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Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie


by Andrew Carnegie





Thi s eBook i s t he r epr oduct i on of t he compl et e and or i gi nal 1920 ver si on.


Ti t l e: Aut obi ogr aphy of Andr ew Car negi e

Aut hor : Andr ew Car negi e

Edi t or : J ohn C. Van Dyke





AUTOBI OGRAPHY

OF

ANDREWCARNEGI E




London
CONSTABLE & CO. LI MI TED
1920




PREFACE


Af t er r et i r i ng f r omact i ve busi ness my husband yi el ded t o t he ear nest
sol i ci t at i ons of f r i ends, bot h her e and i n Gr eat Br i t ai n, and began t o
j ot down f r omt i me t o t i me r ecol l ect i ons of hi s ear l y days. He soon
f ound, however , t hat i nst ead of t he l ei sur e he expect ed, hi s l i f e was
mor e occupi ed wi t h af f ai r s t han ever bef or e, and t he wr i t i ng of t hese
memoi r s was r eser ved f or hi s pl ay- t i me i n Scot l and. For a f ew weeks
each summer we r et i r ed t o our l i t t l e bungal ow on t he moor s at
Aul t nagar t o enj oy t he si mpl e l i f e, and i t was t her e t hat Mr . Car negi e
di d most of hi s wr i t i ng. He del i ght ed i n goi ng back t o t hose ear l y
t i mes, and as he wr ot e he l i ved t hemal l over agai n. He was t hus
engaged i n J ul y, 1914, when t he war cl ouds began t o gat her , and when
t he f at ef ul news of t he 4t h of August r eached us, we i mmedi at el y l ef t
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our r et r eat i n t he hi l l s and r et ur ned t o Ski bo t o be mor e i n t ouch
wi t h t he si t uat i on.

These memoi r s ended at t hat t i me. Hencef or t h he was never abl e t o
i nt er est hi msel f i n pr i vat e af f ai r s. Many t i mes he made t he at t empt t o
cont i nue wr i t i ng, but f ound i t usel ess. Unt i l t hen he had l i ved t he
l i f e of a man i n mi ddl e l i f e- - and a young one at t hat - - gol f i ng,
f i shi ng, swi mmi ng each day, somet i mes doi ng al l t hr ee i n one day.
Opt i mi st as he al ways was and t r i ed t o be, even i n t he f ace of t he
f ai l ur e of hi s hopes, t he wor l d di sast er was t oo much. Hi s hear t was
br oken. A sever e at t ack of i nf l uenza f ol l owed by t wo ser i ous at t acks
of pneumoni a pr eci pi t at ed ol d age upon hi m.

I t was sai d of a cont empor ar y who passed away a f ew mont hs bef or e Mr .
Car negi e t hat " he never coul d have bor ne t he bur den of ol d age. "
Per haps t he most i nspi r i ng par t of Mr . Car negi e' s l i f e, t o t hose who
wer e pr i vi l eged t o know i t i nt i mat el y, was t he way he bor e hi s " bur den
of ol d age. " Al ways pat i ent , consi der at e, cheer f ul , gr at ef ul f or any
l i t t l e pl easur e or ser vi ce, never t hi nki ng of hi msel f , but al ways of
t he dawni ng of t he bet t er day, hi s spi r i t ever shone br i ght er and
br i ght er unt i l " he was not , f or God t ook hi m. "

Wr i t t en wi t h hi s own hand on t he f l y- l eaf of hi s manuscr i pt ar e t hese
wor ds: " I t i s pr obabl e t hat mat er i al f or a smal l vol ume mi ght be
col l ect ed f r omt hese memoi r s whi ch t he publ i c woul d car e t o r ead, and
t hat a pr i vat e and l ar ger vol ume mi ght pl ease my r el at i ves and
f r i ends. Much I have wr i t t en f r omt i me t o t i me may, I t hi nk, wi sel y be
omi t t ed. Whoever ar r anges t hese not es shoul d be car ef ul not t o bur den
t he publ i c wi t h t oo much. A man wi t h a hear t as wel l as a head shoul d
be chosen. "

Who, t hen, coul d so wel l f i l l t hi s descr i pt i on as our f r i end Pr of essor
J ohn C. Van Dyke? When t he manuscr i pt was shown t o hi m, he r emar ked,
wi t hout havi ng r ead Mr . Car negi e' s not at i on, " I t woul d be a l abor of
l ove t o pr epar e t hi s f or publ i cat i on. " Her e, t hen, t he choi ce was
mut ual , and t he manner i n whi ch he has per f or med t hi s " l abor " pr oves
t he wi sdomof t he choi ce- - a choi ce made and car r i ed out i n t he name of
a r ar e and beaut i f ul f r i endshi p.

LOUI SE WHI TFI ELD CARNEGI E

_New Yor k_
_Apr i l 16, 1920_

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EDITOR'S NOTE


The st or y of a man' s l i f e, especi al l y when i t i s t ol d by t he man
hi msel f , shoul d not be i nt er r upt ed by t he heckl i ngs of an edi t or . He
shoul d be al l owed t o t el l t he t al e i n hi s own way, and ent husi asm,
even ext r avagance i n r eci t at i on shoul d be r ecei ved as a par t of t he
st or y. The qual i t y of t he man may under l i e exuber ance of spi r i t , as
t r ut h may be f ound i n appar ent exagger at i on. Ther ef or e, i n pr epar i ng
t hese chapt er s f or publ i cat i on t he edi t or has done l i t t l e mor e t han
ar r ange t he mat er i al chr onol ogi cal l y and sequent i al l y so t hat t he
nar r at i ve mi ght r un on unbr okenl y t o t he end. Some f oot not es by way of
expl anat i on, some i l l ust r at i ons t hat of f er si ght - hel p t o t he t ext ,
have been added; but t he nar r at i ve i s t he t hi ng.

Thi s i s nei t her t he t i me nor t he pl ace t o char act er i ze or eul ogi ze t he
maker of " t hi s st r ange event f ul hi st or y, " but per haps i t i s wor t h
whi l e t o r ecogni ze t hat t he hi st or y r eal l y was event f ul . And st r ange.
Not hi ng st r anger ever came out of t he _Ar abi an Ni ght s_ t han t he st or y
of t hi s poor Scot ch boy who came t o Amer i ca and st ep by st ep, t hr ough
many t r i al s and t r i umphs, became t he gr eat st eel mast er , bui l t up a
col ossal i ndust r y, amassed an enor mous f or t une, and t hen del i ber at el y
and syst emat i cal l y gave away t he whol e of i t f or t he enl i ght enment and
bet t er ment of manki nd. Not onl y t hat . He est abl i shed a gospel of
weal t h t hat can be nei t her i gnor ed nor f or got t en, and set a pace i n
di st r i but i on t hat succeedi ng mi l l i onai r es have f ol l owed as a
pr ecedent . I n t he cour se of hi s car eer he became a nat i on- bui l der , a
l eader i n t hought , a wr i t er , a speaker , t he f r i end of wor kmen,
school men, and st at esmen, t he associ at e of bot h t he l owl y and t he
l of t y. But t hese wer e mer el y i nt er est i ng happeni ngs i n hi s l i f e as
compar ed wi t h hi s gr eat i nspi r at i ons- - hi s di st r i but i on of weal t h, hi s
passi on f or wor l d peace, and hi s l ove f or manki nd.

Per haps we ar e t oo near t hi s hi st or y t o see i t i n pr oper pr opor t i ons,
but i n t he t i me t o come i t shoul d gai n i n per spect i ve and i n i nt er est .
The gener at i ons her eaf t er may r eal i ze t he wonder of i t mor e f ul l y t han
we of t o- day. Happi l y i t i s pr eser ved t o us, and t hat , t oo, i n Mr .
Car negi e' s own wor ds and i n hi s own buoyant st yl e. I t i s a ver y
memor abl e r ecor d- - a r ecor d per haps t he l i ke of whi ch we shal l not l ook
upon agai n.

J OHN C. VAN DYKE

_New Yor k_
_August , 1920_



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CHAPTER I

PARENTS AND CHILDHOOD


I f t he st or y of any man' s l i f e, t r ul y t ol d, must be i nt er est i ng, as
some sage aver s, t hose of my r el at i ves and i mmedi at e f r i ends who have
i nsi st ed upon havi ng an account of mi ne may not be undul y di sappoi nt ed
wi t h t hi s r esul t . I may consol e mysel f wi t h t he assur ance t hat such a
st or y must i nt er est at l east a cer t ai n number of peopl e who have known
me, and t hat knowl edge wi l l encour age me t o pr oceed.

A book of t hi s ki nd, wr i t t en year s ago by my f r i end, J udge Mel l on, of
Pi t t sbur gh, gave me so much pl easur e t hat I ami ncl i ned t o agr ee wi t h
t he wi se one whose opi ni on I have gi ven above; f or , cer t ai nl y, t he
st or y whi ch t he J udge t ol d has pr oved a sour ce of i nf i ni t e
sat i sf act i on t o hi s f r i ends, and must cont i nue t o i nf l uence succeedi ng
gener at i ons of hi s f ami l y t o l i ve l i f e wel l . And not onl y t hi s; t o
some beyond hi s i mmedi at e ci r cl e i t hol ds r ank wi t h t hei r f avor i t e
aut hor s. The book cont ai ns one essent i al f eat ur e of val ue- - i t r eveal s
t he man. I t was wr i t t en wi t hout any i nt ent i on of at t r act i ng publ i c
not i ce, bei ng desi gned onl y f or hi s f ami l y. I n l i ke manner I i nt end t o
t el l my st or y, not as one post ur i ng bef or e t he publ i c, but as i n t he
mi dst of my own peopl e and f r i ends, t r i ed and t r ue, t o whomI can
speak wi t h t he ut most f r eedom, f eel i ng t hat even t r i f l i ng i nci dent s
may not be whol l y dest i t ut e of i nt er est f or t hem.

To begi n, t hen, I was bor n i n Dunf er ml i ne, i n t he at t i c of t he smal l
one- st or y house, cor ner of Moodi e St r eet and Pr i or y Lane, on t he 25t h
of November , 1835, and, as t he sayi ng i s, " of poor but honest par ent s,
of good ki t h and ki n. " Dunf er ml i ne had l ong been not ed as t he cent er
of t he damask t r ade i n Scot l and. [ 1] My f at her , Wi l l i amCar negi e, was a
damask weaver , t he son of Andr ew Car negi e af t er whomI was named.

[ Foot not e 1: The Ei ght eent h- Cent ur y Car negi es l i ved at t he pi ct ur esque
haml et of Pat i emui r , t wo mi l es sout h of Dunf er ml i ne. The gr owi ng
i mpor t ance of t he l i nen i ndust r y i n Dunf er ml i ne f i nal l y l ed t he
Car negi es t o move t o t hat t own. ]

My Gr andf at her Car negi e was wel l known t hr oughout t he di st r i ct f or hi s
wi t and humor , hi s geni al nat ur e and i r r epr essi bl e spi r i t s. He was
head of t he l i vel y ones of hi s day, and known f ar and near as t he
chi ef of t hei r j oyous cl ub- - " Pat i emui r Col l ege. " Upon my r et ur n t o
Dunf er ml i ne, af t er an absence of f our t een year s, I r emember bei ng
appr oached by an ol d man who had been t ol d t hat I was t he gr andson of
t he " Pr of essor , " my gr andf at her ' s t i t l e among hi s cr oni es. He was t he
ver y pi ct ur e of pal si ed el d;

" Hi s nose and chi n t hey t hr eat ened i t her . "

As he t ot t er ed acr oss t he r oomt owar d me and l ai d hi s t r embl i ng hand
upon my head he sai d: " And ye ar e t he gr andson o' Andr a Car negi e! Eh,
mon, I ha' e seen t he day when your gr andf ai t her and I coul d ha' e
hal l ooed ony r easonabl e man oot o' hi s j i dgment . "

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[ I l l ust r at i on: ANDREWCARNEGI E' S BI RTHPLACE]

Sever al ot her ol d peopl e of Dunf er ml i ne t ol d me st or i es of my
gr andf at her . Her e i s one of t hem:

One Hogmanay ni ght [ 2] an ol d wi f ey, qui t e a char act er i n t he
vi l l age, bei ng sur pr i sed by a di sgui sed f ace suddenl y t hr ust i n at t he
wi ndow, l ooked up and af t er a moment ' s pause excl ai med, " Oh, i t ' s j i st
t hat daf t cal l ant Andr a Car negi e. " She was r i ght ; my gr andf at her at
sevent y- f i ve was out f r i ght eni ng hi s ol d l ady f r i ends, di sgui sed l i ke
ot her f r ol i cki ng youngst er s.

[ Foot not e 2: The 31st of December . ]

I t hi nk my opt i mi st i c nat ur e, my abi l i t y t o shed t r oubl e and t o l augh
t hr ough l i f e, maki ng " al l my ducks swans, " as f r i ends say I do, must
have been i nher i t ed f r omt hi s del i ght f ul ol d masquer adi ng gr andf at her
whose name I ampr oud t o bear . [ 3] A sunny di sposi t i on i s wor t h mor e
t han f or t une. Young peopl e shoul d know t hat i t can be cul t i vat ed; t hat
t he mi nd l i ke t he body can be moved f r omt he shade i nt o sunshi ne. Let
us move i t t hen. Laugh t r oubl e away i f possi bl e, and one usual l y can
i f he be anyt hi ng of a phi l osopher , pr ovi ded t hat sel f - r epr oach comes
not f r omhi s own wr ongdoi ng. That al ways r emai ns. Ther e i s no washi ng
out of t hese " damned spot s. " The j udge wi t hi n si t s i n t he supr eme
cour t and can never be cheat ed. Hence t he gr and r ul e of l i f e whi ch
Bur ns gi ves:

" Thi ne own r epr oach al one do f ear . "

[ Foot not e 3: " Ther e i s no si gn t hat Andr ew, t hough he pr osper ed i n hi s
wooi ng, was speci al l y successf ul i n acqui si t i on of wor l dl y gear .
Ot her wi se, however , he became an out st andi ng char act er not onl y i n t he
vi l l age, but i n t he adj oi ni ng ci t y and di st r i ct . A ' br ai ny' man who
r ead and t hought f or hi msel f he became associ at ed wi t h t he r adi cal
weaver s of Dunf er ml i ne, who i n Pat i emui r f or med a meet i ng- pl ace whi ch
t hey named a col l ege ( Andr ew was t he ' Pr of essor ' of i t ) . " ( _Andr ew
Car negi e: Hi s Dunf er ml i ne Ti es and Benef act i ons_, by J . B. Macki e,
F. J . I . ) ]

Thi s mot t o adopt ed ear l y i n l i f e has been mor e t o me t han al l t he
ser mons I ever hear d, and I have hear d not a f ew, al t hough I may admi t
r esembl ance t o my ol d f r i end Bai l l i e Wal ker i n my mat ur e year s. He was
asked by hi s doct or about hi s sl eep and r epl i ed t hat i t was f ar f r om
sat i sf act or y, he was ver y wakef ul , addi ng wi t h a t wi nkl e i n hi s eye:
" But I get a bi t f i ne doze i ' t he ki r k noo and t hen. "

On my mot her ' s si de t he gr andf at her was even mor e mar ked, f or my
gr andf at her Thomas Mor r i son was a f r i end of Wi l l i amCobbet t , a
cont r i but or t o hi s " Regi st er , " and i n const ant cor r espondence wi t h
hi m. Even as I wr i t e, i n Dunf er ml i ne ol d men who knew Gr andf at her
Mor r i son speak of hi mas one of t he f i nest or at or s and abl est men t hey
have known. He was publ i sher of " The Pr ecur sor , " a smal l edi t i on i t
mi ght be sai d of Cobbet t ' s " Regi st er , " and t hought t o have been t he
f i r st r adi cal paper i n Scot l and. I have r ead some of hi s wr i t i ngs, and
i n vi ew of t he i mpor t ance now gi ven t o t echni cal educat i on, I t hi nk
t he most r emar kabl e of t hemi s a pamphl et whi ch he publ i shed
sevent y- odd year s ago ent i t l ed " Head- i cat i on ver sus Hand- i cat i on. " I t
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i nsi st s upon t he i mpor t ance of t he l at t er i n a manner t hat woul d
r ef l ect cr edi t upon t he st r ongest advocat e of t echni cal educat i on
t o- day. I t ends wi t h t hese wor ds, " I t hank God t hat i n my yout h I
l ear ned t o make and mend shoes. " Cobbet t publ i shed i t i n t he
" Regi st er " i n 1833, r emar ki ng edi t or i al l y, " One of t he most val uabl e
communi cat i ons ever publ i shed i n t he ' Regi st er ' upon t he subj ect , i s
t hat of our est eemed f r i end and cor r espondent i n Scot l and, Thomas
Mor r i son, whi ch appear s i n t hi s i ssue. " So i t seems I come by my
scr i bbl i ng pr opensi t i es by i nher i t ance- - f r ombot h si des, f or t he
Car negi es wer e al so r eader s and t hi nker s.

My Gr andf at her Mor r i son was a bor n or at or , a keen pol i t i ci an, and t he
head of t he advanced wi ng of t he r adi cal par t y i n t he di st r i ct - - a
posi t i on whi ch hi s son, my Uncl e Bai l i e Mor r i son, occupi ed as hi s
successor . Mor e t han one wel l - known Scot sman i n Amer i ca has cal l ed
upon me, t o shake hands wi t h " t he gr andson of Thomas Mor r i son. " Mr .
Far mer , pr esi dent of t he Cl evel and and Pi t t sbur gh Rai l r oad Company,
once sai d t o me, " I owe al l t hat I have of l ear ni ng and cul t ur e t o t he
i nf l uence of your gr andf at her " ; and Ebenezer Hender son, aut hor of t he
r emar kabl e hi st or y of Dunf er ml i ne, st at ed t hat he l ar gel y owed hi s
advancement i n l i f e t o t he f or t unat e f act t hat whi l e a boy he ent er ed
my gr andf at her ' s ser vi ce.

I have not passed so f ar t hr ough l i f e wi t hout r ecei vi ng some
compl i ment s, but I t hi nk not hi ng of a compl i ment ar y char act er has ever
pl eased me so much as t hi s f r oma wr i t er i n a Gl asgow newspaper , who
had been a l i st ener t o a speech on Home Rul e i n Amer i ca whi ch I
del i ver ed i n Sai nt Andr ew' s Hal l . The cor r espondent wr ot e t hat much
was t hen bei ng sai d i n Scot l and wi t h r egar d t o mysel f and f ami l y and
especi al l y my gr andf at her Thomas Mor r i son, and he went on t o say,
" J udge my sur pr i se when I f ound i n t he gr andson on t he pl at f or m, i n
manner , gest ur e and appear ance, a per f ect _f acsi mi l e_ of t he Thomas
Mor r i son of ol d. "

My sur pr i si ng l i keness t o my gr andf at her , whomI do not r emember t o
have ever seen, cannot be doubt ed, because I r emember wel l upon my
f i r st r et ur n t o Dunf er ml i ne i n my t went y- sevent h year , whi l e si t t i ng
upon a sof a wi t h my Uncl e Bai l i e Mor r i son, t hat hi s bi g bl ack eyes
f i l l ed wi t h t ear s. He coul d not speak and r ushed out of t he r oom
over come. Ret ur ni ng af t er a t i me he expl ai ned t hat somet hi ng i n me now
and t hen f l ashed bef or e hi mhi s f at her , who woul d i nst ant l y vani sh but
come back at i nt er val s. Some gest ur e i t was, but what pr eci sel y he
coul d not make out . My mot her cont i nual l y not i ced i n me some of my
gr andf at her ' s pecul i ar i t i es. The doct r i ne of i nher i t ed t endenci es i s
pr oved ever y day and hour , but how subt l e i s t he l aw whi ch t r ansmi t s
gest ur e, somet hi ng as i t wer e beyond t he mat er i al body. I was deepl y
i mpr essed.

My Gr andf at her Mor r i son mar r i ed Mi ss Hodge, of Edi nbur gh, a l ady i n
educat i on, manner s, and posi t i on, who di ed whi l e t he f ami l y was st i l l
young. At t hi s t i me he was i n good ci r cumst ances, a l eat her mer chant
conduct i ng t he t anni ng busi ness i n Dunf er ml i ne; but t he peace af t er
t he Bat t l e of Wat er l oo i nvol ved hi mi n r ui n, as i t di d t housands; so
t hat whi l e my Uncl e Bai l i e, t he el dest son, had been br ought up i n
what mi ght be t er med l uxur y, f or he had a pony t o r i de, t he younger
member s of t he f ami l y encount er ed ot her and har der days.

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The second daught er , Mar gar et , was my mot her , about whomI cannot
t r ust mysel f t o speak at l engt h. She i nher i t ed f r omher mot her t he
di gni t y, r ef i nement , and ai r of t he cul t i vat ed l ady. Per haps some day
I may be abl e t o t el l t he wor l d somet hi ng of t hi s her oi ne, but I doubt
i t . I f eel her t o be sacr ed t o mysel f and not f or ot her s t o know. None
coul d ever r eal l y know her - - I al one di d t hat . Af t er my f at her ' s ear l y
deat h she was al l my own. The dedi cat i on of my f i r st book[ 4] t el l s t he
st or y. I t was: " To my f avor i t e Her oi ne My Mot her . "

[ Foot not e 4: _An Amer i can Four - i n- Hand i n Gr eat Br i t ai n. _ New Yor k,
1888. ]

[ I l l ust r at i on: DUNFERMLI NE ABBEY]

For t unat e i n my ancest or s I was supr emel y so i n my bi r t hpl ace. Wher e
one i s bor n i s ver y i mpor t ant , f or di f f er ent sur r oundi ngs and
t r adi t i ons appeal t o and st i mul at e di f f er ent l at ent t endenci es i n t he
chi l d. Ruski n t r ul y obser ves t hat ever y br i ght boy i n Edi nbur gh i s
i nf l uenced by t he si ght of t he Cast l e. So i s t he chi l d of Dunf er ml i ne,
by i t s nobl e Abbey, t he West mi nst er of Scot l and, f ounded ear l y i n t he
el event h cent ur y ( 1070) by Mal col mCanmor e and hi s Queen Mar gar et ,
Scot l and' s pat r on sai nt . The r ui ns of t he gr eat monast er y and of
t he Pal ace wher e ki ngs wer e bor n st i l l st and, and t her e, t oo, i s
Pi t t encr i ef f Gl en, embr aci ng Queen Mar gar et ' s shr i ne and t he r ui ns of
Ki ng Mal col m' s Tower , wi t h whi ch t he ol d bal l ad of " Si r Pat r i ck Spens"
begi ns:

" The Ki ng si t s i n Dunf er ml i ne _t ower _, [ 5]
Dr i nki ng t he bl ui d r ed wi ne. "

[ Foot not e 5: _The Per cy Rel i ques_ and _The Oxf or d Book of Bal l ads_
gi ve " t own" i nst ead of " t ower " ; but Mr . Car negi e i nsi st ed t hat i t
shoul d be " t ower . " ]

The t omb of The Br uce i s i n t he cent er of t he Abbey, Sai nt Mar gar et ' s
t omb i s near , and many of t he " r oyal f ol k" l i e sl eepi ng cl ose ar ound.
For t unat e, i ndeed, t he chi l d who f i r st sees t he l i ght i n t hat r omant i c
t own, whi ch occupi es hi gh gr ound t hr ee mi l es nor t h of t he Fi r t h of
For t h, over l ooki ng t he sea, wi t h Edi nbur gh i n si ght t o t he sout h, and
t o t he nor t h t he peaks of t he Ochi l s cl ear l y i n vi ew. Al l i s st i l l
r edol ent of t he mi ght y past when Dunf er ml i ne was bot h nat i onal l y and
r el i gi ousl y t he capi t al of Scot l and.

The chi l d pr i vi l eged t o devel op ami d such sur r oundi ngs absor bs poet r y
and r omance wi t h t he ai r he br eat hes, assi mi l at es hi st or y and
t r adi t i on as he gazes ar ound. These become t o hi mhi s r eal wor l d i n
chi l dhood- - t he i deal i s t he ever - pr esent r eal . The act ual has yet t o
come when, l at er i n l i f e, he i s l aunched i nt o t he wor kaday wor l d of
st er n r eal i t y. Even t hen, and t i l l hi s l ast day, t he ear l y i mpr essi ons
r emai n, somet i mes f or shor t seasons di sappear i ng per chance, but onl y
appar ent l y dr i ven away or suppr essed. They ar e al ways r i si ng and
comi ng agai n t o t he f r ont t o exer t t hei r i nf l uence, t o el evat e hi s
t hought and col or hi s l i f e. No br i ght chi l d of Dunf er ml i ne can escape
t he i nf l uence of t he Abbey, Pal ace, and Gl en. These t ouch hi mand set
f i r e t o t he l at ent spar k wi t hi n, maki ng hi msomet hi ng di f f er ent and
beyond what , l ess happi l y bor n, he woul d have become. Under t hese
i nspi r i ng condi t i ons my par ent s had al so been bor n, and hence came, I
Page 8 of 222
doubt not , t he pot ency of t he r omant i c and poet i c st r ai n whi ch
per vaded bot h.

As my f at her succeeded i n t he weavi ng busi ness we r emoved f r omMoodi e
St r eet t o a much mor e commodi ous house i n Rei d' s Par k. My f at her ' s
f our or f i ve l ooms occupi ed t he l ower st or y; we r esi ded i n t he upper ,
whi ch was r eached, af t er a f ashi on common i n t he ol der Scot t i sh
houses, by out si de st ai r s f r omt he pavement . I t i s her e t hat my
ear l i est r ecol l ect i ons begi n, and, st r angel y enough, t he f i r st t r ace
of memor y t akes me back t o a day when I saw a smal l map of Amer i ca. I t
was upon r ol l er s and about t wo f eet squar e. Upon t hi s my f at her ,
mot her , Uncl e Wi l l i am, and Aunt Ai t ken wer e l ooki ng f or Pi t t sbur gh and
poi nt i ng out Lake Er i e and Ni agar a. Soon af t er my uncl e and Aunt
Ai t ken sai l ed f or t he l and of pr omi se.

At t hi s t i me I r emember my cousi n- br ot her , Geor ge Lauder ( " Dod" ) , and
mysel f wer e deepl y i mpr essed wi t h t he gr eat danger over hangi ng us
because a l awl ess f l ag was secr et ed i n t he gar r et . I t had been pai nt ed
t o be car r i ed, and I bel i eve was car r i ed by my f at her , or uncl e, or
some ot her good r adi cal of our f ami l y, i n a pr ocessi on dur i ng t he Cor n
Law agi t at i on. Ther e had been r i ot s i n t he t own and a t r oop of caval r y
was quar t er ed i n t he Gui l dhal l . My gr andf at her s and uncl es on bot h
si des, and my f at her , had been f or emost i n addr essi ng meet i ngs, and
t he whol e f ami l y ci r cl e was i n a f er ment .

I r emember as i f i t wer e yest er day bei ng awakened dur i ng t he ni ght by
a t ap at t he back wi ndow by men who had come t o i nf or mmy par ent s t hat
my uncl e, Bai l i e Mor r i son, had been t hr own i nt o j ai l because he had
dar ed t o hol d a meet i ng whi ch had been f or bi dden. The sher i f f wi t h t he
ai d of t he sol di er s had ar r est ed hi ma f ew mi l es f r omt he t own wher e
t he meet i ng had been hel d, and br ought hi mi nt o t he t own dur i ng t he
ni ght , f ol l owed by an i mmense t hr ong of peopl e. [ 6]

[ Foot not e 6: At t he openi ng of t he Lauder Techni cal School i n Oct ober ,
1880, near l y hal f a cent ur y af t er t he di squi et i ng scenes of 1842, Mr .
Car negi e t hus r ecal l ed t he shock whi ch was gi ven t o hi s boy mi nd: " One
of my ear l i est r ecol l ect i ons i s t hat of bei ng wakened i n t he dar kness
t o be t ol d t hat my Uncl e Mor r i son was i n j ai l . Wel l , i t i s one of t he
pr oudest boast s I can make t o- day t o be abl e t o say t hat I had an
uncl e who was i n j ai l . But , l adi es and gent l emen, my uncl e went t o
j ai l t o vi ndi cat e t he r i ght s of publ i c assembl y. " ( Macki e. ) ]

Ser i ous t r oubl e was f ear ed, f or t he popul ace t hr eat ened t o r escue hi m,
and, as we l ear ned af t er war ds, he had been i nduced by t he pr ovost of
t he t own t o st ep f or war d t o a wi ndow over l ooki ng t he Hi gh St r eet and
beg t he peopl e t o r et i r e. Thi s he di d, sayi ng: " I f t her e be a f r i end
of t he good cause her e t o- ni ght , l et hi mf ol d hi s ar ms. " They di d so.
And t hen, af t er a pause, he sai d, " Now depar t i n peace! " [ 7] My uncl e,
l i ke al l our f ami l y, was a mor al - f or ce man and st r ong f or obedi ence t o
l aw, but r adi cal t o t he cor e and an i nt ense admi r er of t he Amer i can
Republ i c.

[ Foot not e 7: " The Cr own agent s wi sel y l et t he pr oceedi ngs l apse. . . .
Mr . Mor r i son was gi ven a gr at i f yi ng assur ance of t he appr eci at i on of
hi s f el l ow ci t i zens by hi s el ect i on t o t he Counci l and hi s el evat i on
t o t he Magi st er i al Bench, f ol l owed shor t l y af t er by hi s appoi nt ment t o
t he of f i ce of Bur gh Chamber l ai n. The pat r i ot i c r ef or mer whomt he
Page 9 of 222
cr i mi nal aut hor i t i es endeavor ed t o convi ct as a l aw- br eaker became by
t he choi ce of hi s f el l ow ci t i zens a Magi st r at e, and was f ur t her gi ven
a cer t i f i cat e f or t r ust wor t hi ness and i nt egr i t y. " ( Macki e. ) ]

One may i magi ne when al l t hi s was goi ng on i n publ i c how bi t t er wer e
t he wor ds t hat passed f r omone t o t he ot her i n pr i vat e. The
denunci at i ons of monar chi cal and ar i st ocr at i c gover nment , of pr i vi l ege
i n al l i t s f or ms, t he gr andeur of t he r epubl i can syst em, t he
super i or i t y of Amer i ca, a l and peopl ed by our own r ace, a home f or
f r eemen i n whi ch ever y ci t i zen' s pr i vi l ege was ever y man' s
r i ght - - t hese wer e t he exci t i ng t hemes upon whi ch I was nur t ur ed. As a
chi l d I coul d have sl ai n ki ng, duke, or l or d, and consi der ed t hei r
deat hs a ser vi ce t o t he st at e and hence an her oi c act .

Such i s t he i nf l uence of chi l dhood' s ear l i est associ at i ons t hat i t was
l ong bef or e I coul d t r ust mysel f t o speak r espect f ul l y of any
pr i vi l eged cl ass or per son who had not di st i ngui shed hi msel f i n some
good way and t her ef or e ear ned t he r i ght t o publ i c r espect . Ther e was
st i l l t he sneer behi nd f or mer e pedi gr ee- - " he i s not hi ng, has done
not hi ng, onl y an acci dent , a f r aud st r ut t i ng i n bor r owed pl umes; al l
he has t o hi s account i s t he acci dent of bi r t h; t he most f r ui t f ul par t
of hi s f ami l y, as wi t h t he pot at o, l i es under gr ound. " I wonder ed t hat
i nt el l i gent men coul d l i ve wher e anot her human bei ng was bor n t o a
pr i vi l ege whi ch was not al so t hei r bi r t hr i ght . I was never t i r ed of
quot i ng t he onl y wor ds whi ch gave pr oper vent t o my i ndi gnat i on:

" Ther e was a Br ut us once t hat woul d have br ooked
Th' et er nal devi l t o keep hi s st at e i n Rome
As easi l y as a ki ng. "

But t hen ki ngs wer e ki ngs, not mer e shadows. Al l t hi s was i nher i t ed,
of cour se. I onl y echoed what I hear d at home.

Dunf er ml i ne has l ong been r enowned as per haps t he most r adi cal t own i n
t he Ki ngdom, al t hough I know Pai sl ey has cl ai ms. Thi s i s al l t he mor e
cr edi t abl e t o t he cause of r adi cal i smbecause i n t he days of whi ch I
speak t he popul at i on of Dunf er ml i ne was i n l ar ge par t composed of men
who wer e smal l manuf act ur er s, each owni ng hi s own l oomor l ooms. They
wer e not t i ed down t o r egul ar hour s, t hei r l abor s bei ng pi ece wor k.
They got webs f r omt he l ar ger manuf act ur er s and t he weavi ng was done
at home.

These wer e t i mes of i nt ense pol i t i cal exci t ement , and t her e was
f r equent l y seen t hr oughout t he ent i r e t own, f or a shor t t i me af t er t he
mi dday meal , smal l gr oups of men wi t h t hei r apr ons gi r t about t hem
di scussi ng af f ai r s of st at e. The names of Hume, Cobden, and Br i ght
wer e upon ever y one' s t ongue. I was of t en at t r act ed, smal l as I was,
t o t hese ci r cl es and was an ear nest l i st ener t o t he conver sat i on,
whi ch was whol l y one- si ded. The gener al l y accept ed concl usi on was t hat
t her e must be a change. Cl ubs wer e f or med among t he t ownsf ol k, and t he
London newspaper s wer e subscr i bed f or . The l eadi ng edi t or i al s wer e
r ead ever y eveni ng t o t he peopl e, st r angel y enough, f r omone of t he
pul pi t s of t he t own. My uncl e, Bai l i e Mor r i son, was of t en t he r eader ,
and, as t he ar t i cl es wer e comment ed upon by hi mand ot her s af t er bei ng
r ead, t he meet i ngs wer e qui t e exci t i ng.

These pol i t i cal meet i ngs wer e of f r equent occur r ence, and, as mi ght be
Page 10 of 222
expect ed, I was as deepl y i nt er est ed as any of t he f ami l y and at t ended
many. One of my uncl es or my f at her was gener al l y t o be hear d. I
r emember one eveni ng my f at her addr essed a l ar ge out door meet i ng i n
t he Pends. I had wedged my way i n under t he l egs of t he hear er s, and
at one cheer l ouder t han al l t he r est I coul d not r est r ai n my
ent husi asm. Looki ng up t o t he man under whose l egs I had f ound
pr ot ect i on I i nf or med hi mt hat was my f at her speaki ng. He l i f t ed me on
hi s shoul der and kept me t her e.

To anot her meet i ng I was t aken by my f at her t o hear J ohn Br i ght , who
spoke i n f avor of J . B. Smi t h as t he Li ber al candi dat e f or t he St i r l i ng
Bur ghs. I made t he cr i t i ci smat home t hat Mr . Br i ght di d not speak
cor r ect l y, as he sai d " men" when he meant " maan. " He di d not gi ve t he
br oad _a_ we wer e accust omed t o i n Scot l and. I t i s not t o be wonder ed
at t hat , nur sed ami d such sur r oundi ngs, I devel oped i nt o a vi ol ent
young Republ i can whose mot t o was " deat h t o pr i vi l ege. " At t hat t i me I
di d not know what pr i vi l ege meant , but my f at her di d.

One of my Uncl e Lauder ' s best st or i es was about t hi s same J . B. Smi t h,
t he f r i end of J ohn Br i ght , who was st andi ng f or Par l i ament i n
Dunf er ml i ne. Uncl e was a member of hi s Commi t t ee and al l went wel l
unt i l i t was pr ocl ai med t hat Smi t h was a " Uni t awr i an. " The di st r i ct
was pl acar ded wi t h t he enqui r y: Woul d you vot e f or a " Uni t awr i an" ? I t
was ser i ous. The Chai r man of Smi t h' s Commi t t ee i n t he vi l l age of
Cai r ney Hi l l , a bl acksmi t h, was r epor t ed as havi ng decl ar ed he never
woul d. Uncl e dr ove over t o r emonst r at e wi t h hi m. They met i n t he
vi l l age t aver n over a gi l l :

" Man, I canna vot e f or a Uni t awr i an, " sai d t he Chai r man.

