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Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Autoclaved Building Material

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Definition:
Autoclaved building products

1. Lime-silica bricks

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Definition:
Autoclaved building products

1. Calcium silicate bricks (KS Kalksandstein) high density bricks high compressive strength water absorption freezing resitance

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Definition:
Autoclaved building products

2. AAC - Aerated Autoclaved Concrete (Porenbeton) lightweight, low density blocks with high pore volume low compressive strength unique thermal properties acoustic insulation

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Calcium Silicate Bricks


History

1866: Method to cure sand and lime under steam pressure was patented by Van Derburg in England 1880: Further development and patent by Dr. Wilhelm Michalis. He succeeded in producing a real artificial sandstone 1894: Start of industrial production in Germany after introduction of the first rotation presses (originally developped pp for p production of cattle feed) ) 1924 first technical standard published in Germany (DIN 106) for dimensions and size tolerances (2 mm), compressive strength (15 N/mm2),

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Production of Calcium Silikate Bricks


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Sand Sand mixture Lime (CaO) Mixer Reactor 2nd mixer Forming Hacking Autoclave

10. Steam production 11. Water supply 12. Steam 13. Storage

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Calcium Silicate Bricks


History 1

1879: foundation of "Yxhult Stenhuggeri Aktiebolag" in Kumla , Sweden, for mining of vast limestone deposit situated near the city of Yxhult

Drastic shortage of energy in the 1st world war in Sweden government raised the standards for thermal insulation 1918: Swedish researchers start developing new building material to meet the requirements 1923: Dr. Axel Ericsson, architect and researcher at Stockholm University developed a procedure for manufacturing of AAC

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Calcium Silicate Bricks


History 2

1928: Karl August Carln, majority shareholder of "Yxhult Stenhuggeri gg Aktiebolag g realized the p potential of the new building material and acquired a license for manufacturing. He invested a large part of his assets to convert the quarry to a production facility for AAC.

1929: Start of industrial production of "Yxhults Anghrdade Gasbetong (= hardened aerated concrete of the city of Yxhult Abreviation of "Yxhults Anghrdade Gasbetong to Ytong 1940: registration of the brand name Ytong the worlds first registered brand name for a building product

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Production of Aerated Autoclaved Concrete

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x7C-QTZwMus

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Mineral reaction
Reaction partners: Quartz + Lime + Water form new mineral phases: CSH-phases

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Mineral reaction
Reaction partners: Quartz + Lime + Water form new mineral phases: CSH-phases

Conditions in the autoclave: 170C 200C 8 bar 16 bar

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Sand + CaO + H2O

Mineral reaction

in reactor
Sand + Ca(OH) 2 + H2O

heating up in autoclave

quartz into solution

Ca(OH) 2 into solution pH increases

semi-crystalline y CSH C/S>1.5

11-Tobermorite C/S=0.83

autoclaving
semi-crystalline CSH decreasing C/S ratio incr. amount of with 11-Tobermorite

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Mineral reaction
CSH phases CSH-phases

Soluble in hot HCl: 11-Tobermorite

Soluble in cold HCl: CSH-II CSH II

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Mineral reaction
Newly formed CSHCSH phases (Tobermorite) and etched quartz crystal

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Mineral reaction
Experiment of Peters / Iberg (1978) showed the relative mobility of the two reaction partners

Silica moves towards the source of calcium

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Raw material
Quartz-rich Quartz rich sands in Switzerland

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Comparative study
Pure quartz-sand vs sand from fluvioglacial deposits Amount of quartz is not critical impure sand can be used as raw material

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Alternative raw material

Pure raw material: Sand and CaO are combined from different sources

Do rocks and other material exist that have both reaction partners already combined? Research project at University of Berne 1977 1986 investigating: carbonate carbonate-bearing bearing sandstones from the Swiss Molasse Basin muds from gravel washeries carbonatous mudstones microstructure of autoclaved products from these sources

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Alternative raw material


Muds from gravel washeries

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Alternative raw material


Muds from gravel washeries

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Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Alternative raw material


Sandy mudstone

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Alternative raw material


Clay-rich mudstone

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Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Preliminary study
Example mudstones Analysis of mineralogical composition of 41 mudstone samples

Sample selection
Selection of 8 representative samples for specimen fabrication

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Sample treatment

Sampling of 40 80 kg directly from Molasse Basin Drying at 110 C in the laboratory oven Jaw crusher size reduction and grinding to grain size of < 1 mm in laboratory grinder Pelletizing (with ideal diameter of 1 3 mm) Analysis A l i of f mineralogical i l i l composition i i of f untreated d samples (XRD) Activation of pelletized mudstone samples (after prestudy for ideal activation conditions)

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Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Analysis of mineralogical composition after activation Grinding of activated pellets to grain size of <0.5 mm

Sample treatment
continued Hydration and casting/pressing in moulds Analysis of mineralogical composition after hydration Hardening in autoclave ( 2 hrs heating 20 200C, 6 hrs soaking time, 3 hrs cooling time) Analysis of mineralogical composition of end product Chemical analysis of content of quartz and new phases Analysis of physical properties Thin section analysis

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Sample fabrication

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Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Mineralogical reaction monitored with autoclave XRDcamera

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Manufacturing of samples

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Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Analysis of physical properties

Density of blocks Compressive strength Tensile strength E-Modulus Water absorption Shrinkage and swelling Thermal conductivity

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Optical analysis
Thin section Cast sample

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Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Optical analysis
Thin section Pressed sample

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

SEM analysis
Crushed samples

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Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

SEM analysis
Polished samples 320 x

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

SEM analysis
Polished samples 1250 x

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Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

SEM analysis
Polished samples 5000 x

Applied Mineralogy and Non-Metallic Resources II

Autoclaved Building Material

Conclusion

Calcium silicate bricks can be manufactured from alternative raw material consisting of carbonate, carbonate quarz and clay minerals Especially sandy mudstones which have not been of economical significance seem to be most suited This increases the volume of potential raw material for brick manufacturing Pressed samples manufactured of sandy mudstones compare well with industrial calcium silicate bricks 2 patents resulted from the research program for alternative raw material for autoclaved building material

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