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pp. did not permit slaves to take an active part in battles as soldiers.und Waffentriiger mit. 248: "The losses of the Plataeans. Handbuch. it has seemed advisable before attacking the more intricate problem of the use of slaves in naval warfare to assemble the evidence for the use of slaves in land warfare by Athens in the fifth and fourth centuries before Christ. IV [3d ed. could not. This is admitted to be the case chiefly because of their ingrained idea that fighting was pre-eminently a freeman's job." 2 Cambridge Ancient History (Cambridge. sie zogen nur als Proviant. IV. 12. One would like to know who were these 'slaves. the hoplites.' deemed worthy of burial with the free men of Plataea." See below. there has been and still is2 considerable discussion as to whether slaves actually participated as a fighting element or not. 1194: "Sklaven waren vom Heeresdienst mit bewaffneter Hand grundsaitzlich ausgeschlossen.. Slaves. 1926). but Pausanias was shown their common grave. were limited to service regularly as noncombatants. and since there also appears to be as yet no thoroughgoing discussion of the duties or of the probable proportion of slaves among the noncombatants of an army.19271 201 This content downloaded from 65.' who probably defended the camp against the Persian centre. April.88. become members of that most important fighting machine. XXII. 1926]. are not recorded. it is agreed. because of the expensive equipment.' However.THE USE OF SLAVES BY THE ATHENIANS IN WARFARE BY RACHEL L. with the exception of a few wellknown emergencies. 209-11 and notes. In this exposition there will be stressed pertinent information from the corpus of military writ1 Busolt-Swoboda. Even freemen. of course. but also because of the practical reasons of the expense of the armor and the difficulty involved in keeping slaves loyal. but could only help to swell the numbers of the nondescript light-armed forces so ill organized at least during the fifth century. namely at Marathon. since in the case of one of the emergencies by land. and among the 'servants. [CLASBICAL PHILOLOGY.42 on Thu. if poor.88. 15 Aug 2013 12:54:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . SARGENT I. GriechischeStaatskunde (Muller. IN WARFARE BY LAND Among classical scholars there is now almost unanimous agreement that the Athenians in land warfare.
die ja iuberhaupt eine eigenartige Stellung haben. zuniachst den Bulrgernobliegt. about methods of warfare in other Greek states will not be altogether disregarded as inapplicable to Athens unless the slave system or the military organization of the state referred to was inherently different. dienen vielleicht auch als Leichtbewaffnete. Xen. 24 (Oldfather.202 RACHEL L.3 yet they seem to have been so customary a part of the organization that only under exceptional conditions are they more than thus casually mentioned. 1923). Chance remarks. 5." Riv. pp. vi. 93 and 94). 496-97: "Im ganzen klassischen Altertum herrscht der Grundsatz.. iv. however. and the discussion will be limited more sharply than before to the policy of Athens alone. 64. iii. wie sie in keiner andern griechischen Gemeinde sich wiederholt.otov larpvw. vi.88. 1. iv. who lists them as regularly to be found with the noncombatant forces and from his words evidently they were as customary a part of the Greek army as physicians or traders: A'Aaxop56'&r6 ro Xotro6v. 33. ix. iv. 21. 3 Thucyd. p. 2 See Niese. 'OO' a a7is vcr77peoTas 7raKOXOvOOtNTLV. 206. dal Principio della Guerra Peloponnesiaca sino alla Battaglia di Mantinea (432-362 B. vii. 5. 13 and 75) although they have not been definitely mentioned among those on shipboard when the vast armament sailed away from Athens (vi. 5. 8. v. zuerst nachweislich im peloponnesischen Kriege als Hopliten im auswartigen Dienste verwandt [Thucyd. 3. Aelian ii..). Dienstpflicht und Heerwesen Griechenlands. 5ovXWv Kai aiXXwv. principally Athens. This seems to have been distinctly the case in both respects with the helots' whom the Spartans used at times as a sort of light-armed force. 81. 29 and 80. Polyb. iii. 564-85. 1855).42 on Thu. iv. dem Sklaven gab man aus begreiflicher Ursache Eine Ausnahme von dieser Regel macht in gewissem Sinne Sparta keine Waffen." Historische Zeitschrift." See also below. Hellen. 2]. 4.. Regelmaissigzogen Heloten mit ins Feld [Herodot. und konnten es hier sogar zu Kommandostellen bringen [Xen. di Filol. and esp. Hellen. 101) without having been included in the previous enumeration of the forces (iv. ii. 58. 