" But , " sai d my uncl e, " Mai t l and [ t he opposi ng candi dat e] i s a
Tr i ni t awr i an. "

" Damn; t hat ' s waur , " was t he r esponse.

And t he bl acksmi t h vot ed r i ght . Smi t h won by a smal l maj or i t y.

The change f r omhand- l oomt o st eam- l oomweavi ng was di sast r ous t o our
f ami l y. My f at her di d not r ecogni ze t he i mpendi ng r evol ut i on, and was
st r uggl i ng under t he ol d syst em. Hi s l ooms sank gr eat l y i n val ue, and
i t became necessar y f or t hat power whi ch never f ai l ed i n any
emer gency- - my mot her - - t o st ep f or war d and endeavor t o r epai r t he
f ami l y f or t une. She opened a smal l shop i n Moodi e St r eet and
cont r i but ed t o t he r evenues whi ch, t hough sl ender , never t hel ess at
t hat t i me suf f i ced t o keep us i n comf or t and " r espect abl e. "

I r emember t hat shor t l y af t er t hi s I began t o l ear n what pover t y
meant . Dr eadf ul days came when my f at her t ook t he l ast of hi s webs t o
t he gr eat manuf act ur er , and I saw my mot her anxi ousl y awai t i ng hi s
r et ur n t o know whet her a new web was t o be obt ai ned or t hat a per i od
of i dl eness was upon us. I t was bur nt i nt o my hear t t hen t hat my
f at her , t hough nei t her " abj ect , mean, nor vi l e, " as Bur ns has i t , had
never t hel ess t o

" Beg a br ot her of t he ear t h
To gi ve hi ml eave t o t oi l . "

Page 11 of 222
And t hen and t her e came t he r esol ve t hat I woul d cur e t hat when I got
t o be a man. We wer e not , however , r educed t o anyt hi ng l i ke pover t y
compar ed wi t h many of our nei ghbor s. I do not know t o what l engt hs of
pr i vat i on my mot her woul d not have gone t hat she mi ght see her t wo
boys wear i ng l ar ge whi t e col l ar s, and t r i ml y dr essed.

I n an i ncaut i ous moment my par ent s had pr omi sed t hat I shoul d never be
sent t o school unt i l I asked l eave t o go. Thi s pr omi se I af t er war d
l ear ned began t o gi ve t hemconsi der abl e uneasi ness because as I gr ew
up I showed no di sposi t i on t o ask. The school mast er , Mr . Rober t
Mar t i n, was appl i ed t o and i nduced t o t ake some not i ce of me. He t ook
me upon an excur si on one day wi t h some of my compani ons who at t ended
school , and gr eat r el i ef was exper i enced by my par ent s when one day
soon af t er war d I came and asked f or per mi ssi on t o go t o Mr . Mar t i n' s
school . [ 8] I need not say t he per mi ssi on was dul y gr ant ed. I had t hen
ent er ed upon my ei ght h year , whi ch subsequent exper i ence l eads me t o
say i s qui t e ear l y enough f or any chi l d t o begi n at t endi ng school .

[ Foot not e 8: I t was known as Rol l and School . ]

The school was a per f ect del i ght t o me, and i f anyt hi ng occur r ed whi ch
pr event ed my at t endance I was unhappy. Thi s happened ever y now and
t hen because my mor ni ng dut y was t o br i ng wat er f r omt he wel l at t he
head of Moodi e St r eet . The suppl y was scant y and i r r egul ar . Somet i mes
i t was not al l owed t o r un unt i l l at e i n t he mor ni ng and a scor e of ol d
wi ves wer e si t t i ng ar ound, t he t ur n of each havi ng been pr evi ousl y
secur ed t hr ough t he ni ght by pl aci ng a wor t hl ess can i n t he l i ne.
Thi s, as mi ght be expect ed, l ed t o numer ous cont ent i ons i n whi ch I
woul d not be put down even by t hese vener abl e ol d dames. I ear ned t he
r eput at i on of bei ng " an awf u' l addi e. " I n t hi s way I pr obabl y
devel oped t he st r ai n of ar gument at i veness, or per haps combat i veness,
whi ch has al ways r emai ned wi t h me.

I n t he per f or mance of t hese dut i es I was of t en l at e f or school , but
t he mast er , knowi ng t he cause, f or gave t he l apses. I n t he same
connect i on I may ment i on t hat I had of t en t he shop er r ands t o r un
af t er school , so t hat i n l ooki ng back upon my l i f e I have t he
sat i sf act i on of f eel i ng t hat I became usef ul t o my par ent s even at t he
ear l y age of t en. Soon af t er t hat t he account s of t he var i ous peopl e
who deal t wi t h t he shop wer e ent r ust ed t o my keepi ng so t hat I became
acquai nt ed, i n a smal l way, wi t h busi ness af f ai r s even i n chi l dhood.

One cause of mi ser y t her e was, however , i n my school exper i ence. The
boys ni cknamed me " Mar t i n' s pet , " and somet i mes cal l ed out t hat
dr eadf ul epi t het t o me as I passed al ong t he st r eet . I di d not know
al l t hat i t meant , but i t seemed t o me a t er mof t he ut most
oppr obr i um, and I know t hat i t kept me f r omr espondi ng as f r eel y as I
shoul d ot her wi se have done t o t hat excel l ent t eacher , my onl y
school mast er , t o whomI owe a debt of gr at i t ude whi ch I r egr et I never
had oppor t uni t y t o do mor e t han acknowl edge bef or e he di ed.

I may ment i on her e a man whose i nf l uence over me cannot be
over est i mat ed, my Uncl e Lauder , Geor ge Lauder ' s f at her . [ 9] My f at her
was necessar i l y const ant l y at wor k i n t he l oomshop and had l i t t l e
l ei sur e t o best ow upon me t hr ough t he day. My uncl e bei ng a shopkeeper
i n t he Hi gh St r eet was not t hus t i ed down. Not e t he l ocat i on, f or t hi s
was among t he shopkeepi ng ar i st ocr acy, and hi gh and var i ed degr ees of
Page 12 of 222
ar i st ocr acy t her e wer e even among shopkeeper s i n Dunf er ml i ne. Deepl y
af f ect ed by my Aunt Seat on' s deat h, whi ch occur r ed about t he begi nni ng
of my school l i f e, he f ound hi s chi ef sol ace i n t he compani onshi p of
hi s onl y son, Geor ge, and mysel f . He possessed an ext r aor di nar y gi f t
of deal i ng wi t h chi l dr en and t aught us many t hi ngs. Among ot her s I
r emember how he t aught us Br i t i sh hi st or y by i magi ni ng each of t he
monar chs i n a cer t ai n pl ace upon t he wal l s of t he r oomper f or mi ng t he
act f or whi ch he was wel l known. Thus f or me Ki ng J ohn si t s t o t hi s
day above t he mant el pi ece si gni ng t he Magna Char t a, and Queen Vi ct or i a
i s on t he back of t he door wi t h her chi l dr en on her knee.

[ Foot not e 9: The Lauder Techni cal Col l ege gi ven by Mr . Car negi e t o
Dunf er ml i ne was named i n honor of t hi s uncl e, Geor ge Lauder . ]

I t may be t aken f or gr ant ed t hat t he omi ssi on whi ch, year s af t er , I
f ound i n t he Chapt er House at West mi nst er Abbey was f ul l y suppl i ed i n
our l i st of monar chs. A sl ab i n a smal l chapel at West mi nst er says
t hat t he body of Ol i ver Cr omwel l was r emoved f r omt her e. I n t he l i st
of t he monar chs whi ch I l ear ned at my uncl e' s knee t he gr and
r epubl i can monar ch appear ed wr i t i ng hi s message t o t he Pope of Rome,
i nf or mi ng Hi s Hol i ness t hat " i f he di d not cease per secut i ng t he
Pr ot est ant s t he t hunder of Gr eat Br i t ai n' s cannon woul d be hear d i n
t he Vat i can. " I t i s needl ess t o say t hat t he est i mat e we f or med of
Cr omwel l was t hat he was wor t h t hem" a' t hegi t her . "

I t was f r ommy uncl e I l ear ned al l t hat I know of t he ear l y hi st or y of
Scot l and- - of Wal l ace and Br uce and Bur ns, of Bl i nd Har r y' s hi st or y, of
Scot t , Ramsey, Tannahi l l , Hogg, and Fer gusson. I can t r ul y say i n t he
wor ds of Bur ns t hat t her e was t hen and t her e cr eat ed i n me a vei n of
Scot t i sh pr ej udi ce ( or pat r i ot i sm) whi ch wi l l cease t o exi st onl y wi t h
l i f e. Wal l ace, of cour se, was our her o. Ever yt hi ng her oi c cent er ed i n
hi m. Sad was t he day when a wi cked bi g boy at school t ol d me t hat
Engl and was f ar l ar ger t han Scot l and. I went t o t he uncl e, who had t he
r emedy.

" Not at al l , Nai g; i f Scot l and wer e r ol l ed out f l at as Engl and,
Scot l and woul d be t he l ar ger , but woul d you have t he Hi ghl ands r ol l ed
down?"

Oh, never ! Ther e was bal mi n Gi l ead f or t he wounded young pat r i ot .
Lat er t he gr eat er popul at i on of Engl and was f or ced upon me, and agai n
t o t he uncl e I went .

" Yes, Nai g, seven t o one, but t her e wer e mor e t han t hat odds agai nst
us at Bannockbur n. " And agai n t her e was j oy i n my hear t - - j oy t hat
t her e wer e mor e Engl i sh men t her e si nce t he gl or y was t he gr eat er .

Thi s i s somet hi ng of a comment ar y upon t he t r ut h t hat war br eeds war ,
t hat ever y bat t l e sows t he seeds of f ut ur e bat t l es, and t hat t hus
nat i ons become t r adi t i onal enemi es. The exper i ence of Amer i can boys i s
t hat of t he Scot ch. They gr ow up t o r ead of Washi ngt on and Val l ey
For ge, of Hessi ans hi r ed t o ki l l Amer i cans, and t hey come t o hat e t he
ver y name of Engl i shman. Such was my exper i ence wi t h my Amer i can
nephews. Scot l and was al l r i ght , but Engl and t hat had f ought Scot l and
was t he wi cked par t ner . Not t i l l t hey became men was t he pr ej udi ce
er adi cat ed, and even yet some of i t may l i nger .

Page 13 of 222
Uncl e Lauder has t ol d me si nce t hat he of t en br ought peopl e i nt o t he
r oomassur i ng t hemt hat he coul d make " Dod" ( Geor ge Lauder ) and me
weep, l augh, or cl ose our l i t t l e f i st s r eady t o f i ght - - i n shor t , pl ay
upon al l our moods t hr ough t he i nf l uence of poet r y and song. The
bet r ayal of Wal l ace was hi s t r ump car d whi ch never f ai l ed t o cause our
l i t t l e hear t s t o sob, a compl et e br eakdown bei ng t he i nvar i abl e
r esul t . Of t en as he t ol d t he st or y i t never l ost i t s hol d. No doubt i t
r ecei ved f r omt i me t o t i me new embel l i shment s. My uncl e' s st or i es
never want ed " t he hat and t he st i ck" whi ch Scot t gave hi s. How
wonder f ul i s t he i nf l uence of a her o upon chi l dr en!

I spent many hour s and eveni ngs i n t he Hi gh St r eet wi t h my uncl e and
" Dod, " and t hus began a l i f el ong br ot her l y al l i ance bet ween t he l at t er
and mysel f . " Dod" and " Nai g" we al ways wer e i n t he f ami l y. I coul d not
say " Geor ge" i n i nf ancy and he coul d not get mor e t han " Nai g" out of
Car negi e, and i t has al ways been " Dod" and " Nai g" wi t h us. No ot her
names woul d mean anyt hi ng.

Ther e wer e t wo r oads by whi ch t o r et ur n f r ommy uncl e' s house i n t he
Hi gh St r eet t o my home i n Moodi e St r eet at t he f oot of t he t own, one
al ong t he eer i e chur chyar d of t he Abbey among t he dead, wher e t her e
was no l i ght ; and t he ot her al ong t he l i ght ed st r eet s by way of t he
May Gat e. When i t became necessar y f or me t o go home, my uncl e, wi t h a
wi cked pl easur e, woul d ask whi ch way I was goi ng. Thi nki ng what
Wal l ace woul d do, I al ways r epl i ed I was goi ng by t he Abbey. I have
t he sat i sf act i on of bel i evi ng t hat never , not even upon one occasi on,
di d I yi el d t o t he t empt at i on t o t ake t he ot her t ur n and f ol l ow t he
l amps at t he j unct i on of t he May Gat e. I of t en passed al ong t hat
chur chyar d and t hr ough t he dar k ar ch of t he Abbey wi t h my hear t i n my
mout h. Tr yi ng t o whi st l e and keep up my cour age, I woul d pl od t hr ough
t he dar kness, f al l i ng back i n al l emer genci es upon t he t hought of what
Wal l ace woul d have done i f he had met wi t h any f oe, nat ur al or
super nat ur al .

Ki ng Rober t t he Br uce never got j ust i ce f r ommy cousi n or mysel f i n
chi l dhood. I t was enough f or us t hat he was a ki ng whi l e Wal l ace was
t he man of t he peopl e. Si r J ohn Gr ahamwas our second. The i nt ensi t y
of a Scot t i sh boy' s pat r i ot i sm, r ear ed as I was, const i t ut es a r eal
f or ce i n hi s l i f e t o t he ver y end. I f t he sour ce of my st ock of t hat
pr i me ar t i cl e- - cour age- - wer e st udi ed, I amsur e t he f i nal anal ysi s
woul d f i nd i t f ounded upon Wal l ace, t he her o of Scot l and. I t i s a
t ower of st r engt h f or a boy t o have a her o.

I t gave me a pang t o f i nd when I r eached Amer i ca t hat t her e was any
ot her count r y whi ch pr et ended t o have anyt hi ng t o be pr oud of . What
was a count r y wi t hout Wal l ace, Br uce, and Bur ns? I f i nd i n t he
unt r avel ed Scot sman of t o- day somet hi ng st i l l of t hi s f eel i ng. I t
r emai ns f or mat ur er year s and wi der knowl edge t o t el l us t hat ever y
nat i on has i t s her oes, i t s r omance, i t s t r adi t i ons, and i t s
achi evement s; and whi l e t he t r ue Scot sman wi l l not f i nd r eason i n
af t er year s t o l ower t he est i mat e he has f or med of hi s own count r y and
of i t s posi t i on even among t he l ar ger nat i ons of t he ear t h, he wi l l
f i nd ampl e r eason t o r ai se hi s opi ni on of ot her nat i ons because t hey
al l have much t o be pr oud of - - qui t e enough t o st i mul at e t hei r sons so
t o act t hei r par t s as not t o di sgr ace t he l and t hat gave t hembi r t h.

I t was year s bef or e I coul d f eel t hat t he new l and coul d be anyt hi ng
Page 14 of 222
but a t empor ar y abode. My hear t was i n Scot l and. I r esembl ed Pr i nci pal
Pet er son' s l i t t l e boy who, when i n Canada, i n r epl y t o a quest i on,
sai d he l i ked Canada " ver y wel l f or a vi si t , but he coul d never l i ve
so f ar away f r omt he r emai ns of Br uce and Wal l ace. "

Page 15 of 222
CHAPTER II

DUNFERMLINE AND AMERICA


My good Uncl e Lauder j ust l y set gr eat val ue upon r eci t at i on i n
educat i on, and many wer e t he penni es whi ch Dod and I r ecei ved f or
t hi s. I n our l i t t l e f r ocks or shi r t s, our sl eeves r ol l ed up, paper
hel met s and bl ackened f aces, wi t h l at hs f or swor ds, my cousi n and
mysel f wer e kept const ant l y r eci t i ng Nor val and Gl enal von, Roder i ck
Dhu and J ames Fi t z- J ames t o our school mat es and of t en t o t he ol der
peopl e.

I r emember di st i nct l y t hat i n t he cel ebr at ed di al ogue bet ween Nor val
and Gl enal von we had some qual ms about r epeat i ng t he phr ase, - - " and
f al se as _hel l _. " At f i r st we made a sl i ght cough over t he
obj ect i onabl e wor d whi ch al ways cr eat ed amusement among t he
spect at or s. I t was a gr eat day f or us when my uncl e per suaded us t hat
we coul d say " hel l " wi t hout swear i ng. I amaf r ai d we pr act i ced i t ver y
of t en. I al ways pl ayed t he par t of Gl enal von and made a gr eat mout hf ul
of t he wor d. I t had f or me t he wonder f ul f asci nat i on at t r i but ed t o
f or bi dden f r ui t . I can wel l under st and t he st or y of Mar j or y Fl emi ng,
who bei ng cr oss one mor ni ng when Wal t er Scot t cal l ed and asked how she
was, answer ed:

" I amver y cr oss t hi s mor ni ng, Mr . Scot t . I j ust want t o say ' damn'
[ wi t h a swi ng] , but I wi nna. "

Ther eaf t er t he expr essi on of t he one f ear f ul wor d was a gr eat poi nt .
Mi ni st er s coul d say " damnat i on" i n t he pul pi t wi t hout si n, and so we,
t oo, had f ul l r ange on " hel l " i n r eci t at i on. Anot her passage made a
deep i mpr essi on. I n t he f i ght bet ween Nor val and Gl enal von, Nor val
says, " When we cont end agai n our st r i f e i s mor t al . " Usi ng t hese wor ds
i n an ar t i cl e wr i t t en f or t he " Nor t h Amer i can Revi ew" i n 1897, my
uncl e came acr oss t hemand i mmedi at el y sat down and wr ot e me f r om
Dunf er ml i ne t hat he knew wher e I had f ound t he wor ds. He was t he onl y
man l i vi ng who di d.

My power t o memor i ze must have been gr eat l y st r engt hened by t he mode
of t eachi ng adopt ed by my uncl e. I cannot name a mor e i mpor t ant means
of benef i t i ng young peopl e t han encour agi ng t hemt o commi t f avor i t e
pi eces t o memor y and r eci t e t hemof t en. Anyt hi ng whi ch pl eased me I
coul d l ear n wi t h a r api di t y whi ch sur pr i sed par t i al f r i ends. I coul d
memor i ze anyt hi ng whet her i t pl eased me or not , but i f i t di d not
i mpr ess me st r ongl y i t passed away i n a f ew hour s.

One of t he t r i al s of my boy' s l i f e at school i n Dunf er ml i ne was
commi t t i ng t o memor y t wo doubl e ver ses of t he Psal ms whi ch I had t o
r eci t e dai l y. My pl an was not t o l ook at t he psal munt i l I had st ar t ed
f or school . I t was not mor e t han f i ve or si x mi nut es' sl ow wal k, but I
coul d r eadi l y mast er t he t ask i n t hat t i me, and, as t he psal mwas t he
f i r st l esson, I was pr epar ed and passed t hr ough t he or deal
successf ul l y. Had I been asked t o r epeat t he psal mt hi r t y mi nut es
af t er war ds t he at t empt woul d, I f ear , have ended i n di sast r ous
f ai l ur e.

Page 16 of 222
The f i r st penny I ever ear ned or ever r ecei ved f r omany per son beyond
t he f ami l y ci r cl e was one f r ommy school - t eacher , Mr . Mar t i n, f or
r epeat i ng bef or e t he school Bur ns' s poem, " Man was made t o Mour n. " I n
wr i t i ng t hi s I amr emi nded t hat i n l at er year s, di ni ng wi t h Mr . J ohn
Mor l ey i n London, t he conver sat i on t ur ned upon t he l i f e of Wor dswor t h,
and Mr . Mor l ey sai d he had been sear chi ng hi s Bur ns f or t he poemt o
" Ol d Age, " so much ext ol l ed by hi m, whi ch he had not been abl e t o f i nd
under t hat t i t l e. I had t he pl easur e of r epeat i ng par t of i t t o hi m.
He pr ompt l y handed me a second penny. Ah, gr eat as Mor l ey i s, he
wasn' t my school - t eacher , Mr . Mar t i n- - t he f i r st " gr eat " man I ever
knew. Tr ul y gr eat was he t o me. But a her o sur el y i s " Honest J ohn"
Mor l ey.

I n r el i gi ous mat t er s we wer e not much hamper ed. Whi l e ot her boys and
gi r l s at school wer e compel l ed t o l ear n t he Shor t er Cat echi sm, Dod and
I , by some ar r angement t he det ai l s of whi ch I never cl ear l y
under st ood, wer e absol ved. Al l of our f ami l y connect i ons, Mor r i sons
and Lauder s, wer e advanced i n t hei r t heol ogi cal as i n t hei r pol i t i cal
vi ews, and had obj ect i ons t o t he cat echi sm, I have no doubt . We had
not one or t hodox Pr esbyt er i an i n our f ami l y ci r cl e. My f at her , Uncl e
and Aunt Ai t ken, Uncl e Lauder , and al so my Uncl e Car negi e, had f al l en
away f r omt he t enet s of Cal vi ni sm. At a l at er day most of t hemf ound
r ef uge f or a t i me i n t he doct r i nes of Swedenbor g. My mot her was al ways
r et i cent upon r el i gi ous subj ect s. She never ment i oned t hese t o me nor
di d she at t end chur ch, f or she had no ser vant i n t hose ear l y days and
di d al l t he housewor k, i ncl udi ng cooki ng our Sunday di nner . A gr eat
r eader , al ways, Channi ng t he Uni t ar i an was i n t hose days her speci al
del i ght . She was a mar vel !

[ I l l ust r at i on: ANDREWCARNEGI E' S MOTHER]

Dur i ng my chi l dhood t he at mospher e ar ound me was i n a st at e of vi ol ent
di st ur bance i n mat t er s t heol ogi cal as wel l as pol i t i cal . Al ong wi t h
t he most advanced i deas whi ch wer e bei ng agi t at ed i n t he pol i t i cal
wor l d- - t he deat h of pr i vi l ege, t he equal i t y of t he ci t i zen,
Republ i cani sm- - I hear d many di sput at i ons upon t heol ogi cal subj ect s
whi ch t he i mpr essi onabl e chi l d dr ank i n t o an ext ent qui t e unt hought
of by hi s el der s. I wel l r emember t hat t he st er n doct r i nes of
Cal vi ni sml ay as a t er r i bl e ni ght mar e upon me, but t hat st at e of mi nd
was soon over , owi ng t o t he i nf l uences of whi ch I have spoken. I
gr ew up t r easur i ng wi t hi n me t he f act t hat my f at her had r i sen and
l ef t t he Pr esbyt er i an Chur ch one day when t he mi ni st er pr eached t he
doct r i ne of i nf ant damnat i on. Thi s was shor t l y af t er I had made my
appear ance.

Fat her coul d not st and i t and sai d: " I f t hat be your r el i gi on and t hat
your God, I seek a bet t er r el i gi on and a nobl er God. " He l ef t t he
Pr esbyt er i an Chur ch never t o r et ur n, but he di d not cease t o at t end
var i ous ot her chur ches. I saw hi ment er t he cl oset ever y mor ni ng t o
pr ay and t hat i mpr essed me. He was i ndeed a sai nt and al ways r emai ned
devout . Al l sect s became t o hi mas agenci es f or good. He had
di scover ed t hat t heol ogi es wer e many, but r el i gi on was one. I was
qui t e sat i sf i ed t hat my f at her knew bet t er t han t he mi ni st er , who
pi ct ur ed not t he Heavenl y Fat her , but t he cr uel avenger of t he Ol d
Test ament - - an " Et er nal Tor t ur er " as Andr ew D. Whi t e vent ur es t o cal l
hi mi n hi s aut obi ogr aphy. For t unat el y t hi s concept i on of t he Unknown
i s now l ar gel y of t he past .
Page 17 of 222

One of t he chi ef enj oyment s of my chi l dhood was t he keepi ng of pi geons
and r abbi t s. I amgr at ef ul ever y t i me I t hi nk of t he t r oubl e my f at her
t ook t o bui l d a sui t abl e house f or t hese pet s. Our home became
headquar t er s f or my young compani ons. My mot her was al ways l ooki ng t o
home i nf l uences as t he best means of keepi ng her t wo boys i n t he r i ght
pat h. She used t o say t hat t he f i r st st ep i n t hi s di r ect i on was t o
make home pl easant ; and t her e was not hi ng she and my f at her woul d not
do t o pl ease us and t he nei ghbor s' chi l dr en who cent er ed about us.

My f i r st busi ness vent ur e was secur i ng my compani ons' ser vi ces f or a
season as an empl oyer , t he compensat i on bei ng t hat t he young r abbi t s,
when such came, shoul d be named af t er t hem. The Sat ur day hol i day was
gener al l y spent by my f l ock i n gat her i ng f ood f or t he r abbi t s. My
consci ence r epr oves me t o- day, l ooki ng back, when I t hi nk of t he har d
bar gai n I dr ove wi t h my young pl aymat es, many of whomwer e cont ent t o
gat her dandel i ons and cl over f or a whol e season wi t h me, condi t i oned
upon t hi s uni que r ewar d- - t he poor est r et ur n ever made t o l abor . Al as!
what el se had I t o of f er t hem! Not a penny.

I t r easur e t he r emembr ance of t hi s pl an as t he ear l i est evi dence of
or gani zi ng power upon t he devel opment of whi ch my mat er i al success i n
l i f e has hung- - a success not t o be at t r i but ed t o what I have known or
done mysel f , but t o t he f acul t y of knowi ng and choosi ng ot her s who di d
know bet t er t han mysel f . Pr eci ous knowl edge t hi s f or any man t o
possess. I di d not under st and st eammachi ner y, but I t r i ed t o
under st and t hat much mor e compl i cat ed pi ece of mechani sm- - man.
St oppi ng at a smal l Hi ghl and i nn on our coachi ng t r i p i n 1898, a
gent l eman came f or war d and i nt r oduced hi msel f . He was Mr . MacI nt osh,
t he gr eat f ur ni t ur e manuf act ur er of Scot l and- - a f i ne char act er as I
f ound out af t er war d. He sai d he had vent ur ed t o make hi msel f known as
he was one of t he boys who had gat her ed, and somet i mes he f ear ed
" conveyed, " spoi l f or t he r abbi t s, and had " one named af t er hi m. " I t
may be i magi ned how gl ad I was t o meet hi m- - t he onl y one of t he r abbi t
boys I have met i n af t er - l i f e. I hope t o keep hi s f r i endshi p t o t he
l ast and see hi mof t en. [ As I r ead t hi s manuscr i pt t o- day, December 1,
1913, I have a ver y pr eci ous not e f r omhi m, r ecal l i ng ol d t i mes when
we wer e boys t oget her . He has a r epl y by t hi s t i me t hat wi l l war mhi s
hear t as hi s not e di d mi ne. ]

Wi t h t he i nt r oduct i on and i mpr ovement of st eammachi ner y, t r ade gr ew
wor se and wor se i n Dunf er ml i ne f or t he smal l manuf act ur er s, and at
l ast a l et t er was wr i t t en t o my mot her ' s t wo si st er s i n Pi t t sbur gh
st at i ng t hat t he i dea of our goi ng t o t hemwas ser i ousl y
ent er t ai ned- - not , as I r emember hear i ng my par ent s say, t o benef i t
t hei r own condi t i on, but f or t he sake of t hei r t wo young sons.
Sat i sf act or y l et t er s wer e r ecei ved i n r epl y. The deci si on was t aken t o
sel l t he l ooms and f ur ni t ur e by auct i on. And my f at her ' s sweet voi ce
sang of t en t o mot her , br ot her , and me:

" To t he West , t o t he West , t o t he l and of t he f r ee,
Wher e t he mi ght y Mi ssour i r ol l s down t o t he sea;
Wher e a man i s a man even t hough he must t oi l
And t he poor est may gat her t he f r ui t s of t he soi l . "

The pr oceeds of t he sal e wer e most di sappoi nt i ng. The l ooms br ought
har dl y anyt hi ng, and t he r esul t was t hat t went y pounds mor e wer e
Page 18 of 222
needed t o enabl e t he f ami l y t o pay passage t o Amer i ca. Her e l et me
r ecor d an act of f r i endshi p per f or med by a l i f el ong compani on of my
mot her - - who al ways at t r act ed st anch f r i ends because she was so st anch
her sel f - - Mr s. Hender son, by bi r t h El l a Fer guson, t he name by whi ch she
was known i n our f ami l y. She bol dl y vent ur ed t o advance t he needf ul
t went y pounds, my Uncl es Lauder and Mor r i son guar ant eei ng r epayment .
Uncl e Lauder al so l ent hi s ai d and advi ce, managi ng al l t he det ai l s
f or us, and on t he 17t h day of May, 1848, we l ef t Dunf er ml i ne. My
f at her ' s age was t hen f or t y- t hr ee, my mot her ' s t hi r t y- t hr ee. I was i n
my t hi r t eent h year , my br ot her Tomi n hi s f i f t h year - - a beaut i f ul
whi t e- hai r ed chi l d wi t h l ust r ous bl ack eyes, who ever ywher e at t r act ed
at t ent i on.

I had l ef t school f or ever , wi t h t he except i on of one wi nt er ' s
ni ght - school i ng i n Amer i ca, and l at er a Fr ench ni ght - t eacher f or a
t i me, and, st r ange t o say, an el ocut i oni st f r omwhomI l ear ned how t o
decl ai m. I coul d r ead, wr i t e, and ci pher , and had begun t he st udy of
al gebr a and of Lat i n. A l et t er wr i t t en t o my Uncl e Lauder dur i ng t he
voyage, and si nce r et ur ned, shows t hat I was t hen a bet t er penman t han
now. I had wr est l ed wi t h Engl i sh gr ammar , and knew as l i t t l e of what
i t was desi gned t o t each as chi l dr en usual l y do. I had r ead l i t t l e
except about Wal l ace, Br uce, and Bur ns; but knew many f ami l i ar pi eces
of poet r y by hear t . I shoul d add t o t hi s t he f ai r y t al es of chi l dhood,
and especi al l y t he " Ar abi an Ni ght s, " by whi ch I was car r i ed i nt o a new
wor l d. I was i n dr eaml and as I devour ed t hose st or i es.

On t he mor ni ng of t he day we st ar t ed f r ombel oved Dunf er ml i ne, i n t he
omni bus t hat r an upon t he coal r ai l r oad t o Char l est on, I r emember t hat
I st ood wi t h t ear f ul eyes l ooki ng out of t he wi ndow unt i l Dunf er ml i ne
vani shed f r omvi ew, t he l ast st r uct ur e t o f ade bei ng t he gr and and
sacr ed ol d Abbey. Dur i ng my f i r st f our t een year s of absence my t hought
was al most dai l y, as i t was t hat mor ni ng, " When shal l I see you
agai n?" Few days passed i n whi ch I di d not see i n my mi nd' s eye t he
t al i smani c l et t er s on t he Abbey t ower - - " Ki ng Rober t The Br uce. " Al l my
r ecol l ect i ons of chi l dhood, al l I knew of f ai r yl and, cl ust er ed ar ound
t he ol d Abbey and i t s cur f ew bel l , whi ch t ol l ed at ei ght o' cl ock ever y
eveni ng and was t he si gnal f or me t o r un t o bed bef or e i t st opped. I
have r ef er r ed t o t hat bel l i n my " Amer i can Four - i n- Hand i n
Br i t ai n" [ 10] when passi ng t he Abbey and I may as wel l quot e f r omi t
now:

[ Foot not e 10: _An Amer i can Four - i n- Hand i n Br i t ai n_. New Yor k, 1886. ]

As we dr ove down t he Pends I was st andi ng on t he f r ont seat
of t he coach wi t h Pr ovost Wal l s, when I hear d t he f i r st t ol l
of t he Abbey bel l , t ol l ed i n honor of my mot her and mysel f .
My knees sank f r omunder me, t he t ear s came r ushi ng bef or e I
knew i t , and I t ur ned r ound t o t el l t he Pr ovost t hat I must
gi ve i n. For a moment I f el t as i f I wer e about t o f ai nt .
For t unat el y I saw t hat t her e was no cr owd bef or e us f or a
l i t t l e di st ance. I had t i me t o r egai n cont r ol , and bi t i ng my
l i ps t i l l t hey act ual l y bl ed, I mur mur ed t o mysel f , " No
mat t er , keep cool , you must go on" ; but never can t her e come
t o my ear s on ear t h, nor ent er so deep i nt o my soul , a sound
t hat shal l haunt and subdue me wi t h i t s sweet , gr aci ous,
mel t i ng power as t hat di d.

Page 19 of 222
By t hat cur f ew bel l I had been l ai d i n my l i t t l e couch t o
sl eep t he sl eep of chi l di sh i nnocence. Fat her and mot her ,
somet i mes t he one, somet i mes t he ot her , had t ol d me as t hey
bent l ovi ngl y over me ni ght af t er ni ght , what t hat bel l sai d
as i t t ol l ed. Many good wor ds has t hat bel l spoken t o me
t hr ough t hei r t r ansl at i ons. No wr ong t hi ng di d I do t hr ough
t he day whi ch t hat voi ce f r omal l I knew of heaven and t he
gr eat Fat her t her e di d not t el l me ki ndl y about er e I sank
t o sl eep, speaki ng t he wor ds so pl ai nl y t hat I knew t hat t he
power t hat moved i t had seen al l and was not angr y, never
angr y, never , but so ver y, _ver y_ sor r y. Nor i s t hat bel l
dumb t o me t o- day when I hear i t s voi ce. I t st i l l has i t s
message, and now i t sounded t o wel come back t he exi l ed
mot her and son under i t s pr eci ous car e agai n.

The wor l d has not wi t hi n i t s power t o devi se, much l ess t o
best ow upon us, such r ewar d as t hat whi ch t he Abbey bel l
gave when i t t ol l ed i n our honor . But my br ot her Tomshoul d
have been t her e al so; t hi s was t he t hought t hat came. He,
t oo, was begi nni ng t o know t he wonder s of t hat bel l er e we
wer e away t o t he newer l and.

Rousseau wi shed t o di e t o t he st r ai ns of sweet musi c. Coul d
I choose my accompani ment , I coul d wi sh t o pass i nt o t he di m
beyond wi t h t he t ol l i ng of t he Abbey bel l soundi ng i n my
ear s, t el l i ng me of t he r ace t hat had been r un, and cal l i ng
me, as i t had cal l ed t he l i t t l e whi t e- hai r ed chi l d, f or t he
l ast t i me- - _t o sl eep_.

I have had many l et t er s f r omr eader s speaki ng of t hi s passage i n my
book, some of t he wr i t er s goi ng so f ar as t o say t hat t ear s f el l as
t hey r ead. I t came f r omt he hear t and per haps t hat i s why i t r eached
t he hear t s of ot her s.

We wer e r owed over i n a smal l boat t o t he Edi nbur gh st eamer i n t he
Fi r t h of For t h. As I was about t o be t aken f r omt he smal l boat t o t he
st eamer , I r ushed t o Uncl e Lauder and cl ung r ound hi s neck, cr yi ng
out : " I cannot l eave you! I cannot l eave you! " I was t or n f r omhi mby
a ki nd sai l or who l i f t ed me up on t he deck of t he st eamer . Upon my
r et ur n vi si t t o Dunf er ml i ne t hi s dear ol d f el l ow, when he came t o see
me, t ol d me i t was t he saddest par t i ng he had ever wi t nessed.

