
COP to date by substantially increasing their with joint, coalition, commercial, and civil
situational awareness. communications networks. As a result, Current
and Future Forces will have reliable, on-
Program Status. Initially fielded 400 GB to demand, beyond-/non-line-of-sight
USASOC, USAREUR, and USARSO. communications for enhanced early warning,
Currently procuring an additional 400 systems en route mission planning and rehearsal, and
for USASOC to support ongoing real-world responsive CSS while maintaining a reduced
contingency operations. There are footprint in theater. Reliable SATCOM
approximately 3000 MTX systems produced enhances increased responsiveness, agility,
and fielded to SOCOM components, e.g., every versatility, survivability and sustainability.
USAF Special Operations Command airframe
and ground team has an MTX. The GB was Program Status. The Milstar Secure Mobile
acquired as a Warfighter Rapid Acquisition Anti-Jam Reliable Tactical Terminal (SMART-T)
Program product, and the MTX and the MMC is the only protected (anti-jam) wideband,
were developed and fielded as a result of beyond-line-of-sight capability for Army
Annex D

Combat Mission Needs Statements. divisions and the SBCT. It is currently in

production and continues to be fielded. The
Satellite Communications (SATCOM) Phoenix, an SHF Multi-Band Satellite terminal
system HMMWV-mounted, air-transportable,
Description. SATCOM capability is key to was awarded a development contract on 15
leveraging other space capabilities. SATCOM Apr 03. The first Phoenix fielding is projected
systems will provide a robust, flexible and for 3QFY04. Tri-band terminals (X, C and Ku)
seamless network capability that extends and will be fielded in FY04 and FY05 and the quad-
in some cases replaces terrestrial capabilities band terminal fielding (adds Ka Band) is
with responsive, beyond the line-of-sight planned for FY06 and out. Phoenix will be
communications throughout the battlefield that fielded to Echelon Above Division (EAD) signal
permits users to access large databases units.
necessary to support strategic, operational and

D-88 Army Modernization Plan 2004

Global Positioning System (GPS) the Internet controller, provides the
communications link for the digitized force. The
Description. GPS is a spaced-based radio Advanced System Improvement Program
position/navigation (POS/NAV) system that (ASIP) models are of a reduced size and
provides extremely accurate, continuous, all weight, providing further enhancements to
weather, common grid, worldwide navigation, operational capability in the Tactical Internet
three-dimensional positioning, velocity and environment.
timing (PVT) information to land, sea, air, and
space users. Program Status. A production delivery order
Components are was awarded in 3QFY01 to procure
the space, ground congressionally directed assets for the Army
control, and user National Guard and SBCTs. As of May 03,
equipment approximately 245,888 radios have been
segments. fielded.

Program Status. Warfighter Information Network–Tactical

The Defense (WIN-T)
Advanced GPS
Receiver (DAGR) includes the Selective Description. WIN-T is the integrating
Availability Anti-Spoofing Module and will communications network for the Future Force,
replace the current Precision Lightweight GPS optimized for offensive and joint operations,
Receiver (PLGR), which will be cascaded to while providing the Theater Combatant
other units, primarily in Force Package 4. Commander the capability to perform multiple
Milestone C decision is projected for 2QFY04 missions simultaneously with campaign quality.
with fielding beginning in 1QFY05. The DAGR It will be a framework that will set standards
itself will be replaced by an improved DAGR and protocols for Future Force information
projected for FY13 when the associated satellite spheres while interfacing with and/or replacing
constellation and ground control stations have equipment in current and Stryker forces. WIN-T
reached FOC. employs a combination of airborne, terrestrial,
and space-based (military and commercial)
Single Channel Ground and Airborne network options to provide speedy,

Annex D
Radio System (SINCGARS) comprehensive, and protected voice, data, and
video coverage to war fighters. The network
Description. SINCGARS provides infrastructure will route information in the most
commanders with a highly reliable, secure, operationally suitable and bandwidth-efficient
easily maintained Combat Net Radio that has manner possible. The WIN-T network will also
both voice and data handling capability in have the capability to establish virtual
support of C2 operations. SINCGARS, with dedicated paths, when needed, to support
users with a need to exchange critical
information on a real-time basis (e.g., air
defense, fire support).