32. The duties of these slaves so elusively mentioned can be reconstructed in large part from the scattered references. 17. Thucyd. 14. 111]. 80.88. This content downloaded from 65. Anab. dass der Kriegsdienst ausscbliesslich den Freien. XXVI (1898). 1.c. iv. 57. XCVIII (1906-7).. 5. 283. 9. 15 Aug 2013 12:54:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 12.. vii. in his article: "Gli Schiavi nelle Milizie. "tYberWehrverfassung. They suddenly desert the Athenians in Sicily (Thucyd. sie verrichten Hilfsdienste. and there is some 1 This is the chief objection to Porzio's treatment of the subject for which he brings together data from the historians.. Evidence for the use of helots is everywhere used indiscriminately as though typical of slaves in warfare of other states. Isoc. 2 (K6chly-RiAstow. n.2 That slaves were present in every army levied by Athens may be safely assumed from the many inadvertent remarks to be found not only in the strictly military writers but in the other Greek authors. 1. Panegyr. mit seinen Heloten. sie werden aber auch. 31) and are reported in the casualty list of Delium (Thucyd. 19. 3]. Onasander x. SARGENT ers hitherto practically neglected as source material for the subject. 2. &Lyopat'wv.
566 in Muller. v. I said. cit. On embassyii. And he is a slave or a free man? A slave. p. 5. i. perhaps driving the heavily laden mules8 of the baggage train somewhere in the line of march in one of the five positions possible for the baggage train. almost four centuries after the period in question): "Flamininus . 26. 126 for mention of Aeschines' own slaves. Xen. vii. usually under the term UKEVO/o'pot.e. 5: ". Herodot. ready for use at any moment. the muleteer.9 but most certainly regularly marching along with the hop1 Xen. This seems impossible to Greek habits. 27. carrying sacks7 of bedding for an ambassador on his way to Macedonia. 2 Cyrop. iii. and Xen.6 Just as in times of comparative peace slaves trudge along.88. Aristoph. although he was a free man.. Plato Lysis 208: "Then. Slaves help prepare the food. 3 Isoc.. 1. p. 24 (Melber.). Demosth. and.USE OF SLAVES BY ATHENIANS IN WARFARE 203 evidence available as to their numbers in relation to the total numbers in the army. gave orders to all his men to cut stakes to carry with them. 11.). Bieber. depicts just such a slave ludicrously laden with an enormous pack (see M.2 rescue wounded men. Cyrop. Tafel 80 and p. cf. following the unsubstantiated statement of Lippelt (Die bis auf Alexander den Grossen [Jena-Diss. Anab.88. Aegin. 1. 75. iii. griechischen Leichtbewaffneten This particular duty seems at all times to have been regarded by Greeks as especially "slavish. 1920]. v. 30. 99. 28. This content downloaded from 65. IV.. 5.. 8. 1855). viii. viii. 6 There seems to be no evidence that freemen carried the baggage for the Athenians as Busolt suggests may have been the case (Griechische Staatskunde[3d ed. he said" (Jowett's trans. 5 Herodot. Anab.). to drive a mule" (Brownson's trans.42 on Thu. 7 Aeschin. 4 Xen. having nothing but their javelins in their hands can stand the additional burden of a stake" (Shuckburgh's trans. may no one use the whip to the mules? Yes.. 45). Onasander xi. shield-bearers. but to those of Rome it is easy.3 serve as attendants to generals. Hellen. 8 It appears that slaves were usually detailed for this work. 229." See evidence cited in notes immediately below this and also Xen. two of them.5 but it is as carriers of baggage. xix.. 18) regarding Greeks of his day (i. Xen. 15 Aug 2013 12:54:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . In Conon liv. he said. 2. The fact that Greeks had never been trained to carry much weight may account for the truth in Polybius' statement (xviii. 4.. 6 (Oldfather. Polyb. Hellen. An ancient vase painting. so in times of war slaves are with the army.' act as guides. For the Greeks find it difficult to hold even their sarissae on the march. vii. 9 Aelian xxxix.4 carry important messages. Frogs (opening scene). op. 3. 14. 1. Die Denkmtdlerzum Theaterwesenim Altertum [Berlin. 1887). Cf. 1923).. 2. Polyaen. 39. but the Romans strap their shield to their shoulders with leathern thongs.. 1910]. 143). now supposed to illustrate a similar scene but not this particular one from Aristophanes. 1920]. 6. iv. and can scarcely bear the fatigue of them. 1). But he had been detailed by his messmates. 1 (K6chly-Rfistow. and caretakers in general of the armor of hoplites that they are most frequently mentioned.