We sai l ed f r omt he Br oomi el aw of Gl asgow i n t he 800- t on sai l i ng shi p
Wi scasset . Dur i ng t he seven weeks of t he voyage, I came t o know t he
sai l or s qui t e wel l , l ear ned t he names of t he r opes, and was abl e t o
di r ect t he passenger s t o answer t he cal l of t he boat swai n, f or t he
shi p bei ng under manned, t he ai d of t he passenger s was ur gent l y
r equi r ed. I n consequence I was i nvi t ed by t he sai l or s t o par t i ci pat e
on Sundays, i n t he one del i cacy of t he sai l or s' mess, pl umduf f . I
l ef t t he shi p wi t h si ncer e r egr et .

The ar r i val at New Yor k was bewi l der i ng. I had been t aken t o see t he
Queen at Edi nbur gh, but t hat was t he ext ent of my t r avel s bef or e
emi gr at i ng. Gl asgow we had not t i me t o see bef or e we sai l ed. New Yor k
was t he f i r st gr eat hi ve of human i ndust r y among t he i nhabi t ant s of
whi ch I had mi ngl ed, and t he bust l e and exci t ement of i t over whel med
me. The i nci dent of our st ay i n New Yor k whi ch i mpr essed me most
Page 20 of 222
occur r ed whi l e I was wal ki ng t hr ough Bowl i ng Gr een at Cast l e Gar den. I
was caught up i n t he ar ms of one of t he Wi scasset sai l or s, Rober t
Bar r yman, who was decked out i n r egul ar J ackashor e f ashi on, wi t h bl ue
j acket and whi t e t r ouser s. I t hought hi mt he most beaut i f ul man I had
ever seen.

He t ook me t o a r ef r eshment st and and or der ed a gl ass of sar sapar i l l a
f or me, whi ch I dr ank wi t h as much r el i sh as i f i t wer e t he nect ar of
t he gods. To t hi s day not hi ng t hat I have ever seen of t he ki nd r i val s
t he i mage whi ch r emai ns i n my mi nd of t he gor geousness of t he hi ghl y
or nament ed br ass vessel out of whi ch t hat nect ar came f oami ng. Of t en
as I have passed t he i dent i cal spot I see st andi ng t her e t he ol d
woman' s sar sapar i l l a st and, and I mar vel what became of t he dear ol d
sai l or . I have t r i ed t o t r ace hi m, but i n vai n, hopi ng t hat i f f ound
he mi ght be enj oyi ng a r i pe ol d age, and t hat i t mi ght be i n my power
t o add t o t he pl easur e of hi s decl i ni ng year s. He was my i deal Tom
Bowl i ng, and when t hat f i ne ol d song i s sung I al ways see as t he " f or m
of manl y beaut y" my dear ol d f r i end Bar r yman. Al as! er e t hi s he' s gone
al of t . Wel l ; by hi s ki ndness on t he voyage he made one boy hi s devot ed
f r i end and admi r er .

We knew onl y Mr . and Mr s. Sl oane i n New Yor k- - par ent s of t he
wel l - known J ohn, Wi l l i e, and Henr y Sl oane. Mr s. Sl oane ( Euphemi a
Dougl as) was my mot her ' s compani on i n chi l dhood i n Dunf er ml i ne. Mr .
Sl oane and my f at her had been f el l ow weaver s. We cal l ed upon t hemand
wer e war ml y wel comed. I t was a genui ne pl easur e when Wi l l i e, hi s son,
bought gr ound f r omme i n 1900 opposi t e our New Yor k r esi dence f or hi s
t wo mar r i ed daught er s so t hat our chi l dr en of t he t hi r d gener at i on
became pl aymat es as our mot her s wer e i n Scot l and.

My f at her was i nduced by emi gr at i on agent s i n New Yor k t o t ake t he
Er i e Canal by way of Buf f al o and Lake Er i e t o Cl evel and, and t hence
down t he canal t o Beaver - - a j our ney whi ch t hen l ast ed t hr ee weeks,
and i s made t o- day by r ai l i n t en hour s. Ther e was no r ai l way
communi cat i on t hen wi t h Pi t t sbur gh, nor i ndeed wi t h any west er n t own.
The Er i e Rai l way was under const r uct i on and we saw gangs of men at
wor k upon i t as we t r avel ed. Not hi ng comes ami ss t o yout h, and I l ook
back upon my t hr ee weeks as a passenger upon t he canal - boat wi t h
unal l oyed pl easur e. Al l t hat was di sagr eeabl e i n my exper i ence has
l ong si nce f aded f r omr ecol l ect i on, except i ng t he ni ght we wer e
compel l ed t o r emai n upon t he whar f - boat at Beaver wai t i ng f or t he
st eamboat t o t ake us up t he Ohi o t o Pi t t sbur gh. Thi s was our f i r st
i nt r oduct i on t o t he mosqui t o i n al l i t s f er oci t y. My mot her suf f er ed
so sever el y t hat i n t he mor ni ng she coul d har dl y see. We wer e al l
f r i ght f ul si ght s, but I do not r emember t hat even t he st i ngi ng mi ser y
of t hat ni ght kept me f r omsl eepi ng soundl y. I coul d al ways sl eep,
never knowi ng " hor r i d ni ght , t he chi l d of hel l . "

Our f r i ends i n Pi t t sbur gh had been anxi ousl y wai t i ng t o hear f r omus,
and i n t hei r war mand af f ect i onat e gr eet i ng al l our t r oubl es wer e
f or got t en. We t ook up our r esi dence wi t h t hemi n Al l egheny Ci t y. A
br ot her of my Uncl e Hogan had bui l t a smal l weaver ' s shop at t he back
end of a l ot i n Rebecca St r eet . Thi s had a second st or y i n whi ch t her e
wer e t wo r ooms, and i t was i n t hese ( f r ee of r ent , f or my Aunt Ai t ken
owned t hem) t hat my par ent s began housekeepi ng. My uncl e soon gave up
weavi ng and my f at her t ook hi s pl ace and began maki ng t abl ecl ot hs,
whi ch he had not onl y t o weave, but af t er war ds, act i ng as hi s own
Page 21 of 222
mer chant , t o t r avel and sel l , as no deal er s coul d be f ound t o t ake
t hemi n quant i t y. He was compel l ed t o mar ket t hemhi msel f , sel l i ng
f r omdoor t o door . The r et ur ns wer e meager i n t he ext r eme.

[ I l l ust r at i on: ANDREWCARNEGI E AT SI XTEEN WI TH HI S BROTHER THOMAS]

As usual , my mot her came t o t he r escue. Ther e was no keepi ng her down.
I n her yout h she had l ear ned t o bi nd shoes i n her f at her ' s busi ness
f or pi n- money, and t he ski l l t hen acqui r ed was now t ur ned t o account
f or t he benef i t of t he f ami l y. Mr . Phi pps, f at her of my f r i end and
par t ner Mr . Henr y Phi pps, was, l i ke my gr andf at her , a mast er
shoemaker . He was our nei ghbor i n Al l egheny Ci t y. Wor k was obt ai ned
f r omhi m, and i n addi t i on t o at t endi ng t o her househol d dut i es- - f or ,
of cour se, we had no ser vant - - t hi s wonder f ul woman, my mot her , ear ned
f our dol l ar s a week by bi ndi ng shoes. Mi dni ght woul d of t en f i nd her at
wor k. I n t he i nt er val s dur i ng t he day and eveni ng, when househol d
car es woul d per mi t , and my young br ot her sat at her knee t hr eadi ng
needl es and waxi ng t he t hr ead f or her , she r eci t ed t o hi m, as she had
t o me, t he gems of Scot t i sh mi nst r el sy whi ch she seemed t o have by
hear t , or t ol d hi mt al es whi ch f ai l ed not t o cont ai n a mor al .

Thi s i s wher e t he chi l dr en of honest pover t y have t he most pr eci ous of
al l advant ages over t hose of weal t h. The mot her , nur se, cook,
gover ness, t eacher , sai nt , al l i n one; t he f at her , exempl ar , gui de,
counsel or , and f r i end! Thus wer e my br ot her and I br ought up. What has
t he chi l d of mi l l i onai r e or nobl eman t hat count s compar ed t o such a
her i t age?

My mot her was a busy woman, but al l her wor k di d not pr event her
nei ghbor s f r omsoon r ecogni zi ng her as a wi se and ki ndl y woman whom
t hey coul d cal l upon f or counsel or hel p i n t i mes of t r oubl e. Many
have t ol d me what my mot her di d f or t hem. So i t was i n af t er year s
wher ever we r esi ded; r i ch and poor came t o her wi t h t hei r t r i al s and
f ound good counsel . She t ower ed among her nei ghbor s wher ever she
went .



Page 22 of 222
CHAPTER III

PITTSBURGH AND WORK


The gr eat quest i on now was, what coul d be f ound f or me t o do. I had
j ust compl et ed my t hi r t eent h year , and I f ai r l y pant ed t o get t o wor k
t hat I mi ght hel p t he f ami l y t o a st ar t i n t he new l and. The pr ospect
of want had become t o me a f r i ght f ul ni ght mar e. My t hought s at t hi s
per i od cent er ed i n t he det er mi nat i on t hat we shoul d make and save
enough of money t o pr oduce t hr ee hundr ed dol l ar s a year - - t went y- f i ve
dol l ar s mont hl y, whi ch I f i gur ed was t he sumr equi r ed t o keep us
wi t hout bei ng dependent upon ot her s. Ever y necessar y t hi ng was ver y
cheap i n t hose days.

The br ot her of my Uncl e Hogan woul d of t en ask what my par ent s meant t o
do wi t h me, and one day t her e occur r ed t he most t r agi c of al l scenes I
have ever wi t nessed. Never can I f or get i t . He sai d, wi t h t he ki ndest
i nt ent i ons i n t he wor l d, t o my mot her , t hat I was a l i kel y boy and apt
t o l ear n; and he bel i eved t hat i f a basket wer e f i t t ed out f or me wi t h
kni ckknacks t o sel l , I coul d peddl e t hemar ound t he whar ves and make
qui t e a consi der abl e sum. I never knew what an enr aged woman meant
t i l l t hen. My mot her was si t t i ng sewi ng at t he moment , but she spr ang
t o her f eet wi t h out st r et ched hands and shook t hemi n hi s f ace.

" What ! my son a peddl er and go among r ough men upon t he whar ves! I
woul d r at her t hr ow hi mi nt o t he Al l egheny Ri ver . Leave me! " she cr i ed,
poi nt i ng t o t he door , and Mr . Hogan went .

She st ood a t r agi c queen. The next moment she had br oken down, but
onl y f or a f ew moment s di d t ear s f al l and sobs come. Then she t ook her
t wo boys i n her ar ms and t ol d us not t o mi nd her f ool i shness. Ther e
wer e many t hi ngs i n t he wor l d f or us t o do and we coul d be usef ul men,
honor ed and r espect ed, i f we al ways di d what was r i ght . I t was a
r epet i t i on of Hel en Macgr egor , i n her r epl y t o Osbal di st one i n whi ch
she t hr eat ened t o have her pr i soner s " chopped i nt o as many pi eces as
t her e ar e checks i n t he t ar t an. " But t he r eason f or t he out bur st was
di f f er ent . I t was not because t he occupat i on suggest ed was peacef ul
l abor , f or we wer e t aught t hat i dl eness was di sgr acef ul ; but because
t he suggest ed occupat i on was somewhat vagr ant i n char act er and not
ent i r el y r espect abl e i n her eyes. Bet t er deat h. Yes, mot her woul d have
t aken her t wo boys, one under each ar m, and per i shed wi t h t hemr at her
t han t hey shoul d mi ngl e wi t h l ow company i n t hei r ext r eme yout h.

As I l ook back upon t he ear l y st r uggl es t hi s can be sai d: t her e was
not a pr ouder f ami l y i n t he l and. A keen sense of honor , i ndependence,
sel f - r espect , per vaded t he househol d. Wal t er Scot t sai d of Bur ns t hat
he had t he most ext r aor di nar y eye he ever saw i n a human bei ng. I can
say as much f or my mot her . As Bur ns has i t :

" Her eye even t ur ned on empt y space,
Beamed keen wi t h honor . "

Anyt hi ng l ow, mean, decei t f ul , shi f t y, coar se, under hand, or gossi py
was f or ei gn t o t hat her oi c soul . Tomand I coul d not hel p gr owi ng up
r espect abl e char act er s, havi ng such a mot her and such a f at her , f or
Page 23 of 222
t he f at her , t oo, was one of nat ur e' s nobl emen, bel oved by al l , a
sai nt .

Soon af t er t hi s i nci dent my f at her f ound i t necessar y t o gi ve up
hand- l oomweavi ng and t o ent er t he cot t on f act or y of Mr . Bl ackst ock,
an ol d Scot sman i n Al l egheny Ci t y, wher e we l i ved. I n t hi s f act or y he
al so obt ai ned f or me a posi t i on as bobbi n boy, and my f i r st wor k was
done t her e at one dol l ar and t went y cent s per week. I t was a har d
l i f e. I n t he wi nt er f at her and I had t o r i se and br eakf ast i n t he
dar kness, r each t he f act or y bef or e i t was dayl i ght , and, wi t h a shor t
i nt er val f or l unch, wor k t i l l af t er dar k. The hour s hung heavi l y upon
me and i n t he wor k i t sel f I t ook no pl easur e; but t he cl oud had a
si l ver l i ni ng, as i t gave me t he f eel i ng t hat I was doi ng somet hi ng
f or my wor l d- - our f ami l y. I have made mi l l i ons si nce, but none of
t hose mi l l i ons gave me such happi ness as my f i r st week' s ear ni ngs. I
was now a hel per of t he f ami l y, a br eadwi nner , and no l onger a t ot al
char ge upon my par ent s. Of t en had I hear d my f at her ' s beaut i f ul
si ngi ng of " The Boat i e Rows" and of t en I l onged t o f ul f i l l t he l ast
l i nes of t he ver se:

" When Aal eck, J ock, and J eanet t i e,
_Ar e up and got t hei r l ai r _, [ 11]
They' l l ser ve t o gar t he boat i e r ow,
And l i cht en a' our car e. "

[ Foot not e 11: Educat i on. ]

I was goi ng t o make our t i ny cr af t ski m. I t shoul d be not ed her e t hat
Aal eck, J ock, and J eanet t i e wer e f i r st t o get t hei r educat i on.
Scot l and was t he f i r st count r y t hat r equi r ed al l par ent s, hi gh or l ow,
t o educat e t hei r chi l dr en, and est abl i shed t he par i sh publ i c school s.

Soon af t er t hi s Mr . J ohn Hay, a f el l ow- Scot ch manuf act ur er of bobbi ns
i n Al l egheny Ci t y, needed a boy, and asked whet her I woul d not go i nt o
hi s ser vi ce. I went , and r ecei ved t wo dol l ar s per week; but at f i r st
t he wor k was even mor e i r ksome t han t he f act or y. I had t o r un a smal l
st eam- engi ne and t o f i r e t he boi l er i n t he cel l ar of t he bobbi n
f act or y. I t was t oo much f or me. I f ound mysel f ni ght af t er ni ght ,
si t t i ng up i n bed t r yi ng t he st eamgauges, f ear i ng at one t i me t hat
t he st eamwas t oo l ow and t hat t he wor ker s above woul d compl ai n t hat
t hey had not power enough, and at anot her t i me t hat t he st eamwas t oo
hi gh and t hat t he boi l er mi ght bur st .

But al l t hi s i t was a mat t er of honor t o conceal f r ommy par ent s. They
had t hei r own t r oubl es and bor e t hem. I must pl ay t he man and bear
mi ne. My hopes wer e hi gh, and I l ooked ever y day f or some change t o
t ake pl ace. What i t was t o be I knew not , but t hat i t woul d come I
f el t cer t ai n i f I kept on. Besi des, at t hi s dat e I was not beyond
aski ng mysel f what Wal l ace woul d have done and what a Scot sman ought
t o do. Of one t hi ng I was sur e, he ought never t o gi ve up.

One day t he chance came. Mr . Hay had t o make out some bi l l s. He had no
cl er k, and was hi msel f a poor penman. He asked me what ki nd of hand I
coul d wr i t e, and gave me some wr i t i ng t o do. The r esul t pl eased hi m,
and he f ound i t conveni ent t her eaf t er t o l et me make out hi s bi l l s. I
was al so good at f i gur es; and he soon f ound i t t o be t o hi s
i nt er est - - and besi des, dear ol d man, I bel i eve he was moved by good
Page 24 of 222
f eel i ng t owar d t he whi t e- hai r ed boy, f or he had a ki nd hear t and was
Scot ch and wi shed t o r el i eve me f r omt he engi ne- - t o put me at ot her
t hi ngs, l ess obj ect i onabl e except i n one f eat ur e.

I t now became my dut y t o bat he t he newl y made spool s i n vat s of oi l .
For t unat el y t her e was a r oomr eser ved f or t hi s pur pose and I was
al one, but not al l t he r esol ut i on I coul d must er , nor al l t he
i ndi gnat i on I f el t at my own weakness, pr event ed my st omach f r om
behavi ng i n a most per ver se way. I never succeeded i n over comi ng t he
nausea pr oduced by t he smel l of t he oi l . Even Wal l ace and Br uce pr oved
i mpot ent her e. But i f I had t o l ose br eakf ast , or di nner , I had al l
t he bet t er appet i t e f or supper , and t he al l ot t ed wor k was done. A r eal
di sci pl e of Wal l ace or Br uce coul d not gi ve up; he woul d di e f i r st .

My ser vi ce wi t h Mr . Hay was a di st i nct advance upon t he cot t on
f act or y, and I al so made t he acquai nt ance of an empl oyer who was ver y
ki nd t o me. Mr . Hay kept hi s books i n si ngl e ent r y, and I was abl e t o
handl e t hemf or hi m; but hear i ng t hat al l gr eat f i r ms kept t hei r books
i n doubl e ent r y, and af t er t al ki ng over t he mat t er wi t h my compani ons,
J ohn Phi pps, Thomas N. Mi l l er , and Wi l l i amCowl ey, we al l det er mi ned
t o at t end ni ght school dur i ng t he wi nt er and l ear n t he l ar ger syst em.
So t he f our of us went t o a Mr . Wi l l i ams i n Pi t t sbur gh and l ear ned
doubl e- ent r y bookkeepi ng.

One eveni ng, ear l y i n 1850, when I r et ur ned home f r omwor k, I was t ol d
t hat Mr . Davi d Br ooks, manager of t he t el egr aph of f i ce, had asked my
Uncl e Hogan i f he knew wher e a good boy coul d be f ound t o act as
messenger . Mr . Br ooks and my uncl e wer e ent husi ast i c dr aught - pl ayer s,
and i t was over a game of dr aught s t hat t hi s i mpor t ant i nqui r y was
made. Upon such t r i f l es do t he most moment ous consequences hang. A
wor d, a l ook, an accent , may af f ect t he dest i ny not onl y of
i ndi vi dual s, but of nat i ons. He i s a bol d man who cal l s anyt hi ng a
t r i f l e. Who was i t who, bei ng advi sed t o di sr egar d t r i f l es, sai d he
al ways woul d i f any one coul d t el l hi mwhat a t r i f l e was? The young
shoul d r emember t hat upon t r i f l es t he best gi f t s of t he gods of t en
hang.

My uncl e ment i oned my name, and sai d he woul d see whet her I woul d t ake
t he posi t i on. I r emember so wel l t he f ami l y counci l t hat was hel d. Of
cour se I was wi l d wi t h del i ght . No bi r d t hat ever was conf i ned i n a
cage l onged f or f r eedommor e t han I . Mot her f avor ed, but f at her was
di sposed t o deny my wi sh. I t woul d pr ove t oo much f or me, he sai d; I
was t oo young and t oo smal l . For t he t wo dol l ar s and a hal f per week
of f er ed i t was evi dent t hat a much l ar ger boy was expect ed. Lat e at
ni ght I mi ght be r equi r ed t o r un out i nt o t he count r y wi t h a t el egr am,
and t her e woul d be danger s t o encount er . Upon t he whol e my f at her sai d
t hat i t was best t hat I shoul d r emai n wher e I was. He subsequent l y
wi t hdr ew hi s obj ect i on, so f ar as t o gi ve me l eave t o t r y, and I
bel i eve he went t o Mr . Hay and consul t ed wi t h hi m. Mr . Hay t hought i t
woul d be f or my advant age, and al t hough, as he sai d, i t woul d be an
i nconveni ence t o hi m, st i l l he advi sed t hat I shoul d t r y, and i f I
f ai l ed he was ki nd enough t o say t hat my ol d pl ace woul d be open f or
me.

Thi s bei ng deci ded, I was asked t o go over t he r i ver t o Pi t t sbur gh and
cal l on Mr . Br ooks. My f at her wi shed t o go wi t h me, and i t was set t l ed
t hat he shoul d accompany me as f ar as t he t el egr aph of f i ce, on t he
Page 25 of 222
cor ner of Four t h and Wood St r eet s. I t was a br i ght , sunshi ny mor ni ng
and t hi s augur ed wel l . Fat her and I wal ked over f r omAl l egheny t o
Pi t t sbur gh, a di st ance of near l y t wo mi l es f r omour house. Ar r i ved at
t he door I asked f at her t o wai t out si de. I i nsi st ed upon goi ng al one
upst ai r s t o t he second or oper at i ng f l oor t o see t he gr eat man and
l ear n my f at e. I was l ed t o t hi s, per haps, because I had by t hat t i me
begun t o consi der mysel f somet hi ng of an Amer i can. At f i r st boys used
t o cal l me " Scot chi e! Scot chi e! " and I answer ed, " Yes, I ' mScot ch and
I ampr oud of t he name. " But i n speech and i n addr ess t he br oad Scot ch
had been wor n of f t o a sl i ght ext ent , and I i magi ned t hat I coul d
make a smar t er showi ng i f al one wi t h Mr . Br ooks t han i f my good ol d
Scot ch f at her wer e pr esent , per haps t o smi l e at my ai r s.

I was dr essed i n my one whi t e l i nen shi r t , whi ch was usual l y kept
sacr ed f or t he Sabbat h day, my bl ue r ound- about , and my whol e Sunday
sui t . I had at t hat t i me, and f or a f ew weeks af t er I ent er ed t he
t el egr aph ser vi ce, but one l i nen sui t of summer cl ot hi ng; and ever y
Sat ur day ni ght , no mat t er i f t hat was my ni ght on dut y and I di d not
r et ur n t i l l near mi dni ght , my mot her washed t hose cl ot hes and i r oned
t hem, and I put t hemon f r esh on Sabbat h mor ni ng. Ther e was not hi ng
t hat her oi ne di d not do i n t he st r uggl e we wer e maki ng f or el bow r oom
i n t he west er n wor l d. Fat her ' s l ong f act or y hour s t r i ed hi s st r engt h,
but he, t oo, f ought t he good f i ght l i ke a her o and never f ai l ed t o
encour age me.

The i nt er vi ew was successf ul . I t ook car e t o expl ai n t hat I di d not
know Pi t t sbur gh, t hat per haps I woul d not do, woul d not be st r ong
enough; but al l I want ed was a t r i al . He asked me how soon I coul d
come, and I sai d t hat I coul d st ay now i f want ed. And, l ooki ng back
over t he ci r cumst ance, I t hi nk t hat answer mi ght wel l be ponder ed by
young men. I t i s a gr eat mi st ake not t o sei ze t he oppor t uni t y. The
posi t i on was of f er ed t o me; somet hi ng mi ght occur , some ot her boy
mi ght be sent f or . Havi ng got mysel f i n I pr oposed t o st ay t her e i f I
coul d. Mr . Br ooks ver y ki ndl y cal l ed t he ot her boy- - f or i t was an
addi t i onal messenger t hat was want ed- - and asked hi mt o show me about ,
and l et me go wi t h hi mand l ear n t he busi ness. I soon f ound
oppor t uni t y t o r un down t o t he cor ner of t he st r eet and t el l my f at her
t hat i t was al l r i ght , and t o go home and t el l mot her t hat I had got
t he si t uat i on.

[ I l l ust r at i on: DAVI D McCARGO]

And t hat i s how i n 1850 I got my f i r st r eal st ar t i n l i f e. Fr omt he
dar k cel l ar r unni ng a st eam- engi ne at t wo dol l ar s a week, begr i med
wi t h coal di r t , wi t hout a t r ace of t he el evat i ng i nf l uences of l i f e, I
was l i f t ed i nt o par adi se, yes, heaven, as i t seemed t o me, wi t h
newspaper s, pens, penci l s, and sunshi ne about me. Ther e was scar cel y a
mi nut e i n whi ch I coul d not l ear n somet hi ng or f i nd out how much t her e
was t o l ear n and how l i t t l e I knew. I f el t t hat my f oot was upon t he
l adder and t hat I was bound t o cl i mb.

I had onl y one f ear , and t hat was t hat I coul d not l ear n qui ckl y
enough t he addr esses of t he var i ous busi ness houses t o whi ch messages
had t o be del i ver ed. I t her ef or e began t o not e t he si gns of t hese
houses up one si de of t he st r eet and down t he ot her . At ni ght I
exer ci sed my memor y by nami ng i n successi on t he var i ous f i r ms. Bef or e
l ong I coul d shut my eyes and, begi nni ng at t he f oot of a busi ness
Page 26 of 222
st r eet , cal l of f t he names of t he f i r ms i n pr oper or der al ong one si de
t o t he t op of t he st r eet , t hen cr ossi ng on t he ot her si de go down i n
r egul ar or der t o t he f oot agai n.

The next st ep was t o know t he men t hemsel ves, f or i t gave a messenger
a gr eat advant age, and of t en saved a l ong j our ney, i f he knew member s
or empl oyees of f i r ms. He mi ght meet one of t hese goi ng di r ect t o hi s
of f i ce. I t was r eckoned a gr eat t r i umph among t he boys t o del i ver a
message upon t he st r eet . And t her e was t he addi t i onal sat i sf act i on t o
t he boy hi msel f , t hat a gr eat man ( and most men ar e gr eat t o
messenger s) , st opped upon t he st r eet i n t hi s way, sel domf ai l ed t o
not e t he boy and compl i ment hi m.

The Pi t t sbur gh of 1850 was ver y di f f er ent f r omwhat i t has si nce
become. I t had not yet r ecover ed f r omt he gr eat f i r e whi ch dest r oyed
t he ent i r e busi ness por t i on of t he ci t y on Apr i l 10, 1845. The houses
wer e mai nl y of wood, a f ew onl y wer e of br i ck, and not one was
f i r e- pr oof . The ent i r e popul at i on i n and ar ound Pi t t sbur gh was not
over f or t y t housand. The busi ness por t i on of t he ci t y di d not ext end
as f ar as Fi f t h Avenue, whi ch was t hen a ver y qui et st r eet , r emar kabl e
onl y f or havi ng t he t heat er upon i t . Feder al St r eet , Al l egheny,
consi st ed of st r aggl i ng busi ness houses wi t h gr eat open spaces bet ween
t hem, and I r emember skat i ng upon ponds i n t he ver y hear t of t he
pr esent Fi f t h War d. The si t e of our Uni on I r on Mi l l s was t hen, and
many year s l at er , a cabbage gar den.

Gener al Robi nson, t o whomI del i ver ed many a t el egr aph message, was
t he f i r st whi t e chi l d bor n west of t he Ohi o Ri ver . I saw t he f i r st
t el egr aph l i ne st r et ched f r omt he east i nt o t he ci t y; and, at a l at er
dat e, I al so saw t he f i r st l ocomot i ve, f or t he Ohi o and Pennsyl vani a
Rai l r oad, br ought by canal f r omPhi l adel phi a and unl oaded f r oma scow
i n Al l egheny Ci t y. Ther e was no di r ect r ai l way communi cat i on t o t he
East . Passenger s t ook t he canal t o t he f oot of t he Al l egheny
Mount ai ns, over whi ch t hey wer e t r anspor t ed t o Hol l i daysbur g, a
di st ance of t hi r t y mi l es by r ai l ; t hence by canal agai n t o Col umbi a,
and t hen ei ght y- one mi l es by r ai l t o Phi l adel phi a- - a j our ney whi ch
occupi ed t hr ee days. [ 12]

[ Foot not e 12: " Beyond Phi l adel phi a was t he Camden and Amboy Rai l way;
beyond Pi t t sbur gh, t he For t Wayne and Chi cago, separ at e or gani zat i ons
wi t h whi ch we had not hi ng t o do. " ( _Pr obl ems of To- day_, by Andr ew
Car negi e, p. 187. New Yor k, 1908. ) ]

The gr eat event of t he day i n Pi t t sbur gh at t hat t i me was t he ar r i val
and depar t ur e of t he st eampacket t o and f r omCi nci nnat i , f or dai l y
communi cat i on had been est abl i shed. The busi ness of t he ci t y was
l ar gel y t hat of f or war di ng mer chandi se East and West , f or i t was t he
gr eat t r ansf er st at i on f r omr i ver t o canal . A r ol l i ng mi l l had begun
t o r ol l i r on; but not a t on of pi g met al was made, and not a t on of
st eel f or many a year t her eaf t er . The pi g i r on manuf act ur e at f i r st
was a t ot al f ai l ur e because of t he l ack of pr oper f uel , al t hough t he
most val uabl e deposi t of coki ng coal i n t he wor l d l ay wi t hi n a f ew
mi l es, as much undr eamt of f or coke t o smel t i r onst one as t he st or es
of nat ur al gas whi ch had f or ages l ai n unt ouched under t he ci t y.

Ther e wer e at t hat t i me not hal f a dozen " car r i age" peopl e i n t he
t own; and not f or many year s af t er was t he at t empt made t o i nt r oduce
Page 27 of 222
l i ver y, even f or a coachman. As l at e as 1861, per haps, t he most
not abl e f i nanci al event whi ch had occur r ed i n t he annal s of Pi t t sbur gh
was t he r et i r ement f r ombusi ness of Mr . Fahnest ock wi t h t he enor mous
sumof $174, 000, pai d by hi s par t ner s f or hi s i nt er est . How gr eat a
sumt hat seemed t hen and how t r i f l i ng now!

My posi t i on as messenger boy soon made me acquai nt ed wi t h t he f ew
l eadi ng men of t he ci t y. The bar of Pi t t sbur gh was di st i ngui shed.
J udge Wi l ki ns was at i t s head, and he and J udge MacCandl ess, J udge
McCl ur e, Char l es Shal er and hi s par t ner , Edwi n M. St ant on, af t er war ds
t he gr eat War Secr et ar y ( " Li ncol n' s r i ght - hand man" ) wer e al l wel l
known t o me- - t he l ast - named especi al l y, f or he was good enough t o t ake
not i ce of me as a boy. I n busi ness ci r cl es among pr omi nent men who
st i l l sur vi ve, Thomas M. Howe, J ames Par k, C. G. Hussey, Benj ami n F.
J ones, Wi l l i amThaw, J ohn Chal f ant , Col onel Her r on wer e gr eat men t o
whomt he messenger boys l ooked as model s, and not bad model s ei t her ,
as t hei r l i ves pr oved. [ Al as! al l dead as I r evi se t hi s par agr aph i n
1906, so st eadi l y moves t he sol emn pr ocessi on. ]

My l i f e as a t el egr aph messenger was i n ever y r espect a happy one,
and i t was whi l e i n t hi s posi t i on t hat I l ai d t he f oundat i on of my
cl osest f r i endshi ps. The seni or messenger boy bei ng pr omot ed, a new
boy was needed, and he came i n t he per son of Davi d McCar go, af t er war ds
t he wel l - known super i nt endent of t he Al l egheny Val l ey Rai l way. He was
made my compani on and we had t o del i ver al l t he messages f r omt he
East er n l i ne, whi l e t wo ot her boys del i ver ed t he messages f r omt he
West . The East er n and West er n Tel egr aph Compani es wer e t hen separ at e,
al t hough occupyi ng t he same bui l di ng. " Davy" and I became f i r mf r i ends
at once, one gr eat bond bei ng t hat he was Scot ch; f or , al t hough " Davy"
was bor n i n Amer i ca, hi s f at her was qui t e as much a Scot sman, even i n
speech, as my own f at her .

A shor t t i me af t er " Davy' s" appoi nt ment a t hi r d boy was r equi r ed, and
t hi s t i me I was asked i f I coul d f i nd a sui t abl e one. Thi s I had no
di f f i cul t y i n doi ng i n my chum, Rober t Pi t cai r n, l at er on my successor
as super i nt endent and gener al agent at Pi t t sbur gh of t he Pennsyl vani a
Rai l r oad. Rober t , l i ke mysel f , was not onl y Scot ch, but Scot ch- bor n,
so t hat " Davy, " " Bob, " and " Andy" became t he t hr ee Scot ch boys who
del i ver ed al l t he messages of t he East er n Tel egr aph Li ne i n
Pi t t sbur gh, f or t he t hen magni f i cent sal ar y of t wo and a hal f dol l ar s
per week. I t was t he dut y of t he boys t o sweep t he of f i ce each
mor ni ng, and t hi s we di d i n t ur n, so i t wi l l be seen t hat we al l began
at t he bot t om. Hon. H. W. Ol i ver , [ 13] head of t he gr eat manuf act ur i ng
f i r mof Ol i ver Br ot her s, and W. C. Mor l and, [ 14] Ci t y Sol i ci t or ,
subsequent l y j oi ned t he cor ps and st ar t ed i n t he same f ashi on. I t i s
not t he r i ch man' s son t hat t he young st r uggl er f or advancement has t o
f ear i n t he r ace of l i f e, nor hi s nephew, nor hi s cousi n. Let hi ml ook
out f or t he " dar k hor se" i n t he boy who begi ns by sweepi ng out t he
of f i ce.

[ Foot not e 13: Di ed 1904. ]

[ Foot not e 14: Di ed 1889. ]

[ I l l ust r at i on: ROBERT PI TCAI RN]

A messenger boy i n t hose days had many pl easur es. Ther e wer e whol esal e
Page 28 of 222
f r ui t st or es, wher e a pocket f ul of appl es was somet i mes t o be had f or
t he pr ompt del i ver y of a message; baker s' and conf ect i oner s' shops,
wher e sweet cakes wer e somet i mes gi ven t o hi m. He met wi t h ver y ki nd
men, t o whomhe l ooked up wi t h r espect ; t hey spoke a pl easant wor d and
compl i ment ed hi mon hi s pr ompt ness, per haps asked hi mt o del i ver a
message on t he way back t o t he of f i ce. I do not know a si t uat i on i n
whi ch a boy i s mor e apt t o at t r act at t ent i on, whi ch i s al l a r eal l y
cl ever boy r equi r es i n or der t o r i se. Wi se men ar e al ways l ooki ng out
f or cl ever boys.

One gr eat exci t ement of t hi s l i f e was t he ext r a char ge of t en cent s
whi ch we wer e per mi t t ed t o col l ect f or messages del i ver ed beyond a
cer t ai n l i mi t . These " di me messages, " as mi ght be expect ed, wer e
anxi ousl y wat ched, and quar r el s ar ose among us as t o t he r i ght of
del i ver y. I n some cases i t was al l eged boys had now and t hen t aken a
di me message out of t ur n. Thi s was t he onl y cause of ser i ous t r oubl e
among us. By way of set t l ement I pr oposed t hat we shoul d " pool " t hese
messages and di vi de t he cash equal l y at t he end of each week. I was
appoi nt ed t r easur er . Peace and good- humor r ei gned ever af t er war ds.
Thi s pool i ng of ext r a ear ni ngs not bei ng i nt ended t o cr eat e ar t i f i ci al
pr i ces was r eal l y coper at i on. I t was my f i r st essay i n f i nanci al
or gani zat i on.

