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Andrew Gardner 09.2011


1.1 PREFIXES change the meaning of a word but not its type, e.g. a noun remains a noun.


It stops, prevents or is the opposite of the root. It means twice as often, the second one, or two of the root. It gives the opposite effect or works in the opposite direction. It removes the root. Its a strong negative, allowing no compromise. The person used to be this; to send out. Its outside or beyond the root. Its an extreme, usually unwanted, form of the root. It reverses many roots beginning with the letter l. It reverses many roots beginning with m. It reverses roots beginning with any letter, equivalent to un. It reverses many roots beginning with r. Its an incorrect or unhealthy form of the root. Its a small, perhaps extremely small, form of the root. Its a mistake, usually unintended. It covers many aspects, types or areas. This simply adds not to the root. Its an excessive amount of the root. It happens after the root or the event referred to. It happens before the root or event referred to. The root is either reversed or repeated. Its half of the root. It is under the root or lesser than the root. It is above the root or greater than the root. It goes across the root. It reverses roots beginning with any letter, equivalent to in. It is below the root or inadequate.

antiseptic, antifreeze, anticlockwise biannually, bicentenary, bipolar counterproductive, counterweight defrost, devalue, deportation disbelief, dishonest, disarm ex-wife, ex-president; expel, export extracurricular, extraterrestrial hyperactive, hypersensitivity illegal, illogically, illegitimate immoral, immeasurably, immovable incorrect, inappropriate, indecision irrelevant, irrespective, irregularities maladjusted, malnutrition microorganism, microscope misplaced, misunderstanding, misled multinational, multicoloured nonsense, nonaligned, nonverbal overpaid, overstaffing, overspent post-war, post-mortem prenatal, preset, prehistoric repay, remodelled, replay, rethink semiconscious, semicircle submarine, substandard, subsection superimpose, supersonic transport, transatlantic unlikely, unfavourably, unrealistic underground, underfunding

1.2 SUFFIXES change the grammatical type of the word, not its meaning. Note: - less is an exception and reverses the meaning. [adj = adjective, adv = adverb, n = noun, vb = verb]

-able -al -ance -ce -cy -dom -ed -ee -er -ery -ful -hood -ian -ible -ing

vb adj n adj vb n adjn nn adj/nn vbadj vbn vbn nn nadj adj/nn nn vbadj vbn

avoidable, changeable, reliable musical, practical, logical defiance, appliance, alliance distance, reluctance, eloquence accountancy, diplomacy freedom, wisdom, kingdom employed, displayed, refined employee, detainee, divorcee beginner, discoverer, winner machinery, refinery, stationery beautiful, handful, peaceful likelihood, neighbourhood musician, electrician, politician indigestible, irreversible skating, skiing, jogging

-ion -ist -istic -ity -ive -less -ly -ment -ness -or -ous -ship -side -ure -y

vbn nn nadj/n adjn n/vbadj nadj adjadv vbn adjn vbn nadj nn nn vbn nadj

revision, division, decision pianist, socialist, capitalist futuristic, majestic, simplistic popularity, density, complexity subjective, addictive, abusive hopeless, fruitless, senseless quickly, slightly, faithfully payment, employment brightness, happiness counsellor, actor, professor famous, glamorous, courageous friendship, leadership roadside, seaside, hillside closure, pleasure, seizure easy, hungry, juicy, furry

1.3 Some words are unusual, e.g. strongstrength, flyflight, highheight. Others need care: economic (e.g. economic policy), economical (= cheap), historic (= important), historical (e.g. historical evidence). 1.4 Word families include: (a) help, helper, helping, helpful, helpfully, helpless, helplessly, unhelpful.

(b) use, used, user, user-friendly, abuse, misuse, reuse, disused, unused, useful, usefully, useless, reusable, unusable, overused, underused. (c) light, lighter, lightest, enlighten, enlightenment, enlightening, lighthouse, lightning, highlight, searchlight. (d) cover, discover, recover, uncover, discovery, discoverer, irrecoverable, irrecoverably, coverage. 1.5 Not all affixes are meaningful, so guessing is dangerous. Also, some words are surprising, e.g. a helping (= a portion of food), a lighter (for cigarettes), helpless (doesnt do anything without help). Always check unknown words in a dictionary. The above tables contain common affixes - there are rarer ones too. 1.6 Both nouns and adjectives can be formed from two words (compound nouns/adjectives). Some examples include: (nouns) raindrop, greenhouse, blackbird, underpass, windscreen, bookseller, wildlife, sunglasses, raincoat, headache; (adjectives) self-centred, self-employed, home-grown, duty-free, heart-broken, well-meaning, good-looking, time-consuming.

2.1 Adjectives form the comparative by adding er and the superlative by adding est. Use more and most instead of er/est for adjectives with three or more syllables and for those formed from verbs, e.g. useful, wanted, boring. Irregular ones include: good better best; bad worse worst. 2.2 Be careful with spelling: dry driest (y i after consonant + y) hot hottest (double the consonant if it follows a single vowel); cheap cheapest (two vowels before the consonant). 2.3 Use so, such, too, enough with adjectives when there is a result. E.g. (a) The weather was so good that we went swimming every day. (so + adj) (b) It was such a difficult test that nobody got full marks. (such + a/an + adj + noun) Remember: such good weather/ food/ advice (no a/an with uncountable nouns). (c) It's too heavy. I can't lift it. = It's too heavy to lift. = It's too heavy for me. (d) Our car isn't big enough for our family. (adj + enough) 2.4 Use not only...also to combine two comparisons: "not only" + verb + subject. (a) Not only is the train quicker than the bus, it is also cheaper. 2.5 Adverbs ending in -ly use more and most to form the comparative and superlative. Remember that hard, fast and long are both adjectives and adverbs; add er/est to form comparatives and superlatives. Use so, such, too, enough, not only with adverbs the same as with adjectives. E.g. (a) He braked too quickly and skidded into a tree. (b) Not only does she work more quickly, she also works more quietly. (note "does") 2.6 Use as + adj/adv + as to compare two people or things. E.g. (a) Sarah is as good as her mother at tennis. (b) Paul runs as fast as his brother now. (c) She is nearly as good as her sister. (d) He earns almost twice as much as Tim. Negative: (e) The hotel wasnt nearly as comfortable as the brochure said.