4 there were three thousand such slaves. there is found another remark from Thucydides which conclusively shows that Potidaea was not an isolated example but that both hoplites and cavalry were regularly attended by slaves: I Xen.88. 4 iii. that is. pp. one for each hoplite. 10. his slave packs the knapsack with onions. and the shield. the spear. 6 Acharn.. 6The soldier was expected to report for service with three days' rations (Aristoph. just two years after this siege. 11 (Oldfather. 229 (Eurytus sick with ophthalmia attended by one helot).. 1923). For a description of Greek armor see K6chly-Rilstow. This content downloaded from 65. 2.. 7 Acharn. 29. 25. 21. 3 Herodot. too.5 hands his master the helmet and plume. 1 (K6chly-Rflstow. n. 8. p. 1)..See also scholia (Diubner) to passage: ets r6p OIg4aXofv T7S &U7rL5os.. 103 and 346 ff. 1855). Peace 312. 1130: KaTm'Xet o roT /ALk'L. Hellen. 15 Aug 2013 12:54:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . iv. viii. 14.204 RACHEL L.my boy. 80 (five thousand Spartans at Plataea with seven helots each but not in this case appointed to serve strictly as noncombatants. Aelian xlii. 5. salt. carrying the bulky shield and other equipment' and ready to fall out of line at the abrupt word of command preserved for us by Asclepiodotus: o uKEMO06pos airoXwp&-w iqs 0aXays Although the more familiar instances in literature refer to Spartan hoplites attended each by one or more helots. Lysistr. Fortunately. 'Jva wyepraL XacurporTpa. see below. Thueyd. iv. of hoplite rank. in the Acharnians (1097 ff. and for the maintenance of the slave each Athenian master received from the state one drachma a day. breastplate. 4.3 yet there is much definite information.C. SARGENT lites.). vii. 10. Anab. on the authority of Thucydides. 560 ff. Take up the shield. iv. and bringit on. Myself will bear my knapsackfor myself.42 on Thu. At the siege of Potidaea in 428 B. Under Lamachus' direction.88. Geschichtedes Griechischen Kriegswesen von der dltesten Zeit bis auf Pyrrhus (Aarau. 1136-40 (Rogers' trans. and fish.7 In the heart-breaking description of the desperate retreat in Sicily in 413 B. 1852).. ix.C. 1181-90. Aristophanes.) pictures with opportune vividness the exact duties of such an attendant. that each Athenian wealthy enough to provide his own heavy armor. . also regularly provided himself with a slave to attend him on the campaign.. 2 Tactics xii. lash the blanketsup againstthe shield. but first polishing it with oil..).6 At last both start off for the campaign with Lamachus giving the parting instructions as they are about to leave the stage: Boy. 206. 17.