The boys consi der ed t hat t hey had a per f ect r i ght t o spend t hese
di vi dends, and t he adj oi ni ng conf ect i oner ' s shop had r unni ng account s
wi t h most of t hem. The account s wer e somet i mes gr eat l y over dr awn. The
t r easur er had accor di ngl y t o not i f y t he conf ect i oner , whi ch he di d i n
due f or m, t hat he woul d not be r esponsi bl e f or any debt s cont r act ed by
t he t oo hungr y and gr eedy boys. Rober t Pi t cai r n was t he wor st of f ender
of al l , appar ent l y havi ng not onl y one sweet t oot h, but al l hi s t eet h
of t hat char act er . He expl ai ned t o me conf i dent i al l y one day, when I
scol ded hi m, t hat he had l i ve t hi ngs i n hi s st omach t hat gnawed hi s
i nsi des unt i l f ed upon sweet s.


Page 29 of 222
CHAPTER IV

COLONEL ANDERSON AND BOOKS


Wi t h al l t hei r pl easur es t he messenger boys wer e har d wor ked. Ever y
ot her eveni ng t hey wer e r equi r ed t o be on dut y unt i l t he of f i ce
cl osed, and on t hese ni ght s i t was sel domt hat I r eached home bef or e
el even o' cl ock. On t he al t er nat i ng ni ght s we wer e r el i eved at si x.
Thi s di d not l eave much t i me f or sel f - i mpr ovement , nor di d t he want s
of t he f ami l y l eave any money t o spend on books. Ther e came, however ,
l i ke a bl essi ng f r omabove, a means by whi ch t he t r easur es of
l i t er at ur e wer e unf ol ded t o me.

Col onel J ames Ander son- - I bl ess hi s name as I wr i t e- - announced t hat he
woul d open hi s l i br ar y of f our hundr ed vol umes t o boys, so t hat any
young man coul d t ake out , each Sat ur day af t er noon, a book whi ch coul d
be exchanged f or anot her on t he succeedi ng Sat ur day. My f r i end, Mr .
Thomas N. Mi l l er , r emi nded me r ecent l y t hat Col onel Ander son' s books
wer e f i r st opened t o " wor ki ng boys, " and t he quest i on ar ose whet her
messenger boys, cl er ks, and ot her s, who di d not wor k wi t h t hei r hands,
wer e ent i t l ed t o books. My f i r st communi cat i on t o t he pr ess was a
not e, wr i t t en t o t he " Pi t t sbur gh Di spat ch, " ur gi ng t hat we shoul d not
be excl uded; t hat al t hough we di d not now wor k wi t h our hands, some of
us had done so, and t hat we wer e r eal l y wor ki ng boys. [ 15] Dear Col onel
Ander son pr ompt l y enl ar ged t he cl assi f i cat i on. So my f i r st appear ance
as a publ i c wr i t er was a success.

[ Foot not e 15: The not e was si gned " Wor ki ng Boy. " The l i br ar i an
r esponded i n t he col umns of t he _Di spat ch_ def endi ng t he r ul es, whi ch
he cl ai med meant t hat " a Wor ki ng Boy shoul d have a t r ade. " Car negi e' s
r ej oi nder was si gned " A Wor ki ng Boy, t hough wi t hout a Tr ade, " and a
day or t wo t her eaf t er t he _Di spat ch_ had an i t emon i t s edi t or i al page
whi ch r ead: " Wi l l ' a Wor ki ng Boy wi t hout a Tr ade' pl ease cal l at t hi s
of f i ce. " ( Davi d Homer Bat es i n _Cent ur y Magazi ne_, J ul y, 1908. ) ]

My dear f r i end, TomMi l l er , one of t he i nner ci r cl e, l i ved near
Col onel Ander son and i nt r oduced me t o hi m, and i n t hi s way t he wi ndows
wer e opened i n t he wal l s of my dungeon t hr ough whi ch t he l i ght of
knowl edge st r eamed i n. Ever y day' s t oi l and even t he l ong hour s of
ni ght ser vi ce wer e l i ght ened by t he book whi ch I car r i ed about wi t h me
and r ead i n t he i nt er val s t hat coul d be snat ched f r omdut y. And t he
f ut ur e was made br i ght by t he t hought t hat when Sat ur day came a new
vol ume coul d be obt ai ned. I n t hi s way I became f ami l i ar wi t h
Macaul ay' s essays and hi s hi st or y, and wi t h Bancr of t ' s " Hi st or y of t he
Uni t ed St at es, " whi ch I st udi ed wi t h mor e car e t han any ot her book I
had t hen r ead. Lamb' s essays wer e my speci al del i ght , but I had at
t hi s t i me no knowl edge of t he gr eat mast er of al l , Shakespear e, beyond
t he sel ect ed pi eces i n t he school books. My t ast e f or hi mI acqui r ed a
l i t t l e l at er at t he ol d Pi t t sbur gh Theat er .

J ohn Phi pps, J ames R. Wi l son, Thomas N. Mi l l er , Wi l l i am
Cowl ey- - member s of our ci r cl e- - shar ed wi t h me t he i nval uabl e pr i vi l ege
of t he use of Col onel Ander son' s l i br ar y. Books whi ch i t woul d have
been i mpossi bl e f or me t o obt ai n el sewher e wer e, by hi s wi se
gener osi t y, pl aced wi t hi n my r each; and t o hi mI owe a t ast e f or
Page 30 of 222
l i t er at ur e whi ch I woul d not exchange f or al l t he mi l l i ons t hat wer e
ever amassed by man. Li f e woul d be qui t e i nt ol er abl e wi t hout i t .
Not hi ng cont r i but ed so much t o keep my compani ons and mysel f cl ear of
l ow f el l owshi p and bad habi t s as t he benef i cence of t he good
Col onel . Lat er , when f or t une smi l ed upon me, one of my f i r st dut i es
was t he er ect i on of a monument t o my benef act or . I t st ands i n f r ont of
t he Hal l and Li br ar y i n Di amond Squar e, whi ch I pr esent ed t o
Al l egheny, and bear s t hi s i nscr i pt i on:

To Col onel J ames Ander son, Founder of Fr ee Li br ar i es i n
West er n Pennsyl vani a. He opened hi s Li br ar y t o wor ki ng boys
and upon Sat ur day af t er noons act ed as l i br ar i an, t hus
dedi cat i ng not onl y hi s books but hi msel f t o t he nobl e wor k.
Thi s monument i s er ect ed i n gr at ef ul r emembr ance by Andr ew
Car negi e, one of t he " wor ki ng boys" t o whomwer e t hus opened
t he pr eci ous t r easur es of knowl edge and i magi nat i on t hr ough
whi ch yout h may ascend.

[ I l l ust r at i on: COLONEL J AMES ANDERSON]

Thi s i s but a sl i ght t r i but e and gi ves onl y a f ai nt i dea of t he dept h
of gr at i t ude whi ch I f eel f or what he di d f or me and my compani ons. I t
was f r ommy own ear l y exper i ence t hat I deci ded t her e was no use t o
whi ch money coul d be appl i ed so pr oduct i ve of good t o boys and gi r l s
who have good wi t hi n t hemand abi l i t y and ambi t i on t o devel op i t , as
t he f oundi ng of a publ i c l i br ar y i n a communi t y whi ch i s wi l l i ng t o
suppor t i t as a muni ci pal i nst i t ut i on. I amsur e t hat t he f ut ur e of
t hose l i br ar i es I have been pr i vi l eged t o f ound wi l l pr ove t he
cor r ect ness of t hi s opi ni on. For i f one boy i n each l i br ar y di st r i ct ,
by havi ng access t o one of t hese l i br ar i es, i s hal f as much benef i t ed
as I was by havi ng access t o Col onel Ander son' s f our hundr ed wel l - wor n
vol umes, I shal l consi der t hey have not been est abl i shed i n vai n.

" As t he t wi g i s bent t he t r ee' s i ncl i ned. " The t r easur es of t he wor l d
whi ch books cont ai n wer e opened t o me at t he r i ght moment . The
f undament al advant age of a l i br ar y i s t hat i t gi ves not hi ng f or
not hi ng. Yout hs must acqui r e knowl edge t hemsel ves. Ther e i s no escape
f r omt hi s. I t gave me gr eat sat i sf act i on t o di scover , many year s
l at er , t hat my f at her was one of t he f i ve weaver s i n Dunf er ml i ne who
gat her ed t oget her t he f ew books t hey had and f or med t he f i r st
ci r cul at i ng l i br ar y i n t hat t own.

The hi st or y of t hat l i br ar y i s i nt er est i ng. I t gr ew, and was r emoved
no l ess t han seven t i mes f r ompl ace t o pl ace, t he f i r st move bei ng
made by t he f ounder s, who car r i ed t he books i n t hei r apr ons and t wo
coal scut t l es f r omt he hand- l oomshop t o t he second r est i ng- pl ace.
That my f at her was one of t he f ounder s of t he f i r st l i br ar y i n hi s
nat i ve t own, and t hat I have been f or t unat e enough t o be t he f ounder
of t he l ast one, i s cer t ai nl y t o me one of t he most i nt er est i ng
i nci dent s of my l i f e. I have sai d of t en, i n publ i c speeches, t hat I
had never hear d of a l i neage f or whi ch I woul d exchange t hat of a
l i br ar y- f oundi ng weaver . [ 16] I f ol l owed my f at her i n l i br ar y f oundi ng
unknowi ngl y- - I amt empt ed al most t o say pr ovi dent i al l y- - and i t has
been a sour ce of i nt ense sat i sf act i on t o me. Such a f at her as mi ne was
a gui de t o be f ol l owed- - one of t he sweet est , pur est , and ki ndest
nat ur es I have ever known.

Page 31 of 222
[ Foot not e 16: " I t ' s a God' s mer cy we ar e al l f r omhonest weaver s; l et
us pi t y t hose who haven' t ancest or s of whomt hey can be pr oud, dukes
or duchesses t hough t hey be. " ( _Our Coachi ng Tr i p_, by Andr ew
Car negi e. New Yor k, 1882. ) ]

I have st at ed t hat i t was t he t heat er whi ch f i r st st i mul at ed my l ove
f or Shakespear e. I n my messenger days t he ol d Pi t t sbur gh Theat er was
i n i t s gl or y under t he char ge of Mr . Fost er . Hi s t el egr aphi c busi ness
was done f r ee, and t he t el egr aph oper at or s wer e gi ven f r ee admi ssi on
t o t he t heat er i n r et ur n. Thi s pr i vi l ege ext ended i n some degr ee al so
t o t he messenger s, who, I f ear , somet i mes wi t hhel d t el egr ams t hat
ar r i ved f or hi mi n t he l at e af t er noon unt i l t hey coul d be pr esent ed
at t he door of t he t heat er i n t he eveni ng, wi t h t he t i mi d r equest
t hat t he messenger mi ght be al l owed t o sl i p upst ai r s t o t he second
t i er - - a r equest whi ch was al ways gr ant ed. The boys exchanged dut i es t o
gi ve each t he covet ed ent r ance i n t ur n.

I n t hi s way I became acquai nt ed wi t h t he wor l d t hat l ay behi nd t he
gr een cur t ai n. The pl ays, gener al l y, wer e of t he spect acul ar or der ;
wi t hout much l i t er ar y mer i t , but wel l cal cul at ed t o dazzl e t he eye of
a yout h of f i f t een. Not onl y had I never seen anyt hi ng so gr and, but I
had never seen anyt hi ng of t he ki nd. I had never been i n a t heat er , or
even a concer t r oom, or seen any f or mof publ i c amusement . I t was much
t he same wi t h " Davy" McCar go, " Har r y" Ol i ver , and " Bob" Pi t cai r n. We
al l f el l under t he f asci nat i on of t he f oot l i ght s, and ever y
oppor t uni t y t o at t end t he t heat er was eager l y embr aced.

A change i n my t ast es came when " Gust " Adams, [ 17] one of t he most
cel ebr at ed t r agedi ans of t he day, began t o pl ay i n Pi t t sbur gh a r ound
of Shakespear ean char act er s. Thencef or t h t her e was not hi ng f or me but
Shakespear e. I seemed t o be abl e t o memor i ze hi mal most wi t hout
ef f or t . Never bef or e had I r eal i zed what magi c l ay i n wor ds. The
r hyt hmand t he mel ody al l seemed t o f i nd a r est i ng- pl ace i n me, t o
mel t i nt o a sol i d mass whi ch l ay r eady t o come at cal l . I t was a new
l anguage and i t s appr eci at i on I cer t ai nl y owe t o dr amat i c
r epr esent at i on, f or , unt i l I saw " Macbet h" pl ayed, my i nt er est i n
Shakespear e was not ar oused. I had not r ead t he pl ays.

[ Foot not e 17: Edwi n Adams. ]

At a much l at er dat e, Wagner was r eveal ed t o me i n " Lohengr i n. " I had
hear d at t he Academy of Musi c i n New Yor k, l i t t l e or not hi ng by hi m
when t he over t ur e t o " Lohengr i n" t hr i l l ed me as a new r evel at i on.
Her e was a geni us, i ndeed, di f f er i ng f r omal l bef or e, a new l adder
upon whi ch t o cl i mb upwar d- - l i ke Shakespear e, a new f r i end.

I may speak her e of anot her mat t er whi ch bel ongs t o t hi s same per i od.
A f ew per sons i n Al l egheny- - pr obabl y not above a hundr ed i n al l - - had
f or med t hemsel ves i nt o a Swedenbor gi an Soci et y, i n whi ch our Amer i can
r el at i ves wer e pr omi nent . My f at her at t ended t hat chur ch af t er l eavi ng
t he Pr esbyt er i an, and, of cour se, I was t aken t her e. My mot her ,
however , t ook no i nt er est i n Swedenbor g. Al t hough al ways i ncul cat i ng
r espect f or al l f or ms of r el i gi on, and di scour agi ng t heol ogi cal
di sput es, she mai nt ai ned f or her sel f a mar ked r eser ve. Her posi t i on
mi ght best be def i ned by t he cel ebr at ed maxi mof Conf uci us: " To
per f or mt he dut i es of t hi s l i f e wel l , t r oubl i ng not about anot her , i s
t he pr i me wi sdom. "
Page 32 of 222

She encour aged her boys t o at t end chur ch and Sunday school ; but t her e
was no di f f i cul t y i n seei ng t hat t he wr i t i ngs of Swedenbor g, and much
of t he Ol d and New Test ament s had been di scr edi t ed by her as unwor t hy
of di vi ne aut hor shi p or of accept ance as aut hor i t at i ve gui des f or t he
conduct of l i f e. I became deepl y i nt er est ed i n t he myst er i ous
doct r i nes of Swedenbor g, and r ecei ved t he congr at ul at i ons of my devout
Aunt Ai t ken upon my abi l i t y t o expound " spi r i t ual sense. " That dear
ol d woman f ondl y l ooked f or war d t o a t i me when I shoul d become a
shi ni ng l i ght i n t he New J er usal em, and I know i t was somet i mes not
beyond t he bounds of her i magi nat i on t hat I mi ght bl ossomi nt o what
she cal l ed a " pr eacher of t he Wor d. "

As I mor e and mor e wander ed f r omman- made t heol ogy t hese f ond hopes
weakened, but my aunt ' s i nt er est i n and af f ect i on f or her f i r st
nephew, whomshe had dandl ed on her knee i n Scot l and, never waned. My
cousi n, Leander Mor r i s, whomshe had some hopes of savi ng t hr ough t he
Swedenbor gi an r evel at i on, gr i evousl y di sappoi nt ed her by act ual l y
becomi ng a Bapt i st and bei ng di pped. Thi s was t oo much f or t he
evangel i st , al t hough she shoul d have r emember ed her f at her passed
t hr ough t hat same exper i ence and of t en pr eached f or t he Bapt i st s i n
Edi nbur gh.

Leander ' s r ecept i on upon hi s f i r st cal l af t er hi s f al l was f ar f r om
cor di al . He was made awar e t hat t he f ami l y r ecor d had suf f er ed by hi s
backsl i di ng when at t he ver y por t al s of t he New J er usal emr eveal ed by
Swedenbor g and pr esent ed t o hi mby one of t he f or emost di sci pl es- - hi s
aunt . He began depr ecat i ngl y:

" Why ar e you so har d on me, aunt ? Look at Andy, he i s not a member of
any chur ch and you don' t scol d hi m. Sur el y t he Bapt i st Chur ch i s
bet t er t han none. "

The qui ck r epl y came:

" Andy! Oh! Andy, he' s naked, but you ar e cl ot hed i n r ags. "

He never qui t e r egai ned hi s st andi ng wi t h dear Aunt Ai t ken. I mi ght
yet be r ef or med, bei ng unat t ached; but Leander had chosen a sect and
t hat sect not of t he New J er usal em.

I t was i n connect i on wi t h t he Swedenbor gi an Soci et y t hat a t ast e f or
musi c was f i r st ar oused i n me. As an appendi x t o t he hymn- book of t he
soci et y t her e wer e shor t sel ect i ons f r omt he or at or i os. I f ast ened
i nst i nct i vel y upon t hese, and al t hough deni ed much of a voi ce, yet
cr edi t ed wi t h " expr essi on, " I was a const ant at t endant upon choi r
pr act i ce. The l eader , Mr . Koet hen, I have r eason t o bel i eve, of t en
par doned t he di scor ds I pr oduced i n t he choi r because of my ent husi asm
i n t he cause. When, at a l at er dat e, I became acquai nt ed wi t h t he
or at or i os i n f ul l , i t was a pl easur e t o f i nd t hat sever al of t hose
consi der ed i n musi cal ci r cl es as t he gems of Handel ' s musi cal
composi t i ons wer e t he ones t hat I as an i gnor ant boy had chosen as
f avor i t es. So t he begi nni ng of my musi cal educat i on dat es f r omt he
smal l choi r of t he Swedenbor gi an Soci et y of Pi t t sbur gh.

I must not , however , f or get t hat a ver y good f oundat i on was l ai d f or
my l ove of sweet sounds i n t he unsur passed mi nst r el sy of my nat i ve
Page 33 of 222
l and as sung by my f at her . Ther e was scar cel y an ol d Scot t i sh song
wi t h whi ch I was not made f ami l i ar , bot h wor ds and t une. Fol k- songs
ar e t he best possi bl e f oundat i on f or sur e pr ogr ess t o t he hei ght s of
Beet hoven and Wagner . My f at her bei ng one of t he sweet est and most
pat het i c si nger s I ever hear d, I pr obabl y i nher i t ed hi s l ove of musi c
and of song, t hough not gi ven hi s voi ce. Conf uci us' excl amat i on of t en
sounds i n my ear s: " Musi c, sacr ed t ongue of God! I hear t hee cal l i ng
and I come. "

An i nci dent of t hi s same per i od exhi bi t s t he l i ber al i t y of my par ent s
i n anot her mat t er . As a messenger boy I had no hol i days, wi t h t he
except i on of t wo weeks gi ven me i n t he summer - t i me, whi ch I spent
boat i ng on t he r i ver wi t h cousi ns at my uncl e' s at East Li ver pool ,
Ohi o. I was ver y f ond of skat i ng, and i n t he wi nt er about whi ch I am
speaki ng, t he sl ack wat er of t he r i ver opposi t e our house was
beaut i f ul l y f r ozen over . The i ce was i n spl endi d condi t i on, and
r eachi ng home l at e Sat ur day ni ght t he quest i on ar ose whet her I mi ght
be per mi t t ed t o r i se ear l y i n t he mor ni ng and go skat i ng bef or e chur ch
hour s. No quest i on of a mor e ser i ous char act er coul d have been
submi t t ed t o or di nar y Scot t i sh par ent s. My mot her was cl ear on t he
subj ect , t hat i n t he ci r cumst ances I shoul d be al l owed t o skat e as
l ong as I l i ked. My f at her sai d he bel i eved i t was r i ght I shoul d go
down and skat e, but he hoped I woul d be back i n t i me t o go wi t h hi mt o
chur ch.

I suppose t hi s deci si on woul d be ar r i ved at t o- day by ni ne hundr ed and
ni net y- ni ne out of ever y t housand homes i n Amer i ca, and pr obabl y al so
i n t he maj or i t y of homes i n Engl and, t hough not i n Scot l and. But t hose
who hol d t o- day t hat t he Sabbat h i n i t s f ul l est sense was made f or
man, and who woul d open pi ct ur e gal l er i es and museums t o t he publ i c,
and make t he day somewhat of a day of enj oyment f or t he masses i nst ead
of pr essi ng upon t hemt he dut y of mour ni ng over si ns l ar gel y
i magi nar y, ar e not mor e advanced t han wer e my par ent s f or t y year s ago.
They wer e beyond t he or t hodox of t he per i od when i t was scar cel y
per mi ssi bl e, at l east among t he Scot ch, t o t ake a wal k f or pl easur e or
r ead any but r el i gi ous books on t he Sabbat h.



Page 34 of 222
CHAPTER V

THE TELEGRAPH OFFICE


I had ser ved as messenger about a year , when Col onel J ohn P. Gl ass,
t he manager of t he downst ai r s of f i ce, who came i n cont act wi t h t he
publ i c, began sel ect i ng me occasi onal l y t o wat ch t he of f i ce f or a f ew
mi nut es dur i ng hi s absence. As Mr . Gl ass was a hi ghl y popul ar man, and
had pol i t i cal aspi r at i ons, t hese per i ods of absence became l onger and
mor e f r equent , so t hat I soon became an adept i n hi s br anch of t he
wor k. I r ecei ved messages f r omt he publ i c and saw t hat t hose t hat came
f r omt he oper at i ng- r oomwer e pr oper l y assi gned t o t he boys f or pr ompt
del i ver y.

Thi s was a t r yi ng posi t i on f or a boy t o f i l l , and at t hat t i me I was
not popul ar wi t h t he ot her boys, who r esent ed my exempt i on f r ompar t
of my l egi t i mat e wor k. I was al so t axed wi t h bei ng penur i ous i n my
habi t s- - mean, as t he boys had i t . I di d not spend my ext r a di mes, but
t hey knew not t he r eason. Ever y penny t hat I coul d save I knew was
needed at home. My par ent s wer e wi se and not hi ng was wi t hhel d f r omme.
I knew ever y week t he r ecei pt s of each of t he t hr ee who wer e
wor ki ng- - my f at her , my mot her , and mysel f . I al so knew al l t he
expendi t ur es. We consul t ed upon t he addi t i ons t hat coul d be made t o
our scant y st ock of f ur ni t ur e and cl ot hi ng and ever y new smal l ar t i cl e
obt ai ned was a sour ce of j oy. Ther e never was a f ami l y mor e uni t ed.

Day by day, as mot her coul d spar e a si l ver hal f - dol l ar , i t was
car ef ul l y pl aced i n a st ocki ng and hi d unt i l t wo hundr ed wer e
gat her ed, when I obt ai ned a dr af t t o r epay t he t went y pounds so
gener ousl y l ent t o us by her f r i end Mr s. Hender son. That was a day we
cel ebr at ed. The Car negi e f ami l y was f r ee f r omdebt . Oh, t he happi ness
of t hat day! The debt was, i ndeed, di schar ged, but t he debt of
gr at i t ude r emai ns t hat never can be pai d. Ol d Mr s. Hender son l i ves
t o- day. I go t o her house as t o a shr i ne, t o see her upon my vi si t s t o
Dunf er ml i ne; and what ever happens she can never be f or got t en. [ As I
r ead t hese l i nes, wr i t t en some year s ago, I moan, " Gone, gone wi t h t he
ot her s! " Peace t o t he ashes of a dear , good, nobl e f r i end of my
mot her ' s. ]

The i nci dent i n my messenger l i f e whi ch at once l i f t ed me t o t he
sevent h heaven, occur r ed one Sat ur day eveni ng when Col onel Gl ass was
payi ng t he boys t hei r mont h' s wages. We st ood i n a r ow bef or e t he
count er , and Mr . Gl ass pai d each one i n t ur n. I was at t he head and
r eached out my hand f or t he f i r st el even and a quar t er dol l ar s as t hey
wer e pushed out by Mr . Gl ass. To my sur pr i se he pushed t hempast me
and pai d t he next boy. I t hought i t was a mi st ake, f or I had
her et of or e been pai d f i r st , but i t f ol l owed i n t ur n wi t h each of t he
ot her boys. My hear t began t o si nk wi t hi n me. Di sgr ace seemed comi ng.
What had I done or not done? I was about t o be t ol d t hat t her e was no
mor e wor k f or me. I was t o di sgr ace t he f ami l y. That was t he keenest
pang of al l . When al l had been pai d and t he boys wer e gone, Mr . Gl ass
t ook me behi nd t he count er and sai d t hat I was wor t h mor e t han t he
ot her boys, and he had r esol ved t o pay me t hi r t een and a hal f dol l ar s
a mont h.

Page 35 of 222
My head swam; I doubt ed whet her I had hear d hi mcor r ect l y. He count ed
out t he money. I don' t know whet her I t hanked hi m; I don' t bel i eve I
di d. I t ook i t and made one bound f or t he door and scar cel y st opped
unt i l I got home. I r emember di st i nct l y r unni ng or r at her boundi ng
f r omend t o end of t he br i dge acr oss t he Al l egheny Ri ver - - i nsi de on
t he wagon t r ack because t he f oot - wal k was t oo nar r ow. I t was Sat ur day
ni ght . I handed over t o mot her , who was t he t r easur er of t he f ami l y,
t he el even dol l ar s and a quar t er and sai d not hi ng about t he r emai ni ng
t wo dol l ar s and a quar t er i n my pocket - - wor t h mor e t o me t hen t han al l
t he mi l l i ons I have made si nce.

Tom, a l i t t l e boy of ni ne, and mysel f sl ept i n t he at t i c t oget her , and
af t er we wer e saf el y i n bed I whi sper ed t he secr et t o my dear l i t t l e
br ot her . Even at hi s ear l y age he knew what i t meant , and we t al ked
over t he f ut ur e. I t was t hen, f or t he f i r st t i me, I sket ched t o hi m
how we woul d go i nt o busi ness t oget her ; t hat t he f i r mof " Car negi e
Br ot her s" woul d be a gr eat one, and t hat f at her and mot her shoul d yet
r i de i n t hei r car r i age. At t he t i me t hat seemed t o us t o embr ace
ever yt hi ng known as weal t h and most of what was wor t h st r i vi ng f or .
The ol d Scot ch woman, whose daught er mar r i ed a mer chant i n London,
bei ng asked by her son- i n- l aw t o come t o London and l i ve near t hem,
pr omi si ng she shoul d " r i de i n her car r i age, " r epl i ed:

" What good coul d i t do me t o r i de i n a car r i age gi n I coul d na be seen
by t he f ol k i n St r at hbogi e?" Fat her and mot her woul d not onl y be seen
i n Pi t t sbur gh, but shoul d vi si t Dunf er ml i ne, t hei r ol d home, i n st yl e.

On Sunday mor ni ng wi t h f at her , mot her , and Tomat br eakf ast , I
pr oduced t he ext r a t wo dol l ar s and a quar t er . The sur pr i se was gr eat
and i t t ook some moment s f or t hemt o gr asp t he si t uat i on, but i t soon
dawned upon t hem. Then f at her ' s gl ance of l ovi ng pr i de and mot her ' s
bl azi ng eye soon wet wi t h t ear s, t ol d t hei r f eel i ng. I t was t hei r
boy' s f i r st t r i umph and pr oof posi t i ve t hat he was wor t hy of
pr omot i on. No subsequent success, or r ecogni t i on of any ki nd, ever
t hr i l l ed me as t hi s di d. I cannot even i magi ne one t hat coul d. Her e
was heaven upon ear t h. My whol e wor l d was moved t o t ear s of j oy.

Havi ng t o sweep out t he oper at i ng- r oomi n t he mor ni ngs, t he boys had
an oppor t uni t y of pr act i ci ng upon t he t el egr aph i nst r ument s bef or e t he
oper at or s ar r i ved. Thi s was a new chance. I soon began t o pl ay wi t h
t he key and t o t al k wi t h t he boys who wer e at t he ot her st at i ons who
had l i ke pur poses t o my own. Whenever one l ear ns t o do anyt hi ng he has
never t o wai t l ong f or an oppor t uni t y of put t i ng hi s knowl edge t o use.

One mor ni ng I hear d t he Pi t t sbur gh cal l gi ven wi t h vi gor . I t seemed t o
me I coul d di vi ne t hat some one wi shed gr eat l y t o communi cat e. I
vent ur ed t o answer , and l et t he sl i p r un. I t was Phi l adel phi a t hat
want ed t o send " a deat h message" t o Pi t t sbur gh i mmedi at el y. Coul d I
t ake i t ? I r epl i ed t hat I woul d t r y i f t hey woul d send sl owl y. I
succeeded i n get t i ng t he message and r an out wi t h i t . I wai t ed
anxi ousl y f or Mr . Br ooks t o come i n, and t ol d hi mwhat I had dar ed t o
do. For t unat el y, he appr eci at ed i t and compl i ment ed me, i nst ead of
scol di ng me f or my t emer i t y; yet di smi ssi ng me wi t h t he admoni t i on t o
be ver y car ef ul and not t o make mi st akes. I t was not l ong bef or e I was
cal l ed somet i mes t o wat ch t he i nst r ument , whi l e t he oper at or wi shed t o
be absent , and i n t hi s way I l ear ned t he ar t of t el egr aphy.

Page 36 of 222
We wer e bl essed at t hi s t i me wi t h a r at her i ndol ent oper at or , who was
onl y t oo gl ad t o have me do hi s wor k. I t was t hen t he pr act i ce f or us
t o r ecei ve t he messages on a r unni ng sl i p of paper , f r omwhi ch t he
oper at or r ead t o a copyi st , but r umor s had r eached us t hat a man i n
t he West had l ear ned t o r ead by sound and coul d r eal l y t ake a message
by ear . Thi s l ed me t o pr act i ce t he new met hod. One of t he oper at or s
i n t he of f i ce, Mr . Macl ean, became exper t at i t , and encour aged me by
hi s success. I was sur pr i sed at t he ease wi t h whi ch I l ear ned t he new
l anguage. One day, desi r i ng t o t ake a message i n t he absence of t he
oper at or , t he ol d gent l eman who act ed as copyi st r esent ed my
pr esumpt i on and r ef used t o " copy" f or a messenger boy. I shut of f t he
paper sl i p, t ook penci l and paper and began t aki ng t he message by ear .
I shal l never f or get hi s sur pr i se. He or der ed me t o gi ve hi mback hi s
penci l and pad, and af t er t hat t her e was never any di f f i cul t y bet ween
dear ol d Cour t ney Hughes and mysel f . He was my devot ed f r i end and
copyi st .

Soon af t er t hi s i nci dent J oseph Tayl or , t he oper at or at Gr eensbur g,
t hi r t y mi l es f r omPi t t sbur gh, wi shi ng t o be absent f or t wo weeks,
asked Mr . Br ooks i f he coul d not send some one t o t ake hi s pl ace. Mr .
Br ooks cal l ed me and asked whet her I t hought I coul d do t he wor k. I
r epl i ed at once i n t he af f i r mat i ve.

" Wel l , " he sai d, " we wi l l send you out t her e f or a t r i al . "

I went out i n t he mai l st age and had a most del i ght f ul t r i p. Mr . Davi d
Br uce, a wel l - known sol i ci t or of Scot t i sh ancest r y, and hi s si st er
happened t o be passenger s. I t was my f i r st excur si on, and my f i r st
gl i mpse of t he count r y. The hot el at Gr eensbur g was t he f i r st publ i c
house i n whi ch I had ever t aken a meal . I t hought t he f ood wonder f ul l y
f i ne.

[ I l l ust r at i on: HENRY PHI PPS]

Thi s was i n 1852. Deep cut s and embankment s near Gr eensbur g wer e t hen
bei ng made f or t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad, and I of t en wal ked out i n
t he ear l y mor ni ng t o see t he wor k goi ng f or war d, l i t t l e dr eami ng t hat
I was so soon t o ent er t he ser vi ce of t hat gr eat cor por at i on. Thi s
was t he f i r st r esponsi bl e posi t i on I had occupi ed i n t he t el egr aph
ser vi ce, and I was so anxi ous t o be at hand i n case I shoul d be
needed, t hat one ni ght ver y l at e I sat i n t he of f i ce dur i ng a st or m,
not wi shi ng t o cut of f t he connect i on. I vent ur ed t oo near t he key and
f or my bol dness was knocked of f my st ool . A f l ash of l i ght ni ng ver y
near l y ended my car eer . Af t er t hat I was not ed i n t he of f i ce f or
caut i on dur i ng l i ght ni ng st or ms. I succeeded i n doi ng t he smal l
busi ness at Gr eensbur g t o t he sat i sf act i on of my super i or s, and
r et ur ned t o Pi t t sbur gh sur r ounded wi t h somet hi ng l i ke a hal o, so f ar
as t he ot her boys wer e concer ned. Pr omot i on soon came. A new oper at or
was want ed and Mr . Br ooks t el egr aphed t o my af t er war d dear f r i end
J ames D. Rei d, t hen gener al super i nt endent of t he l i ne, anot her f i ne
speci men of t he Scot sman, and t ook upon hi msel f t o r ecommend me as an
assi st ant oper at or . The t el egr amf r omLoui svi l l e i n r epl y st at ed t hat
Mr . Rei d hi ghl y appr oved of pr omot i ng " Andy, " pr ovi ded Mr . Br ooks
consi der ed hi mcompet ent . The r esul t was t hat I began as a t el egr aph
oper at or at t he t r emendous sal ar y of t went y- f i ve dol l ar s per mont h,
whi ch I t hought a f or t une. To Mr . Br ooks and Mr . Rei d I owe my
pr omot i on f r omt he messenger ' s st at i on t o t he oper at i ng- r oom. [ 18] I
Page 37 of 222
was t hen i n my sevent eent h year and had ser ved my appr ent i ceshi p. I
was now per f or mi ng a man' s par t , no l onger a boy' s- - ear ni ng a dol l ar
ever y wor ki ng day.

[ Foot not e 18: " I l i ked t he boy' s l ooks, and i t was ver y easy t o see
t hat t hough he was l i t t l e he was f ul l of spi r i t . He had not been wi t h
me a mont h when he began t o ask whet her I woul d t each hi mt o
t el egr aph. I began t o i nst r uct hi mand f ound hi man apt pupi l . " ( J ames
D. Rei d, _The Tel egr aph i n Amer i ca_, New Yor k, 1879. )

Rei d was bor n near Dunf er ml i ne and f or t y year s af t er war ds Mr . Car negi e
was abl e t o secur e f or hi mt he appoi nt ment of Uni t ed St at es Consul at
Dunf er ml i ne. ]

The oper at i ng- r oomof a t el egr aph of f i ce i s an excel l ent school f or a
young man. He t her e has t o do wi t h penci l and paper , wi t h composi t i on
and i nvent i on. And t her e my sl i ght knowl edge of Br i t i sh and Eur opean
af f ai r s soon st ood me i n good st ead. Knowl edge i s sur e t o pr ove usef ul
i n one way or anot her . I t al ways t el l s. The f or ei gn news was t hen
r ecei ved by wi r e f r omCape Race, and t he t aki ng of successi ve " st eamer
news" was one of t he most not abl e of our dut i es. I l i ked t hi s bet t er
t han any ot her br anch of t he wor k, and i t was soon t aci t l y assi gned t o
me.

The l i nes i n t hose days wor ked poor l y, and dur i ng a st or mmuch had t o
be guessed at . My guessi ng power s wer e sai d t o be phenomenal , and i t
was my f avor i t e di ver si on t o f i l l up gaps i nst ead of i nt er r upt i ng t he
sender and spendi ng mi nut es over a l ost wor d or t wo. Thi s was not a
danger ous pr act i ce i n r egar d t o f or ei gn news, f or i f any undue
l i ber t i es wer e t aken by t he bol d oper at or , t hey wer e not of a
char act er l i kel y t o br i ng hi mi nt o ser i ous t r oubl e. My knowl edge of
f or ei gn af f ai r s became somewhat ext ensi ve, especi al l y r egar di ng t he
af f ai r s of Br i t ai n, and my guesses wer e qui t e saf e, i f I got t he f i r st
l et t er or t wo r i ght .