3.1 The conditional is easy if you remember two principles, difficult if you don't. Principle 1: the tenses of the verbs must reflect what happens in reality. Principle 2: we put the verbs one step in the past to show that the condition is less likely. 3.2 The PLANS (First) conditional - we intend to do something. Example: (a) If I run (now), I'll catch the bus (later). Formula: If + present simple, future simple First I run, later I catch the bus. The first verb is present, the second is future. Use going to to show a future plan: (b) If get the job, Im going to buy a car. Use unless to add authority or threat: (c) Unless your work improves, you won't get your bonus this month. ("unless" = "if" + "not") Use the imperative form for friendly offers: (d) If you have any problems, call me. 3.3 The UNLIKELY/DREAMS (Second) conditional - we don't expect a result. Example: (a) If I got the job, I'd do it really well. Formula: If + past simple, would + infinitive The present simple becomes the past simple; will + infinitive becomes would + infinitive. Both verbs are one step in the past to show that the condition is less likely. Other examples are advice

and curiosity: (b) If I were you, I'd own up and apologise. (c) What would you do if you were offered overtime? 3.4 The IMPOSSIBLE (Third) conditional - we know it's too late but we want to learn from the past. It is commonly used for analysing accidents. Example: If he had followed the procedure, the accident wouldn't have happened. Formula: If + past perfect, would + have + past participle 3.5 The MIXED conditional: the condition is impossible but we talk about the situation now. Example: (a) If I had won the competition, I'd be in the USA now. Formula: If + past perfect, would + infinitive We can't use "would + have + past participle", which refers to the past, with "now", which refers to the present. Remember: in 3.5 the speaker is thinking about the past but in 3.6 about the present. This conditional is mixed: "If + impossible conditional, unlikely conditional." 3.6 The WHENEVER (Zero) conditional - we talk about general habits, not specific cases. Example: (a) We like to go out on Sundays but if it rains, we stay in. Formula: If + present, present Both verbs are present because its not about a specific case. We are not interested in the order of events. (b) We go to the mountains at Christmas but if the roads are blocked, we stay at home. (c) If you ever need some help, ask me. (Ill help you whenever you ask) (d) If you aren't sure, you should check. ("should shows obligation) 3.7 Use if only to add emotion, e.g. (a) If only I had listened to him. (b) If only she were here. Note that it is often unnecessary to complete the sentence as it is easily guessed.


4.1 Words that show time include after, as, as soon as, before, when, while and until. As conjunctions, they don't usually need the future because they already show the order of events. E.g. (a) I'll phone you when I get home. (b) She's been working since she got home. (c) When will she be back? ("when" = question word, not conjunction) (d) I don't know when she will be back. (Use the future as the second sentence refers to a later time.) (e) I'll call the police while you check the flat. (f) Wait here until I get back. You should know: each time, the last time, once, the moment, long before, now that, no sooner...than, hardly...before/when, by which time, at which point, after which. Sometimes we miss out words that can be understood, especially "to be". (g) Check with your doctor if (it is) necessary. (h) While (I was) in town, I saw my nephew. (i) Boil until (it is) soft. (j) They tried hard, once (they were) convinced it was worth it. 4.2 Words that show purpose include: to/in order to, in order that, so, so as to, so that. (a)They had to buy some land in order to build more houses. ("in order to" = "to") (b) He's studying law so that he can become a judge. ("so that" = " in order that") (c) We should ban smoking so as to eliminate cancer. ("so as to" = "to") 4.3 Words that show reason include: because, since, as. (All three mean the same in this case) (a) Since/As it's late, we'll finish now and carry on tomorrow. Note: avoid using because at the start of a sentence: it should connect two ideas within a sentence. Further options include: in case, just in case, in that, to the extent that, seeing that. (b) I'll wait, just in case he comes late. (c) It's unfair in that he never warned me. (d) She's free to the extent that her limited income permits. (e) Seeing that it's late, we'll finish here. 4.4 Words that show result include: so that. ("so that" can show either purpose or result) (a) Costs kept rising so that some investors wanted to pull out of the project. Further words include: and so, so + adj + as to, so much/few/many/little + noun + that. (b) He's found a better job and so he's bound to be leaving us soon. (c) It's not so badly damaged as to be irreparable. (d) There was so much broken glass that they had to close the shop. (e) They had so few customers that they went bankrupt in the end. 4.5 Words that show contrast or surprise: although, though, while, in spite of, despite, even if/though. (a) Though she speaks German well, she prefers English.

(b) English is a Germanic language while Romanian is a Romance one. (c) She did well despite (= in spite of) her ankle injury. 4.6 Words that show place include: where, wherever, everywhere. (a) Wherever you go in London, youll hear foreign languages. (b) You can get good food everywhere you go in England nowadays. 4.7 Words that show how the subject does something include: as, like, the way. (a) I cant understand why he lies as he does. (b) I like the way he cuts my hair. (c) She speaks French like a native. Also: as though, just as. (d) It looked as though a bomb had hit it. (e) Its beautiful, just as we expected. 4.8 Words that add an idea include: also, as well, as well as. (a) They clean your car as well as repairing it. (They do both jobs) (b) He speaks French as well as he speaks German. (= to the same standard) 4.9 Words that change direction include: all the same, by contrast, alternatively, even so, however, though, on the other hand. (a) Thanks for your suggestion. All the same, I'll carry on with this for now. (b) Drink-driving is punished severely. By contrast, speeding is almost accepted. (c) You can pay in one lump sum. Alternatively, you can pay in instalments. (d) These pills can have unpleasant side effects. Even so, theyre worth trying. (e) We should encourage him. However, we do need to be a bit careful. (f) An accident is theoretically possible, though Ive never known one happen. (g) Its expensive, certainly. On the other hand, its also an investment. Less used ones include: conversely, nevertheless, nonetheless, on the contrary. 4.10 Words that add a result include: as a result, therefore, consequently, so. (a) He couldn't remember names and, as a result, frequently upset people. (b) This document had been altered and was therefore worthless. (c) The project ran out of money and, consequently, was abandoned. (d) He invested his inheritance wisely, so guaranteeing himself a steady income. 4.11 Words that show the order of events include: afterwards, earlier, ever since, in the meantime, meanwhile, previously, simultaneously, soon afterwards, subsequently, beforehand, throughout. (a) I went to the festival and came home straight afterwards. (b) To save time, both operations can be done simultaneously (= at the same time). (c) We missed the train. We should have got up earlier. (d) They met at college and have been great friends ever since. (e) I'll study this one later. In the meantime, can you find out what the police know. (f) Detectives searched the gallery. Meanwhile, the thief was talking to an art dealer. ("meanwhile introduces another activity happening at the same time) (g) He was arrested at lunchtime yesterday and charged soon afterwards. (h) The engine started making strange noises and subsequently stopped. (i) We really ought to have checked with him beforehand. (j) They irritated each other and argued non-stop throughout the debate. (k) He decided to take the risk. Previously, he had been much more cautious. 4.12 Words that modify or correct include: actually, as a matter of fact, as it happens, in fact, you see, after all, as for, with, in the case of. (a) Dont worry! As a matter of fact, I never liked that vase. (b) Shes done very well this year. In fact, its time we promoted her. (c) Hes a good friend of the boss; actually, I think theyre related. (d) Ill have a word with him. As it happens, Im seeing him today anyway. (e) It was all a misunderstanding: you see, I had no idea she was his wife. (f) Most of them are good students. As for time keeping, you just cant fault them. (g) The manager likes a joke. With the supervisor you have to be more careful. (h) Some infections arent contagious, but in the case of mumps isolation is essential. 4.13 Words that introduce a new idea include: actually, anyhow, look, now, well now, so, you know. (a) Anyhow, whats your news. (b) Look, Ill phone him now. (c) So, hows your project coming on?