Xenophon (Vectigal iv.88. 1924). 4 In Philip. Thereupon the slaves arrayed in military fashion "withdrew from the arms.But the soldiers. whereby he so suddenly and victoriously attacked the Lacedaemonians. 52 (Melber. Therefore I infer that in this utopia hoplites are not to be expected to carry their own shields "with the blankets lashed to them. iv. he says that Iphicrates ordered slaves and soldiers to exchange costumes. XXX (1926). arrayed as slaves.).. Jacob. 42) proposes as something I vii..' Polyaenus2 unintentionally supplements the information from Thucydides and Aristophanes on this point and bears witness that the care of armor was an important duty for slaves. 5. contrary to their practice when under arms." imitating the leisure of freemen (wOppw TCVP0wXWP f&&lOp TP 'P rP NEVEp wP OXOX'v . See Sargent. Each master obviously had to bring his own.. 15 Aug 2013 12:54:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . some because they had no attendants. "Les Esclaves Publics A Ath6nes. and most of them had gone off all at once" (Jowett's trans.utpMoVpEpot). 75. 7rX77loV The enemy. Strategmataiii. too. other because they could not trust them. I.C." Demosthenes.88. it might be added.4 I suppose. 110-21. 1887).). "stayed near the arms performing the customary duties of slaves" (oL& OlKeTtK^S KaTETKEUao7IE'POL TrC' 6VrXwP 'oap 6oa ElKOS&aKoPoV4EPo&. although each citizen is to be allowed to have enough slaves to help him in what he has to do (vi. In describing a brilliant stratagem of Iphicrates in 393 B. 21 ff. when itemizing his proposed army of two thousand to meet the Macedonian peril nowhere lists any slaves to be furnished by the state-the five hundred Athenians. Plato in his Laws. as it supposed. 57-106. There is no evidence that the state at any time purchased or owned any such group of slaves3 to be given to hoplites for use in war. 778)." Le Musee Belge. for full discussion and citation from literature and inscriptions of state-owned slaves see G.42 on Thu. imitating Iphicrates. conveyed about their persons their own food. does not provide for any such group for the military system of his ideal city. 3 2 This content downloaded from 65.USE OF SLAVES BY ATHENIANS IN WARFARE 205 "Even the heavy armed and cavalry. were to bring their own. The Size of the Slave Population at Athens in the Fifth and Fourth CenturiesbeforeChrist (Urbana. Finally. for they had long been deserting. pp. let its regular soldiers relax and even straggle beyond the encampment while ot 6E OlKE'TaL rats apa'yKatats v7rm7pEolats1rapeAEpop.
for example. 1891]. 1196 ff. such. 10) that it seems not typical of usual conditions. 49). 1. For the more important duties.206 RACHEL L. n.). See below. (Marchant's trans. 2 This would also include the cavalry who were carefully selected from the wealthireferred to by Xenophon (Mag. p. 4 Cf. 2). 209. joined in the rush to and from Delium in 424 B. as the motley crowd of considerably more than ten thousand who. cf.. IV [2d ed. and the difficulties which this number has always involved are not in rem here in a discussion of Athenian practices. ii. 4. 2. iv. 2). would lead to the conclusion that for the Athenians one slave' for each hoplite2 was usually the case. Suffice it to conjecture that these helots.4 Though generals would naturally require the services of more than one slave. p. axyopaLtwp L T77S V7rpEoLas raKOXOVOO'VOLP). 345. Other evidence however. 202. SARGENT quite novel that the slaves whom he advises the state to acquire gradually for the mines be used in time of war for the army and the navy. 31.. ix. eq. Die Kriegsaltertumer (in Mutller. there is no indication of just how many were so employed by the highest officer.. 17. Acharn.88. 6) est classes (Arist. as Herodotus asserts (ix. Thucydides (vii. 4. 75) definitely refers to slaves as usually attending both cavalry and hoplites. the general or other lThucyd. 28 and 29). composed for the most part of men of the lowest property class. most of them aorXoL. (Thucyd. v. with the flower of the Spartan troops absent (see also above. could have afforded to furnish themselves with slave assistants or even needed them. and put them between the cavalrymen. Thucyd. Aristoph. 17. pol. ii.88. As to the total number of slaves in the whole noncombatant part of any army. 1. Polyaen. 2) unfortunately leaves no direct testimony at the time when he is defining the constituent members except to imply that slaves by no means make up the whole of such a force. if equipped for war and used in a crisis as a type of light-armed force. It is of course absurd to think that the unorganized lightarmed forces3of the Athenians. by a state not provided as Athens was with a large group of poor citizens suitable for light-armed troops. p. 15 Aug 2013 12:54:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . n.op. presented no more of a problem when drawn up in line of battle around five thousand armed Spartans than they would if left at home to work their will. Ath. The 17r7rOK6/uot were very likely slaves: "Another way of exaggerating the apparent strength of your force is to arm the grooms with lances. 3..C.. 6OOl al for the sake of service ('aTp63P. This content downloaded from 65. 3 See Bauer... He lists slaves as only one of four types of persons following the army 6o0vXP Kalt aaXXwp. such as it is. iii. 93 and 94). Herodot. The seven helots supposed to have been allotted to each of the five thousand Spartans in a case of emergency to face Persians at Plataea are so specially cited by Herodotus (ix.. 29. Aelian (ii.42 on Thu. iv. such as messenger for example. cit.