The Pi t t sbur gh newspaper s had each been i n t he habi t of sendi ng a
r epor t er t o t he of f i ce t o t r anscr i be t he pr ess di spat ches. Lat er on
one man was appoi nt ed f or al l t he paper s and he suggest ed t hat
mul t i pl e copi es coul d r eadi l y be made of t he news as r ecei ved, and i t
was ar r anged t hat I shoul d make f i ve copi es of al l pr ess di spat ches
f or hi mas ext r a wor k f or whi ch he was t o pay me a dol l ar per week.
Thi s, my f i r st wor k f or t he pr ess, yi el ded ver y modest r emuner at i on,
t o be sur e; but i t made my sal ar y t hi r t y dol l ar s per mont h, and ever y
dol l ar count ed i n t hose days. The f ami l y was gr adual l y gai ni ng
gr ound; al r eady f ut ur e mi l l i onai r edomseemed dawni ng.

Anot her st ep whi ch exer ci sed a deci ded i nf l uence over me was j oi ni ng
t he " Webst er Li t er ar y Soci et y" al ong wi t h my compani ons, t he t r ust y
f i ve al r eady named. We f or med a sel ect ci r cl e and st uck cl osel y
t oget her . Thi s was qui t e an advant age f or al l of us. We had bef or e
t hi s f or med a smal l debat i ng cl ub whi ch met i n Mr . Phi pps' s f at her ' s
r oomi n whi ch hi s f ew j our neymen shoemaker s wor ked dur i ng t he day. Tom
Mi l l er r ecent l y al l eged t hat I once spoke near l y an hour and a hal f
upon t he quest i on, " Shoul d t he j udi ci ar y be el ect ed by t he peopl e?"
but we must mer ci f ul l y assume hi s memor y t o be at f aul t . The " Webst er "
was t hen t he f or emost cl ub i n t he ci t y and pr oud wer e we t o be t hought
f i t f or member shi p. We had mer el y been pr epar i ng our sel ves i n t he
Page 38 of 222
cobbl er ' s r oom.

I know of no bet t er mode of benef i t i ng a yout h t han j oi ni ng such a
cl ub as t hi s. Much of my r eadi ng became such as had a bear i ng on
f or t hcomi ng debat es and t hat gave cl ear ness and f i xi t y t o my i deas.
The sel f - possessi on I af t er war ds came t o have bef or e an audi ence may
ver y saf el y be at t r i but ed t o t he exper i ence of t he " Webst er Soci et y. "
My t wo r ul es f or speaki ng t hen ( and now) wer e: Make your sel f per f ect l y
at home bef or e your audi ence, and si mpl y t al k _t o_ t hem, not _at _
t hem. Do not t r y t o be somebody el se; be your own sel f and _t al k_,
never " or at e" unt i l you can' t hel p i t .

I f i nal l y became an oper at or by sound, di scar di ng pr i nt i ng ent i r el y.
The accompl i shment was t hen so r ar e t hat peopl e vi si t ed t he of f i ce t o
be sat i sf i ed of t he ext r aor di nar y f eat . Thi s br ought me i nt o such
not i ce t hat when a gr eat f l ood dest r oyed al l t el egr aph communi cat i on
bet ween St eubenvi l l e and Wheel i ng, a di st ance of t went y- f i ve mi l es, I
was sent t o t he f or mer t own t o r ecei ve t he ent i r e busi ness t hen
passi ng bet ween t he East and t he West , and t o send ever y hour or t wo
t he di spat ches i n smal l boat s down t he r i ver t o Wheel i ng. I n exchange
ever y r et ur ni ng boat br ought r ol l s of di spat ches whi ch I wi r ed East ,
and i n t hi s way f or mor e t han a week t he ent i r e t el egr aphi c
communi cat i on bet ween t he East and t he West _vi a_ Pi t t sbur gh was
mai nt ai ned.

Whi l e at St eubenvi l l e I l ear ned t hat my f at her was goi ng t o Wheel i ng
and Ci nci nnat i t o sel l t he t abl ecl ot hs he had woven. I wai t ed f or t he
boat , whi ch di d not ar r i ve t i l l l at e i n t he eveni ng, and went down t o
meet hi m. I r emember how deepl y af f ect ed I was on f i ndi ng t hat i nst ead
of t aki ng a cabi n passage, he had r esol ved not t o pay t he pr i ce, but
t o go down t he r i ver as a deck passenger . I was i ndi gnant t hat one of
so f i ne a nat ur e shoul d be compel l ed t o t r avel t hus. But t her e was
comf or t i n sayi ng:

" Wel l , f at her , i t wi l l not be l ong bef or e mot her and you shal l r i de i n
your car r i age. "

My f at her was usual l y shy, r eser ved, and keenl y sensi t i ve, ver y savi ng
of pr ai se ( a Scot ch t r ai t ) l est hi s sons mi ght be t oo gr eat l y
upl i f t ed; but when t ouched he l ost hi s sel f - cont r ol . He was so upon
t hi s occasi on, and gr asped my hand wi t h a l ook whi ch I of t en see and
can never f or get . He mur mur ed sl owl y:

" Andr a, I ampr oud of you. "

The voi ce t r embl ed and he seemed ashamed of hi msel f f or sayi ng so
much. The t ear had t o be wi ped f r omhi s eye, I f ondl y not i ced, as he
bade me good- ni ght and t ol d me t o r un back t o my of f i ce. Those wor ds
r ang i n my ear and war med my hear t f or year s and year s. We under st ood
each ot her . How r eser ved t he Scot i s! Wher e he f eel s most he
expr esses l east . Qui t e r i ght . Ther e ar e hol y dept hs whi ch i t i s
sacr i l ege t o di st ur b. Si l ence i s mor e el oquent t han wor ds. My f at her
was one of t he most l ovabl e of men, bel oved of hi s compani ons, deepl y
r el i gi ous, al t hough non- sect ar i an and non- t heol ogi cal , not much of a
man of t he wor l d, but a man al l over f or heaven. He was ki ndness
i t sel f , al t hough r eser ved. Al as! he passed away soon af t er r et ur ni ng
f r omt hi s West er n t our j ust as we wer e becomi ng abl e t o gi ve hi ma
Page 39 of 222
l i f e of l ei sur e and comf or t .

Af t er my r et ur n t o Pi t t sbur gh i t was not l ong bef or e I made t he
acquai nt ance of an ext r aor di nar y man, Thomas A. Scot t , one t o whomt he
t er m" geni us" i n hi s depar t ment may saf el y be appl i ed. He had come t o
Pi t t sbur gh as super i nt endent of t hat di vi si on of t he Pennsyl vani a
Rai l r oad. Fr equent t el egr aphi c communi cat i on was necessar y bet ween hi m
and hi s super i or , Mr . Lombaer t , gener al super i nt endent at Al t oona.
Thi s br ought hi mt o t he t el egr aph of f i ce at ni ght s, and upon sever al
occasi ons I happened t o be t he oper at or . One day I was sur pr i sed by
one of hi s assi st ant s, wi t h whomI was acquai nt ed, t el l i ng me t hat Mr .
Scot t had asked hi mwhet her he t hought t hat I coul d be obt ai ned as hi s
cl er k and t el egr aph oper at or , t o whi ch t hi s young man t ol d me he had
r epl i ed:

" That i s i mpossi bl e. He i s now an oper at or . "

But when I hear d t hi s I sai d at once:

" Not so f ast . He can have me. I want t o get out of a mer e of f i ce l i f e.
Pl ease go and t el l hi mso. "

The r esul t was I was engaged Febr uar y 1, 1853, at a sal ar y of
t hi r t y- f i ve dol l ar s a mont h as Mr . Scot t ' s cl er k and oper at or . A r ai se
i n wages f r omt went y- f i ve t o t hi r t y- f i ve dol l ar s per mont h was t he
gr eat est I had ever known. The publ i c t el egr aph l i ne was t empor ar i l y
put i nt o Mr . Scot t ' s of f i ce at t he out er depot and t he Pennsyl vani a
Rai l r oad Company was gi ven per mi ssi on t o use t he wi r e at seasons when
such use woul d not i nt er f er e wi t h t he gener al publ i c busi ness, unt i l
t hei r own l i ne, t hen bei ng bui l t , was compl et ed.



Page 40 of 222
CHAPTER VI

RAILROAD SERVICE


Fr omt he oper at i ng- r oomof t he t el egr aph of f i ce I had now st epped i nt o
t he open wor l d, and t he change at f i r st was f ar f r omagr eeabl e. I had
j ust r eached my ei ght eent h bi r t hday, and I do not see how i t coul d be
possi bl e f or any boy t o ar r i ve at t hat age much f r eer f r oma knowl edge
of anyt hi ng but what was pur e and good. I do not bel i eve, up t o t hat
t i me, I had ever spoken a bad wor d i n my l i f e and sel domhear d one. I
knew not hi ng of t he base and t he vi l e. For t unat el y I had al ways been
br ought i n cont act wi t h good peopl e.

I was now pl unged at once i nt o t he company of coar se men, f or t he
of f i ce was t empor ar i l y onl y a por t i on of t he shops and t he
headquar t er s f or t he f r ei ght conduct or s, br akemen, and f i r emen. Al l of
t hemhad access t o t he same r oomwi t h Super i nt endent Scot t and mysel f ,
and t hey avai l ed t hemsel ves of i t . Thi s was a di f f er ent wor l d, i ndeed,
f r omt hat t o whi ch I had been accust omed. I was not happy about i t . I
at e, necessar i l y, of t he f r ui t of t he t r ee of knowl edge of good and
evi l f or t he f i r st t i me. But t her e wer e st i l l t he sweet and pur e
sur r oundi ngs of home, wher e not hi ng coar se or wi cked ever ent er ed, and
besi des, t her e was t he wor l d i n whi ch I dwel t wi t h my compani ons, al l
of t hemr ef i ned young men, st r i vi ng t o i mpr ove t hemsel ves and become
r espect ed ci t i zens. I passed t hr ough t hi s phase of my l i f e det est i ng
what was f or ei gn t o my nat ur e and my ear l y educat i on. The exper i ence
wi t h coar se men was pr obabl y benef i ci al because i t gave me a " scunner "
( di sgust ) , t o use a Scot i sm, at chewi ng or smoki ng t obacco, al so at
swear i ng or t he use of i mpr oper l anguage, whi ch f or t unat el y r emai ned
wi t h me t hr ough l i f e.

I do not wi sh t o suggest t hat t he men of whomI have spoken wer e
r eal l y degr aded or bad char act er s. The habi t of swear i ng, wi t h coar se
t al k, chewi ng and smoki ng t obacco, and snuf f i ng wer e mor e pr eval ent
t hen t han t o- day and meant l ess t han i n t hi s age. Rai l r oadi ng was new,
and many r ough char act er s wer e at t r act ed t o i t f r omt he r i ver ser vi ce.
But many of t he men wer e f i ne young f el l ows who have l i ved t o be
hi ghl y r espect abl e ci t i zens and t o occupy r esponsi bl e posi t i ons. And I
must say t hat one and al l of t hemwer e most ki nd t o me. Many ar e yet
l i vi ng f r omwhomI hear occasi onal l y and r egar d wi t h af f ect i on. A
change came at l ast when Mr . Scot t had hi s own of f i ce whi ch he and I
occupi ed.

I was soon sent by Mr . Scot t t o Al t oona t o get t he mont hl y pay- r ol l s
and checks. The r ai l r oad l i ne was not compl et ed over t he Al l egheny
Mount ai ns at t hat t i me, and I had t o pass over t he i ncl i ned pl anes
whi ch made t he j our ney a r emar kabl e one t o me. Al t oona was t hen
composed of a f ew houses bui l t by t he company. The shops wer e under
const r uct i on and t her e was not hi ng of t he l ar ge ci t y whi ch now
occupi es t he si t e. I t was t her e t hat I saw f or t he f i r st t i me t he
gr eat man i n our r ai l r oad f i el d- - Mr . Lombaer t , gener al super i nt endent .
Hi s secr et ar y at t hat t i me was my f r i end, Rober t Pi t cai r n, f or whomI
had obt ai ned a si t uat i on on t he r ai l r oad, so t hat " Davy, " " Bob, " and
" Andy" wer e st i l l t oget her i n t he same ser vi ce. We had al l l ef t t he
t el egr aph company f or t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad Company.
Page 41 of 222

Mr . Lombaer t was ver y di f f er ent f r omMr . Scot t ; he was not soci abl e,
but r at her st er n and unbendi ng. J udge t hen of Rober t ' s sur pr i se, and
my own, when, af t er sayi ng a f ew wor ds t o me, Mr . Lombaer t added: " You
must come down and t ake t ea wi t h us t o- ni ght . " I st ammer ed out
somet hi ng of accept ance and awai t ed t he appoi nt ed hour wi t h gr eat
t r epi dat i on. Up t o t hi s t i me I consi der ed t hat i nvi t at i on t he gr eat est
honor I had r ecei ved. Mr s. Lombaer t was exceedi ngl y ki nd, and Mr .
Lombaer t ' s i nt r oduct i on of me t o her was: " Thi s i s Mr . Scot t ' s
' Andy. ' " I was ver y pr oud i ndeed of bei ng r ecogni zed as bel ongi ng t o
Mr . Scot t .

An i nci dent happened on t hi s t r i p whi ch mi ght have bl ast ed my car eer
f or a t i me. I st ar t ed next mor ni ng f or Pi t t sbur gh wi t h t he pay- r ol l s
and checks, as I t hought , secur el y pl aced under my wai st coat , as i t
was t oo l ar ge a package f or my pocket s. I was a ver y ent husi ast i c
r ai l r oader at t hat t i me and pr ef er r ed r i di ng upon t he engi ne. I got
upon t he engi ne t hat t ook me t o Hol l i daysbur g wher e t he St at e r ai l r oad
over t he mount ai n was j oi ned up. I t was a ver y r ough r i de, i ndeed, and
at one pl ace, uneasi l y f eel i ng f or t he pay- r ol l package, I was
hor r i f i ed t o f i nd t hat t he j ol t i ng of t he t r ai n had shaken i t out . I
had l ost i t !

Ther e was no use i n di sgui si ng t he f act t hat such a f ai l ur e woul d r ui n
me. To have been sent f or t he pay- r ol l s and checks and t o l ose t he
package, whi ch I shoul d have " gr asped as my honor , " was a dr eadf ul
showi ng. I cal l ed t he engi neer and t ol d hi mi t must have been shaken
out wi t hi n t he l ast f ew mi l es. Woul d he r ever se hi s engi ne and r un
back f or i t ? Ki nd soul , he di d so. I wat ched t he l i ne, and on t he ver y
banks of a l ar ge st r eam, wi t hi n a f ew f eet of t he wat er , I saw t hat
package l yi ng. I coul d scar cel y bel i eve my eyes. I r an down and
gr asped i t . I t was al l r i ght . Need I add t hat i t never passed out of
my f i r mgr asp agai n unt i l i t was saf e i n Pi t t sbur gh? The engi neer and
f i r eman wer e t he onl y per sons who knew of my car el essness, and I had
t hei r assur ance t hat i t woul d not be t ol d.

I t was l ong af t er t he event t hat I vent ur ed t o t el l t he st or y. Suppose
t hat package had f al l en j ust a f ew f eet f ar t her away and been swept
down by t he st r eam, how many year s of f ai t hf ul ser vi ce woul d i t have
r equi r ed upon my par t t o wi pe out t he ef f ect of t hat one pi ece of
car el essness! I coul d no l onger have enj oyed t he conf i dence of t hose
whose conf i dence was essent i al t o success had f or t une not f avor ed me.
I have never si nce bel i eved i n bei ng t oo har d on a young man, even i f
he does commi t a dr eadf ul mi st ake or t wo; and I have al ways t r i ed i n
j udgi ng such t o r emember t he di f f er ence i t woul d have made i n my own
car eer but f or an acci dent whi ch r est or ed t o me t hat l ost package at
t he edge of t he st r eama f ew mi l es f r omHol l i daysbur g. I coul d go
st r ai ght t o t he ver y spot t o- day, and of t en as I passed over t hat l i ne
af t er war ds I never f ai l ed t o see t hat l i ght - br own package l yi ng upon
t he bank. I t seemed t o be cal l i ng:

" Al l r i ght , my boy! t he good gods wer e wi t h you, but don' t do i t
agai n! "

At an ear l y age I became a st r ong ant i - sl aver y par t i san and hai l ed
wi t h ent husi asmt he f i r st nat i onal meet i ng of t he Republ i can Par t y i n
Pi t t sbur gh, Febr uar y 22, 1856, al t hough t oo young t o vot e. I wat ched
Page 42 of 222
t he pr omi nent men as t hey wal ked t he st r eet s, l ost i n admi r at i on f or
Senat or s Wi l son, Hal e, and ot her s. Some t i me bef or e I had or gani zed
among t he r ai l r oad men a cl ub of a hundr ed f or t he " New Yor k Weekl y
Tr i bune, " and vent ur ed occasi onal l y upon shor t not es t o t he gr eat
edi t or , Hor ace Gr eel ey, who di d so much t o ar ouse t he peopl e t o act i on
upon t hi s vi t al quest i on.

The f i r st t i me I saw my wor k i n t ype i n t he t hen f l ami ng or gan of
f r eedomcer t ai nl y mar ked a st age i n my car eer . I kept t hat " Tr i bune"
f or year s. Looki ng back t o- day one cannot hel p r egr et t i ng so hi gh a
pr i ce as t he Ci vi l War had t o be pai d t o f r ee our l and f r omt he cur se,
but i t was not sl aver y al one t hat needed abol i t i on. The l oose Feder al
syst emwi t h St at e r i ght s so pr omi nent woul d i nevi t abl y have pr event ed,
or at l east l ong del ayed, t he f or mat i on of one sol i d, al l - power f ul ,
cent r al gover nment . The t endency under t he Sout her n i dea was
cent r i f ugal . To- day i t i s cent r i pet al , al l dr awn t owar d t he cent er
under t he sway of t he Supr eme Cour t , t he deci si ons of whi ch ar e, ver y
pr oper l y, hal f t he di ct a of l awyer s and hal f t he wor k of st at esmen.
Uni f or mi t y i n many f i el ds must be secur ed. Mar r i age, di vor ce,
bankr upt cy, r ai l r oad super vi si on, cont r ol of cor por at i ons, and some
ot her depar t ment s shoul d i n some measur e be br ought under one head.
[ Re- r eadi ng t hi s par agr aph t o- day, J ul y, 1907, wr i t t en many year s ago,
i t seems pr ophet i c. These ar e now bur ni ng quest i ons. ]

I t was not l ong af t er t hi s t hat t he r ai l r oad company const r uct ed i t s
own t el egr aph l i ne. We had t o suppl y i t wi t h oper at or s. Most of t hese
wer e t aught i n our of f i ces at Pi t t sbur gh. The t el egr aph busi ness
cont i nued t o i ncr ease wi t h st ar t l i ng r api di t y. We coul d scar cel y
pr ovi de f aci l i t i es f ast enough. New t el egr aph of f i ces wer e r equi r ed.
My f el l ow messenger - boy, " Davy" McCar go, I appoi nt ed super i nt endent of
t he t el egr aph depar t ment Mar ch 11, 1859. I have been t ol d t hat " Davy"
and mysel f ar e ent i t l ed t o t he cr edi t of bei ng t he f i r st t o empl oy
young women as t el egr aph oper at or s i n t he Uni t ed St at es upon
r ai l r oads, or per haps i n any br anch. At al l event s, we pl aced gi r l s i n
var i ous of f i ces as pupi l s, t aught and t hen put t hemi n char ge of
of f i ces as occasi on r equi r ed. Among t he f i r st of t hese was my cousi n,
Mi ss Mar i a Hogan. She was t he oper at or at t he f r ei ght st at i on i n
Pi t t sbur gh, and wi t h her wer e pl aced successi ve pupi l s, her of f i ce
becomi ng a school . Our exper i ence was t hat young women oper at or s wer e
mor e t o be r el i ed upon t han young men. Among al l t he new occupat i ons
i nvaded by women I do not know of any bet t er sui t ed f or t hemt han t hat
of t el egr aph oper at or .

Mr . Scot t was one of t he most del i ght f ul super i or s t hat anybody coul d
have and I soon became war ml y at t ached t o hi m. He was my gr eat man and
al l t he her o wor shi p t hat i s i nher ent i n yout h I shower ed upon hi m. I
soon began pl aci ng hi mi n i magi nat i on i n t he pr esi dency of t he gr eat
Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad- - a posi t i on whi ch he af t er war ds at t ai ned. Under
hi mI gr adual l y per f or med dut i es not st r i ct l y bel ongi ng t o my
depar t ment and I can at t r i but e my deci ded advancement i n t he ser vi ce
t o one wel l - r emember ed i nci dent .

The r ai l way was a si ngl e l i ne. Tel egr aph or der s t o t r ai ns of t en became
necessar y, al t hough i t was not t hen a r egul ar pr act i ce t o r un t r ai ns
by t el egr aph. No one but t he super i nt endent hi msel f was per mi t t ed t o
gi ve a t r ai n or der on any par t of t he Pennsyl vani a syst em, or i ndeed
of any ot her syst em, I bel i eve, at t hat t i me. I t was t hen a danger ous
Page 43 of 222
expedi ent t o gi ve t el egr aphi c or der s, f or t he whol e syst emof r ai l way
management was st i l l i n i t s i nf ancy, and men had not yet been t r ai ned
f or i t . I t was necessar y f or Mr . Scot t t o go out ni ght af t er ni ght t o
br eak- downs or wr ecks t o super i nt end t he cl ear i ng of t he l i ne. He was
necessar i l y absent f r omt he of f i ce on many mor ni ngs.

One mor ni ng I r eached t he of f i ce and f ound t hat a ser i ous acci dent on
t he East er n Di vi si on had del ayed t he expr ess passenger t r ai n
west war d, and t hat t he passenger t r ai n east war d was pr oceedi ng wi t h a
f l agman i n advance at ever y cur ve. The f r ei ght t r ai ns i n bot h
di r ect i ons wer e al l st andi ng st i l l upon t he si di ngs. Mr . Scot t was not
t o be f ound. Fi nal l y I coul d not r esi st t he t empt at i on t o pl unge i n,
t ake t he r esponsi bi l i t y, gi ve " t r ai n or der s, " and set mat t er s goi ng.
" Deat h or West mi nst er Abbey, " f l ashed acr oss my mi nd. I knew i t was
di smi ssal , di sgr ace, per haps cr i mi nal puni shment f or me i f I er r ed. On
t he ot her hand, I coul d br i ng i n t he wear i ed f r ei ght - t r ai n men who had
l ai n out al l ni ght . I coul d set ever yt hi ng i n mot i on. I knew I coul d.
I had of t en done i t i n wi r i ng Mr . Scot t ' s or der s. I knew j ust what t o
do, and so I began. I gave t he or der s i n hi s name, st ar t ed ever y
t r ai n, sat at t he i nst r ument wat chi ng ever y t i ck, car r i ed t he t r ai ns
al ong f r omst at i on t o st at i on, t ook ext r a pr ecaut i ons, and had
ever yt hi ng r unni ng smoot hl y when Mr . Scot t at l ast r eached t he of f i ce.
He had hear d of t he del ays. Hi s f i r st wor ds wer e:

" Wel l ! How ar e mat t er s?"

He came t o my si de qui ckl y, gr asped hi s penci l and began t o wr i t e hi s
or der s. I had t hen t o speak, and t i mi dl y sai d:

" Mr . Scot t , I coul d not f i nd you anywher e and I gave t hese or der s i n
your name ear l y t hi s mor ni ng. "

" Ar e t hey goi ng al l r i ght ? Wher e i s t he East er n Expr ess?"

I showed hi mt he messages and gave hi mt he posi t i on of ever y t r ai n on
t he l i ne- - f r ei ght s, bal l ast t r ai ns, ever yt hi ng- - showed hi mt he answer s
of t he var i ous conduct or s, t he l at est r epor t s at t he st at i ons wher e
t he var i ous t r ai ns had passed. Al l was r i ght . He l ooked i n my f ace f or
a second. I scar cel y dar ed l ook i n hi s. I di d not know what was goi ng
t o happen. He di d not say one wor d, but agai n l ooked car ef ul l y over
al l t hat had t aken pl ace. St i l l he sai d not hi ng. Af t er a l i t t l e he
moved away f r ommy desk t o hi s own, and t hat was t he end of i t . He was
af r ai d t o appr ove what I had done, yet he had not censur ed me. I f i t
came out al l r i ght , i t was al l r i ght ; i f i t came out al l wr ong, t he
r esponsi bi l i t y was mi ne. So i t st ood, but I not i ced t hat he came i n
ver y r egul ar l y and i n good t i me f or some mor ni ngs af t er t hat .

Of cour se I never spoke t o any one about i t . None of t he t r ai nmen knew
t hat Mr . Scot t had not per sonal l y gi ven t he or der s. I had al most made
up my mi nd t hat i f t he l i ke occur r ed agai n, I woul d not r epeat my
pr oceedi ng of t hat mor ni ng unl ess I was aut hor i zed t o do so. I was
f eel i ng r at her di st r essed about what I had done unt i l I hear d f r omMr .
Fr anci scus, who was t hen i n char ge of t he f r ei ght i ng depar t ment at
Pi t t sbur gh, t hat Mr . Scot t , t he eveni ng af t er t he memor abl e mor ni ng,
had sai d t o hi m:

" Do you know what t hat l i t t l e whi t e- hai r ed Scot ch devi l of mi ne di d?"
Page 44 of 222

" No. "

" I ' mbl amed i f he di dn' t r un ever y t r ai n on t he di vi si on i n my name
wi t hout t he sl i ght est aut hor i t y. "

" And di d he do i t al l r i ght ?" asked Fr anci scus.

" Oh, yes, al l r i ght . "

Thi s sat i sf i ed me. Of cour se I had my cue f or t he next occasi on, and
went bol dl y i n. Fr omt hat dat e i t was ver y sel domt hat Mr . Scot t gave
a t r ai n or der .

[ I l l ust r at i on: THOMAS A. SCOTT]

[ I l l ust r at i on: J OHN EDGAR THOMSON]

The gr eat est man of al l on my hor i zon at t hi s t i me was J ohn Edgar
Thomson, pr esi dent of t he Pennsyl vani a, and f or whomour st eel - r ai l
mi l l s wer e af t er war d named. He was t he most r eser ved and si l ent of
men, next t o Gener al Gr ant , t hat I ever knew, al t hough Gener al
Gr ant was mor e vol ubl e when at home wi t h f r i ends. He wal ked about as
i f he saw nobody when he made hi s per i odi cal vi si t s t o Pi t t sbur gh.
Thi s r eser ve I l ear ned af t er war ds was pur el y t he r esul t of shyness. I
was sur pr i sed when i n Mr . Scot t ' s of f i ce he came t o t he t el egr aph
i nst r ument and gr eet ed me as " Scot t ' s Andy. " But I l ear ned af t er war ds
t hat he had hear d of my t r ai n- r unni ng expl oi t . The bat t l e of l i f e i s
al r eady hal f won by t he young man who i s br ought per sonal l y i n cont act
wi t h hi gh of f i ci al s; and t he gr eat ai mof ever y boy shoul d be t o do
somet hi ng beyond t he spher e of hi s dut i es- - somet hi ng whi ch at t r act s
t he at t ent i on of t hose over hi m.

Some t i me af t er t hi s Mr . Scot t wi shed t o t r avel f or a week or t wo and
asked aut hor i t y f r omMr . Lombaer t t o l eave me i n char ge of t he
di vi si on. Pr et t y bol d man he was, f or I was t hen not ver y f ar out of
my t eens. I t was gr ant ed. Her e was t he covet ed oppor t uni t y of my l i f e.
Wi t h t he except i on of one acci dent caused by t he i nexcusabl e
negl i gence of a bal l ast - t r ai n cr ew, ever yt hi ng went wel l i n hi s
absence. But t hat t hi s acci dent shoul d occur was gal l and wor mwood t o
me. Det er mi ned t o f ul f i l l al l t he dut i es of t he st at i on I hel d a
cour t - mar t i al , exami ned t hose concer ned, di smi ssed per empt or i l y t he
chi ef of f ender , and suspended t wo ot her s f or t hei r shar e i n t he
cat ast r ophe. Mr . Scot t af t er hi s r et ur n of cour se was advi sed of t he
acci dent , and pr oposed t o i nvest i gat e and deal wi t h t he mat t er . I f el t
I had gone t oo f ar , but havi ng t aken t he st ep, I i nf or med hi mt hat al l
t hat had been set t l ed. I had i nvest i gat ed t he mat t er and puni shed t he
gui l t y. Some of t hese appeal ed t o Mr . Scot t f or a r eopeni ng of t he
case, but t hi s I never coul d have agr eed t o, had i t been pr essed. Mor e
by l ook I t hi nk t han by wor d Mr . Scot t under st ood my f eel i ngs upon
t hi s del i cat e poi nt , and acqui esced.

I t i s pr obabl e he was af r ai d I had been t oo sever e and ver y l i kel y he
was cor r ect . Some year s af t er t hi s, when I , mysel f , was super i nt endent
of t he di vi si on I al ways had a sof t spot i n my hear t f or t he men t hen
suspended f or a t i me. I had f el t qual ms of consci ence about my act i on
i n t hi s, my f i r st cour t . A new j udge i s ver y apt t o st and so st r ai ght
Page 45 of 222
as r eal l y t o l ean a l i t t l e backwar d. Onl y exper i ence t eaches t he
supr eme f or ce of gent l eness. Li ght but cer t ai n puni shment , when
necessar y, i s most ef f ect i ve. Sever e puni shment s ar e not needed and a
j udi ci ous par don, f or t he f i r st of f ense at l east , i s of t en best of
al l .

As t he hal f - dozen young men who const i t ut ed our i nner ci r cl e gr ew i n
knowl edge, i t was i nevi t abl e t hat t he myst er i es of l i f e and deat h, t he
her e and t he her eaf t er , shoul d cr oss our pat h and have t o be gr appl ed
wi t h. We had al l been r ear ed by good, honest , sel f - r espect i ng par ent s,
member s of one or anot her of t he r el i gi ous sect s. Thr ough t he
i nf l uence of Mr s. McMi l l an, wi f e of one of t he l eadi ng Pr esbyt er i an
mi ni st er s of Pi t t sbur gh, we wer e dr awn i nt o t he soci al ci r cl e of her
husband' s chur ch. [ As I r ead t hi s on t he moor s, J ul y 16, 1912, I have
bef or e me a not e f r omMr s. McMi l l an f r omLondon i n her ei ght i et h year .
Two of her daught er s wer e mar r i ed i n London l ast week t o uni ver si t y
pr of essor s, one r emai ns i n Br i t ai n, t he ot her has accept ed an
appoi nt ment i n Bost on. Emi nent men bot h. So dr aws our Engl i sh- speaki ng
r ace t oget her . ] Mr . McMi l l an was a good st r i ct Cal vi ni st of t he ol d
school , hi s char mi ng wi f e a bor n l eader of t he young. We wer e al l mor e
at home wi t h her and enj oyed our sel ves mor e at her home gat her i ngs
t han el sewher e. Thi s l ed t o some of us occasi onal l y at t endi ng her
chur ch.

A ser mon of t he st r ongest ki nd upon pr edest i nat i on whi ch Mi l l er hear d
t her e br ought t he subj ect of t heol ogy upon us and i t woul d not down.
Mr . Mi l l er ' s peopl e wer e st r ong Met hodi st s, and Tomhad known l i t t l e
of dogmas. Thi s doct r i ne of pr edest i nat i on, i ncl udi ng i nf ant
damnat i on- - some bor n t o gl or y and ot her s t o t he opposi t e- - appal l ed
hi m. To my ast oni shment I l ear ned t hat , goi ng t o Mr . McMi l l an af t er
t he ser mon t o t al k over t he mat t er , Tomhad bl ur t ed out at t he f i ni sh,

" Mr . McMi l l an, i f your i dea wer e cor r ect , your God woul d be a per f ect
devi l , " and l ef t t he ast oni shed mi ni st er t o hi msel f .

Thi s f or med t he subj ect of our Sunday af t er noon conf er ences f or many a
week. Was t hat t r ue or not , and what was t o be t he consequence of
Tom' s decl ar at i on? Shoul d we no l onger be wel come guest s of Mr s.
McMi l l an? We coul d have spar ed t he mi ni st er , per haps, but none of us
r el i shed t he i dea of bani shment f r omhi s wi f e' s del i ght f ul r euni ons.
Ther e was one poi nt cl ear . Car l yl e' s st r uggl es over t hese mat t er s had
i mpr essed us and we coul d f ol l ow hi mi n hi s r esol ve: " I f i t be
i ncr edi bl e, i n God' s name l et i t be di scr edi t ed. " I t was onl y t he
t r ut h t hat coul d make us f r ee, and t he t r ut h, t he whol e t r ut h, we
shoul d pur sue.

Once i nt r oduced, of cour se, t he subj ect r emai ned wi t h us, and one
af t er t he ot her t he dogmas wer e vot ed down as t he mi st aken i deas of
men of a l ess enl i ght ened age. I f or get who f i r st st ar t ed us wi t h a
second axi om. I t was one we of t en dwel t upon: " A f or gi vi ng God woul d
be t he nobl est wor k of man. " We accept ed as pr oven t hat each st age of
ci vi l i zat i on cr eat es i t s own God, and t hat as man ascends and becomes
bet t er hi s concept i on of t he Unknown l i kewi se i mpr oves. Ther eaf t er we
al l became l ess t heol ogi cal , but I amsur e mor e t r ul y r el i gi ous. The
cr i si s passed. Happi l y we wer e not excl uded f r omMr s. McMi l l an' s
soci et y. I t was a not abl e day, however , when we r esol ved t o st and by
Mi l l er ' s st at ement , even i f i t i nvol ved bani shment and wor se. We young
Page 46 of 222
men wer e get t i ng t o be pr et t y wi l d boys about t heol ogy, al t hough mor e
t r ul y r ever ent about r el i gi on.

The f i r st gr eat l oss t o our ci r cl e came when J ohn Phi pps was ki l l ed by
a f al l f r oma hor se. Thi s st r uck home t o al l of us, yet I r emember I
coul d t hen say t o mysel f : " J ohn has, as i t wer e, j ust gone home t o
Engl and wher e he was bor n. We ar e al l t o f ol l ow hi msoon and l i ve
f or ever t oget her . " I had t hen no doubt s. I t was not a hope I was
pr essi ng t o my hear t , but a cer t ai nt y. Happy t hose who i n t hei r agony
have such a r ef uge. We shoul d al l t ake Pl at o' s advi ce and never gi ve
up ever l ast i ng hope, " al l ur i ng our sel ves as wi t h enchant ment s, f or t he
hope i s nobl e and t he r ewar d i s gr eat . " Qui t e r i ght . I t woul d be no
gr eat er mi r acl e t hat br ought us i nt o anot her wor l d t o l i ve f or ever
wi t h our dear est t han t hat whi ch has br ought us i nt o t hi s one t o l i ve
a l i f et i me wi t h t hem. Bot h ar e equal l y i ncompr ehensi bl e t o f i ni t e
bei ngs. Let us t her ef or e comf or t our sel ves wi t h ever l ast i ng hope, " as
wi t h enchant ment s, " as Pl at o r ecommends, never f or get t i ng, however ,
t hat we al l have our dut i es her e and t hat t he ki ngdomof heaven i s
wi t hi n us. I t al so passed i nt o an axi omwi t h us t hat he who pr ocl ai ms
t her e i s no her eaf t er i s as f ool i sh as he who pr ocl ai ms t her e i s,
si nce nei t her can know, t hough al l may and shoul d hope. Meanwhi l e
" Home our heaven" i nst ead of " Heaven our home" was our mot t o.

