Sight  Reading  Tips  by  Hiroaki  Honshuku  

     

Sight  Reading  Tips  
Slide  1       This  seminar  is  focused  on  jazz  music,  and   assumes  audience  has  adequate   proficiency  on  their  instrument   When  you  write  a  chart,  you  must  always   put  yourself  in  the  sight-­‐reader’s  chair.     Consider  the  relevance  and  the   relationship.   Sight-­‐reading  skill  is  to  translate  brain  to   hand.    You  must  be  able  to  handle  your   instrument  without  thinking  the  fingerings,   hand  positions,  etc.   It  is  the  same  as  book  reading.  You  must  be   fluent  in  the  language  to  be  able  to   perform  book  reading  in  public.  

Sight Reading Tips
By Hiroaki Honshuku
Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.anonemusic.com

 

INTRO  
Slide  2    

Relaxing  
INTRO
¡ The key to the successful sight-reading
¡ Relaxing

Most  of  the  sight-­‐reading  failure  comes   from  pressure.  You  must  calm  yourself.  

 
 

Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.anonemusic.com

 

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    Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.    Relaxing  and  focusing  are   not  2  opposite  things.Sight  Reading  Tips  by  Hiroaki  Honshuku       Slide  3       Focus     INTRO ¡ The key to the successful sight-reading ¡ Relaxing ¡ Focus You  need  to  relax  but  stay  focused.anonemusic.anonemusic.anonemusic.com   Page  2  of  17       .       Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.   INTRO ¡ The key to the successful sight-reading ¡ Relaxing ¡ Focus ¡ Reading ahead You  must  be  reading  at  lest  2  beats  ahead.    Can’t   be  distracted.com   Slide  5     Subdivision   Draw  imaginary  lines  per  subdivision   INTRO ¡ The key to the successful sight-reading ¡ Relaxing ¡ Focus ¡ Reading ahead ¡ Subdivision   Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.com   Slide  4     Reading  ahead   The  goal  is  to  read  2  bars  ahead.

com   Slide  8     Guess  the  phrasing  groups   First thing first ¡ Read the time signature and time change if any ¡ Read the key signature and key change if any Most  of  the  music  is  written  in  even   numbered  groups.  make  sure  there   will  be  no  surprises  down  the  load.   Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.   ¡ Guess the phrasing groups ¡ 32 bars standard > 16 bars x 2 Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.anonemusic.   Make  sure  you  notice  the  pulse  changes  if   any.  old  dotted  quarter  in  6/8   becomes  half  in  4/4.e.   Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.  i.     Pencil  divisions  by  phrases  if  necessary.anonemusic.   Evenly  dividable  rule  may  not  apply  to   modern  music  and  Brazilian  songs  –  watch   out..com Page  3  of  17       .Sight  Reading  Tips  by  Hiroaki  Honshuku         First  Things  First   Slide  6     Read  the  time  signature  and   time  change  ahead  if  any   First thing first ¡ Read the time signature and time change if any Go  through  the  entire  piece  and  red-­‐pencil   in  if  necessary.com       Slide  7     Read  the  key  signature  and  key   change  ahead  if  any   First thing first ¡ Read the time signature and time change if any ¡ Read the key signature and key change if any Same  as  Time  signature.anonemusic.

anonemusic.anonemusic.com   Page  4  of  17       .com   Slide  10     Guess  the  phrasing  groups   8  bars  into  4  bars  each   First thing first ¡ Read the time signature and time change if any ¡ Read the key signature and key change if any     ¡ Guess the phrasing groups ¡ 32 bars standard > 16 bars x 2 ¡ 16 bars > 8 bars x 2 ¡ 8 bars > 4 bars x 2 Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.Sight  Reading  Tips  by  Hiroaki  Honshuku       Slide  9       Guess  the  phrasing  groups   16  bars  into  8  bars  each   First thing first ¡ Read the time signature and time change if any ¡ Read the key signature and key change if any     ¡ Guess the phrasing groups ¡ 32 bars standard > 16 bars x 2 ¡ 16 bars > 8 bars x 2 Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.anonemusic.com   Slide  11     Guess  the  phrasing  groups   4  bars  into  2  bars  each   First thing first ¡ Read the time signature and time change if any ¡ Read the key signature and key change if any     ¡ Guess the phrasing groups ¡ 32 bars standard > 16 bars x 2 ¡ 16 bars > 8 bars x 2 ¡ 8 bars > 4 bars x 2 ¡ 4 bars > 2 bars x 2 Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.