(d) You know weve been thinking about a new secretary? Well, Ive got an idea. 4.14 Words that emphasise include: above all, believe me, simply, surely. (a) Above all, if youre not sure what to do, ask. Dont guess! (b) Leave your car at home! Believe me, its too dangerous in this weather. (c) I simply did what he suggested. (d) It's surely cheaper to buy a new car. 4.15 Words that weaken an idea include: in a way, in effect, more or less, practically, to some extent, up to a point, virtually. (a) It was very similar to the previous accident, in a way. (b) It is, in effect, a mistake in the law. (c) It's more or less what the experts predicted. (d) We're practically bankrupt. (e) To some extent I sympathise with him: nobody's perfect, after all. (f) Shes right, up to a point. (g) Hes virtually the only experienced technician weve got. 4.16 Words that generalise include: all things considered, as a rule, basically, essentially, in general, generally, on average. (a) All things considered, I think weve had quite a good year. (b) We dont allow appeals as a rule. (c) Basically, each case is unique. (d) Generally, the reports accurate. (e) He solved two cases a month, on average.

5.1 Modals show attitudes to facts and people: how sure we are about facts and our relationships with people. Add "not to form a negative and put the modal before the subject for questions. Common modals are: can, may, shall, will, could, might, should, would, must, ought to. 5.2 Probability Assumptions: add "will" or "would", e.g. (a) Youll probably have heard the news by now. (b) You wont know Simon. Hes the new accountant. (c) I think he would agree to it. Belief: use "can't" or "must", e.g. (d) You can't be serious! = You must be joking! Certainty: add "would/should", e.g. (e) Few people would deny that smoking is unhealthy. Use "shall/ shan't" (first person) and "will/ won't" (second, third person) for the future. (f) I shant be home late. (g) It wont cost more to run than our old car. Also: "bound to be", e.g. The trains bound to be late. Possibility: use "could/may/might", add "well to suggest something is more likely. (h) It could be more expensive than we think. (i) There may be a storm tonight. (j) He might well resign when he hears the news. (k) You could well be right. (l) They might not be as cooperative as we expect. (m) She may not be in, Ill see. Impossibility: use "can't/couldn't e.g. (n) She cant have got lost. (refers to now) (o) They couldnt find the file anywhere. (refers to the past) Expectation: use "should/ought to, e.g. (p) You shouldnt have any problems. (q) She ought to have known/ should have known better. ("ought to" is more formal) Unrealised possibility: use "might/would + have + past participle. (r) Arguing would have been futile. (We didnt argue because we knew it was futile) (s) It might have been a good idea but its too late now. (t) It wouldnt have made any difference as he had already signed the contract. In some contexts, "could/may/might + have + past participle show uncertainty. (u) John could have made a mistake. (v) The figures may have been misquoted. 5.3 Permission: use "can/could/ll be able to or "may for formal contexts. E.g. (a) Youll be able to go to Paris next month. (b) Can I use the phone? (c) Candidates may use calculators. (d) May I ask why my proposal was rejected?

Use "shall/shan't/will/won't to show determination or authority. (e) You wont go home early while Im in charge. (f) I shant let him argue with me. Use "shouldn't/mustn't to show personal conviction. (g) Employees shouldnt be rude to customers. (h) You mustnt blame him. He tried. 5.4 Instructions and requests: the difference between the options is gentleness. (a) Will you photocopy this please. (gentle imperative, not a question) (b) Would you ask her to phone back later. (gentler than (a), but still imperative) (c) Could you bring me the bill, please. (politer than (b), assumes co-operation) But, (d) Could you understand him? (a question; it needs an answer). (e) Can you deal with this enquiry. (a request; you know the person) But, (f) Can I help you? (a question; it needs an answer). Note: "can't/couldn't" are persuasive, e.g. (g) Couldn't I do it tomorrow? Add "please/perhaps/possibly" or the person's name to increase politeness. (h) Stephen, could you possibly work a bit later today? I really need your help. Also: "Is it alright to go now?" (polite request) 5.5 Offers and invitations: "can/shall/would" are the most common. (a) Would you like to try it on? (polite) (b) Can I help you at all? (neutral) (c) Shall I tell Mr Jones that you want to see him? (formal) Use "wouldn't to be polite and persuasive, e.g. (d) Wouldnt you like to come too? 5.6 Suggestions: the differences between the options are strength and register. (a) You could see your doctor about it. (weak, neutral) (b) I think you should talk to a solicitor. (strong, neutral) (c) We really ought to contact the police. (strong, more formal) (d) You must get your car serviced. Somethings wrong with it. (strong, friendly) (e) It might be worth getting a second opinion. (weak, polite, formal) Use "couldn't/shouldn't" to be persuasive, e.g. (f) Shouldnt we get permission first? 5.7 Intentions: use "will/will not or the weaker forms ('ll/ won't). (a) Ill phone you as soon as Ive got an answer. (a weak promise) (b) He wont sign the cheque! (perhaps we can persuade him) (c) She will not listen to me! (its a waste of time - I give up) (d) Trust me! I will support you at the meeting. (a definite promise) Also: "Im determined to..., "Hes made up his mind to..., "She set her heart on it". 5.8 Refusals: use "can't/couldn't/won't/wouldn't". (a) I cant let him take all the blame. (strong conviction; refers to duty) (b) We couldnt vote for someone like that. (moral conviction; refers to duty; present) (c) I wont allow her to talk to you like that. (determination; present) (d) They wouldnt listen to me so I resigned. (past) Also: "I refuse to..., "Theyre reluctant/unwilling to..., "Hes not keen on letting..." 5.9 Wishes: use "would like/wouldnt like/would rather/would sooner". (a) The police would like some information about the incident. (neutral) (b) I wouldnt like to cause a row but I must do something. (strong) (c) Shed rather not be transferred to another department. (neutral) (d) Id sooner no-one else knew about this if you dont mind. (strong) 5.10 Importance: use "must/need to/have to/should/ought to" for emphasis. (a) We must find out what really happened. (urgency) (b) He mustn't escape! (c) I should make a formal complaint but it's too much trouble. (clear duty) (d) It ought to be a straightforward investigation. (strong expectation) Also: "It is essential/vital that we...", "You had better ask...".