Dur i ng t hese year s of whi ch I have been wr i t i ng, t he f ami l y f or t unes
had been st eadi l y i mpr ovi ng. My t hi r t y- f i ve dol l ar s a mont h had gr own
t o f or t y, an unsol i ci t ed advance havi ng been made by Mr . Scot t . I t was
par t of my dut y t o pay t he men ever y mont h. [ 19] We used checks upon
t he bank and I dr ew my sal ar y i nvar i abl y i n t wo t went y- dol l ar gol d
pi eces. They seemed t o me t he pr et t i est wor ks of ar t i n t he wor l d. I t
was deci ded i n f ami l y counci l t hat we coul d vent ur e t o buy t he l ot and
t he t wo smal l f r ame houses upon i t , i n one of whi ch we had l i ved, and
t he ot her , a f our - r oomed house, whi ch t i l l t hen had been occupi ed by
my Uncl e and Aunt Hogan, who had r emoved el sewher e. I t was t hr ough t he
ai d of my dear Aunt Ai t ken t hat we had been pl aced i n t he smal l house
above t he weaver ' s shop, and i t was now our t ur n t o be abl e t o ask her
t o r et ur n t o t he house t hat f or mer l y had been her own. I n t he same way
af t er we had occupi ed t he f our - r oomed house, Uncl e Hogan havi ng passed
away, we wer e abl e t o r est or e Aunt Hogan t o her ol d home when we
r emoved t o Al t oona. One hundr ed dol l ar s cash was pai d upon pur chase,
and t he t ot al pr i ce, as I r emember , was seven hundr ed dol l ar s. The
st r uggl e t hen was t o make up t he semi - annual payment s of i nt er est and
as gr eat an amount of t he pr i nci pal as we coul d save. I t was not l ong
bef or e t he debt was cl ear ed of f and we wer e pr oper t y- hol der s, but
bef or e t hat was accompl i shed, t he f i r st sad br eak occur r ed i n our
f ami l y, i n my f at her ' s deat h, Oct ober 2, 1855. For t unat el y f or t he
t hr ee r emai ni ng member s l i f e' s dut i es wer e pr essi ng. Sor r ow and dut y
cont ended and we had t o wor k. The expenses connect ed wi t h hi s i l l ness
had t o be saved and pai d and we had not up t o t hi s t i me much st or e i n
r eser ve.

[ Foot not e 19: " I r emember wel l when I used t o wr i t e out t he mont hl y
pay- r ol l and came t o Mr . Scot t ' s name f or $125. I wonder ed what he di d
wi t h i t al l . I was t hen get t i ng t hi r t y- f i ve. " ( Andr ew Car negi e i n
speech at Reuni on of U. S. Mi l i t ar y Tel egr aph Cor ps, Mar ch 28, 1907. ) ]

And her e comes i n one of t he sweet i nci dent s of our ear l y l i f e i n
Amer i ca. The pr i nci pal member of our smal l Swedenbor gi an Soci et y was
Page 47 of 222
Mr . Davi d McCandl ess. He had t aken some not i ce of my f at her and
mot her , but beyond a f ew passi ng wor ds at chur ch on Sundays, I do not
r emember t hat t hey had ever been br ought i n cl ose cont act . He knew
Aunt Ai t ken wel l , however , and now sent f or her t o say t hat i f my
mot her r equi r ed any money assi st ance at t hi s sad per i od he woul d be
ver y pl eased t o advance what ever was necessar y. He had hear d much of
my her oi c mot her and t hat was suf f i ci ent .

One get s so many ki nd of f er s of assi st ance when assi st ance i s no
l onger necessar y, or when one i s i n a posi t i on whi ch woul d pr obabl y
enabl e hi mt o r epay a f avor , t hat i t i s del i ght f ul t o r ecor d an act of
pur e and di si nt er est ed benevol ence. Her e was a poor Scot t i sh woman
ber ef t of her husband, wi t h her el dest son j ust get t i ng a st ar t and a
second i n hi s ear l y t eens, whose mi sf or t unes appeal ed t o t hi s man, and
who i n t he most del i cat e manner sought t o mi t i gat e t hem. Al t hough my
mot her was abl e t o decl i ne t he pr of f er ed ai d, i t i s needl ess t o say
t hat Mr . McCandl ess obt ai ned a pl ace i n our hear t s sacr ed t o hi msel f .
I ama f i r mbel i ever i n t he doct r i ne t hat peopl e deser vi ng necessar y
assi st ance at cr i t i cal per i ods i n t hei r car eer usual l y r ecei ve i t .
Ther e ar e many spl endi d nat ur es i n t he wor l d- - men and women who ar e
not onl y wi l l i ng, but anxi ous t o st r et ch f or t h a hel pi ng hand t o t hose
t hey know t o be wor t hy. As a r ul e, t hose who show wi l l i ngness t o hel p
t hemsel ves need not f ear about obt ai ni ng t he hel p of ot her s.

Fat her ' s deat h t hr ew upon me t he management of af f ai r s t o a gr eat er
ext ent t han ever . Mot her kept on t he bi ndi ng of shoes; Tomwent
st eadi l y t o t he publ i c school ; and I cont i nued wi t h Mr . Scot t i n t he
ser vi ce of t he r ai l r oad company. J ust at t hi s t i me For t unat us knocked
at our door . Mr . Scot t asked me i f I had f i ve hundr ed dol l ar s. I f so,
he sai d he wi shed t o make an i nvest ment f or me. Fi ve hundr ed cent s was
much near er my capi t al . I cer t ai nl y had not f i f t y dol l ar s saved f or
i nvest ment , but I was not goi ng t o mi ss t he chance of becomi ng
f i nanci al l y connect ed wi t h my l eader and gr eat man. So I sai d bol dl y I
t hought I coul d manage t hat sum. He t hen t ol d me t hat t her e wer e t en
shar es of Adams Expr ess st ock t hat he coul d buy, whi ch had bel onged t o
a st at i on agent , Mr . Reynol ds, of Wi l ki nsbur g. Of cour se t hi s was
r epor t ed t o t he head of t he f ami l y t hat eveni ng, and she was not l ong
i n suggest i ng what mi ght be done. When di d she ever f ai l ? We had t hen
pai d f i ve hundr ed dol l ar s upon t he house, and i n some way she t hought
t hi s mi ght be pl edged as secur i t y f or a l oan.

My mot her t ook t he st eamer t he next mor ni ng f or East Li ver pool ,
ar r i vi ng at ni ght , and t hr ough her br ot her t her e t he money was
secur ed. He was a j ust i ce of t he peace, a wel l - known r esi dent of t hat
t hen smal l t own, and had numer ous sums i n hand f r omf ar mer s f or
i nvest ment . Our house was mor t gaged and mot her br ought back t he f i ve
hundr ed dol l ar s whi ch I handed over t o Mr . Scot t , who soon obt ai ned
f or me t he covet ed t en shar es i n r et ur n. Ther e was, unexpect edl y, an
addi t i onal hundr ed dol l ar s t o pay as a pr emi um, but Mr . Scot t ki ndl y
sai d I coul d pay t hat when conveni ent , and t hi s of cour se was an easy
mat t er t o do.

Thi s was my f i r st i nvest ment . I n t hose good ol d days mont hl y
di vi dends wer e mor e pl ent i f ul t han now and Adams Expr ess pai d a
mont hl y di vi dend. One mor ni ng a whi t e envel ope was l yi ng upon my desk,
addr essed i n a bi g J ohn Hancock hand, t o " Andr ew Car negi e, Esqui r e. "
" Esqui r e" t i ckl ed t he boys and me i nor di nat el y. At one cor ner was seen
Page 48 of 222
t he r ound st amp of Adams Expr ess Company. I opened t he envel ope. Al l
i t cont ai ned was a check f or t en dol l ar s upon t he Gol d Exchange Bank
of New Yor k. I shal l r emember t hat check as l ong as I l i ve, and t hat
J ohn Hancock si gnat ur e of " J . C. Babcock, Cashi er . " I t gave me t he
f i r st penny of r evenue f r omcapi t al - - somet hi ng t hat I had not wor ked
f or wi t h t he sweat of my br ow. " Eur eka! " I cr i ed. " Her e' s t he goose
t hat l ays t he gol den eggs. "

I t was t he cust omof our par t y t o spend Sunday af t er noons i n t he
woods. I kept t he f i r st check and showed i t as we sat under t he t r ees
i n a f avor i t e gr ove we had f ound near Wood' s Run. The ef f ect pr oduced
upon my compani ons was over whel mi ng. None of t hemhad i magi ned such an
i nvest ment possi bl e. We r esol ved t o save and t o wat ch f or t he next
oppor t uni t y f or i nvest ment i n whi ch al l of us shoul d shar e, and f or
year s af t er war d we di vi ded our t r i f l i ng i nvest ment s and wor ked
t oget her al most as par t ner s.

Up t o t hi s t i me my ci r cl e of acquai nt ances had not enl ar ged much. Mr s.
Fr anci scus, wi f e of our f r ei ght agent , was ver y ki nd and on sever al
occasi ons asked me t o her house i n Pi t t sbur gh. She of t en spoke of t he
f i r st t i me I r ang t he bel l of t he house i n Thi r d St r eet t o del i ver a
message f r omMr . Scot t . She asked me t o come i n; I bashf ul l y decl i ned
and i t r equi r ed coaxi ng upon her par t t o over come my shyness. She was
never abl e f or year s t o i nduce me t o par t ake of a meal i n her house. I
had gr eat t i mi di t y about goi ng i nt o ot her peopl e' s houses, unt i l l at e
i n l i f e; but Mr . Scot t woul d occasi onal l y i nsi st upon my goi ng t o hi s
hot el and t aki ng a meal wi t h hi m, and t hese wer e gr eat occasi ons f or
me. Mr . Fr anci scus' s was t he f i r st consi der abl e house, wi t h t he
except i on of Mr . Lombaer t ' s at Al t oona, I had ever ent er ed, as f ar as
I r ecol l ect . Ever y house was f ashi onabl e i n my eyes t hat was upon any
one of t he pr i nci pal st r eet s, pr ovi ded i t had a hal l ent r ance.

I had never spent a ni ght i n a st r ange house i n my l i f e unt i l Mr .
St okes of Gr eensbur g, chi ef counsel of t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad,
i nvi t ed me t o hi s beaut i f ul home i n t he count r y t o pass a Sunday. I t
was an odd t hi ng f or Mr . St okes t o do, f or I coul d l i t t l e i nt er est a
br i l l i ant and educat ed man l i ke hi m. The r eason f or my r ecei vi ng such
an honor was a communi cat i on I had wr i t t en f or t he " Pi t t sbur gh
J our nal . " Even i n my t eens I was a scr i bbl er f or t he pr ess. To be an
edi t or was one of my ambi t i ons. Hor ace Gr eel ey and t he " Tr i bune" was
my i deal of human t r i umph. St r ange t hat t her e shoul d have come a day
when I coul d have bought t he " Tr i bune" ; but by t hat t i me t he pear l had
l ost i t s l ust er . Our ai r cast l es ar e of t en wi t hi n our gr asp l at e i n
l i f e, but t hen t hey char mnot .

The subj ect of my ar t i cl e was upon t he at t i t ude of t he ci t y t owar d t he
Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad Company. I t was si gned anonymousl y and I was
sur pr i sed t o f i nd i t got a pr omi nent pl ace i n t he col umns of t he
" J our nal , " t hen owned and edi t ed by Rober t M. Ri ddl e. I , as oper at or ,
r ecei ved a t el egr amaddr essed t o Mr . Scot t and si gned by Mr . St okes,
aski ng hi mt o ascer t ai n f r omMr . Ri ddl e who t he aut hor of t hat
communi cat i on was. I knew t hat Mr . Ri ddl e coul d not t el l t he aut hor ,
because he di d not know hi m; but at t he same t i me I was af r ai d t hat i f
Mr . Scot t cal l ed upon hi mhe woul d hand hi mt he manuscr i pt , whi ch Mr .
Scot t woul d cer t ai nl y r ecogni ze at a gl ance. I t her ef or e made a cl ean
br east of i t t o Mr . Scot t and t ol d hi mI was t he aut hor . He seemed
i ncr edul ous. He sai d he had r ead i t t hat mor ni ng and wonder ed who had
Page 49 of 222
wr i t t en i t . Hi s i ncr edul ous l ook di d not pass me unnot i ced. The pen
was get t i ng t o be a weapon wi t h me. Mr . St okes' s i nvi t at i on t o spend
Sunday wi t h hi mf ol l owed soon af t er , and t he vi si t i s one of t he
br i ght spot s i n my l i f e. Hencef or t h we wer e gr eat f r i ends.

The gr andeur of Mr . St okes' s home i mpr essed me, but t he one f eat ur e of
i t t hat ecl i psed al l el se was a mar bl e mant el i n hi s l i br ar y. I n t he
cent er of t he ar ch, car ved i n t he mar bl e, was an open book wi t h t hi s
i nscr i pt i on:

" He t hat cannot r eason i s a f ool ,
He t hat wi l l not a bi got ,
He t hat dar e not a sl ave. "

These nobl e wor ds t hr i l l ed me. I sai d t o mysel f , " Some day, some day,
I ' l l have a l i br ar y" ( t hat was a l ook ahead) " and t hese wor ds shal l
gr ace t he mant el as her e. " And so t hey do i n New Yor k and Ski bo
t o- day.

Anot her Sunday whi ch I spent at hi s home af t er an i nt er val of sever al
year s was al so not ewor t hy. I had t hen become t he super i nt endent of t he
Pi t t sbur gh Di vi si on of t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad. The Sout h had
seceded. I was al l af l ame f or t he f l ag. Mr . St okes, bei ng a l eadi ng
Democr at , ar gued agai nst t he r i ght of t he Nor t h t o use f or ce f or t he
pr eser vat i on of t he Uni on. He gave vent t o sent i ment s whi ch caused me
t o l ose my sel f - cont r ol , and I excl ai med:

" Mr . St okes, we shal l be hangi ng men l i ke you i n l ess t han si x weeks. "

I hear hi s l augh as I wr i t e, and hi s voi ce cal l i ng t o hi s wi f e i n t he
adj oi ni ng r oom:

" Nancy, Nancy, l i st en t o t hi s young Scot ch devi l . He says t hey wi l l be
hangi ng men l i ke me i n l ess t han si x weeks. "

St r ange t hi ngs happened i n t hose days. A shor t t i me af t er , t hat same
Mr . St okes was appl yi ng t o me i n Washi ngt on t o hel p hi mt o a maj or ' s
commi ssi on i n t he vol unt eer f or ces. I was t hen i n t he Secr et ar y of
War ' s of f i ce, hel pi ng t o manage t he mi l i t ar y r ai l r oads and t el egr aphs
f or t he Gover nment . Thi s appoi nt ment he secur ed and ever af t er was
Maj or St okes, so t hat t he man who doubt ed t he r i ght of t he Nor t h t o
f i ght f or t he Uni on had hi msel f dr awn swor d i n t he good cause. Men at
f i r st ar gued and t heor i zed about Const i t ut i onal r i ght s. I t made al l
t he di f f er ence i n t he wor l d when t he f l ag was f i r ed upon. I n a moment
ever yt hi ng was abl aze- - paper const i t ut i ons i ncl uded. The Uni on and Ol d
Gl or y! That was al l t he peopl e car ed f or , but t hat was enough. The
Const i t ut i on was i nt ended t o i nsur e one f l ag, and as Col onel I nger sol l
pr ocl ai med: " Ther e was not ai r enough on t he Amer i can cont i nent t o
f l oat t wo. "



Page 50 of 222
CHAPTER VII

SUPERINTENDENT OF THE PENNSYLVANIA


Mr . Scot t was pr omot ed t o be t he gener al super i nt endent of t he
Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad i n 1856, t aki ng Mr . Lombaer t ' s pl ace; and he
t ook me, t hen i n my t went y- t hi r d year , wi t h hi mt o Al t oona. Thi s
br eaki ng- up of associ at i ons i n Pi t t sbur gh was a sor e t r i al , but
not hi ng coul d be al l owed t o i nt er f er e f or a moment wi t h my busi ness
car eer . My mot her was sat i sf i ed upon t hi s poi nt , gr eat as t he st r ai n
was upon her . Besi des, " f ol l ow my l eader " was due t o so t r ue a f r i end
as Mr . Scot t had been.

Hi s pr omot i on t o t he super i nt endency gave r i se t o some j eal ousy; and
besi des t hat , he was conf r ont ed wi t h a st r i ke at t he ver y begi nni ng of
hi s appoi nt ment . He had l ost hi s wi f e i n Pi t t sbur gh a shor t t i me
bef or e and had hi s l onel y hour s. He was a st r anger i n Al t oona, hi s new
headquar t er s, and t her e was none but mysel f seemi ngl y of whomhe coul d
make a compani on. We l i ved f or many weeks at t he r ai l way hot el
t oget her bef or e he t ook up housekeepi ng and br ought hi s chi l dr en f r om
Pi t t sbur gh, and at hi s desi r e I occupi ed t he same l ar ge bedr oomwi t h
hi m. He seemed anxi ous al ways t o have me near hi m.

The st r i ke became mor e and mor e t hr eat eni ng. I r emember bei ng wakened
one ni ght and t ol d t hat t he f r ei ght - t r ai n men had l ef t t hei r t r ai ns at
Mi f f l i n; t hat t he l i ne was bl ocked on t hi s account and al l t r af f i c
st opped. Mr . Scot t was t hen sl eepi ng soundl y. I t seemed t o me a pi t y
t o di st ur b hi m, knowi ng how over wor ked and over anxi ous he was; but he
awoke and I suggest ed t hat I shoul d go up and at t end t o t he mat t er .
He seemed t o mur mur assent , not bei ng mor e t han hal f awake. So I went
t o t he of f i ce and i n hi s name ar gued t he quest i on wi t h t he men and
pr omi sed t hema hear i ng next day at Al t oona. I succeeded i n get t i ng
t hemt o r esume t hei r dut i es and t o st ar t t he t r af f i c.

Not onl y wer e t he t r ai nmen i n a r ebel l i ous mood, but t he men i n t he
shops wer e r api dl y or gani zi ng t o j oi n wi t h t he di saf f ect ed. Thi s I
l ear ned i n a cur i ous manner . One ni ght , as I was wal ki ng home i n t he
dar k, I became awar e t hat a man was f ol l owi ng me. By and by he came up
t o me and sai d:

" I must not be seen wi t h you, but you di d me a f avor once and I t hen
r esol ved i f ever I coul d ser ve you I woul d do i t . I cal l ed at t he
of f i ce i n Pi t t sbur gh and asked f or wor k as a bl acksmi t h. You sai d
t her e was no wor k t hen at Pi t t sbur gh, but per haps empl oyment coul d be
had at Al t oona, and i f I woul d wai t a f ew mi nut es you woul d ask by
t el egr aph. You t ook t he t r oubl e t o do so, exami ned my r ecommendat i ons,
and gave me a pass and sent me her e. I have a spl endi d j ob. My wi f e
and f ami l y ar e her e and I was never so wel l si t uat ed i n my l i f e. And
now I want t o t el l you somet hi ng f or your good. "

I l i st ened and he went on t o say t hat a paper was bei ng r api dl y si gned
by t he shopmen, pl edgi ng t hemsel ves t o st r i ke on Monday next . Ther e
was no t i me t o be l ost . I t ol d Mr . Scot t i n t he mor ni ng and he at once
had pr i nt ed not i ces post ed i n t he shops t hat al l men who had si gned
t he paper , pl edgi ng t hemsel ves t o st r i ke, wer e di smi ssed and t hey
Page 51 of 222
shoul d cal l at t he of f i ce t o be pai d. A l i st of t he names of t he
si gner s had come i nt o our possessi on i n t he meant i me, and t hi s f act
was announced. Const er nat i on f ol l owed and t he t hr eat ened st r i ke was
br oken.

I have had many i nci dent s, such as t hat of t he bl acksmi t h, i n my l i f e.
Sl i ght at t ent i ons or a ki nd wor d t o t he humbl e of t en br i ng back r ewar d
as gr eat as i t i s unl ooked f or . No ki nd act i on i s ever l ost . Even t o
t hi s day I occasi onal l y meet men whomI had f or got t en, who r ecal l some
t r i f l i ng at t ent i on I have been abl e t o pay t hem, especi al l y when i n
char ge at Washi ngt on of gover nment r ai l ways and t el egr aphs dur i ng t he
Ci vi l War , when I coul d pass peopl e wi t hi n t he l i nes- - a f at her hel ped
t o r each a wounded or si ck son at t he f r ont , or enabl ed t o br i ng home
hi s r emai ns, or some si mi l ar ser vi ce. I ami ndebt ed t o t hese t r i f l es
f or some of t he happi est at t ent i ons and t he most pl easi ng i nci dent s of
my l i f e. And t her e i s t hi s about such act i ons: t hey ar e di si nt er est ed,
and t he r ewar d i s sweet i n pr opor t i on t o t he humbl eness of t he
i ndi vi dual whomyou have obl i ged. I t count s many t i mes mor e t o do a
ki ndness t o a poor wor ki ng- man t han t o a mi l l i onai r e, who may be abl e
some day t o r epay t he f avor . How t r ue Wor dswor t h' s l i nes:

" That best por t i on of a good man' s l i f e- -
Hi s l i t t l e, namel ess, unr emember ed act s
Of ki ndness and of l ove. "

The chi ef happeni ng, j udged by i t s consequences, of t he t wo year s I
spent wi t h Mr . Scot t at Al t oona, ar ose f r ommy bei ng t he pr i nci pal
wi t ness i n a sui t agai nst t he company, whi ch was bei ng t r i ed at
Gr eensbur g by t he br i l l i ant Maj or St okes, my f i r st host . I t was f ear ed
t hat I was about t o be subpoenaed by t he pl ai nt i f f , and t he Maj or ,
wi shi ng a post ponement of t he case, asked Mr . Scot t t o send me out of
t he St at e as r api dl y as possi bl e. Thi s was a happy change f or me, as I
was enabl ed t o vi si t my t wo bosomcompani ons, Mi l l er and Wi l son, t hen
i n t he r ai l way ser vi ce at Cr est l i ne, Ohi o. On my way t hi t her , whi l e
si t t i ng on t he end seat of t he r ear car wat chi ng t he l i ne, a
f ar mer - l ooki ng man appr oached me. He car r i ed a smal l gr een bag i n hi s
hand. He sai d t he br akeman had i nf or med hi mI was connect ed wi t h t he
Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad. He wi shed t o show me t he model of a car whi ch
he had i nvent ed f or ni ght t r avel i ng. He t ook a smal l model out of t he
bag, whi ch showed a sect i on of a sl eepi ng- car .

Thi s was t he cel ebr at ed T. T. Woodr uf f , t he i nvent or of t hat now
i ndi spensabl e adj unct of ci vi l i zat i on- - t he sl eepi ng- car . I t s
i mpor t ance f l ashed upon me. I asked hi mi f he woul d come t o Al t oona i f
I sent f or hi m, and I pr omi sed t o l ay t he mat t er bef or e Mr . Scot t at
once upon my r et ur n. I coul d not get t hat sl eepi ng- car i dea out of my
mi nd, and was most anxi ous t o r et ur n t o Al t oona t hat I mi ght pr ess my
vi ews upon Mr . Scot t . When I di d so, he t hought I was t aki ng t i me by
t he f or el ock, but was qui t e r ecept i ve and sai d I mi ght t el egr aph f or
t he pat ent ee. He came and cont r act ed t o pl ace t wo of hi s car s upon t he
l i ne as soon as t hey coul d be bui l t . Af t er t hi s Mr . Woodr uf f , gr eat l y
t o my sur pr i se, asked me i f I woul d not j oi n hi mi n t he new ent er pr i se
and of f er ed me an ei ght h i nt er est i n t he vent ur e.

I pr ompt l y accept ed hi s of f er , t r ust i ng t o be abl e t o make payment s
somehow or ot her . The t wo car s wer e t o be pai d f or by mont hl y
i nst al l ment s af t er del i ver y. When t he t i me came f or maki ng t he f i r st
Page 52 of 222
payment , my por t i on was t wo hundr ed and sevent een and a hal f dol l ar s.
I bol dl y deci ded t o appl y t o t he l ocal banker , Mr . Ll oyd, f or a l oan
of t hat sum. I expl ai ned t he mat t er t o hi m, and I r emember t hat he put
hi s gr eat ar m( he was si x f eet t hr ee or f our ) ar ound me, sayi ng:

" Why, of cour se I wi l l l end i t . You ar e al l r i ght , Andy. "

And her e I made my f i r st not e, and act ual l y got a banker t o t ake i t . A
pr oud moment t hat i n a young man' s car eer ! The sl eepi ng- car s wer e a
gr eat success and t hei r mont hl y r ecei pt s pai d t he mont hl y
i nst al l ment s. The f i r st consi der abl e sumI made was f r omt hi s sour ce.
[ To- day, J ul y 19, 1909, as I r e- r ead t hi s, how gl ad I amt hat I have
r ecent l y hear d f r omMr . Ll oyd' s mar r i ed daught er t el l i ng me of her
f at her ' s deep af f ect i on f or me, t hus maki ng me ver y happy, i ndeed. ]

One i mpor t ant change i n our l i f e at Al t oona, af t er my mot her and
br ot her ar r i ved, was t hat , i nst ead of cont i nui ng t o l i ve excl usi vel y
by our sel ves, i t was consi der ed necessar y t hat we shoul d have a
ser vant . I t was wi t h t he gr eat est r el uct ance my mot her coul d be
br ought t o admi t a st r anger i nt o t he f ami l y ci r cl e. She had been
ever yt hi ng and had done ever yt hi ng f or her t wo boys. Thi s was her
l i f e, and she r esent ed wi t h al l a st r ong woman' s j eal ousy t he
i nt r oduct i on of a st r anger who was t o be per mi t t ed t o do anyt hi ng
what ever i n t he home. She had cooked and ser ved her boys, washed t hei r
cl ot hes and mended t hem, made t hei r beds, cl eaned t hei r home. Who dar e
r ob her of t hose mot her l y pr i vi l eges! But never t hel ess we coul d not
escape t he i nevi t abl e ser vant gi r l . One came, and ot her s f ol l owed, and
wi t h t hese came al so t he dest r uct i on of much of t hat genui ne f ami l y
happi ness whi ch f l ows f r omexcl usi veness. Bei ng ser ved by ot her s i s a
poor subst i t ut e f or a mot her ' s l abor of l ove. The ost ent at i ous meal
pr epar ed by a st r ange cook whomone sel domsees, and ser ved by hands
pai d f or t he t ask, l acks t he sweet ness of t hat whi ch a mot her ' s hands
l ay bef or e you as t he expr essi on and pr oof of her devot i on.

Among t he mani f ol d bl essi ngs I have t o be t hankf ul f or i s t hat nei t her
nur se nor gover ness was my compani on i n i nf ancy. No wonder t he
chi l dr en of t he poor ar e di st i ngui shed f or t he war mest af f ect i on and
t he cl osest adher ence t o f ami l y t i es and ar e char act er i zed by a f i l i al
r egar d f ar st r onger t han t hat of t hose who ar e mi st akenl y cal l ed mor e
f or t unat e i n l i f e. They have passed t he i mpr essi onabl e year s of
chi l dhood and yout h i n const ant l ovi ng cont act wi t h f at her and mot her ,
t o each t hey ar e al l i n al l , no t hi r d per son comi ng bet ween. The chi l d
t hat has i n hi s f at her a t eacher , compani on, and counsel or , and whose
mot her i s t o hi ma nur se, seamst r ess, gover ness, t eacher , compani on,
her oi ne, and sai nt al l i n one, has a her i t age t o whi ch t he chi l d of
weal t h r emai ns a st r anger .

Ther e comes a t i me, al t hough t he f ond mot her cannot see i t , when a
gr own son has t o put hi s ar ms ar ound hi s sai nt and ki ssi ng her
t ender l y t r y t o expl ai n t o her t hat i t woul d be much bet t er wer e she
t o l et hi mhel p her i n some ways; t hat , bei ng out i n t he wor l d among
men and deal i ng wi t h af f ai r s, he somet i mes sees changes whi ch i t woul d
be desi r abl e t o make; t hat t he mode of l i f e del i ght f ul f or young boys
shoul d be changed i n some r espect s and t he house made sui t abl e f or
t hei r f r i ends t o ent er . Especi al l y shoul d t he sl avi ng mot her l i ve t he
l i f e of ease her eaf t er , r eadi ng and vi si t i ng mor e and ent er t ai ni ng
dear f r i ends- - i n shor t , r i si ng t o her pr oper and deser ved posi t i on as
Page 53 of 222
Her Ladyshi p.

Of cour se t he change was ver y har d upon my mot her , but she f i nal l y
r ecogni zed t he necessi t y f or i t , pr obabl y r eal i zed f or t he f i r st t i me
t hat her el dest son was get t i ng on. " Dear Mot her , " I pl eaded, my ar ms
st i l l ar ound her , " you have done ever yt hi ng f or and have been
ever yt hi ng t o Tomand me, and now do l et me do somet hi ng f or you; l et
us be par t ner s and l et us al ways t hi nk what i s best f or each ot her .
The t i me has come f or you t o pl ay t he l ady and some of t hese days you
ar e t o r i de i n your car r i age; meanwhi l e do get t hat gi r l i n t o hel p
you. Tomand I woul d l i ke t hi s. "

The vi ct or y was won, and my mot her began t o go out wi t h us and vi si t
her nei ghbor s. She had not t o l ear n sel f - possessi on nor good manner s,
t hese wer e i nnat e; and as f or educat i on, knowl edge, r ar e good sense,
and ki ndl i ness, sel domwas she t o meet her equal . I wr ot e " never "
i nst ead of " sel dom" and t hen st r uck i t out . Never t hel ess my pr i vat e
opi ni on i s r eser ved.

Li f e at Al t oona was made mor e agr eeabl e f or me t hr ough Mr . Scot t ' s
ni ece, Mi ss Rebecca St ewar t , who kept house f or hi m. She pl ayed t he
par t of el der si st er t o me t o per f ect i on, especi al l y when Mr . Scot t
was cal l ed t o Phi l adel phi a or el sewher e. We wer e much t oget her , of t en
dr i vi ng i n t he af t er noons t hr ough t he woods. The i nt i macy di d not
cease f or many year s, and r e- r eadi ng some of her l et t er s i n 1906 I
r eal i zed mor e t han ever my i ndebt edness t o her . She was not much
beyond my own age, but al ways seemed a gr eat deal ol der . Cer t ai nl y she
was mor e mat ur e and qui t e capabl e of pl ayi ng t he el der si st er ' s par t .
I t was t o her I l ooked up i n t hose days as t he per f ect l ady. Sor r y am
I our pat hs par t ed so wi del y i n l at er year s. Her daught er mar r i ed t he
Ear l of Sussex and her home i n l at e year s has been abr oad. [ J ul y 19,
1909, Mr s. Car negi e and I f ound my el der - si st er f r i end Apr i l l ast , now
i n wi dowhood, i n Par i s, her si st er and al so her daught er al l wel l and
happy. A gr eat pl easur e, i ndeed. Ther e ar e no subst i t ut es f or t he t r ue
f r i ends of yout h. ]

Mr . Scot t r emai ned at Al t oona f or about t hr ee year s when deser ved
pr omot i on came t o hi m. I n 1859 he was made vi ce- pr esi dent of t he
company, wi t h hi s of f i ce i n Phi l adel phi a. What was t o become of me was
a ser i ous quest i on. Woul d he t ake me wi t h hi mor must I r emai n at
Al t oona wi t h t he new of f i ci al ? The t hought was t o me unbear abl e. To
par t wi t h Mr . Scot t was har d enough; t o ser ve a new of f i ci al i n hi s
pl ace I di d not bel i eve possi bl e. The sun r ose and set upon hi s head
so f ar as I was concer ned. The t hought of my pr omot i on, except t hr ough
hi m, never ent er ed my mi nd.

He r et ur ned f r omhi s i nt er vi ew wi t h t he pr esi dent at Phi l adel phi a and
asked me t o come i nt o t he pr i vat e r oomi n hi s house whi ch communi cat ed
wi t h t he of f i ce. He t ol d me i t had been set t l ed t hat he shoul d r emove
t o Phi l adel phi a. Mr . Enoch Lewi s, t he di vi si on super i nt endent , was t o
be hi s successor . I l i st ened wi t h gr eat i nt er est as he appr oached t he
i nevi t abl e di scl osur e as t o what he was goi ng t o do wi t h me. He sai d
f i nal l y:

" Now about your sel f . Do you t hi nk you coul d manage t he Pi t t sbur gh
Di vi si on?"

Page 54 of 222
I was at an age when I t hought I coul d manage anyt hi ng. I knew not hi ng
t hat I woul d not at t empt , but i t had never occur r ed t o me t hat anybody
el se, much l ess Mr . Scot t , woul d ent er t ai n t he i dea t hat I was as yet
f i t t o do anyt hi ng of t he ki nd pr oposed. I was onl y t went y- f our year s
ol d, but my model t hen was Lor d J ohn Russel l , of whomi t was sai d he
woul d t ake t he command of t he Channel Fl eet t o- mor r ow. So woul d
Wal l ace or Br uce. I t ol d Mr . Scot t I t hought I coul d.

" Wel l , " he sai d, " Mr . Pot t s" ( who was t hen super i nt endent of t he
Pi t t sbur gh Di vi si on) " i s t o be pr omot ed t o t he t r anspor t at i on
depar t ment i n Phi l adel phi a and I r ecommended you t o t he pr esi dent as
hi s successor . He agr eed t o gi ve you a t r i al . What sal ar y do you t hi nk
you shoul d have?"

" Sal ar y, " I sai d, qui t e of f ended; " what do I car e f or sal ar y? I do not
want t he sal ar y; I want t he posi t i on. I t i s gl or y enough t o go back
t o t he Pi t t sbur gh Di vi si on i n your f or mer pl ace. You can make my
sal ar y j ust what you pl ease and you need not gi ve me any mor e t han
what I amget t i ng now. "

That was si xt y- f i ve dol l ar s a mont h.

" You know, " he sai d, " I r ecei ved f i f t een hundr ed dol l ar s a year when I
was t her e; and Mr . Pot t s i s r ecei vi ng ei ght een hundr ed. I t hi nk i t
woul d be r i ght t o st ar t you at f i f t een hundr ed dol l ar s, and af t er a
whi l e i f you succeed you wi l l get t he ei ght een hundr ed. Woul d t hat be
sat i sf act or y?"

" Oh, pl ease, " I sai d, " don' t speak t o me of money! "

I t was not a case of mer e hi r e and sal ar y, and t hen and t her e my
pr omot i on was seal ed. I was t o have a depar t ment t o mysel f , and
i nst ead of si gni ng " T. A. S. " or der s bet ween Pi t t sbur gh and Al t oona
woul d now be si gned " A. C. " That was gl or y enough f or me.

The or der appoi nt i ng me super i nt endent of t he Pi t t sbur gh Di vi si on was
i ssued December 1, 1859. Pr epar at i ons f or r emovi ng t he f ami l y wer e
made at once. The change was hai l ed wi t h j oy, f or al t hough our
r esi dence i n Al t oona had many advant ages, especi al l y as we had a l ar ge
house wi t h some gr ound about i t i n a pl easant par t of t he subur bs and
t her ef or e many of t he pl easur es of count r y l i f e, al l t hese di d not
wei gh as a f eat her i n t he scal e as agai nst t he r et ur n t o ol d f r i ends
and associ at i ons i n di r t y, smoky Pi t t sbur gh. My br ot her Tomhad
l ear ned t el egr aphy dur i ng hi s r esi dence i n Al t oona and he r et ur ned
wi t h me and became my secr et ar y.

