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CONTENTS VA LV E S T E M S E A L S CONTENTS DESIGN AND SELECTION 3 5 6 7 10 11 12 13 14 W h a t i s a Va l v e S t e m S e a l ? O I L M E T E R I N G R AT E The most important function TYPES W h a t Va l v e S t e m S e a l d e s i g n s a r e t h e r e ? THE DESIGN Based on modern CAE systems VA LV E S T E M S E A L Q U E S T I O N N A I R E Information needed for us to assist you C H E C K L I S T F O R A S S E M B LY L I N E Yo u r i n d i v i d u a l s o l u t i o n I N S TA L L AT I O N Simple but important THE CR PRODUCT RANGE Complete automotive sealing solutions C H I C A G O R AW H I D E – L O C AT I O N S A world-wide network 2 .
to valves sticking. in extreme cases. but finely engineered devices designed to provide a defined metering rate of oil to the valve stem / valve guide interface of combustion engines. The valve. If the metering rate is too high. then the valves are insufficiently lubricated and scuffing can occur.DESIGN AND SELECTION VA LV E S T E M S E A L S DESIGN AND SELECTION W h a t i s a Va l v e S t e m S e a l ? Valve stem seals are not seals at all. then engine emissions are adversely affected and carbon can build up on the valves resulting. If the metering rate is too low. valve guide and seal work as a system 3 . The ideal metering rate lies between these two extremes.
1. valve stem seal with integrated spring seat Quality is our top priority 4 .DESIGN AND SELECTION VA LV E S T E M S E A L S Although the requirements for each engine differ according to the design parameters and operating conditions.1 . then we are in a position to finely tune the design of the seal to provide the optimum oil metering rate for the application.0 mg per valve per hour. Should there be specific customer requirements on oil metering. These values have been developed through extensive comparative testing on cylinder heads using the standard CR test cycle. the oil metering rate is generally within the range 0.
This is true for diesel and gasoline applications as well as for intake and exhaust valves.O I L M E T E R I N G R AT E VA LV E S T E M S E A L S O I L M E T E R I N G R AT E The most important function Oil metering to the valve guide /stem interface is the prime function of a valve stem seal. The major factors are the radius of the sealing lip and the lip angle to the oil side. There are however applications where the oil metering rate must be adjusted. is not a major factor in determining the oil metering rate. S E A L FA C T O R S I N F L U E N C I N G O I L M E T E R I N G R AT E 5 . This can be tuned to the exact requirements of a specific engine by changing the geometry of the sealing lip. Experience has shown that the standard CR design provides the correct oil metering rate for most applications. The radial force of the seal. while being important for assuring lip contact to the valve stem under operating conditions.
B THE INTEGRATED SEAL This seal (type 863) additionally incorporates a spring seat to prevent wear on the cylinder head. to ensure minimal wear and high reliability. thereby eliminating the separate spring seat (advantages at installation.TYPES VA LV E S T E M S E A L S TYPES W h a t Va l v e S t e m S e a l d e s i g n s a r e t h e r e ? BASIC DESIGNS Type 866 A Two basic designs of state of the art valve stem seal are offered: A THE NON-INTEGRATED SEAL This seal (types 866 & 861) fulfils the function of metering rate only. Type 861 A All seals incorporate the same dynamic and static sealing properties enabling reliable function over the life of the engine. logistics). The integrated seal additionally includes a spring seat. Type 863 B 6 . Type 866 is the standard seal. All designs use our specially formulated fluorpolymer materials. warehousing. These materials provide excellent chemical and temperature resistance as well as mechanical properties. Type 861 is used for large differences between valve stem and guide diameters.
The FEA tools can also be used for other aspects of the seal design. For example.THE DESIGN VA LV E S T E M S E A L S THE DESIGN Based on modern CAE systems H O W D O W E D E S I G N A VA LV E S T E M S E A L ? VA LV E S T E M S E A L I N S TA L L E D O N VA LV E G U I D E All valve stem seals are designed using the most modern CAE systems. Example: FEA calculation of pressure influence 7 . As a result. data useful for the layout of the installation equipment is available at the start of the programme. This includes the analysis and prediction of installation forces with the use of FEA methods. design variations with differing oil metering rates can be tested for pressure dependence.