6.1 English uses the order "subject + verb + object" but sometimes we want to put the object first. We do this with the passive. 6.2 To form a passive from an active sentence use the following method.

Example sentence: "While detectives were interviewing the suspect, he confessed". (a) What is the tense of the main verb? Here, its past continuous. (b) Use this tense of the verb "to be". That's, "was/ were being". (c) Add the past participle of the main verb. Here, "interviewed". (d) Use "by to introduce the agent (= the one who does the action). Here, "detectives". (e) Put the object before the verb and check whether it is singular or plural. Our example:"While the suspect was being interviewed by detectives, he confessed". Learn the method, including the tenses and the form of "to be for each: it saves you time in an exam. Note: this method applies to infinitives too, e.g. "The new shop is going to be opened by the mayor tomorrow". ("to open" becomes "to be opened") 6.3 Reasons for using the passive are: not knowing who the subject is; not caring who the subject is; the subject is understood; the subject is everyone; protecting the subject; showing authority. E.g. (a) A priceless painting was stolen last night. (We don't know who but it matters) (b) Two thousand lorries were built here last year. (Employees' names don't matter) (c) I've been given a pay rise! (By your employer, we understand) (d) This medicine should be taken exactly as prescribed. (A message for all users) (e) Unfortunately, your letter cannot be found. (We protect the person who lost it) (f) Students are forbidden to use to this car park. (The passive encourages obedience) Note: often we don't mention the agent. Other structures related to the verb are not usually affected, e.g. going to, can, should.

7.1 A phrasal verb is a common verb (do, go) followed by a preposition (by, of) or an adverb (off, on) or both. Often, the phrasal verb means something completely different from the original verb. A word is a preposition if it introduces a noun (e.g. in a hole) and an adverb if it tells us about a verb (switch on, turn up). Some words can do both, e.g. (a) He never joins in. (verb + adverb) (b) Join in the fun! (verb + prep.) (c) Don't cross over here. (verb + adverb) (d) Next, cross over the bridge. (verb + prep.) 7.2 If the phrasal verb contains a preposition, the object comes after it. If it contains only an adverb, the object comes before it if it is a pronoun, but either before or after it if it is a noun. If a phrasal verb has an adverb and a preposition, the adverb comes first. Some never have an object. E.g. (a) He got over (prep.) the illness in two weeks. (b) He got over it in two weeks. (c) Turn off (adverb) the television! = Turn the television off! (d) Turn it off! (e) I can't get on (adv) with (prep) the manager at all. (f) I can't get on with him at all. (g) We manage to get by somehow. (no object) (h) The milk has gone off. (no obj) 7.3 The table contains some common phrasal verbs; a small sample of the 12,000 you can find in a dictionary. Phrasal verb account for add up back down bank on bear out beat up blow up book in break down break into break out of break up bring in bring out call for carry on carry out catch on catch out catch up check in cheer up close down come across Explanation Explain what went wrong truthfully. Make sense. Stop insisting in a conflict. Put confidence in. Prove or show to be true. Attack in a public place. Explode. Also used figuratively. Register at a hotel. An engine or motor stops working. Enter by force and steal. Escape, usually from prison. End a relationship. Introduce a new law or system. Start selling. Require a skill or quality. Continue an interrupted activity. Implement instructions or threats. Become fashionable. Catch a person trying to be clever. Get up to date, often with work. Register for a flight at an airport. Make someone happier. A factory/shop closes permanently. Find something by accident. Example How can we account for the missing money? His story just doesnt add up. I think hes lying. The boss was getting angry so I had to back down. Were banking on an increase in sales next month. These figures bear out what the accountant said last month. The youth was beaten up outside the station. This scandal is about to blow up in the ministers face. They booked in separately to avoid suspicion. Our car broke down on the way to the mountains. The thieves have broken into several houses in the area. Nobodys ever broken out of this prison. John and Sarah broke up at the party. It was dreadful. The government is bringing in a new law to solve the problem. The bands bringing out its first CD next week. Its a job that calls for exceptional diplomatic skills. Carry on! I dont want to be a nuisance. Dont worry! He never carries out his threats. This type of watch is starting to catch on. The thief was caught out by the new alarm system. It took him weeks to catch up after his long absence. I always check in as soon as I get to the airport. Lets go to the hospital and cheer Susan up. Lots of businesses are closing down due to the crisis. I found some old photos while I was looking for my keys.

come down to come on come out come up come round count on cross off cross out cross over cut back deal with do away with do without draw up drop in end up explain away fall apart fall behind fall for fall out feel up to fight back fill in fill in for find out finish up follow up get at get away with get by get on get on with get over get over with get round to give in give up go about go along with go away go in for go off (3) go on go out with grow up hand in hand out hang on to head for help out hold on hurry up join in keep to knock out lay down leave out let down let off lie down live up to

Introduces the main idea/result. Asks the listener to be faster. Be available to buy. Occur; usually of problems. Change an opinion. Trust someone for something. Decide to reject an option. Delete a mistake/unsuitable option. Go to the other side of the road. Reduce costs, sometimes staff. Handle a responsibility or problem. Discard what is no longer useful. Something/Someone isnt needed. Prepare a plan. Visit someone briefly; unplanned. Before a surprise result, often bad. Avoid the blame for a bad mistake. A deal/system/union disintegrates. Be no longer up to date with work. Let someone deceive us. Have a temporary disagreement. Sense we can do something. Do much better after a bad start. Complete a form. Replace someone at work briefly. Get information. Before a surprise result, often bad. Contact a possible customer again. Suggest or imply. Escape unpunished. Have only enough to survive. Progress, usually with work/study. Build a relationship. Recover from a blow or a loss. Finish an unpleasant task. Pretend well do a task we dont like Stop insisting in an argument. Stop trying; abandon an activity. Proceed; get something done. Have the same opinion. Leave for quite a long time. Like something; have an interest. Go bad, especially food/drink. Stop liking a person or thing. Used for alarms, lights and bombs. Continue; sometimes negative. Date someone. Become adult; it can be a criticism. Return a form, key or other item. Distribute material, often in a room. Keep something; informal. What we expect to happen next. Give substantial help. Wait for the speaker. Be quicker. Get involved in an activity/a party. Set a limit: time, money, speed. Eliminate in a contest of any kind. Introduce official standards. Decide to omit or forget to include. Disappoint someone. Decide not to punish someone. Have a rest. Maintain a good reputation.