The wi nt er f ol l owi ng my appoi nt ment was one of t he most sever e ever
known. The l i ne was poor l y const r uct ed, t he equi pment i nef f i ci ent and
t ot al l y i nadequat e f or t he busi ness t hat was cr owdi ng upon i t . The
r ai l s wer e l ai d upon huge bl ocks of st one, cast - i r on chai r s f or
hol di ng t he r ai l s wer e used, and I have known as many as f or t y- seven
of t hese t o br eak i n one ni ght . No wonder t he wr ecks wer e f r equent .
The super i nt endent of a di vi si on i n t hose days was expect ed t o r un
t r ai ns by t el egr aph at ni ght , t o go out and r emove al l wr ecks, and
i ndeed t o do ever yt hi ng. At one t i me f or ei ght days I was const ant l y
upon t he l i ne, day and ni ght , at one wr eck or obst r uct i on af t er
anot her . I was pr obabl y t he most i nconsi der at e super i nt endent t hat
Page 55 of 222
ever was ent r ust ed wi t h t he management of a gr eat pr oper t y, f or , never
knowi ng f at i gue mysel f , bei ng kept up by a sense of r esponsi bi l i t y
pr obabl y, I over wor ked t he men and was not car ef ul enough i n
consi der i ng t he l i mi t s of human endur ance. I have al ways been abl e t o
sl eep at any t i me. Snat ches of hal f an hour at i nt er val s dur i ng t he
ni ght i n a di r t y f r ei ght car wer e suf f i ci ent .

The Ci vi l War br ought such ext r aor di nar y demands on t he Pennsyl vani a
l i ne t hat I was at l ast compel l ed t o or gani ze a ni ght f or ce; but i t
was wi t h di f f i cul t y I obt ai ned t he consent of my super i or s t o ent r ust
t he char ge of t he l i ne at ni ght t o a t r ai n di spat cher . I ndeed, I never
di d get t hei r unequi vocal aut hor i t y t o do so, but upon my own
r esponsi bi l i t y I appoi nt ed per haps t he f i r st ni ght t r ai n di spat cher
t hat ever act ed i n Amer i ca- - at l east he was t he f i r st upon t he
Pennsyl vani a syst em.

Upon our r et ur n t o Pi t t sbur gh i n 1860 we r ent ed a house i n Hancock
St r eet , now Ei ght h St r eet , and r esi ded t her e f or a year or mor e. Any
accur at e descr i pt i on of Pi t t sbur gh at t hat t i me woul d be set down as a
pi ece of t he gr ossest exagger at i on. The smoke per meat ed and penet r at ed
ever yt hi ng. I f you pl aced your hand on t he bal ust r ade of t he st ai r i t
came away bl ack; i f you washed f ace and hands t hey wer e as di r t y as
ever i n an hour . The soot gat her ed i n t he hai r and i r r i t at ed t he ski n,
and f or a t i me af t er our r et ur n f r omt he mount ai n at mospher e of
Al t oona, l i f e was mor e or l ess mi ser abl e. We soon began t o consi der
how we coul d get t o t he count r y, and f or t unat el y at t hat t i me Mr . D. A.
St ewar t , t hen f r ei ght agent f or t he company, di r ect ed our at t ent i on t o
a house adj oi ni ng hi s r esi dence at Homewood. We moved t her e at once
and t he t el egr aph was br ought i n, whi ch enabl ed me t o oper at e t he
di vi si on f r omt he house when necessar y.

Her e a new l i f e was opened t o us. Ther e wer e count r y l anes and gar dens
i n abundance. Resi dences had f r omf i ve t o t went y acr es of l and about
t hem. The Homewood Est at e was made up of many hundr eds of acr es, wi t h
beaut i f ul woods and gl ens and a r unni ng br ook. We, t oo, had a gar den
and a consi der abl e ext ent of gr ound ar ound our house. The happi est
year s of my mot her ' s l i f e wer e spent her e among her f l ower s and
chi ckens and t he sur r oundi ngs of count r y l i f e. Her l ove of f l ower s was
a passi on. She was scar cel y ever abl e t o gat her a f l ower . I ndeed I
r emember she once r epr oached me f or pul l i ng up a weed, sayi ng " i t was
somet hi ng gr een. " I have i nher i t ed t hi s pecul i ar i t y and have of t en
wal ked f r omt he house t o t he gat e i nt endi ng t o pul l a f l ower f or my
but t on- hol e and t hen l ef t f or t own unabl e t o f i nd one I coul d dest r oy.

Wi t h t hi s change t o t he count r y came a whol e host of new
acquai nt ances. Many of t he weal t hy f ami l i es of t he di st r i ct had t hei r
r esi dences i n t hi s del i ght f ul subur b. I t was, so t o speak, t he
ar i st ocr at i c quar t er . To t he ent er t ai nment s at t hese gr eat houses t he
young super i nt endent was i nvi t ed. The young peopl e wer e musi cal and we
had musi cal eveni ngs a pl ent y. I hear d subj ect s di scussed whi ch I had
never known bef or e, and I made i t a r ul e when I hear d t hese t o l ear n
somet hi ng about t hemat once. I was pl eased ever y day t o f eel t hat I
was l ear ni ng somet hi ng new.

I t was her e t hat I f i r st met t he Vandevor t br ot her s, Benj ami n and
J ohn. The l at t er was my t r avel i ng- compani on on var i ous t r i ps whi ch I
t ook l at er i n l i f e. " Dear Vandy" appear s as my chumi n " Round t he
Page 56 of 222
Wor l d. " Our nei ghbor s, Mr . and Mr s. St ewar t , became mor e and mor e dear
t o us, and t he acquai nt ance we had bef or e r i pened i nt o l ast i ng
f r i endshi p. One of my pl easur es i s t hat Mr . St ewar t subsequent l y
embar ked i n busi ness wi t h us and became a par t ner , as " Vandy" di d
al so. Gr eat est of al l t he benef i t s of our new home, however , was
maki ng t he acquai nt ance of t he l eadi ng f ami l y of West er n Pennsyl vani a,
t hat of t he Honor abl e J udge Wi l ki ns. The J udge was t hen appr oachi ng
hi s ei ght i et h year , t al l , sl ender , and handsome, i n f ul l possessi on of
al l hi s f acul t i es, wi t h a cour t l y gr ace of manner , and t he most
wonder f ul st or e of knowl edge and r emi ni scence of any man I had yet
been pr i vi l eged t o meet . Hi s wi f e, t he daught er of Geor ge W. Dal l as,
Vi ce- Pr esi dent of t he Uni t ed St at es, has ever been my t ype of gr aci ous
womanhood i n age- - t he most beaut i f ul , most char mi ng vener abl e ol d l ady
I ever knew or saw. Her daught er , Mi ss Wi l ki ns, wi t h her si st er , Mr s.
Saunder s, and her chi l dr en r esi ded i n t he st at el y mansi on at Homewood,
whi ch was t o t he sur r oundi ng di st r i ct what t he bar oni al hal l i n
Br i t ai n i s or shoul d be t o i t s di st r i ct - - t he cent er of al l t hat was
cul t ur ed, r ef i ned, and el evat i ng.

To me i t was especi al l y pl easi ng t hat I seemed t o be a wel come guest
t her e. Musi cal par t i es, char ades, and t heat r i cal s i n whi ch Mi ss
Wi l ki ns t ook t he l eadi ng par t s f ur ni shed me wi t h anot her means of
sel f - i mpr ovement . The J udge hi msel f was t he f i r st man of hi st or i cal
not e whomI had ever known. I shal l never f or get t he i mpr essi on i t
made upon me when i n t he cour se of conver sat i on, wi shi ng t o i l l ust r at e
a r emar k, he sai d: " Pr esi dent J ackson once sai d t o me, " or , " I t ol d
t he Duke of Wel l i ngt on so and so. " The J udge i n hi s ear l i er l i f e
( 1834) had been Mi ni st er t o Russi a under J ackson, and i n t he same easy
way spoke of hi s i nt er vi ew wi t h t he Czar . I t seemed t o me t hat I was
t ouchi ng hi st or y i t sel f . The house was a new at mospher e, and my
i nt er cour se wi t h t he f ami l y was a power f ul st i mul ant t o t he desi r e f or
i mpr ovement of my own mi nd and manner s.

The onl y subj ect upon whi ch t her e was al ways a deci ded, t hough si l ent ,
ant agoni smbet ween t he Wi l ki ns f ami l y and mysel f was pol i t i cs. I was
an ar dent Fr ee- Soi l er i n days when t o be an abol i t i oni st was somewhat
aki n t o bei ng a r epubl i can i n Br i t ai n. The Wi l ki nses wer e st r ong
Democr at s wi t h l eani ngs t owar d t he Sout h, bei ng cl osel y connect ed wi t h
l eadi ng Sout her n f ami l i es. On one occasi on at Homewood, on ent er i ng
t he dr awi ng- r oom, I f ound t he f ami l y exci t edl y conver si ng about a
t er r i bl e i nci dent t hat had r ecent l y occur r ed.

" What do you t hi nk! " sai d Mr s. Wi l ki ns t o me; " Dal l as" ( her gr andson)
" wr i t es me t hat he has been compel l ed by t he commandant of West Poi nt
t o si t next a negr o! Di d you ever hear t he l i ke of t hat ? I s i t not
di sgr acef ul ? Negr oes admi t t ed t o West Poi nt ! "

" Oh! " I sai d, " Mr s. Wi l ki ns, t her e i s somet hi ng even wor se t han t hat .
I under st and t hat some of t hemhave been admi t t ed t o heaven! "

Ther e was a si l ence t hat coul d be f el t . Then dear Mr s. Wi l ki ns sai d
gr avel y:

" That i s a di f f er ent mat t er , Mr . Car negi e. "

By f ar t he most pr eci ous gi f t ever r ecei ved by me up t o t hat t i me came
about i n t hi s manner . Dear Mr s. Wi l ki ns began kni t t i ng an af ghan, and
Page 57 of 222
dur i ng t he wor k many wer e t he i nqui r i es as t o whomi t was f or . No,
t he dear queenl y ol d l ady woul d not t el l ; she kept her secr et al l t he
l ong mont hs unt i l , Chr i st mas dr awi ng near , t he gi f t f i ni shed and
car ef ul l y wr apped up, and her car d wi t h a f ew l ovi ng wor ds encl osed,
she i nst r uct ed her daught er t o addr ess i t t o me. I t was dul y r ecei ved
i n New Yor k. Such a t r i but e f r omsuch a l ady! Wel l , t hat af ghan,
t hough of t en shown t o dear f r i ends, has not been much used. I t i s
sacr ed t o me and r emai ns among my pr eci ous possessi ons.

I had been so f or t unat e as t o meet Lei l a Addi son whi l e l i vi ng i n
Pi t t sbur gh, t he t al ent ed daught er of Dr . Addi son, who had di ed a shor t
t i me bef or e. I soon became acquai nt ed wi t h t he f ami l y and r ecor d wi t h
gr at ef ul f eel i ngs t he i mmense advant age whi ch t hat acquai nt ance al so
br ought t o me. Her e was anot her f r i endshi p f or med wi t h peopl e who had
al l t he advant ages of t he hi gher educat i on. Car l yl e had been Mr s.
Addi son' s t ut or f or a t i me, f or she was an Edi nbur gh l ady. Her
daught er s had been educat ed abr oad and spoke Fr ench, Spani sh, and
I t al i an as f l uent l y as Engl i sh. I t was t hr ough i nt er cour se wi t h t hi s
f ami l y t hat I f i r st r eal i zed t he i ndescr i babl e yet i mmeasur abl e gul f
t hat separ at es t he hi ghl y educat ed f r ompeopl e l i ke mysel f . But " t he
wee dr ap o' Scot ch bl ui d at ween us" pr oved i t s pot ency as usual .

Mi ss Addi son became an i deal f r i end because she under t ook t o i mpr ove
t he r ough di amond, i f i t wer e i ndeed a di amond at al l . She was my best
f r i end, because my sever est cr i t i c. I began t o pay st r i ct at t ent i on t o
my l anguage, and t o t he Engl i sh cl assi cs, whi ch I now r ead wi t h gr eat
avi di t y. I began al so t o not i ce how much bet t er i t was t o be gent l e i n
t one and manner , pol i t e and cour t eous t o al l - - i n shor t , bet t er
behaved. Up t o t hi s t i me I had been, per haps, car el ess i n dr ess and
r at her af f ect ed i t . Gr eat heavy boot s, l oose col l ar , and gener al
r oughness of at t i r e wer e t hen pecul i ar t o t he West and i n our ci r cl e
consi der ed manl y. Anyt hi ng t hat coul d be l abel ed f oppi sh was l ooked
upon wi t h cont empt . I r emember t he f i r st gent l eman I ever saw i n t he
ser vi ce of t he r ai l way company who wor e ki d gl oves. He was t he obj ect
of der i si on among us who aspi r ed t o be manl y men. I was a gr eat deal
t he bet t er i n al l t hese r espect s af t er we moved t o Homewood, owi ng t o
t he Addi sons.



Page 58 of 222
CHAPTER VIII

CIVIL WAR PERIOD


I n 1861 t he Ci vi l War br oke out and I was at once summoned t o
Washi ngt on by Mr . Scot t , who had been appoi nt ed Assi st ant Secr et ar y of
War i n char ge of t he Tr anspor t at i on Depar t ment . I was t o act as hi s
assi st ant i n char ge of t he mi l i t ar y r ai l r oads and t el egr aphs of t he
Gover nment and t o or gani ze a f or ce of r ai l way men. I t was one of t he
most i mpor t ant depar t ment s of al l at t he begi nni ng of t he war .

The f i r st r egi ment s of Uni on t r oops passi ng t hr ough Bal t i mor e had been
at t acked, and t he r ai l way l i ne cut bet ween Bal t i mor e and Annapol i s
J unct i on, dest r oyi ng communi cat i on wi t h Washi ngt on. I t was t her ef or e
necessar y f or me, wi t h my cor ps of assi st ant s, t o t ake t r ai n at
Phi l adel phi a f or Annapol i s, a poi nt f r omwhi ch a br anch l i ne ext ended
t o t he J unct i on, j oi ni ng t he mai n l i ne t o Washi ngt on. Our f i r st dut y
was t o r epai r t hi s br anch and make i t passabl e f or heavy t r ai ns, a
wor k of some days. Gener al But l er and sever al r egi ment s of t r oops
ar r i ved a f ew days af t er us, and we wer e abl e t o t r anspor t hi s whol e
br i gade t o Washi ngt on.

I t ook my pl ace upon t he f i r st engi ne whi ch st ar t ed f or t he Capi t al ,
and pr oceeded ver y caut i ousl y. Some di st ance f r omWashi ngt on I not i ced
t hat t he t el egr aph wi r es had been pi nned t o t he gr ound by wooden
st akes. I st opped t he engi ne and r an f or war d t o r el ease t hem, but I
di d not not i ce t hat t he wi r es had been pul l ed t o one si de bef or e
st aki ng. When r el eased, i n t hei r spr i ng upwar ds, t hey st r uck me i n t he
f ace, knocked me over , and cut a gash i n my cheek whi ch bl ed
pr of usel y. I n t hi s condi t i on I ent er ed t he ci t y of Washi ngt on wi t h t he
f i r st t r oops, so t hat wi t h t he except i on of one or t wo sol di er s,
wounded a f ew days pr evi ousl y i n passi ng t hr ough t he st r eet s of
Bal t i mor e, I can j ust l y cl ai mt hat I " shed my bl ood f or my count r y"
among t he f i r st of i t s def ender s. I gl or i ed i n bei ng usef ul t o t he
l and t hat had done so much f or me, and wor ked, I can t r ul y say, ni ght
and day, t o open communi cat i on t o t he Sout h.

I soon r emoved my headquar t er s t o Al exandr i a, [ 20] Vi r gi ni a, and was
st at i oned t her e when t he unf or t unat e bat t l e of Bul l Run was f ought . We
coul d not bel i eve t he r epor t s t hat came t o us, but i t soon became
evi dent t hat we must r ush ever y engi ne and car t o t he f r ont t o br i ng
back our def eat ed f or ces. The cl osest poi nt t hen was Bur ke St at i on. I
went out t her e and l oaded up t r ai n af t er t r ai n of t he poor wounded
vol unt eer s. The r ebel s wer e r epor t ed t o be cl ose upon us and we wer e
f i nal l y compel l ed t o cl ose Bur ke St at i on, t he oper at or and mysel f
l eavi ng on t he l ast t r ai n f or Al exandr i a wher e t he ef f ect of pani c was
evi dent upon ever y si de. Some of our r ai l way men wer e mi ssi ng, but t he
number at t he mess on t he f ol l owi ng mor ni ng showed t hat , compar ed wi t h
ot her br anches of t he ser vi ce, we had cause f or congr at ul at i on. A f ew
conduct or s and engi neer s had obt ai ned boat s and cr ossed t he Pot omac,
but t he gr eat body of t he men r emai ned, al t hough t he r oar of t he guns
of t he pur sui ng enemy was supposed t o be hear d i n ever y sound dur i ng
t he ni ght . Of our t el egr apher s not one was mi ssi ng t he next mor ni ng.

[ Foot not e 20: " When Car negi e r eached Washi ngt on hi s f i r st t ask was t o
Page 59 of 222
est abl i sh a f er r y t o Al exandr i a and t o ext end t he Bal t i mor e and Ohi o
Rai l r oad t r ack f r omt he ol d depot i n Washi ngt on, al ong Mar yl and Avenue
t o and acr oss t he Pot omac, so t hat l ocomot i ves and car s mi ght be
cr ossed f or use i n Vi r gi ni a. Long Br i dge, over t he Pot omac, had t o be
r ebui l t , and I r ecal l t he f act t hat under t he di r ect i on of Car negi e
and R. F. Mor l ey t he r ai l r oad bet ween Washi ngt on and Al exandr i a was
compl et ed i n t he r emar kabl y shor t per i od of seven days. Al l hands,
f r omCar negi e down, wor ked day and ni ght t o accompl i sh t he t ask. "
( Bat es, _Li ncol n i n t he Tel egr aph Of f i ce_, p. 22. New Yor k, 1907. ) ]

Soon af t er t hi s I r et ur ned t o Washi ngt on and made my headquar t er s i n
t he War Bui l di ng wi t h Col onel Scot t . As I had char ge of t he t el egr aph
depar t ment , as wel l as t he r ai l ways, t hi s gave me an oppor t uni t y of
seei ng Pr esi dent Li ncol n, Mr . Sewar d, Secr et ar y Camer on, and ot her s;
and I was occasi onal l y br ought i n per sonal cont act wi t h t hese men,
whi ch was t o me a sour ce of gr eat i nt er est . Mr . Li ncol n woul d
occasi onal l y come t o t he of f i ce and si t at t he desk awai t i ng r epl i es
t o t el egr ams, or per haps mer el y anxi ous f or i nf or mat i on.

Al l t he pi ct ur es of t hi s ext r aor di nar y man ar e l i ke hi m. He was so
mar ked of f eat ur e t hat i t was i mpossi bl e f or any one t o pai nt hi mand
not pr oduce a l i keness. He was cer t ai nl y one of t he most homel y men I
ever saw when hi s f eat ur es wer e i n r epose; but when exci t ed or t el l i ng
a st or y, i nt el l ect shone t hr ough hi s eyes and i l l umi nat ed hi s f ace t o
a degr ee whi ch I have sel domor never seen i n any ot her . Hi s manner s
wer e per f ect because nat ur al ; and he had a ki nd wor d f or ever ybody,
even t he youngest boy i n t he of f i ce. Hi s at t ent i ons wer e not
gr aduat ed. They wer e t he same t o al l , as def er ent i al i n t al ki ng t o t he
messenger boy as t o Secr et ar y Sewar d. Hi s char ml ay i n t he t ot al
absence of manner . I t was not so much, per haps, what he sai d as t he
way i n whi ch he sai d i t t hat never f ai l ed t o wi n one. I have of t en
r egr et t ed t hat I di d not not e down car ef ul l y at t he t i me some of hi s
cur i ous sayi ngs, f or he sai d even common t hi ngs i n an or i gi nal way. I
never met a gr eat man who so t hor oughl y made hi msel f one wi t h al l men
as Mr . Li ncol n. As Secr et ar y Hay so wel l says, " I t i s i mpossi bl e t o
i magi ne any one a val et t o Mr . Li ncol n; he woul d have been hi s
compani on. " He was t he most per f ect democr at , r eveal i ng i n ever y wor d
and act t he equal i t y of men.

When Mason and Sl i del l i n 1861 wer e t aken f r omt he Br i t i sh shi p Tr ent
t her e was i nt ense anxi et y upon t he par t of t hose who, l i ke mysel f ,
knew what t he r i ght of asyl umon her shi ps meant t o Br i t ai n. I t was
cer t ai n war or el se a pr ompt r et ur n of t he pr i soner s. Secr et ar y
Camer on bei ng absent when t he Cabi net was summoned t o consi der t he
quest i on, Mr . Scot t was i nvi t ed t o at t end as Assi st ant Secr et ar y of
War . I di d my best t o l et hi munder st and t hat upon t hi s i ssue Br i t ai n
woul d f i ght beyond quest i on, and ur ged t hat he st and f i r mf or
sur r ender , especi al l y si nce i t had been t he Amer i can doct r i ne t hat
shi ps shoul d be i mmune f r omsear ch. Mr . Scot t , knowi ng not hi ng of
f or ei gn af f ai r s, was di sposed t o hol d t he capt i ves, but upon hi s
r et ur n f r omt he meet i ng he t ol d me t hat Sewar d had war ned t he Cabi net
i t meant war , j ust as I had sai d. Li ncol n, t oo, was at f i r st i ncl i ned
t o hol d t he pr i soner s, but was at l ast conver t ed t o Sewar d' s pol i cy.
The Cabi net , however , had deci ded t o post pone act i on unt i l t he mor r ow,
when Camer on and ot her absent ees woul d be pr esent . Mr . Scot t was
r equest ed by Sewar d t o meet Camer on on ar r i val and get hi mr i ght on
t he subj ect bef or e goi ng t o t he meet i ng, f or he was expect ed t o be i n
Page 60 of 222
no sur r ender i ng mood. Thi s was done and al l went wel l next day.

The gener al conf usi on whi ch r ei gned at Washi ngt on at t hi s t i me had t o
be seen t o be under st ood. No descr i pt i on can convey my i ni t i al
i mpr essi on of i t . The f i r st t i me I saw Gener al Scot t , t hen
Commander - i n- Chi ef , he was bei ng hel ped by t wo men acr oss t he pavement
f r omhi s of f i ce i nt o hi s car r i age. He was an ol d, decr epi t man,
par al yzed not onl y i n body, but i n mi nd; and i t was upon t hi s nobl e
r el i c of t he past t hat t he or gani zat i on of t he f or ces of t he Republ i c
depended. Hi s chi ef commi ssar y, Gener al Tayl or , was i n some degr ee a
count er par t of Scot t . I t was our busi ness t o ar r ange wi t h t hese, and
ot her s scar cel y l ess f i t , f or t he openi ng of communi cat i ons and f or
t he t r anspor t at i on of men and suppl i es. They wer e seemi ngl y one and
al l mar t i net s who had passed t he age of usef ul ness. Days woul d el apse
bef or e a deci si on coul d be obt ai ned upon mat t er s whi ch r equi r ed pr ompt
act i on. Ther e was scar cel y a young act i ve of f i cer at t he head of any
i mpor t ant depar t ment - - at l east I cannot r ecal l one. Long year s of
peace had f ossi l i zed t he ser vi ce.

The same cause had pr oduced l i ke r esul t s, I under st ood, i n t he Navy
Depar t ment , but I was not br ought i n per sonal cont act wi t h i t . The
navy was not i mpor t ant at t he begi nni ng; i t was t he ar my t hat count ed.
Not hi ng but def eat was t o be l ooked f or unt i l t he heads of t he var i ous
depar t ment s wer e changed, and t hi s coul d not be done i n a day. The
i mpat i ence of t he count r y at t he appar ent del ay i n pr oduci ng an
ef f ect i ve weapon f or t he gr eat t ask t hr own upon t he Gover nment was no
doubt nat ur al , but t he wonder t o me i s t hat or der was so soon evol ved
f r omt he chaos whi ch pr evai l ed i n ever y br anch of t he ser vi ce.

As f ar as our oper at i ons wer e concer ned we had one gr eat advant age.
Secr et ar y Camer on aut hor i zed Mr . Scot t ( he had been made a Col onel ) t o
do what he t hought necessar y wi t hout wai t i ng f or t he sl ow movement s of
t he of f i ci al s under t he Secr et ar y of War . Of t hi s aut hor i t y unspar i ng
use was made, and t he i mpor t ant par t pl ayed by t he r ai l way and
t el egr aph depar t ment of t he Gover nment f r omt he ver y begi nni ng of t he
war i s t o be at t r i but ed t o t he f act t hat we had t he cor di al suppor t of
Secr et ar y Camer on. He was t hen i n t he possessi on of al l hi s f acul t i es
and gr asped t he el ement s of t he pr obl emf ar bet t er t han hi s gener al s
and heads of depar t ment s. Popul ar cl amor compel l ed Li ncol n t o change
hi mat l ast , but t hose who wer e behi nd t he scenes wel l knew t hat i f
ot her depar t ment s had been as wel l managed as was t he War Depar t ment
under Camer on, al l t hi ngs consi der ed, much of di sast er woul d have been
avoi ded.

Lochi el , as Camer on l i ked t o be cal l ed, was a man of sent i ment . I n hi s
ni net i et h year he vi si t ed us i n Scot l and and, passi ng t hr ough one of
our gl ens, si t t i ng on t he f r ont seat of our f our - i n- hand coach, he
r ever ent l y t ook of f hi s hat and bar eheaded r ode t hr ough t he gl en,
over come by i t s gr andeur . The conver sat i on t ur ned once upon t he
ef f or t s whi ch candi dat es f or of f i ce must t hemsel ves put f or t h and t he
f al l acy t hat of f i ce seeks t he man, except i n ver y r ar e emer genci es.
Apr opos of t hi s Lochi el t ol d t hi s st or y about Li ncol n' s second t er m:

One day at Camer on' s count r y home near Har r i sbur g, Pennsyl vani a, he
r ecei ved a t el egr amsayi ng t hat Pr esi dent Li ncol n woul d l i ke t o see
hi m. Accor di ngl y he went t o Washi ngt on. Li ncol n began:

Page 61 of 222
" Camer on, t he peopl e about me ar e t el l i ng me t hat i t i s my pat r i ot i c
dut y t o become a candi dat e f or a second t er m, t hat I amt he onl y man
who can save my count r y, and so on; and do you know I ' mj ust begi nni ng
t o be f ool enough t o bel i eve t hema l i t t l e. What do you say, and how
coul d i t be managed?"

" Wel l , Mr . Pr esi dent , t went y- ei ght year s ago Pr esi dent J ackson sent
f or me as you have now done and t ol d me j ust t he same st or y. Hi s
l et t er r eached me i n New Or l eans and I t r avel ed t en days t o r each
Washi ngt on. I t ol d Pr esi dent J ackson I t hought t he best pl an woul d be
t o have t he Legi sl at ur e of one of t he St at es pass r esol ut i ons
i nsi st i ng t hat t he pi l ot shoul d not deser t t he shi p dur i ng t hese
st or my t i mes, and so f or t h. I f one St at e di d t hi s I t hought ot her s
woul d f ol l ow. Mr . J ackson concur r ed and I went t o Har r i sbur g, and had
such a r esol ut i on pr epar ed and passed. Ot her St at es f ol l owed as I
expect ed and, as you know, he won a second t er m. "

" Wel l , " sai d Li ncol n, " coul d you do t hat now?"

" No, " sai d I , " I amt oo near t o you, Mr . Pr esi dent ; but i f you desi r e
I mi ght get a f r i end t o at t end t o i t , I t hi nk. "

" Wel l , " sai d Pr esi dent Li ncol n, " I l eave t he mat t er wi t h you. "

" I sent f or Fost er her e" ( who was hi s compani on on t he coach and our
guest ) " and asked hi mt o l ook up t he J ackson r esol ut i ons. We changed
t hema l i t t l e t o meet new condi t i ons and passed t hem. The l i ke r esul t
f ol l owed as i n t he case of Pr esi dent J ackson. Upon my next vi si t t o
Washi ngt on I went i n t he eveni ng t o t he Pr esi dent ' s publ i c r ecept i on.
When I ent er ed t he cr owded and spaci ous East Room, bei ng l i ke Li ncol n
ver y t al l , t he Pr esi dent r ecogni zed me over t he mass of peopl e and
hol di ng up bot h whi t e- gl oved hands whi ch l ooked l i ke t wo l egs of
mut t on, cal l ed out : ' Two mor e i n t o- day, Camer on, t wo mor e. ' That i s,
t wo addi t i onal St at es had passed t he J ackson- Li ncol n r esol ut i ons. "

Apar t f r omt he l i ght t hi s i nci dent t hr ows upon pol i t i cal l i f e, i t i s
r at her r emar kabl e t hat t he same man shoul d have been cal l ed upon by
t wo pr esi dent s of t he Uni t ed St at es, t went y- ei ght year s apar t , under
exact l y si mi l ar ci r cumst ances and asked f or advi ce, and t hat , t he same
expedi ent bei ng empl oyed, bot h men became candi dat es and bot h secur ed
second t er ms. As was once expl ai ned upon a memor abl e occasi on:
" Ther e' s f i gur i ng i n al l t hemt hi ngs. "

When i n Washi ngt on I had not met Gener al Gr ant , because he was i n t he
West up t o t he t i me of my l eavi ng, but on a j our ney t o and f r om
Washi ngt on he st opped at Pi t t sbur gh t o make t he necessar y ar r angement s
f or hi s r emoval t o t he East . I met hi mon t he l i ne upon bot h occasi ons
and t ook hi mt o di ne wi t h me i n Pi t t sbur gh. Ther e wer e no di ni ng- car s
t hen. He was t he most or di nar y- l ooki ng man of hi gh posi t i on I had ever
met , and t he l ast t hat one woul d sel ect at f i r st gl ance as a
r emar kabl e man. I r emember t hat Secr et ar y of War St ant on sai d t hat
when he vi si t ed t he ar mi es i n t he West , Gener al Gr ant and hi s st af f
ent er ed hi s car ; he l ooked at t hem, one af t er t he ot her , as t hey
ent er ed and seei ng Gener al Gr ant , sai d t o hi msel f , " Wel l , I do not
know whi ch i s Gener al Gr ant , but t her e i s one t hat cannot be. " Yet
t hi s was he. [ Readi ng t hi s year s af t er i t was wr i t t en, I l augh. I t i s
pr et t y har d on t he Gener al , f or I have been t aken f or hi mmor e t han
Page 62 of 222
once. ]

I n t hose days of t he war much was t al ked about " st r at egy" and t he
pl ans of t he var i ous gener al s. I was amazed at Gener al Gr ant ' s f r eedom
i n t al ki ng t o me about such t hi ngs. Of cour se he knew t hat I had been
i n t he War Of f i ce, and was wel l known t o Secr et ar y St ant on, [ 21] and
had some knowl edge of what was goi ng on; but my sur pr i se can be
i magi ned when he sai d t o me:

" Wel l , t he Pr esi dent and St ant on want me t o go East and t ake command
t her e, and I have agr eed t o do i t . I amj ust goi ng West t o make t he
necessar y ar r angement s. "

I sai d, " I suspect ed as much. "

" I amgoi ng t o put Sher man i n char ge, " he sai d.

" That wi l l sur pr i se t he count r y, " I sai d, " f or I t hi nk t he i mpr essi on
i s t hat Gener al Thomas shoul d succeed. "

" Yes, I know t hat , " he sai d, " but I know t he men and Thomas wi l l be
t he f i r st t o say t hat Sher man i s t he man f or t he wor k. Ther e wi l l be
no t r oubl e about t hat . The f act i s t he west er n end i s pr et t y f ar down,
and t he next t hi ng we must do i s t o push t he east er n end down a
l i t t l e. "

[ Foot not e 21: Mr . Car negi e gave t o St ant on' s col l ege, Kenyon, $80, 000,
and on Apr i l 26, 1906, del i ver ed at t he col l ege an addr ess on t he
gr eat War Secr et ar y. I t has been publ i shed under t he t i t l e _Edwi n M.
St ant on, an Addr ess by Andr ew Car negi e on St ant on Memor i al Day at
Kenyon Col l ege_. ( New Yor k, 1906. ) ]

That was exact l y what he di d. And t hat was Gr ant ' s way of put t i ng
st r at egy i nt o wor ds. I t was my pr i vi l ege t o become wel l acquai nt ed
wi t h hi mi n af t er year s. I f ever a man was wi t hout t he sl i ght est t r ace
of af f ect at i on, Gr ant was t hat man. Even Li ncol n di d not sur pass hi m
i n t hat : but Gr ant was a qui et , sl ow man whi l e Li ncol n was al ways
al i ve and i n mot i on. I never hear d Gr ant use a l ong or gr and wor d, or
make any at t empt at " manner , " but t he gener al i mpr essi on t hat he was
al ways r et i cent i s a mi st ake. He was a sur pr i si ngl y good t al ker
somet i mes and upon occasi on l i ked t o t al k. Hi s sent ences wer e al ways
shor t and t o t he poi nt , and hi s obser vat i ons upon t hi ngs r emar kabl y
shr ewd. When he had not hi ng t o say he sai d not hi ng. I not i ced t hat he
was never t i r ed of pr ai si ng hi s subor di nat es i n t he war . He spoke of
t hemas a f ond f at her speaks of hi s chi l dr en.

The st or y i s t ol d t hat dur i ng t he t r i al s of war i n t he West , Gener al
Gr ant began t o i ndul ge t oo f r eel y i n l i quor . Hi s chi ef of st af f ,
Rawl i ns, bol dl y vent ur ed t o t el l hi mso. That t hi s was t he act of a
t r ue f r i end Gr ant f ul l y r ecogni zed.

" You do not mean t hat ? I was whol l y unconsci ous of i t . I am
sur pr i sed! " sai d t he Gener al .

" Yes, I do mean i t . I t i s even begi nni ng t o be a subj ect of comment
among your of f i cer s. "

Page 63 of 222
" Why di d you not t el l me bef or e? I ' l l never dr i nk a dr op of l i quor
agai n. "

He never di d. Ti me af t er t i me i n l at er year s, di ni ng wi t h t he Gr ant s
i n New Yor k, I have seen t he Gener al t ur n down t he wi ne- gl asses at hi s
si de. That i ndomi t abl e wi l l of hi s enabl ed hi mt o r emai n st eadf ast t o
hi s r esol ve, a r ar e case as f ar as my exper i ence goes. Some have
r ef r ai ned f or a t i me. I n one not ed case one of our par t ner s r ef r ai ned
f or t hr ee year s, but al as, t he ol d enemy at l ast r ecapt ur ed i t s
vi ct i m.