however. 2PollUX vii.. Such was the case that dark night in Plataea in 431 B. 2)..2 There remains the important question of whether slaves were ever used in the actual fighting against the enemy. metics. This content downloaded from 65..e. regularly went for such a purpose. 75. a 'Avaxe'to' 5oVXotkrTaotv. sent to the Median fleet a man in a boat. Therefore they were willing to risk their lives along with citizens.). p.USE OF SLAVES BY ATHENIANS IN WARFARE 207 officer took to war trusted slaves from his own household as we know that Themistocles did at the battle of Salamis: "Then Themistocles . took a hand informally in repelling the enemy something which might be termed a kind of fighting.4 However." See also his further observations (pp. later to be demoted3 to "slavish" duties. essi.88. Later. p.. non avevano attribuzioni fisse e nettamente delineate: che da servi potevano essere innalzati al grado di guerrieri e da guerrieri precipitare di bel nuovo nelle umiliazioni della servitit. however..v. Though the evidence nowhere warrants the statement that slaves taken to war as baggagecarriers. 3 Porzio (op. 4 Ath. charged with a message that he must deliver. I can only surmise in lieu of actual evidence that they could be hired at the same employment agency in Athens near the shrine of Eurysaces where lessees of mines.. G. pol. 212. postulates that such was the general practice in Greek warfare: "... 573). instances recorded where slaves without being freed. there are. vii.. etc. Philochor. 579 if. See also Sargent. 95. frag. op. wOaKO(pw( Lepa'.. when women and slaves on the housetops screamed and pelted the invading Thebans with stones and tiles (Thucyd. 73 (F..88. viii. Anec.42 on Thu. or anyone else in need of additional workers. just as they were. 40. pur facendo parte delle milizie.. 15 Aug 2013 12:54:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .C. according to Aristotle. s. in the return from Piraeus. slave or free. or in the general-baggage train.). This man's name was Sicinnus and he was of Themistocles's household and attendant on his children" (Godley's trans.). II. -erodot. H. in case of need were often promoted to actual service as soldiers. 4. 155.' In regard to the other slaves needed in this department. ii. business men. ou' VV ot o-o0opoprTes cit. slaves in some way assisted Thrasybulus in re-establishing democracy. In' Herodot. Bekker. 133. in the general political turmoil when wealthy masters had been slain and their property confiscated it is very probable that these slaves at the time of participating had not been invited to take part but were hoping to pass as freemen i. Gr. cit.
The comparatively few home-born slaves may have felt some sort of allegiance to the state.. xxiv. i.2 But it is not to be expected that the Athenians would depend much on their slaves. 5 Clouds4-7.208 RACHEL L. "on being informed of the message met in public assembly. The authorities at public expense must place such property with neighboring peoples and provide means for its support if the owners have no friends to whom they may entrust it. Herodotus (viii. 15 Aug 2013 12:54:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . according to Polyaenus. 1 (Illinois Greek Club trans. but to follow the instructions written by the practical-minded Aeneas Tacticus about the middle of the fourth century before Christ: "One must also notify those citizens who own cattle or slaves to place them in safety among neighbors since they can not bring them into the city. according to Polybius. 41) mentions an actual transfer of this sort just before the battle of Salamis. vii. This content downloaded from 65. p. The safest thing to do to avoid such wholesale desertion.3 to resist their enemies in actual combat. 14 (Melber. 13 and 75 for an actual case of such a desertion. vii. slaves would desert at the first opportunity.88. might materially assist an army as the commander's slave once did at Iliuml by going out for booty each night. or as another slave did. at least in the days of the Peloponnesian War and later. and with feelings of "utter despair" (a'roPo-OE'vrEs rats -yv&uats) deliberated upon their position. 4 Thucyd. the majority of whom. 122.42 on Thu. 5. 27. also Herodot. or even to keep them at home. the Athenians undoubtedly did it in the same frame of mind and with the same policy as the people of Abydos a century or more later. 1887). op. were purchased barbarians. for instance.88. 229. Polyaen. 6 Thucyd. vii.6 was not to enrol them in an army. 3 See Sargent. 142-44. as Pericles anticipated4 and as Aristophanes5 implied was the tendency. that of the twenty thousand slaves who left Attica at the time of the siege of Decelea. in a state of war. 2 1 Aen.)."' When in some grave crisis it became necessary to arm the slaves. who. too. SARGENT dividual slaves. 4. who also did pillaging by night and by his tricks managed to open up a whole city. cit. cf. They thereupon resolved first to liberate the slaves that they might secure their sincere Tact. iii. 7 x. but it was clearly to be expected that.