What it comes down to is that were running out of money. Come on! The train leaves in ten minutes. Their new range of jackets is coming out next week. This kind of problem often comes up in this hospital. Dont worry! Hell come round to our point of view in the end. Im counting on the bosss support for the project. We can cross Japan off our list. Its too far to go for one week. Cross out whatever doesnt apply to you. Dont cross over at the bend! Its dangerous. Well have to cut back on staff if we want the firm to survive. Can you deal with this patient? Im too busy just now. Its time to do away with all the old promotional materials. I cant do without my mobile phone! Ive got to have it. The council has drawn up plans to deal with flooding. Drop in whenever youre in the area. Itll be great to see you. We forgot the map and ended up getting hopelessly lost. She tried to explain the loss away. It made the boss furious. Shortly afterwards, the Soviet Union started to fall apart. I hate taking time off because I fall so far behind. How could you fall for his lies? You know what hes like. They fell out again at the party. They do it every time. Im sorry. I just dont feel up to doing it now. Maybe tomorrow. The team fought back brilliantly in the second half. To make a claim, simply fill in this form. Can you fill in for me for a while? Ive got to go to the bank. Well have to find out about visa requirements. I forgot to pay the fine and finished up in court. You must follow up all enquiries. Weve got to increase sales. What are you getting at? Do you think therell be dismissals? I wont let you get away with this. Im making a complaint. She gets by on her pension but its not an easy life. Hows your son getting on at his new school? I just cant get on with my new boss. We keep arguing. It took him months to get over the shock of her death. We all want to get this inspection over with. Its exhausting. Okay, okay. Ill get round to it soon. (To stop the nagging) The boss started to get upset so I gave in. I need this job! Never give up! Phrasal verbs are worth the effort. How do I go about applying for promotion? I go along with you completely. So do most of the staff. Hes gone away. Were not sure when hell be back. I dont go in for football but my brothers mad on it. Dont drink that milk! Its gone off. She went off him when she found out hed lied to her. Nobody knows what made the alarm go off. I wish shed stop going on about her illness. Its exasperating. Whos he going out with now? Has he split up with Sarah? Its time he grew up! He should do his own work. Please hand in your room key when you leave the hotel. Ill hand out the application forms later. Id hang on to that if I were you. It might be useful later. I think theyre heading for disaster. They havent got a clue. Can you help out with the conference? Theres a lot to do. Hold on! Im coming too. If we hurry up, well catch the earlier train. Why dont you join in? Youll get bored just watching. Lets buy her something. Wed better keep to about 50. Sadly our team was knocked out in the first round. The government is laying down new safety standards. We can leave her out. I know shes not interested. If he lets me down again, hes leaving my team. The judge let him off as it was his first offence. If youre feeling exhausted, why not lie down for a while? Its hard to win; its harder to live up to peoples expectations.

look ahead look down on look forward look into look out look up to made of make up (2) made up of mess up miss out mix up own up pass round pay up phase in/out pick out pick up point out put forward put off (2) put out (2) put up put up with rule out run away run into run out of run over see to set about set aside set back set off (2) set out set up settle in shop around show off sink in slip up sort out split up stand for stand in for stay up switch on/off take after take back take in take on take over take up talk over tear up tell off think over throw away tidy up tip off

Consider the future. Underestimate someone. Want something to happen. (to+ing) Investigate fully. Be careful! (A shouted warning.) Admire someone. Material used to make something. Make peace after an argument. Invent an excuse. Something consists of parts. Confuse information completely. Forget to include someone/thing. Confuse information slightly. Admit to a significant mistake. Distribute something in a room. Give someone money we owe. Introduce/Remove gradually. Select the good or the best. Collect a person or packet. Identify a mistake. Propose a person or idea. Discourage from doing something. Postpone an event. Cause someone inconvenience. Extinguish a fire. Provide accommodation. Tolerate. Discount an option; often for crime. Leave without permission. Meet by chance; not running! Have no more of something. Go over a person/animal in a car. Accept a small responsibility. Proceed; make something happen. Keep money or time for something. Delay a plan or expedition. Start an alarm; explode a bomb. Start an expedition or long walk. Have a clear aim; be determined. Prepare equipment for use. Recover from initial unease. Look for the best deal. Try to impress others. Understand an unexpected change. Make a small mistake. Resolve a problem. End a relationship. What initials/abbreviations mean. Replace someone briefly. Not go to bed, e.g. to watch a film. Start/Stop something with a switch. Be like somebody else. Withdraw something we say. Deceive; accept lodgers. Accept responsibility/work. Be responsible for; become owner. Start an interest/sport/hobby. Discuss something difficult. Destroy paperwork; end a deal. Correct someone strongly. Consider an option/offer carefully. Put something in the rubbish. Put things where they should be. Warn the police or a colleague.