From a timing viewpoint. chrome plating). including the newer symmetrical guides (chamfer the same at both ends).5 mm. then tooling may have to be made for a seal designed to your specification.THE DESIGN VA LV E S T E M S E A L S D E S I G N C O N S I D E R AT I O N S F O R T H E VA LV E S T E M VA LV E S T E M S E A L VA L I D AT I O N Normal surface treatments are acceptable (e. For the installation. so that technical support on design and installation of the seal and surrounding components can be provided. 8 . No lettering on the running surface permissible. Oil metering rate is tested by running an original customer cylinder head with an electric motor. however the usual procedure for a new design is to test the oil metering rate and installation suitability.05 mm for standard designs. The temperature.3 mm between guide ID and OD is acceptable. Should it not be possible to use a current seal. Our representative can advise you. oil type etc. we should be contacted as early as possible in the development stage. A misalignment of 0. Surface roughness Rz ≤ 3 µm / Rmax = 4 µm. A lead-in chamfer is required and most designs. Traditional valve guide materials as well as newer sintered materials incorporating solid lubricants are fully acceptable for CR seals. O T H E R D E S I G N C O N S I D E R AT I O N S The validation procedure varies according to customer requirements. It is normal that these tests are performed. are decided with the customer. speed. Special seal designs may be required for values exceeding this.25 µm / Rmax = 30 µm for the non-integrated seal. pressures. W H AT S I Z E S A R E A L R E A D Y AVA I L A B L E ? When the valve is fully open.g. This is the final proof of suitability as the bench tests cannot fully simulate the characteristics of a fired engine. or the standard CR-Test can be used. the forces needed to press on the seal and to remove the seal from the valve guide are measured. Surface roughness Rz 10 . however they do not replace the tests the customer makes in the actual engine. Less is no concern for the integrated seal as it is retained by the valve spring. The strong market position of the SKF Seals Division means that there are already many sizes being manufactured. the gap between the top of the valve stem seal and the bottom of the spring retainer should exceed 1. D E S I G N C O N S I D E R AT I O N S F O R T H E VA LV E G U I D E OD tolerance ± 0. can be used with CR seals.
ensure the highest level of quality and reliability.THE DESIGN VA LV E S T E M S E A L S W HAT I NF O R M AT ION D O W E N E E D T O DESIG N A N E W VA LV E S T E M S E A L ? M A N U FA C T U R I N G A questionnaire (see page 10) has been developed which details all the information required to design a valve stem seal. The preference for either an integrated or non-integrated seal should also be given. the lead times are significantly lower depending on stock levels. A very important aspect of our production process is the visual inspection. For existing parts. the SKF Seals Division is well placed to meet the most stringent requirements of our customers. VDA 6. THE QUALITY ISSUES Pricing can only be given on an individual basis as this is very dependant on the design of seal and the annual requirement. C R VA LV E S T E M S E A L P R I C E The SKF Seals Division has invested heavily in unique state of the art manufacturing technology. The completed questionnaire should be returned to us together with drawings of the valve. valve spring and assembly drawing. if available. samples can be supplied within 10 weeks and production parts 6 months after receipt of the order.1. The most advanced manufacturing techniques. The characteristics responsible for the function of the seals are controlled using statistical methods. including 100% automatic visual inspection of the finished parts. valve guide. LEAD TIMES Detailed lead times can only be given on an individual basis. there is no tooling charge. As the European leader in valve stem seals and a certified supplier according to QS 9000. The high level of automation enables us to provide the highest quality at the lowest price and has been a contributing factor for CR valve stem seals being the number 1 in Europe. For standard seals. DIN EN ISO 9001 and DIN EN ISO 14001. but under normal circumstances for a new design. 9 . All seals are inspected fully automatically using computer vision techniques to ensure that the critical areas for the function of the seal are without defects.
Germany. mm Intake Tol. temperature Max.VA LV E S T E M S E A L Q U E S T I O N N A I R E VA LV E S T E M S E A L S ENGINE: Designation Projected annual engine quantity Arrangement & no. of cylinders Inclination of head to horizontal Is the engine naturally aspirated? No. VALVE GUIDE: Step diameter (if present) Step height (if present) Outer diameter Protrusion Chamfer length Chamfer angle Concentricity – guide OD to guide ID Surface roughness Material Is a seal retention groove included in the design? if yes then please specify D2 H2 D3 H1 C1 C2 mm mm mm mm mm ° mm VALVE SPRING: Inner diameter Wire diameter D4 D5 mm mm SEAL LOCATION: Gap between head & spring cap (valve open) Spot face diameter for spring seat (integrated seal) Pressure range Mean temperatur Max. Düsseldorfer Straße 121. Tel. +49 (0)2171 713-821. of valves per cylinder – Inlet – Exhaust OHV or OHC Please sketch here details of any groove in the valve guide or include a drawing VALVE STEM: Diameter Surface treatment Surface hardness Surface roughness D1 dim. D-51379 Leverkusen. Exhaust Tol. Fax +49 (0)2171 713-860 10 . camshaft speed Oil type H3 D6 mm mm bar °C °C rpm COMMENTS: CR Elastomere GmbH.