34. 2.USE OF SLAVES BY ATHENIANS IN WARFARE 209 interest and loyalty. at Arginusae. 2). 6. 1. when all competent adult slaves (Xen. 5 Niese (op. 2 Thucyd.). chiefly the exact numbers fighting on either Greek or Persian side. and there are circumstances about Athens' slave population of those days which makes its participation in the battle quite possible. 498). Xen. vi. 7). 31 (Shuckburgh's trans. It was but natural that.88. 24. erzahlt zwar Pausanias. Herodotus (vi. 48. da aber die ailteren. states his rejection of the evidence thus (not seeming to note that Pausanias expressly said [vii. and in Messenia (Polyaen. 109 ff. Pausanias-a traveler. 24) were used to help man the one hundred and ten ships. Hellen. 4. our chief source for Marathon. 71 that these slaves were set free before the battle): "Dass die Athener bei Marathon ihre Sklaven hatten mit sich kaimpfenlassen. so darf man dem jungen und unzuverlassigen Schriftsteller eine den athenischen Anschauungen so widersprechende Sache nicht glauben.C. i. Hellen. iii. But his whole account of the battle lacks many important details. ii. 201. p. cf. 3 This is of course the familiar instance of Arginusae in 406 B. xvii. 2. equipped as soldiers. he should fail to mention emancipated slaves but should rather per1 xvi. But I see no good reason for summarily dismissing5 Pausanias' testimony." This content downloaded from 65.3 when Athenians felt enough "utter despair" even to consider calling upon citizens to give up to the state slaves who could be emancipated. The use of slaves at Marathon has for some time caused perplexity to scholars. n. does not mention the fact that Miltiades liberated the slaves to help defend the fatherland. p. This evidence is discussed in the second part of this article.88. one of them in the case of a naval battle.. who is interested in proving that the Athenians never used slaves at all in combat on land. writing in a day when legend was already obscuring the few known facts about the battle in a haze of marvelous and even supernatural deeds (vi. 4. writing centuries after the eventnotwithstanding the fact that he cites a tombstone which he saw and read. 15 Aug 2013 12:54:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .2 there are apparently only three recorded occasions.42 on Thu. v. 28) and at Thebes (Diodor. entitled "The Use of Slaves by the Athenians in Naval Warfare. and used to repel a common foe: at Marathon. 117).4 The opinion is usually expressed that slaves had no active part in this battle. and at Chaeronea. v. cit. 11. 5." 4 See above. 28. because their presence is attested by only one writer. insonderheit Herodot.). 15. similar occurrences in Corcyra (Diodor."' Numerous as are the instances of such emancipation of helots among the Spartans. and afterward were rewarded with freedom. xiii. nichts davon wissen. to be sure.
7): "It seems that even a democracy is capable of a just resolution. it will be granted that the majority of Athens' slaves must have been employed in those former days in agriculture and 1 Arist... Herodot. But the Athenians.88. There is another grave for the Boeotians of Plataea and the slaves. within my knowledge. This content downloaded from 65. closing all together with the Persians. 121). Ath. for the Athenians allowed their slaves to share the honor of a public burial. to the years just preceding the increased development of the silver mines resulting from the new vein opened up at Maroneial in Attica.). 32. 29. for they were the first Greeks.. 15. who charged their enemies at a run. 112): ". and over it are tombstones with the names of the fallen. for slaves fought then for the first time. fought in memorable fashion. vii. he [Diaetus in 146 B. arranged according to tribes.. or even strain the sequence of his story to include the name of a Callias (vi. a historian would be much more certain of louder applause if he would read to the Greeks such passages as (vi. When one pauses to reflect that Marathon belonged to the days of 491-490 B.). the vanity of the Athenians concerning this remarkable victory would have been much gratified to listen to an account from a historian who emphasized the fact that freedmen helped to repulse the Medes.C.C. 144. SARGENT petuate by mention in his account such a person as Cynegirus. It is not likely that. and the first who endured the sight of Median garments" (Godley's trans. and finally (vii.. there are definite references by Pausanias on three occasions to the enlistment of slaves at Marathon (i. 15 Aug 2013 12:54:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 3): "In the plain is the grave of the Athenians. the brother of the poet Aeschylus (vi.). 7 (483 B. and to have their names carved on the tombstone which sets forth that they were faithful to their masters in the war".c." Previously he had remarked (i.210 RACHEL L. No. that is.88. and that it was only subsequent to this time that "millionaires" employed their slaves in mining and in other branches of industry. and called out the men of military age from the cities of Achaia and Arcadia" (Frazer's trans. 7): "Following the example set by Miltiades and the Athenians before the battle of Marathon. Whatever the reason for the omission by Herodotus or other writers. a generation later than the battle. pol. 22.] set the slaves free. 114).42 on Thu.