You should look ahead more, not just live for today. People look down on her because her accents unusual. Are you looking forward to starting your new job? The police should be looking into this. Its beyond us. Look out! That lorrys out of control! We all looked up to her. It was a great loss when she left. Its not real! Its made of plastic. Clever imitation though. They regularly fall out and make up. Its the way they are. Stop making up lies and tell me the truth! Great Britain is made up of England, Scotland and Wales. I think Ive messed these figures up. They dont make sense. Youve missed out Januarys figures in this table. He keeps mixing up our names. It gets quite annoying. Youll just have to own up. After all, its your fault. Can you pass these forms round? Thanks. Come on! Youve lost the bet and its time to pay up. Were starting to phase out manual machines. Its hard to pick out the best candidate; theyre all so good. Can you pick Helen up from the airport? Shell appreciate it. He was really upset when I pointed out the mistake. Youve been put forward as the new team leader. Well done! We were going to buy the house but the price put us off. The inspections been put off until/to next month. Im sorry to put you out but I really need a lift to the station. It took the fire fighters hours to put the blaze out. Dont go to a hotel! Well put you up. The new laws so unfair! Why do we have to put up with it? The police have ruled out murder and are considering suicide. She ran away from home when she was sixteen. I ran into Stephen in the park at lunchtime. Im sorry but Ive run out of sugar. Can you do without? My neighbours run over our cat. I cant believe it. Can you see to that customer? Im already dealing with one. How do I go about getting a passport? We ought to set aside half an hour to discuss the budget. The storm set the climbers back two days. His cigarette set off the smoke detector. The hikers set off at about ten oclock yesterday morning. She set out to win the gold medal. It took the band four hours to set up their equipment. After I settled in, I soon got to like the town. It pays to shop around when youre buying a car. Ignore him! Hes just showing off. I know Im redundant but it hasnt really sunk in yet. Even the best public speakers slip up from time to time. Whos going to sort this mess out? Its not our job. I cant believe theyve split up. They were so close. What does NATO stand for? Ill stand in for you if you want to go out for a few minutes. Are you staying up to see the match? You can switch off the lights. We dont need them now. She takes after her mother, the same kindness and humour. Im sorry! I take that back. I just wasnt thinking. How could you let her take you in so easily? I warned you. Im already overcommitted. I cant take on anything just now. His company was taken over by an American multinational. The doctor advised me to take up golf to get more exercise. I want to go abroad but Ill have to talk it over with my parents. The government has effectively torn up the agreement. My mother told me off for getting a low mark at English. Its a great opportunity but I need to think it over. Its time we threw away/out all this old paperwork. When are you going to tidy up your room? I keep asking you. The police had been tipped off and got there before the gang.

trip over turn down turn into turn up wash up wear off wear out wind up wipe up work out (2) write off

Walk into an object and fall. Refuse an offer; be refused. Become different, usually worse. Attend unexpectedly. Clean dishes/plates/cups/cutlery. A treatment loses its effect. Becoming too used to be useful. Tease somebody; unfriendly. Dry dishes/plates/cups/cutlery. Manage to understand. How well something develops. Abandon; decide not to repair.

Shes angry because she tripped over your shoes in the dark. Every time I apply for promotion I get turned down. Im fed up. The strike turned our holiday into a nightmare. We were stuck. Paul turned up at the wedding. We hadnt seen him for years. Ill wash up if youre feeling tired. Go and have a rest! Itll take a few hours for the anaesthetic to wear off. Its a good car but the clutch is worn out, thats all. Ignore them; theyre just winding you up. Ill wash up if you wipe up. Well get it done in ten minutes. I cant work this new system out. Can you understand it? Sadly, the marriage just didnt work out and they got divorced. The car was so badly damaged that they had to write it off.


8.1 AT uses an exact time, age or place. Use it for "weekend", "Christmas" and "Easter". E.g. (a) Even at sixty, he could run well. (b) What are you doing at the weekend? We use it to talk about ability, e.g. (c) She's good at French. (d) I'm no good at maths. Note: "at home", "at work" and "at school" don't mean someone is there every minute. The verbs "point" and "aim" use "at", e.g. (e) The gun was aimed at me. 8.2 BY has three main uses: the passive, a time limit, near to a place. (a) The idea was put forward by the marketing director. (b) Please be back by ten o'clock. (c) I'll be waiting by the telephone box. 8.3 IN uses a period of time or a whole building or area. (a) They're getting married in June. (We don't know exactly which day.) (b) It was built in the seventies. (= 1970 - 79) (c) He died in 1996. (within that year) (d) She finally retired in her eighties. (= between the ages of 80 and 89) (e) He's in the school somewhere. (inside the building, not just "at school") 8.4 ON has four main uses: a day/date, location, television, a subject/hobby. (a) She was born on 12 January, 1976. (b) We normally meet on Fridays. (c) It's on the television. (= on top of ) (d) There's a good film on television tonight. (e) Can you lend me a book on Japan? (f) She's giving a talk on computers. Note: "on leave" is a formal form of "on holiday". Use, "The ball hit him on the head". Remember "on duty", "on the right of the picture", "on my own". 8.5 TO has four main uses: the infinitive, to show purpose, to show direction, with "from". (a) I'd like to learn Spanish. (b) He bought it to make life easier for his mother. (c) I'm going to Leeds today. (d) It's open from 8 am to 5 pm daily. (also days, years)

9.1 The two important principles are: (a) try to keep as much of the original message as possible; (b) don't make the language more complicated except to add useful information. 9.2 The guidelines are: (a) if the reporting verb (ask, say...) is in the past, put all the verbs one step in the past; (b) spoken questions cannot be questions in reported speech, they become statements; (c) questions with yes/no answers are introduced by "if" or "whether"; (d) adverbs of time and place (today, here...) are changed (that day, there); (e) instructions (Wait! Don't touch!) become infinitives (to wait, not to touch). 9.3 The following examples demonstrate these points. E.g. (a) "I think John has gone home" He said he thought John had gone home. (b) "Where is the station?" She asked him where the station was.

(c) "Are you going to church?" He asked her if she was going to church. (d) "He'll be here tomorrow." She said he would be there the next day. (e) "Stop! Don't touch that vase!" He told her to stop and not to touch that vase. 9.4 If the reporting verb is in the present, don't change verb tenses. (a) "You can both go home now." He says we can both go home now. (b) "Is the manager in today?" She wants to know if the manager is in today. (c) "I've just seen him. He's here." She says he's just seen him and he's here. 9.5 Some verb forms cannot be put further into the past, e.g. the past perfect, could (polite). (a) "If the bridge had been strengthened, it wouldn't have fallen down." He said that... (unchanged) (b) "Could you come as well?" He asked her if she could come as well. (c) "Would you like to come, too?" He asked me if I would like to come too. 9.6 Sometimes it's best to keep the language simple. (a) "My father died when I was three." He said his father had died when he was three. Not, "He said his father had died when he had been three" (b) "I really think we should support him." He said we really should support him. (c) "I suggest that we buy the design." He suggested that we buy the design. 9.7 After a reporting verb in the past, "must" becomes "had to", "mustn't" becomes "wasn't allowed to", "could/ couldn't (ability)" becomes "had/hadn't been able to". (a) "I couldn't find him." She said she hadn't been able to find him. (b) "You must be more careful." He said I had to be more careful. (c) "John mustn't go home early." She said John wasn't allowed to go home early.