anonemusic.anonemusic.com   Page  5  of  17       .anonemusic.com   Slide  13     Guess  the  phrasing  groups   2  beats  per  measure   First thing first ¡ Read the time signature and time change if any ¡ Read the key signature and key change if any     ¡ Guess the phrasing groups ¡ 32 bars standard > 16 bars x 2 ¡ 16 bars > 8 bars x 2 ¡ 8 bars > 4 bars x 2 ¡ 4 bars > 2 bars x 2 ¡ 2 bars > 1 bar x 2 ¡ 1 bar > 2 beats x 2 Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.  which  can  be   divided  into  2  pulses  each       ¡ Guess the phrasing groups ¡ 32 bars standard > 16 bars x 2 ¡ 16 bars > 8 bars x 2 ¡ 8 bars > 4 bars x 2 ¡ 4 bars > 2 bars x 2 ¡ 2 bars > 1 bar x 2 Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.com   Slide  14     Flor-­‐de-­‐lis  by  Djavan   Flor-de-lis by Djavan One  of  the  typical  phrasings  in  Bossa  Nova   music.Sight  Reading  Tips  by  Hiroaki  Honshuku       Slide  12       Guess  the  phrasing  groups   First thing first ¡ Read the time signature and time change if any ¡ Read the key signature and key change if any 2  bars  can  be  felt  4  pulses.     Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.

 you  will  be  able  to   comeback  when  dropped  out.com     Slide  17     Odd  meters   Feel  the  pulse.com     Page  6  of  17       .     Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.   In  3/4.anonemusic.     Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.    The  worst   thing  is  getting  lost.anonemusic.   7/8  is  usually  3  pulses  plug  a  half.  the  pulse  maybe  each  quarter  beat   or  one  measure  if  fast  tempo.Sight  Reading  Tips  by  Hiroaki  Honshuku         TOPICS   Slide  15     Rhythm   TOPICS ¡ Rhythm ¡ Subdivision By  subdividing.   TOPICS ¡ Rhythm ¡ Subdivision ¡ Group per pulse ¡ Odd meters • • 5/4  can  be  pulse  group  of  3+2  or   2+3.anonemusic.  pulse  is  2  beat  each  –   subdivide  a  measure  in  half.     Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.com     Slide  16     Group  per  pulse   TOPICS ¡ Rhythm ¡ Subdivision ¡ Group per pulse In  4/4  and  6/8.

anonemusic.anonemusic.♩ .Sight  Reading  Tips  by  Hiroaki  Honshuku       Slide  18       Know  typical  syncopation   patterns   TOPICS ¡ Rhythm ¡ Subdivision ¡ Group per pulse ¡ Odd meters ¡ Know typical syncopation patterns ¡ ♪ .) ¡ Pitch ¡ Too many leger lines? ¡ Not your usual clef? If  you  are  not  comfortable  with  reading   pitches  then  you  must  practice  separately.       Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.) ¡ Pitch ¡ Too many leger lines? ¡ Not your usual clef? ¡ Accidentals You  must  memorize  the  first  occurrence  so   you  do  not  forget  the  carryover  within  the   measure.♪ in jazz (4/4) You  must  be  familiar  with  the  style  of  the   music  to  catch  the  typical  patterns  such  as   offbeat  patterns  in  jazz  and  Brazilian  music.com   Slide  19     Pitch   TOPICS (cont.anonemusic.   ¡ Anticipated kicks Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.com Page  7  of  17       .       Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.com Slide  20     Accidentals     TOPICS (cont.

  If  your  instrument  is  in  C.com     RHYTHM   Slide  23     Example  1   RHYTHM ¡ Example 1 ¡ This is an 8 bars phrase but is not printed in 4 bars each.    There  is  no  time  to   analyze.  which  could  trick  you.  subV  to  pull  out  a  cool   ricks.anonemusic.       Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www. ¡ Good to be able to read at least B♭and E♭parts If  your  instrument  is  transposed.  you  should  be  able  to   see  the  usual  progressions  such  as  II-­‐V   motion.) ¡ Changes ¡ Skip analysis ¡ See the chord tones in the air ¡ See the bad notes in the air You  are  sight  reading.  but  in  general  you  need  to  see  the   safe  notes  without  analyzing.anonemusic. This  is  an  8  bars  phrase  but  is  not  printed   in  4  bars  each.  V-­‐I  motion.  it  is  always  good   to  be  able  to  read  at  least  B♭and  E♭ parts.       Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.) ¡ Transpose ¡ Must be able to read concert part. It may be easier to pencil in a 4 bars marker.  you  must   be  able  to  read  C  part.com Slide  22     Transpose   TOPICS (cont.com   Page  8  of  17       . which could trick you.anonemusic.    Granted.       Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.  It   may  be  easier  to  pencil  in  a  4  bars  marker.Sight  Reading  Tips  by  Hiroaki  Honshuku       Slide  21       Changes   TOPICS (cont.