Program Status. Milestone B decision for

WIN-T to enter SDD was in Jul 03. Using
modeling and simulation, prototypes will be

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-89

developed and tested in 4QFY05 to support a computers, and intelligence (C4I) capabilities
Milestone C decision in 1QFY06. for the warfighter. This system is being
designed as a secure, multiband, multimode,
Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) and software reprogrammable, digital radio
networking system that will support the broad
Description. JTRS is the joint Service family range of C4I requirements. The Army is the
of common software-defined programmable lead Service for Cluster 1 (ground vehicular/
Annex D

radios that will form the foundation of airborne rotary wing aviation system) and
information radio frequency transmission for Cluster 5 (handheld, man pack, and small form
Joint Vision 2020. JTRS will ultimately fit form factors).
become the Army’s primary tactical radio for
mobile communications. This lightweight, multi- Program Status. The JTRS ORD was
band radio will provide voice, data, imagery, updated in Mar 03 to Version 3.2. JTRS is in
and video communications. Additionally, it will the SDD phase with a Milestone C decision
replace multiple current radio systems within scheduled in 3QFY06, Multi-Service
the Army’s inventory and will be a key Operational Test and Evaluation in 1QFY07,
component of the Tactical Internet (TI). JTRS and full rate production in FY08.
will provide a family of affordable, high-
capacity, modular communications systems for
line-of-sight (LOS) and beyond line-of-sight
(BLOS) command, control, communications,

D-90 Army Modernization Plan 2004

Army Common User System (ACUS) Future Force. Networked communications and
Modernization Program [Mobile intelligence packages will dramatically improve
Subscriber Equipment (MSE) and Tri- command and control making it possible to
Service Tactical Communications (TRI- achieve significant advances in strategic
TAC)] responsiveness. The Army has already made
important steps towards this goal. The ABCS
Description. ACUS is the tactical terrestrial and the C4 and ISR infrastructure for the current
communications and information system that digitized forces provides a real-time blue force
currently consists of the TRI-TAC and MSE picture to ground maneuver units. The artillery,
systems. Upgrades to the systems provide an and air and missile defense components of
increased capability to support voice, data, and ABCS are interoperable with both joint and
video requirements in one of two ways— multinational systems. ABCS can also
Tactical High Speed Data Network (THSDN) leverage theater assets, like JSTARS. During
and technology insertion. The ACUS OEF and OIF the Army demonstrated a
modernization efforts support Army significant increase in combat power when it
Transformation initiatives by inserting new exercised these capabilities. The Army will
technologies (e.g., Brigade Subscriber Node, continue to incorporate lessons learned from
battlefield video-teleconferencing, wireless operating ABCS in developing the C4 and ISR
LAN, and Network Operations Center Vehicles infrastructure for the Future Force.
(NOC-V)) into SBCTs 1-4, and Base Band Node
(BBN) Joint Task Force capabilities into Annex D Summary
SBCTs 5 and 6, and Joint Task Forces.
Annex D to the 2004 Army Modernization Plan
Program Status. THSDN fielding to the force provides an overview of key Army materiel
was initiated in FY00 and completion is programs funded in PB05. These programs
anticipated in FY04. The ACUS Technology are framed within the five emerging joint
Insertion is on track for fielding completion to III functional concepts/capability categories used
Corps in FY04. by the new Joint Capability Integration and
Development System (JCIDS) process to
Command and Control (C2) Summary analyze Joint Force future requirements and
guide Army and other Service modernization

Annex D
Army C2 and JC2 supported by fully leveraged efforts towards those requirements as they
communication and computers and emerge. Other annexes in the 2004
intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance Modernization Plan examine modernization
capabilities are at the very core of realizing the paths of Doctrine, Training, Installations,
required characteristics envisioned in the Personnel and Force Structure.

Army Modernization Plan 2004 D-91

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Annex D

D-92 Army Modernization Plan 2004


Introduction DACs and overcome workforce shortfalls

anticipated over the next ten years due to
Having the right quality and quantity of
personnel (whether military, civilian, or
contractor) at the right place and time is vital 3. Manning objectives will reshape, stabilize
and train the force for transformation to the
to continued Army readiness and
Future Force and joint and interagency
modernization. Moreover, the Army requires
modern, web-enabled tools to manage, as well
as provide, personnel support to the force in