Which dimensions are critical for the feeding system? I N S TA L L AT I O N P R O C E S S : Is the valve inserted before the seal is installed? What is the maximum installation force per seal? What is the minimum installation force per seal? What is the installation speed? Is the cylinder head rotated after the seal installation? Is a lubrication process included? If yes.CHECK LIST VA LV E S T E M S E A L S C H E C K L I S T F O R A S S E M B LY L I N E Yo u r i n d i v i d u a l s o l u t i o n SEAL DESIGN: For an existing seal. how? Is the final position of the seal determined by force? Is a minimum seal removal force specified? 11 . please specify. how? Is the final position of the installed seal checked? If so. Is the presence of the garter spring on the seal checked? If so. please provide a drawing.
I N S TA L L AT I O N VA LV E S T E M S E A L S I N S TA L L AT I O N Simple but important As our designs incorporate a metal ring bonded directly to the rubber elements. so minimising (or eliminating) equipment change costs. details of the existing equipment will be required. For a new application. The seal must sit at the correct position and remain there for the life of the engine. For an application where installation equipment is already available. 1 A typical installation procedure. we would be pleased to recommend an installation tool design and to advise on the installation procedure. This begins with the designs of the seal and valve guide. it is important that the design of seal takes this into consideration. either by hand for small quantities. which must be tuned to each other for the best results. the installation procedure is very important. in order to ensure the correct function in the engine. all CR valve stem seals can be easily installed. 2 12 . or fully automatically for high volumes. In this case. However.
121 51379 Leverkusen-Opladen Germany Phone +49 (0)2171 713-821 Fax +49 (0)2171 713-860 E-Mail: email@example.com 13 . C O N TA C T S The product centre for valve stem seals is. driveline.ADDITIONAL PRODUCT RANGE VA LV E S T E M S E A L S THE CR PRODUCT RANGE Complete automotive sealing solutions INTERESTED IN ADDITIONAL PRODUCTS? In addition to valve stem seals. This single source approach is possible through a world-wide network offering one-source accountability. In addition to sealing products. Innovative sealing modules for automotive transmissions are also part of the CR product range. CR products provide complete automotive sealing solutions for engine.dynamic and static seals bonded directly to covers to form a single easily installed component. The use of these tone rings is expanding into engine and transmission applications. and RotostatTM Sealing Modules . which provide an accurate signal for rotational sensors. Moulded In Place (MIP) seals for valve covers. seals for gas springs and shock absorbers. oil pans and other covers. steering and suspension systems. CR Elastomere GmbH Düsseldorfer Str. driveline and wheel end systems. our advanced rubber technology has also been applied to the field of sensors. CR sealing products include dynamic radial seals for engine. transmission. SKF is a leading supplier of ABS bearing systems and these systems include tone rings with a magnetised rubber coating.
L O C AT I O N S VA LV E S T E M S E A L S C H I C A G O R AW H I D E – L O C AT I O N S A world-wide network Göteborg Leverkusen Beijing CR-manufacturing sites S A L E S A N D M A N U FA C T U R I N G SALES AND DISTRIBUTION CENTRES Brazil China Germany India Italy Korea Mexico Ukraine USA 1 plant 1 plant 1 plant 1 plant 2 plants 1 plant 1 plant 1 plant 6 plants Australia Belgium Denmark France Japan Poland Sweden United Kingdom additional sales via regional SKF offices in over 130 countries 14 .
indirect or consequential arising out of the use of the information contained herein.com www. Shin Yokohama Kouhoku-Ku Yokohama Kanagawa 222-0033 Japan Phone +81 (0)45 473-4823 Fax +81 (0)45 473-3475 E-Mail: cr@skf. ROTOSTAT.® © Copyright SKF 2001 Every care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in this publication but no liability can be accepted for any loss or damage whether direct. Printed in Germany on environmentally friendly. SKF Publication 5166E CR.com . chlorine-free paper AMERICA EUROPE ASIA-PACIFIC Chicago Rawhide 900 North State Street Elgin. SKF and the SKF logo are trade marks of the SKF Group and are registered in certain jurisdictions. 121 D-51379 Leverkusen-Opladen Germany Phone +49 (0)2171 713-821 Fax +49 (0)2171 713-860 CR Asia-Pacific 3-2.skf. Illinois 60123-2193 USA Phone +1 847 742-0700 Fax +1 847 742-7845 CR Elastomere GmbH Düsseldorfer Str.