anonemusic.   Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www. See  drawing  the  line  makes  it  easier  to  feel   the  phrases.anonemusic.com   Slide  25     Example  1   Imagine  or  pencil  in  the  pulse  subdivisions   RHYTHM ¡ Example 1 ¡ Imagine or pencil in beat subdivision Doing  this.anonemusic.   Use  syllable  “en”  to  be  groovy.  you  can  catch  up  after  making  a   mistake  or  dropping  out.     Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.com     Slide  26     Example  1   Sing  the  rest!   RHYTHM ¡ Example 1 ¡ Sing the rest Singing  the  rest  is  very  important  especially   when  the  rhythm  is  off  the  beat. It may be easier to pencil in a 4 bars marker.       Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.com   Page  9  of  17       .   Notice  the  benefit  on  bar  7. which could trick you.Sight  Reading  Tips  by  Hiroaki  Honshuku       Slide  24       Example  1   RHYTHM ¡ Example 1 ¡ This is an 8 bars phrase but is not printed in 4 bars each.

com   Slide  29     Example  2   An  example  to  feel  the  pulse  as  shown.Sight  Reading  Tips  by  Hiroaki  Honshuku       Slide  27       Example  1   RHYTHM ¡ Example 1 ¡ Know the standard articulation when not clearly marked Know  the  standard  articulation  when  not   clearly  marked   Pay  attention  to  bar  5.com     Slide  28     Example  2   Complex  time  signatures   RHYTHM ¡ Example 2 ¡ Complex time signatures ¡ Assume the 8th note value is constant in this example below See  the  pulse  and  sing  the  rests. There  are  a  few  different  ways  to  see  the   pulse  depending  on  the  music  presented.     This  is  just  one  of  them.  The  quarter  note  is   almost  always  short  in  this  pattern.anonemusic.  you  need  to   feel  a  group  of  three  8th  notes.     Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.     Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.anonemusic.     Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.com   Page  10  of  17       . 3/4 needs to be felt in 2 ¡ The red line on the 7/8 measure is indicating the 4 th quarter beat which you make it half short.   RHYTHM ¡ Example 2 ¡ An example to feel the pulse as shown ¡ In this particular example.   When  3/4  is  written  this  way.anonemusic.

com   Page  11  of  17       .     Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.com   Slide  31     PITCH   PITCH Sing the pitch to memorize the position Sing  the  pitches  along  the  lines  and  the   spaces  to  memorize  the  position.anonemusic.    Sing   up  for  above  the  stuff.Sight  Reading  Tips  by  Hiroaki  Honshuku         PITCH     Slide  30   PITCH The best way to practice accidentals is Omnibook   PITCH The  best  way  to  practice  accidentals  for   modern  American  music  is  Omnibook.   Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.com   Slide  32     PITCH     PITCH Sing the pitch to memorize the position Same goes when ledger lines The  same  goes  when  the  ledger  lines.anonemusic.anonemusic.     Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.  and  sing  down  for   below  the  stuff.

Sight  Reading  Tips  by  Hiroaki  Honshuku       Slide  33       PITCH PITCH Now the bass clef   Now  the  bass  clef     Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.com     Page  12  of  17       .     Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.anonemusic.  and  tenor  clef  is  used   above  G.com   Slide  35     PITCH PITCH Why Tenor Clef? Trombone range is up to B♭above middle C Why  Tenor  Clef?   Trombone  range  is  up  to  B♭(or  even  2nd   D)  above  middle  C.anonemusic.com   Slide  34     PITCH PITCH Now the bass clef And its ledger lines And  its  ledger  lines       Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.anonemusic.

Sight  Reading  Tips  by  Hiroaki  Honshuku       Slide  36       PITCH   And  the  ledger  lines  for  the  Tenor  Clef   PITCH And the ledger lines for Tenor Clef   Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.com   Page  13  of  17       .com Slide  38     Changes   Let’s  take  a  look  at  bar  9  and  10.   Changes Let’s take a look at bar 9 and 10.    Are  all   these  minor  chords  Dorian?    Is  A♭7   Straight  Mixo  or  Lyd♭7?     As  a  composer.  I  intended  first  2  minor   chords  to  be  Dorian  but  F#-­‐7  is  Aeolian. Are all these minor chords Dorian? Is A♭7 Straight Mixo or Lyd♭7? Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.  but  you  won’t  know   that  sine  there  is  no  theoretical  basis  for   this.       Changes This is the first 8 bars of one of my compositions called “Dan Dan Dan”.   and  A♭7  to  be  Straight  Mixo  despite  the   fact  it  looks  a  subV.anonemusic.anonemusic.   As  you  can  see  finding  the  proper  chord   scales  may  not  be  easy  on  sight-­‐reading   situation.com   Changes   Slide  37     Changes   This  is  the  first  8  bars  of  one  of  my   compositions  called  “Dan  Dan  Dan”.anonemusic. ©2002 A-NO-NE Music Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.