10.1 These are expressions that help others predict the direction of our message correctly. This prevents misunderstandings and gives others confidence in our communication skills. They usually start sentences. 10.2 Common signposts are: (a) We can make all your holiday arrangements. Additionally, we can arrange insurance. (adds impact)) (b) All in all, I thought the conference was a worthwhile experience. (introduces a final opinion) (c) You can pay for the car in one lump sum. Alternatively, you can pay in instalments. (invites a choice) (d) Apparently, the new law is easier to enforce. Well have to see. (it seems to be true but may not be) (e) They computerised the payment system. As a result, fifteen employees were made redundant. (f) Its a great team to play for. At the same time, if you play poorly, they soon drop you. (gives a warning) (g) Its the best house weve seen so far. Besides, we know the owners personally. (a stronger reason) (h) By the way, our new boss went to the same university as you. (introduces useful, non-essential info) (i) Clearly, we cant guarantee the products performance if its not serviced by our staff. (emphasis) (j) Confusingly, the director and his secretary have the same surname. (k) He can be careless and arrogant. For all that, hes by far our best programmer. (modifies direction) (l) Shes an excellent candidate. However, weve got more to interview. (changes direction completely) (m) Incidentally, the imported steel is slightly cheaper. (introduces useful, non-essential info) (n) Theyre inefficient and unhelpful. In complete contrast, this firms most professional. (opposite case) (o) In conclusion, Id recommend a merger. Its unquestionably the best option. (theres one clear choice) (p) Initially, everything went according to plan. Then, quite suddenly, it all went wrong. (changes later) (q) Naturally, some modifications might be necessary. (the warning shouldnt be a surprise) (r) On balance, renting premises is probably the best option. (there are other, useful options) (s) Weve lost some perks. On the other hand, our basic pay has gone up. (balances the previous point) (t) She worked for us for ten years. Subsequently, she started her own firm. (some time later) (u) We offered her the job. Surprisingly, she didnt even think about it. She turned it down straight away. (v) Theoretically, our rights havent been affected. (introduces whats meant to be true but might not be)

TALKING ABOUT NOW 11.1 We use the present simple for: things that are true now (time, date, health), things that are always true (facts in geography or science) and habits (what we usually do). E.g. (a) It's her birthday today. (b) I'm tired/hungry/scared. (c) Wales is more mountainous than England. (d) She always helps me when I'm stuck. We use the present continuous for current activities. (a) What's your brother doing? (b) Where are you going? (c) We're wasting time. 11.2 We use the present perfect simple for past actions that have a result now and for states (weather, health) that started in the past and are still true now.

E.g. (a) I'm sorry but I've hurt my foot and I can't play football this afternoon. (b) It has been a mild winter so far. (c) He's been ill all week. We use the present perfect continuous for activities that started in the past and are unfinished or continuing, and also for temporary states. (a) I've been learning French for six years. (b) She's been skiing since she was ten. (c) We've been living in rented property too long. TALKING ABOUT THE PAST 11.3 We use the past simple for single and repeated past actions, and past states. E.g. (a) He came home late last night. (b) We went swimming every day. (c) It was cold. We use the past continuous for interrupted past activities, two simultaneous past activities and added information in a story. (a) She was doing her homework when I arrived. (b) I was mending your bicycle while you were playing volleyball. (c) It was getting dark by the time we left. (d) They were playing chess when the alarm went off. 11.4 We use the past perfect simple when there are two different times involved in an idea and we choose not to use the true order of events. It often adds an explanation. E.g. (a) He was hungry. He hadn't eaten for a day. (b) I trusted him as he had never let me down before. We use this tense in a story to refer back to something that happened earlier. (c) The trip was just what they needed. The idea had first come up while they were fishing. We use the past perfect continuous for activities that started at one time in the past and were interrupted or unfinished at a more recent time in the past. (a) We had been climbing for two days when bad weather forced us to turn back. (b) Suddenly the rain started. They had been praying for it for over eight weeks. TALKING ABOUT THE FUTURE 11.5 We use the present simple for public transport and timetables. E.g. (a) What time does your train leave? (b) We've got a test tomorrow. Use "due to" for something that should happen soon, "about to" if it's very soon. (c) The train's due to leave in ten minutes. (d) The train's about to go! Come on! We use the present continuous for arrangements that are unique and certain. (a) The inspector's coming on Wednesday. (b) We're seeing the new play tonight. We use "going to" for plans that are not certain, that depend on permission or money. (a) He said I was going to be promoted. (b) They're going to build a new bypass. We use the future simple for things outside our plans and spontaneous offers. (a) Who do you think will win the match? (b) I'll phone him now. (spontaneous, not planned) It is also used for actions and states at a time in the future. (c) I'll get the tickets at lunchtime. (d) It'll be dark when you come back. Take care! We use the future continuous for activities at a time in the future. (a) Meet me at the old bridge at ten. I'll be waiting for you. (b) In two weeks' time, I'll be swimming in the Mediterranean. Note: time conjunctions (when, while, as soon as) dont use the future. (c) While you are sunbathing on a beach next week, Ill be working in the office.


12.1 The verb to be able to has the extra forms can and could. Use can in the present. There are six options in the past: could, could have, was able to, and their negatives. Could + infinitive = it was possible but we don't know if it was ever necessary. E.g. (a) The hospital was designed so that everyone could escape easily in case of fire. Couldn't + infinitive = it wasn't possible. (b) The computer was programmed so that it couldn't make a mistake. Could have + past participle = an unrealised wish or an unwanted possibility. (c) The team could have won the competition. (What we wanted didn't happen.) (d) It could have been my fault. (I hope not but it is a possibility.) Couldn't have + past participle = the speaker is certain but someone may disagree. (e) It couldn't have been an accident. It was done deliberately. Was/Were able to = it was possible and it happened. (f) Thankfully, rescuers were able to save the whole crew of the sinking ship. Wasn't/Weren't able to = someone tried but failed. Perhaps it wasn't even possible. (g) Unfortunately, he wasn't able to break the record. It was a daring attempt though. Note: "could" is either a polite request or a past ability.