Many a leader in other cities. p. when the statesmen were at their wits' end7 in a last-minute effort to save an already doomed Greek state. 5 Xen.5 The details contributed by Polybius.. debtors of the state. Leocr. 3 This content downloaded from 65. Plato testifies to the dependability of such slaves (Laws vi. 1894).. And from that place [i.. frag.).. in the emergency when the Spartans did not arrive. 209. may furnish a clue to the method of procedure in Athens before Marathon. 41. .C. 1. except that a proclamation could have been substituted for the circular letter (xxxix. 6. 209. 15 Aug 2013 12:54:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ... namely slaves.' Among these groups home-born slaves usually predominate. After the crushing defeat of Chaeronea in 338 B. in addition to Pausanias. 776): "For many a man has found his slaves better in every way than brethren or sons. Aristog. in later Greek history. 3. Hyperides8 brought forward the proposal to enfranchise as citizens and to mobilize all men not normally eligible to serve in the army. and many times they have saved the lives and property of their masters and their whole house such tales are well-known" (Jowett's trans. n. Argos] sent a circular letter to all the towns ordering them to set free their slaves who were of military age.C. op. 7 Lycurg...2 just the type which Diaeus recommended for service in war. Hellen. 89.3 Therefore it is quite credible that the vigorous Miltiades or Callimachus. That the majority of the people recognized this to be the proper thing to suggest in such a crisis is shown by the fact that later they promptly acquitted Hyperides when he was charged by a personal enemy of having proposed an illegal measure.42 on Thu. cit.e.88. above. of the similar levy by Diaeus in 146 B. Those who had not the requisite number of home-bred slaves were to fill up the quota imposed on each town from other slaves" (Shuckburgh's trans. 123. p. 24. n.USE OF SLAVES BY ATHENIANS IN WARFARE 211 household service. p. vii. i. 4 See above. proclaimed that each master should contribute slaves to the state.). The third case6 where slaves figure as possible active combatants in Athenian warfare is well known. He needed only to state in self-defense: 2 Ibid..4 and there is a parallel case for Athens eighty-five years later in the case of Arginusae.. 8 C. 27-29 (Blass. 8): . and the disfranchised.88. and send them furnished with arms to Corinth... I See Sargent. and who had been born and brought up in their houses.C. 6 For the second case see remarks on p.. resorted to such a procedure.
as baggage-carriers and as personal attendants to their own masters among the hoplites. that the Athenians considered using slaves as a fighting element in the land warfare only in notable emergencies. 70): "Ainsi le sens de cet affranchissement est fort clair: il s'agit. f'ypama. and seem to have been willing to emancipate them before such military service. X Or. L'Affranchi8sementdes Esclaves pour Faits de Guerre (in "M61anges Henri Weil. never fought in battles alongside of Athenian citizens. This content downloaded from 65. 165-72 (Manomissione straordinaria).1 Therefore. 15 Aug 2013 12:54:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and most important of all Calderini. then.88. pp." Paris. 1908). and A. [To be continued] NORTH CENTRAL COLLEGE NAPERVILLE 1 See G. slaves rendered their greatest service. 1898). while still in servitude. non de recompenser l'esclave. La Manomissione e la Condizione dei Liberti in Grecia (Milan. r7a' ev Xaypwve'z (AadXq) It is clear. 69-72. De LibertorumConditioneapud Athenien8ee(Paris. pp.88. Croiset. slaves. Foucart. mais de l'elever jusque'a la fonction qu'on lui demande de remplir". 1896). but were only one subdivision of the whole class of noncombatants. In warfare by land. in the strictest sense of the word. pp. 1-7.212 RACHEL L. See especially his remarks (p.42 on Thu. 849 A [Bernadakis]). SARGENT 'EoLcK6OTeL 07rXa-and again: OVK C"yc rTO pot T'a MaK68OYWV 4t7L0taya (Vit.
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