Sight  Reading  Tips  by  Hiroaki  Honshuku       Slide  39       Changes   Take  a  look  at  the  F#-­‐7  at  the  bar  10.  many  non   diatonic  notes  can  be  considered  as  altered   tensions.  while  there  are  a  few  that  cannot   be  a  part  of  it.     See  the  bad  notes  to  be  avoided.   X X   Changes Let’s take a look at the following Ab7.com   Slide  40     Changes Let’s  take  a  look  at  the  following  Ab7.anonemusic.com Slide  41     Changes Let’s  view  them  in  a  sequence.     Changes Let’s view them in a sequence A-7 → E♭-7 → F#-7 → A♭7   Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.   All  these  4  notes  are  safe  to  play  no  matter   what.   Draw  a  keyboard  up  in  the  air.   Changes Take a look at F#-7 at bar 10 Draw a keyboard up in the air Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.  What  is   avoid  note?   • • • • Don’t  want  to  start  with   Don’t  want  to  hold  with   Don’t  want  to  stop  with   Don’t  want  to  jump  to   Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.com   Page  14  of  17       .anonemusic. See the bad notes to be avoided Because  it’s  a  dominant  chord.anonemusic.

com   Page  15  of  17       .    The  exception  is   Phrygian.  and  Locrian.anonemusic.     Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.  which  is   obvious  and  you  know  what  to  do.anonemusic.com   Slide  44     Transpose   And  this  is  how  it  will  be.   Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.   Transpose ¡ Reading a B♭part ¡ Add 2 flats and read everything 2nd below written This  skill  also  helps  you  reading  Tenor  Clef.anonemusic.com Transpose   Slide  43     Transpose   Transpose ¡ Reading a B♭part ¡ Add 2 flats and read everything 2nd below written Reading  a  B♭ part   Add  2  flats  and  read  everything  2nd  below   written.  which  is  rare  if  not  diatonic   functioning  iii.Sight  Reading  Tips  by  Hiroaki  Honshuku       Slide  42     Changes The  Coltrane  way   1  –  2  –  3  –  5  is  consistent  through  out  the   majority  of  the  modes. 1–2–3–5 Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.           Changes The Coltrane way – and it’s safe.   Note  that  adding  2  flats  means  1  sharp   becomes  1  flat.

 applying  a  natural  to  raise  the   pitch.anonemusic.   And  add  3  flats.Sight  Reading  Tips  by  Hiroaki  Honshuku       Slide  45       Transpose   Reading  a  E♭ part   Transpose ¡ Reading a E♭part ¡ Add 3 flats and read everything as if the clef is a Bass Clef instead of a Treble Clef Add  3  flats  and  read  everything  as  if  the   clef  is  a  Bass  Clef  instead  of  a  Treble  Clef.com   Page  16  of  17       .   Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www. F# → A Natural Add  3  flats  and  read  everything  as  if  the   clef  is  a  Bass  Clef  instead  of  a  Treble  Clef.com     Slide  46     Transpose   Reading  a  E♭part   Transpose ¡ Reading a E♭part ¡ Add 3 flats and read everything as if the clef is a Bass Clef instead of a Treble Clef ¡ Notice in the 2nd bar.   Notice  the  F#  on  the  3rd  measure.anonemusic.   Note  that  adding  3  flats  means  1  sharp   becomes  2  flats.  Because   one  of  the  added  flat  matches  that   position.   Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.    This  takes  some  practice  to  get  used   to.

anonemusic.com     Page  17  of  17       . ISBN-13: 978-0846441571 Book  recommendation:   Modus  Vetus   ¡ ISBN-­‐10:  0846441578.Sight  Reading  Tips  by  Hiroaki  Honshuku          Thank  you  for  participating!   Slide  47     Practice  Practice  Practice!   Practice Practice Practice! ¡ Book recommendation ¡ ISBN-10: 0846441578.  ISBN-­‐13:   978-­‐0846441571   Hiroaki Honshuku: more @ www.

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