12.2 The verb to have to has the extra form must for the present tense only. (a) I must eat less! I'm getting fat. (must = important for me, positive) (b) I mustn't forget to phone my sister. (mustn't = important for me, negative) (c) You have to pay to park here. (have to = there is a rule, positive) Note: the rule may be a rule of life, not written anywhere but unavoidable. (d) You have to work hard to pass this exam. (have to = a rule of life) (e) I don't have to wear a uniform. (don't have to = there is no rule so I choose) (f) Students mustn't be late for lessons. (mustn't = there is a rule, negative) Note: "mustn't" can mean a negative rule or something negative that is important for me. Also, "must" and "mustn't" become "had to" and "wasn't allowed to" in reported speech. 12.3 For past habits use: used to + infinitive; get used to present participle; be used to + pres. part. (a) My father used to get up very early every day. (for a time in the past) (b) I got used to working in all kinds of weather. (hard at first but it got easier) (c) I was used to driving around London, even in rush hour. (it seemed easy) Also, (d) She usually went to work by train. (but not always) Note: all four forms have a slightly different meaning. They can be used in other tenses. (e) I'm sure I'll get used to it within a few days. (f) He's used to his new boss now. Note that (b) and (c) can use a direct object; e.g. (g) Eventually I got used to his moods. 12.4 We use get and have when we pay someone else to do something for us. (a) We're getting our roof repaired next week. (get + object + past participle) (b) They had their house redecorated last month. (have + object + past participle) Note: "have" works for all tenses but "get" is only for present and future. 12.5 For need there are two different past forms. E.g. (a) I didn't need to remind him. (It wasn't necessary and I didn't do it.) (b) You needn't have bought any bread. (It wasn't necessary but you did it.)


13.1 Be careful with before, by and until. Use before to show the order in which two actions occur, or should occur. E.g. (a) Can you see me before you go home? (b) Do your homework before you go out! Use by to specify a deadline, a time or a day. (c) I must have the report finished by Friday. Use until to cover a whole period of time. (d) Can you look after it until I get back? (e) Well have to use the stairs until the lift is fixed. 13.2 There are differences between average, common, normal, ordinary, routine, typical and usual. (a) Her average mark was high. (calculation) (b) Its a common mistake. (quantity) (c) Its not the normal procedure but Ill make an exception this time. (standard, correct) (d) Its just an ordinary town. (nothing special) (e) Its just a routine inquiry. (Dont worry!) (f) Its typical of him to say that. Hes always the same. (expectation) (g) I had to wait over an hour because my usual train was cancelled. (habit) 13.3 Be careful with say, tell, talk, speak and announce. We use say for the actual words used, even if we dont quote all of them. (a) He said that I needed an operation. (He used the words, You need an operation.) We use tell when the message is important, not the actual words. (b) She told me not to worry about the report. (We dont know her actual words) Note that tell must be followed by a person or people. (c) What did the solicitor tell you? We use talk to cover the volume, speed and clarity of someones voice. Its also a noun. (d) I wish he would talk more slowly. (e) Im giving a talk on cross-cultural negotiations this evening. We use speak for foreign language ability. (f) She speaks French like a native. Use announce only when information is made public, use tell when you give information to a particular person or group of people. (g) The election results will be announced tomorrow morning. (h) The president announced his resignation early this morning. But: (i) Please tell Peter that the trips been cancelled. 13.4 Be careful with meet, wait, expect, hope, look forward to. Use meet for collecting people: e.g. (a) Dont bother with a taxi. Ill meet you at the station.

Use wait when everything stops until what you are waiting for happens. (b) I cant go out now. Im waiting for a phone call. (c) Can you wait for me? Use expect when life carries on until it happens. (d) Im expecting to hear from the company soon. (But life goes on as usual until then) Use hope for something positive but uncertain. (e) He hopes theyll promote him this year. Use look forward to for something positive, certain and usually in the near future. (f) Theyre looking forward to moving into their new house. (Note: use verb-ing; moving) 13.5 We remind other people of things but we remember things ourselves. (a) Can you remind me to phone Peter today? I might not remember to do it. Use on time for as planned or punctual and in time as the opposite of too late. (b) Please be on time for the meeting. We dont want to start late. (c) We had to hurry to get to the airport in time for our flight. Use obey for authority, follow for instructions and respect for attitude to people, faith and tradition. We obey laws, rules and regulations. We obey even if the law doesn't seem logical or fair. (d) Weve got to obey the law: its as simple as that. (e) If we dont obey the new law, well be fined. We follow procedures, instructions, guidelines and advice. We think about each step. (f) Its an easy machine to use if you follow this procedure. We respect people, institutions such as the church and traditions. (g) People should be respected, not laughed at, however strange their opinions. Interview is neutral, question suggests guilt and interrogate implies intimidation. (h) As an experienced journalist, she regularly interviewed senior politicians. (i) Detectives spent hours questioning the four suspects. (j) The spy was interrogated several times to see if he varied his answers. Remember: allow, cause and force use to, but let and make don't. (k) She wasn't allowed to go. (l) It caused/forced her to resign. (force is stronger) (m) They didn't let him appeal. (n) It made him reconsider his decision. Note: cause + person + object is also possible, e.g. (o) It caused me quite a problem. Use no matter + question word to show that one thing doesnt depend on another. (p) I'm buying that car no matter what he says. (q) We always go by train no matter how long it takes. 13.6 Articles: a, an, the. Use a if the first sound is a consonant, an if it is a vowel. (a) a university/union/unique occasion/UFO; an hour/honour/honest man/X-ray Use the when the description comes after the noun. (b) I like the music we heard last night. (c) I like music/ Romanian music. (no description after the noun) Use the for somebody or something unique or specific. (d) the Queen, the President, the Pope (e) the Himalayas, the Thames, the Black Sea (f) the economy (= ours), the Irish economy (= that country's). 13.7 Be careful with: each, every, either...or, neither...nor, all, both, none. (a) Please take one each. (pronoun) (b) Each item is priced. (like an adjective) (c) Every guest was given a complimentary theatre ticket. (never a pronoun) (d) She's either guilty or she's not. (e) It's neither cheap nor efficient. (f) They are both quite costly. (g) Both of them came. (h) Take them both. (i) Both police officers were hurt. (Both is flexible but always refers to two.) (j) All the items marked are reduced. (All usually uses an article, both often doesn't.) (k) He had given them all away. (Both for two, all for more than two.) (l) None of the thieves was caught. (None is always singular, it means not one.) (m) "I can't swim". "Neither can I/ I can't either". (short form of agreement)