Gr ant , when Pr esi dent , was accused of bei ng pecuni ar i l y benef i t ed by
cer t ai n appoi nt ment s, or act s, of hi s admi ni st r at i on, whi l e hi s
f r i ends knew t hat he was so poor t hat he had been compel l ed t o
announce hi s i nt ent i on of abandoni ng t he cust omar y st at e di nner s, each
one of whi ch, he f ound, cost ei ght hundr ed dol l ar s- - a sumwhi ch he
coul d not af f or d t o pay out of hi s sal ar y. The i ncr ease of t he
pr esi dent i al sal ar y f r om$25, 000 t o $50, 000 a year enabl ed hi m, dur i ng
hi s second t er m, t o save a l i t t l e, al t hough he car ed no mor e about
money t han about uni f or ms. At t he end of hi s f i r st t er mI know he had
not hi ng. Yet I f ound, when i n Eur ope, t hat t he i mpr essi on was
wi despr ead among t he hi ghest of f i ci al s t her e t hat t her e was somet hi ng
i n t he char ge t hat Gener al Gr ant had benef i t ed pecuni ar i l y by
appoi nt ment s. We know i n Amer i ca how l i t t l e wei ght t o at t ach t o t hese
char ges, but i t woul d have been wel l f or t hose who made t hemso
r eckl essl y t o have consi der ed what ef f ect t hey woul d pr oduce upon
publ i c opi ni on i n ot her l ands.

The cause of democr acy suf f er s mor e i n Br i t ai n t o- day f r omt he
gener al l y r ecei ved opi ni on t hat Amer i can pol i t i cs ar e cor r upt , and
t her ef or e t hat r epubl i cani smnecessar i l y pr oduces cor r upt i on, t han
f r omany ot her one cause. Yet , speaki ng wi t h some knowl edge of
pol i t i cs i n bot h l ands, I have not t he sl i ght est hesi t at i on i n sayi ng
t hat f or ever y ounce of cor r upt i on of publ i c men i n t he new l and of
r epubl i cani smt her e i s one i n t he ol d l and of monar chy, onl y t he f or ms
of cor r upt i on di f f er . Ti t l es ar e t he br i bes i n t he monar chy, not
dol l ar s. Of f i ce i s a common and pr oper r ewar d i n bot h. Ther e i s,
however , t hi s di f f er ence i n f avor of t he monar chy; t i t l es ar e gi ven
openl y and ar e not consi der ed by t he r eci pi ent s or t he mass of t he
peopl e as br i bes.

When I was cal l ed t o Washi ngt on i n 1861, i t was supposed t hat t he war
woul d soon be over ; but i t was seen shor t l y af t er war ds t hat i t was t o
be a quest i on of year s. Per manent of f i ci al s i n char ge woul d be
r equi r ed. The Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad Company was unabl e t o spar e Mr .
Scot t , and Mr . Scot t , i n t ur n, deci ded t hat I must r et ur n t o
Pi t t sbur gh, wher e my ser vi ces wer e ur gent l y needed, owi ng t o t he
demands made upon t he Pennsyl vani a by t he Gover nment . We t her ef or e
pl aced t he depar t ment at Washi ngt on i n t he hands of ot her s and
r et ur ned t o our r espect i ve posi t i ons.

Af t er my r et ur n f r omWashi ngt on r eact i on f ol l owed and I was t aken wi t h
my f i r st ser i ous i l l ness. I was compl et el y br oken down, and af t er a
st r uggl e t o per f or mmy dut i es was compel l ed t o seek r est . One
af t er noon, when on t he r ai l way l i ne i n Vi r gi ni a, I had exper i enced
somet hi ng l i ke a sunst r oke, whi ch gave me consi der abl e t r oubl e. I t
passed of f , however , but af t er t hat I f ound I coul d not st and heat and
Page 64 of 222
had t o be car ef ul t o keep out of t he sun- - a hot day wi l t i ng me
compl et el y. [ That i s t he r eason why t he cool Hi ghl and ai r i n summer
has been t o me a panacea f or many year s. My physi ci an has i nsi st ed
t hat I must avoi d our hot Amer i can summer s. ]

Leave of absence was gr ant ed me by t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad Company,
and t he l ong- sought oppor t uni t y t o vi si t Scot l and came. My mot her , my
bosomf r i end TomMi l l er , and mysel f , sai l ed i n t he st eamshi p Et na,
J une 28, 1862, I i n my t went y- sevent h year ; and on l andi ng i n
Li ver pool we pr oceeded at once t o Dunf er ml i ne. No change ever af f ect ed
me so much as t hi s r et ur n t o my nat i ve l and. I seemed t o be i n a
dr eam. Ever y mi l e t hat br ought us near er t o Scot l and i ncr eased t he
i nt ensi t y of my f eel i ngs. My mot her was equal l y moved, and I r emember ,
when her eyes f i r st caught si ght of t he f ami l i ar yel l ow bush, she
excl ai med:

" Oh! t her e' s t he br oom, t he br oom! "

Her hear t was so f ul l she coul d not r est r ai n her t ear s, and t he mor e I
t r i ed t o make l i ght of i t or t o soot he her , t he mor e she was over come.
For mysel f , I f el t as i f I coul d t hr ow mysel f upon t he sacr ed soi l and
ki ss i t . [ 22]

[ Foot not e 22: " I t ' s a God' s mer cy I was bor n a Scot chman, f or I do not
see how I coul d ever have been cont ent ed t o be anyt hi ng el se. The
l i t t l e dour deevi l , set i n her own ways, and get t i ng t hem, t oo,
l evel - headed and shr ewd, wi t h an eye t o t he mai n chance al ways and yet
so l ovi ngl y weak, so f ond, so l ed away by song or st or y, so easi l y
t ouched t o f i ne i ssues, so l eal , so t r ue. Ah! you sui t me, Scot i a, and
pr oud amI t hat I amyour son. " ( Andr ew Car negi e, _Our Coachi ng Tr i p_,
p. 152. New Yor k, 1882. ) ]

I n t hi s mood we r eached Dunf er ml i ne. Ever y obj ect we passed was
r ecogni zed at once, but ever yt hi ng seemed so smal l , compar ed wi t h what
I had i magi ned i t , t hat I was compl et el y puzzl ed. Fi nal l y, r eachi ng
Uncl e Lauder ' s and get t i ng i nt o t he ol d r oomwher e he had t aught Dod
and mysel f so many t hi ngs, I excl ai med:

" You ar e al l her e; ever yt hi ng i s j ust as I l ef t i t , but you ar e now
al l pl ayi ng wi t h t oys. "

The Hi gh St r eet , whi ch I had consi der ed not a bad Br oadway, uncl e' s
shop, whi ch I had compar ed wi t h some New Yor k est abl i shment s, t he
l i t t l e mounds about t he t own, t o whi ch we had r un on Sundays t o pl ay,
t he di st ances, t he hei ght of t he houses, al l had shr unk. Her e was a
ci t y of t he Li l l i put i ans. I coul d al most t ouch t he eaves of t he house
i n whi ch I was bor n, and t he sea- - t o wal k t o whi ch on a Sat ur day had
been consi der ed qui t e a f eat - - was onl y t hr ee mi l es di st ant . The r ocks
at t he seashor e, among whi ch I had gat her ed wi l ks ( whel ks) seemed t o
have vani shed, and a t ame f l at shoal r emai ned. The school house, ar ound
whi ch had cent er ed many of my school boy r ecol l ect i ons- - my onl y Al ma
Mat er - - and t he pl aygr ound, upon whi ch mi mi c bat t l es had been f ought
and r aces r un, had shr unk i nt o r i di cul ousl y smal l di mensi ons. The f i ne
r esi dences, Br oomhal l , For del l , and especi al l y t he conser vat or i es at
Doni br i st l e, f el l one af t er t he ot her i nt o t he pet t y and
i nsi gni f i cant . What I f el t on a l at er occasi on on a vi si t t o J apan,
wi t h i t s smal l t oy houses, was somet hi ng l i ke a r epet i t i on of t he
Page 65 of 222
i mpr essi on my ol d home made upon me.

Ever yt hi ng was t her e i n mi ni at ur e. Even t he ol d wel l at t he head of
Moodi e St r eet , wher e I began my ear l y st r uggl es, was changed f r omwhat
I had pi ct ur ed i t . But one obj ect r emai ned al l t hat I had dr eamed of
i t . Ther e was no di sappoi nt ment i n t he gl or i ous ol d Abbey and i t s
Gl en. I t was bi g enough and gr and enough, and t he memor abl e car ved
l et t er s on t he t op of t he t ower - - " Ki ng Rober t The Br uce" - - f i l l ed my
eye and my hear t as f ul l y as of ol d. Nor was t he Abbey bel l
di sappoi nt i ng, when I hear d i t f or t he f i r st t i me af t er my r et ur n. For
t hi s I was gr at ef ul . I t gave me a r al l yi ng poi nt , and ar ound t he ol d
Abbey, wi t h i t s Pal ace r ui ns and t he Gl en, ot her obj ect s adj ust ed
t hemsel ves i n t hei r t r ue pr opor t i ons af t er a t i me.

My r el at i ves wer e exceedi ngl y ki nd, and t he ol dest of al l , my dear ol d
Aunt i e Char l ot t e, i n a moment of exul t at i on excl ai med:

" Oh, you wi l l j ust be comi ng back her e some day and _keep a shop i n
t he Hi gh St r eet _. "

To keep a shop i n t he Hi gh St r eet was her i dea of t r i umph. Her
son- i n- l aw and daught er , bot h my f ul l cousi ns, t hough unr el at ed t o
each ot her , had r i sen t o t hi s subl i me hei ght , and not hi ng was t oo
gr eat t o pr edi ct f or her pr omi si ng nephew. Ther e i s an ar i st ocr acy
even i n shopkeepi ng, and t he f ami l y of t he gr een gr ocer of t he Hi gh
St r eet mi ngl es not upon equal t er ms wi t h hi mof Moodi e St r eet .

Aunt i e, who had of t en pl ayed my nur se, l i ked t o dwel l upon t he f act
t hat I was a scr eami ng i nf ant t hat had t o be f ed wi t h t wo spoons, as I
yel l ed whenever one l ef t my mout h. Capt ai n J ones, our super i nt endent
of t he st eel wor ks at a l at er day, descr i bed me as havi ng been bor n
" wi t h t wo r ows of t eet h and hol es punched f or mor e, " so i nsat i abl e was
my appet i t e f or new wor ks and i ncr eased pr oduct i on. As I was t he f i r st
chi l d i n our i mmedi at e f ami l y ci r cl e, t her e wer e pl ent y of now
vener abl e r el at i ves beggi ng t o be al l owed t o pl ay nur se, my aunt i es
among t hem. Many of my chi l dhood pr anks and wor ds t hey t ol d me i n
t hei r ol d age. One of t hemt hat t he aunt i es r emember ed st r uck me as
r at her pr ecoci ous.

I had been br ought up upon wi se saws and one t hat my f at her had t aught
me was soon gi ven di r ect appl i cat i on. As a boy, r et ur ni ng f r omt he
seashor e t hr ee mi l es di st ant , he had t o car r y me par t of t he way upon
hi s back. Goi ng up a st eep hi l l i n t he gl oami ng he r emar ked upon t he
heavy l oad, hopi ng pr obabl y I woul d pr opose t o wal k a bi t . The
r esponse, however , whi ch he r ecei ved was:

" Ah, f ai t her , never mi nd, pat i ence and per sever ance make t he man, ye
ken. "

He t oi l ed on wi t h hi s bur den, but shaki ng wi t h l aught er . He was hoi st
wi t h hi s own pet ar d, but hi s bur den gr ew l i ght er al l t he same. I am
sur e of t hi s.

My home, of cour se, was wi t h my i nst r uct or , gui de, and i nspi r er , Uncl e
Lauder - - he who had done so much t o make me r omant i c, pat r i ot i c, and
poet i cal at ei ght . Now I was t went y- seven, but Uncl e Lauder st i l l
r emai ned Uncl e Lauder . He had not shr unk, no one coul d f i l l hi s pl ace.
Page 66 of 222
We had our wal ks and t al ks const ant l y and I was " Nai g" agai n t o hi m.
He had never had any name f or me but t hat and never di d have. My dear ,
dear uncl e, and mor e, much mor e t han uncl e t o me. [ 23]

[ Foot not e 23: " Thi s uncl e, who l oved l i ber t y because i t i s t he
her i t age of br ave soul s, i n t he dar k days of t he Amer i can Ci vi l War
st ood al most al one i n hi s communi t y f or t he cause whi ch Li ncol n
r epr esent ed. " ( Hami l t on Wr i ght Mabi e i n _Cent ur y Magazi ne_, vol . 64,
p. 958. ) ]

I was st i l l dr eami ng and so exci t ed t hat I coul d not sl eep and had
caught col d i n t he bar gai n. The nat ur al r esul t of t hi s was a f ever . I
l ay i n uncl e' s house f or si x weeks, a par t of t hat t i me i n a cr i t i cal
condi t i on. Scot t i sh medi ci ne was t hen as st er n as Scot t i sh t heol ogy
( bot h ar e now much sof t ened) , and I was bl ed. My t hi n Amer i can bl ood
was so depl et ed t hat when I was pr onounced conval escent i t was l ong
bef or e I coul d st and upon my f eet . Thi s i l l ness put an end t o my
vi si t , but by t he t i me I had r eached Amer i ca agai n, t he ocean voyage
had done me so much good I was abl e t o r esume wor k.

I r emember bei ng deepl y af f ect ed by t he r ecept i on I met wi t h when I
r et ur ned t o my di vi si on. The men of t he east er n end had gat her ed
t oget her wi t h a cannon and whi l e t he t r ai n passed I was gr eet ed wi t h a
sal vo. Thi s was per haps t he f i r st occasi on upon whi ch my subor di nat es
had an oppor t uni t y of maki ng me t he subj ect of any demonst r at i on, and
t hei r r ecept i on made a l ast i ng i mpr essi on. I knew how much I car ed f or
t hemand i t was pl easi ng t o know t hat t hey r eci pr ocat ed my f eel i ngs.
Wor ki ng- men al ways do r eci pr ocat e ki ndl y f eel i ng. I f we t r ul y car e f or
ot her s we need not be anxi ous about t hei r f eel i ngs f or us. Li ke dr aws
t o l i ke.



Page 67 of 222
CHAPTER IX

BRIDGE-BUILDING


Dur i ng t he Ci vi l War t he pr i ce of i r on went up t o somet hi ng l i ke $130
per t on. Even at t hat f i gur e i t was not so much a quest i on of money as
of del i ver y. The r ai l way l i nes of Amer i ca wer e f ast becomi ng danger ous
f or want of new r ai l s, and t hi s st at e of af f ai r s l ed me t o or gani ze i n
1864 a r ai l - maki ng concer n at Pi t t sbur gh. Ther e was no di f f i cul t y i n
obt ai ni ng par t ner s and capi t al , and t he Super i or Rai l Mi l l and Bl ast
Fur naces wer e bui l t .

I n l i ke manner t he demand f or l ocomot i ves was ver y gr eat , and wi t h Mr .
Thomas N. Mi l l er [ 24] I or gani zed i n 1866 t he Pi t t sbur gh Locomot i ve
Wor ks, whi ch has been a pr osper ous and cr edi t abl e concer n- - l ocomot i ves
made t her e havi ng obt ai ned an envi abl e r eput at i on t hr oughout t he
Uni t ed St at es. I t sounds l i ke a f ai r y t al e t o- day t o r ecor d t hat i n
1906 t he one- hundr ed- dol l ar shar es of t hi s company sol d f or t hr ee
t housand dol l ar s- - t hat i s, t hi r t y dol l ar s f or one. Lar ge annual
di vi dends had been pai d r egul ar l y and t he company had been ver y
successf ul - - suf f i ci ent pr oof of t he pol i cy: " Make not hi ng but t he ver y
best . " We never di d.

[ Foot not e 24: Mr . Car negi e had pr evi ous t o t hi s- - as ear l y as
1861- - been associ at ed wi t h Mr . Mi l l er i n t he Sun Ci t y For ge Company,
doi ng a smal l i r on busi ness. ]

When at Al t oona I had seen i n t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad Company' s
wor ks t he f i r st smal l br i dge bui l t of i r on. I t pr oved a success. I saw
t hat i t woul d never do t o depend f ur t her upon wooden br i dges f or
per manent r ai l way st r uct ur es. An i mpor t ant br i dge on t he Pennsyl vani a
Rai l r oad had r ecent l y bur ned and t he t r af f i c had been obst r uct ed f or
ei ght days. I r on was t he t hi ng. I pr oposed t o H. J . Li nvi l l e, who had
desi gned t he i r on br i dge, and t o J ohn L. Pi per and hi s par t ner , Mr .
Schi f f l er , who had char ge of br i dges on t he Pennsyl vani a l i ne, t hat
t hey shoul d come t o Pi t t sbur gh and I woul d or gani ze a company t o bui l d
i r on br i dges. I t was t he f i r st company of i t s ki nd. I asked my f r i end,
Mr . Scot t , of t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad, t o go wi t h us i n t he vent ur e,
whi ch he di d. Each of us pai d f or a one f i f t h i nt er est , or $1250. My
shar e I bor r owed f r omt he bank. Looki ng back at i t now t he sumseemed
ver y smal l , but " t al l oaks f r oml i t t l e acor ns gr ow. "

I n t hi s way was or gani zed i n 1862 t he f i r mof Pi per and Schi f f l er
whi ch was mer ged i nt o t he Keyst one Br i dge Company i n 1863- - a name
whi ch I r emember I was pr oud of havi ng t hought of as bei ng most
appr opr i at e f or a br i dge- bui l di ng concer n i n t he St at e of
Pennsyl vani a, t he Keyst one St at e. Fr omt hi s begi nni ng i r on br i dges
came gener al l y i nt o use i n Amer i ca, i ndeed, i n t he wor l d at l ar ge so
f ar as I know. My l et t er s t o i r on manuf act ur er s i n Pi t t sbur gh wer e
suf f i ci ent t o i nsur e t he new company cr edi t . Smal l wooden shops wer e
er ect ed and sever al br i dge st r uct ur es wer e under t aken. Cast - i r on was
t he pr i nci pal mat er i al used, but so wel l wer e t he br i dges bui l t t hat
some made at t hat day and si nce st r engt hened f or heavi er t r af f i c,
st i l l r emai n i n use upon var i ous l i nes.

Page 68 of 222
The quest i on of br i dgi ng t he Ohi o Ri ver at St eubenvi l l e came up, and
we wer e asked whet her we woul d under t ake t o bui l d a r ai l way br i dge
wi t h a span of t hr ee hundr ed f eet over t he channel . I t seems
r i di cul ous at t he pr esent day t o t hi nk of t he ser i ous doubt s
ent er t ai ned about our abi l i t y t o do t hi s; but i t must be r emember ed
t hi s was bef or e t he days of st eel and al most bef or e t he use of
wr ought - i r on i n Amer i ca. The t op cor ds and suppor t s wer e al l of
cast - i r on. I ur ged my par t ner s t o t r y i t anyhow, and we f i nal l y cl osed
a cont r act , but I r emember wel l when Pr esi dent J ewet t [ 25] of t he
r ai l way company vi si t ed t he wor ks and cast hi s eyes upon t he pi l es of
heavy cast - i r on l yi ng about , whi ch wer e par t s of t he f or t hcomi ng
br i dge, t hat he t ur ned t o me and sai d:

" I don' t bel i eve t hese heavy cast i ngs can be made t o st and up and
car r y t hemsel ves, much l ess car r y a t r ai n acr oss t he Ohi o Ri ver . "

[ Foot not e 25: Thomas L. J ewet t , Pr esi dent of t he Panhandl e. ]

The J udge, however , l i ved t o bel i eve di f f er ent l y. The br i dge r emai ned
unt i l r ecent l y, t hough st r engt hened t o car r y heavi er t r af f i c. We
expect ed t o make qui t e a sumby t hi s f i r st i mpor t ant under t aki ng, but
owi ng t o t he i nf l at i on of t he cur r ency, whi ch occur r ed bef or e t he wor k
was f i ni shed, our mar gi n of pr of i t was al most swal l owed up. I t i s an
evi dence of t he f ai r ness of Pr esi dent Edgar Thomson, of t he
Pennsyl vani a, t hat , upon l ear ni ng t he f act s of t he case, he al l owed an
ext r a sumt o secur e us f r oml oss. The subsequent posi t i on of af f ai r s,
he sai d, was not cont empl at ed by ei t her par t y when t he cont r act was
made. A gr eat and a good man was Edgar Thomson, a cl ose bar gai ner f or
t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad, but ever mi ndf ul of t he f act t hat t he
spi r i t of t he l aw was above t he l et t er .

I n Li nvi l l e, Pi per , and Schi f f l er , we had t he best t al ent of t hat
day- - Li nvi l l e an engi neer , Pi per a hust l i ng, act i ve mechani c, and
Schi f f l er sur e and st eady. Col onel Pi per was an except i onal man. I
hear d Pr esi dent Thomson of t he Pennsyl vani a once say he woul d r at her
have hi mat a bur nt br i dge t han al l t he engi neer i ng cor ps. Ther e was
one subj ect upon whi ch t he Col onel di spl ayed gr eat weakness
( f or t unat el y f or us) and t hat was t he hor se. Whenever a busi ness
di scussi on became t oo war m, and t he Col onel showed si gns of t emper ,
whi ch was not sel dom, i t was a sur e cur e t o i nt r oduce t hat subj ect .
Ever yt hi ng el se woul d pass f r omhi s mi nd; he became absor bed i n t he
f asci nat i ng t opi c of hor sef l esh. I f he had over wor ked hi msel f , and we
wi shed t o get hi mt o t ake a hol i day, we sent hi mt o Kent ucky t o l ook
af t er a hor se or t wo t hat one or t he ot her of us was desi r ous of
obt ai ni ng, and f or t he sel ect i on of whi ch we woul d t r ust no one but
hi msel f . But hi s cr aze f or hor ses somet i mes br ought hi mi nt o ser i ous
di f f i cul t i es. He made hi s appear ance at t he of f i ce one day wi t h one
hal f of hi s f ace as bl ack as mud coul d make i t , hi s cl ot hes t or n, and
hi s hat mi ssi ng, but st i l l hol di ng t he whi p i n one hand. He expl ai ned
t hat he had at t empt ed t o dr i ve a f ast Kent ucky col t ; one of t he r ei ns
had br oken and he had l ost hi s " st eer age- way, " as he expr essed i t .

He was a gr and f el l ow, " Pi pe" as we cal l ed hi m, and when he t ook a
f ancy t o a per son, as he di d t o me, he was f or and wi t h hi mal ways. I n
l at er days when I r emoved t o New Yor k he t r ansf er r ed hi s af f ect i ons t o
my br ot her , whomhe i nvar i abl y cal l ed Thomas, i nst ead of Tom. Hi gh as
I st ood i n hi s f avor , my br ot her af t er war ds st ood hi gher . He f ai r l y
Page 69 of 222
wor shi ped hi m, and anyt hi ng t hat Tomsai d was l aw and gospel . He was
exceedi ngl y j eal ous of our ot her est abl i shment s, i n whi ch he was not
di r ect l y i nt er est ed, such as our mi l l s whi ch suppl i ed t he Keyst one
Wor ks wi t h i r on. Many a di sput e ar ose bet ween t he mi l l manager s and
t he Col onel as t o qual i t y, pr i ce, and so f or t h. On one occasi on he
came t o my br ot her t o compl ai n t hat a bar gai n whi ch he had made f or
t he suppl y of i r on f or a year had not been copi ed cor r ect l y. The
pr i ces wer e " net , " and not hi ng had been sai d about " net " when t he
bar gai n was made. He want ed t o know j ust what t hat wor d " net " meant .

" Wel l , Col onel , " sai d my br ot her , " i t means t hat not hi ng mor e i s t o be
added. "

" Al l r i ght , Thomas, " sai d t he Col onel , ent i r el y sat i sf i ed.

Ther e i s much i n t he way one put s t hi ngs. " Not hi ng t o be deduct ed"
mi ght have caused a di sput e.

[ I l l ust r at i on: THOMAS MORRI SON CARNEGI E]

He was made f ur i ous one day by Br adst r eet ' s vol ume whi ch gi ves t he
st andi ng of busi ness concer ns. Never havi ng seen such a book bef or e,
he was nat ur al l y anxi ous t o see what r at i ng hi s concer n had. When he
r ead t hat t he Keyst one Br i dge Wor ks wer e " BC, " whi ch meant " Bad
Cr edi t , " i t was wi t h di f f i cul t y he was r est r ai ned f r omgoi ng t o see
our l awyer s t o have a sui t br ought agai nst t he publ i sher s. Tom,
however , expl ai ned t o hi mt hat t he Keyst one Br i dge Wor ks wer e i n bad
cr edi t because t hey never bor r owed anyt hi ng, and he was paci f i ed. No
debt was one of t he Col onel ' s hobbi es. Once, when I was l eavi ng f or
Eur ope, when many f i r ms wer e har d up and some f ai l i ng ar ound us, he
sai d t o me:

" The sher i f f can' t get us when you ar e gone i f I don' t si gn any not es,
can he?"

" No, " I sai d, " he can' t . "

" Al l r i ght , we' l l be her e when you come back. "

Tal ki ng of t he Col onel r emi nds me of anot her unusual char act er wi t h
whomwe wer e br ought i n cont act i n t hese br i dge- bui l di ng days. Thi s
was Capt ai n Eads, of St . Loui s, [ 26] an or i gi nal geni us _mi nus_
sci ent i f i c knowl edge t o gui de hi s er r at i c i deas of t hi ngs mechani cal .
He was seemi ngl y one of t hose who wi shed t o have ever yt hi ng done upon
hi s own or i gi nal pl ans. That a t hi ng had been done i n one way bef or e
was suf f i ci ent t o cause i t s r ej ect i on. When hi s pl ans f or t he St .
Loui s Br i dge wer e pr esent ed t o us, I handed t hemt o t he one man i n t he
Uni t ed St at es who knew t he subj ect best - - our Mr . Li nvi l l e. He came t o
me i n gr eat concer n, sayi ng:

" The br i dge i f bui l t upon t hese pl ans wi l l not st and up; i t wi l l not
car r y i t s own wei ght . "

" Wel l , " I sai d, " Capt ai n Eads wi l l come t o see you and i n t al ki ng over
mat t er s expl ai n t hi s t o hi mgent l y, get i t i nt o pr oper shape, l ead hi m
i nt o t he st r ai ght pat h and say not hi ng about i t t o ot her s. "

Page 70 of 222
[ Foot not e 26: Capt ai n J ames B. Eads, af t er war d f amous f or hi s j et t y
syst emi n t he Mi ssi ssi ppi Ri ver . ]

Thi s was successf ul l y accompl i shed; but i n t he const r uct i on of t he
br i dge poor Pi per was t ot al l y unabl e t o compl y wi t h t he ext r aor di nar y
r equi r ement s of t he Capt ai n. At f i r st he was so del i ght ed wi t h havi ng
r ecei ved t he l ar gest cont r act t hat had yet been l et t hat he was al l
gr aci ousness t o Capt ai n Eads. I t was not even " Capt ai n" at f i r st , but
" ' Col onel ' Eads, how do you do? Del i ght ed t o see you. " By and by
mat t er s became a l i t t l e compl i cat ed. We not i ced t hat t he gr eet i ng
became l ess cor di al , but st i l l i t was " Good- mor ni ng, Capt ai n Eads. "
Thi s f el l t i l l we wer e sur pr i sed t o hear " Pi pe" t al ki ng of " Mr . Eads. "
Bef or e t he t r oubl es wer e over , t he " Col onel " had f al l en t o " J i mEads, "
and t o t el l t he t r ut h, l ong bef or e t he wor k was out of t he shops,
" J i m" was now and t hen pr eceded by a bi g " D. " A man may be possessed
of gr eat abi l i t y, and be a char mi ng, i nt er est i ng char act er , as Capt ai n
Eads undoubt edl y was, and yet not be abl e t o const r uct t he f i r st
br i dge of f i ve hundr ed f eet span over t he Mi ssi ssi ppi Ri ver , [ 27]
wi t hout avai l i ng hi msel f of t he sci ent i f i c knowl edge and pr act i cal
exper i ence of ot her s.

[ Foot not e 27: The span was 515 f eet , and at t hat t i me consi der ed t he
f i nest met al ar ch i n t he wor l d. ]

When t he wor k was f i ni shed, I had t he Col onel wi t h me i n St . Loui s f or
some days pr ot ect i ng t he br i dge agai nst a t hr eat ened at t empt on t he
par t of ot her s t o t ake possessi on of i t bef or e we obt ai ned f ul l
payment . When t he Col onel had t aken up t he pl anks at bot h ends, and
or gani zed a pl an of r el i evi ng t he men who st ood guar d, he became
homesi ck and exceedi ngl y anxi ous t o r et ur n t o Pi t t sbur gh. He had
det er mi ned t o t ake t he ni ght t r ai n and I was at a l oss t o know how t o
keep hi mwi t h me unt i l I t hought of hi s one vul ner abl e poi nt . I t ol d
hi m, dur i ng t he day, how anxi ous I was t o obt ai n a pai r of hor ses f or
my si st er . I wi shed t o make her a pr esent of a span, and I had hear d
t hat St . Loui s was a not ed pl ace f or t hem. Had he seen anyt hi ng
super b?

The bai t t ook. He l aunched f or t h i nt o a descr i pt i on of sever al spans
of hor ses he had seen and st abl es he had vi si t ed. I asked hi mi f he
coul d possi bl y st ay over and sel ect t he hor ses. I knew ver y wel l t hat
he woul d wi sh t o see t hemand dr i ve t hemmany t i mes whi ch woul d keep
hi mbusy. I t happened j ust as I expect ed. He pur chased a spl endi d
pai r , but t hen anot her di f f i cul t y occur r ed about t r anspor t i ng t hemt o
Pi t t sbur gh. He woul d not t r ust t hemby r ai l and no sui t abl e boat was
t o l eave f or sever al days. Pr ovi dence was on my si de evi dent l y.
Not hi ng on ear t h woul d i nduce t hat man t o l eave t he ci t y unt i l he saw
t hose hor ses f ai r l y st ar t ed and i t was an even wager whet her he woul d
not i nsi st upon goi ng up on t he st eamer wi t h t hemhi msel f . We hel d t he
br i dge. " Pi pe" made a spl endi d Hor at i us. He was one of t he best men
and one of t he most val uabl e par t ner s I ever was f avor ed wi t h, and
r i chl y deser ved t he r ewar ds whi ch he di d so much t o secur e.

The Keyst one Br i dge Wor ks have al ways been a sour ce of sat i sf act i on t o
me. Al most ever y concer n t hat had under t aken t o er ect i r on br i dges i n
Amer i ca had f ai l ed. Many of t he st r uct ur es t hemsel ves had f al l en and
some of t he wor st r ai l way di sast er s i n Amer i ca had been caused i n t hat
way. Some of t he br i dges had gi ven way under wi nd pr essur e but not hi ng
Page 71 of 222
has ever happened t o a Keyst one br i dge, and some of t hemhave st ood
wher e t he wi nd was not t emper ed. Ther e has been no l uck about i t . We
used onl y t he best mat er i al and enough of i t , maki ng our own i r on and
l at er our own st eel . We wer e our own sever est i nspect or s, and woul d
bui l d a saf e st r uct ur e or none at al l . When asked t o bui l d a br i dge
whi ch we knew t o be of i nsuf f i ci ent st r engt h or of unsci ent i f i c
desi gn, we r esol ut el y decl i ned. Any pi ece of wor k bear i ng t he st amp of
t he Keyst one Br i dge Wor ks ( and t her e ar e f ew St at es i n t he Uni on wher e
such ar e not t o be f ound) we wer e pr epar ed t o under wr i t e. We wer e as
pr oud of our br i dges as Car l yl e was of t he br i dge hi s f at her bui l t
acr oss t he Annan. " An honest br i g, " as t he gr eat son r i ght l y sai d.

Thi s pol i cy i s t he t r ue secr et of success. Uphi l l wor k i t wi l l be f or
a f ew year s unt i l your wor k i s pr oven, but af t er t hat i t i s smoot h
sai l i ng. I nst ead of obj ect i ng t o i nspect or s t hey shoul d be wel comed by
al l manuf act ur i ng est abl i shment s. A hi gh st andar d of excel l ence i s
easi l y mai nt ai ned, and men ar e educat ed i n t he ef f or t t o r each
excel l ence. I have never known a concer n t o make a deci ded success
t hat di d not do good, honest wor k, and even i n t hese days of t he
f i er cest compet i t i on, when ever yt hi ng woul d seemt o be mat t er of
pr i ce, t her e l i es st i l l at t he r oot of gr eat busi ness success t he ver y
much mor e i mpor t ant f act or of qual i t y. The ef f ect of at t ent i on t o
qual i t y, upon ever y man i n t he ser vi ce, f r omt he pr esi dent of t he
concer n down t o t he humbl est l abor er , cannot be over est i mat ed. And
bear i ng on t he same quest i on, cl ean, f i ne wor kshops and t ool s,
wel l - kept yar ds and sur r oundi ngs ar e of much gr eat er i mpor t ance t han
i s usual l y supposed.

I was ver y much pl eased t o hear a r emar k, made by one of t he pr omi nent
banker s who vi si t ed t he Edgar Thomson Wor ks dur i ng a Banker s
Convent i on hel d at Pi t t sbur gh. He was one of a par t y of some hundr eds
of del egat es, and af t er t hey had passed t hr ough t he wor ks he sai d t o
our manager :

" Somebody appear s t o bel ong t o t hese wor ks. "

He put hi s f i nger t her e upon one of t he secr et s of success. They di d
bel ong t o somebody. The pr esi dent of an i mpor t ant manuf act ur i ng wor k
once boast ed t o me t hat t hei r men had chased away t he f i r st i nspect or
who had vent ur ed t o appear among t hem, and t hat t hey had never been
t r oubl ed wi t h anot her si nce. Thi s was sai d as a mat t er of si ncer e
congr at ul at i on, but I t hought t o mysel f : " Thi s concer n wi l l never
st and t he st r ai n of compet i t i on; i t i s bound t o f ai l when har d t i mes
come. " The r esul t pr oved t he cor r ect ness of my bel i ef . The sur est
f oundat i on of a manuf act ur i ng concer n i s qual i t y. Af t er t hat , and a
l ong way af t er , comes cost .

I gave a gr eat deal of per sonal at t ent i on f or some year s t o t he
af f ai r s of t he Keyst one Br i dge Wor ks, and when i mpor t ant cont r act s
wer e i nvol ved of t en went mysel f t o meet t he par t i es. On one such
occasi on i n 1868, I vi si t ed Dubuque, I owa, wi t h our engi neer , Wal t er
Kat t e. We wer e compet i ng f or t he bui l di ng of t he most i mpor t ant
r ai l way br i dge t hat had been bui l t up t o t hat t i me, a br i dge acr oss
t he wi de Mi ssi ssi ppi at Dubuque, t o span whi ch was consi der ed a gr eat
under t aki ng. We f ound t he r i ver f r ozen and cr ossed i t upon a sl ei gh
dr awn by f our hor ses.

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That vi si t pr oved how much success t ur ns upon t r i f l es. We f ound we
wer e not t he l owest bi dder . Our chi ef r i val was a br i dge- bui l di ng
concer n i n Chi cago t o whi ch t he boar d had deci ded t o awar d t he
cont r act . I l i nger ed and t al ked wi t h some of t he di r ect or s. They wer e
del i ght f ul l y i gnor ant of t he mer i t s of cast - and wr ought - i r on. We had
al ways made t he upper cor d of t he br i dge of t he l at t er , whi l e our
r i val s' was made of cast - i r on. Thi s f ur ni shed my t ext . I pi ct ur ed t he
r esul t of a st eamer st r i ki ng agai nst t he one and agai nst t he ot her . I n
t he case of t he wr ought - i r on cor d i t woul d pr obabl y onl y bend; i n t he
case of t he cast - i r on i t woul d cer t ai nl y br eak and down woul d come t he
br i dge. One of t he di r ect or s, t he wel l - known Per r y Smi t h, was
f or t unat el y abl e t o enf or ce my ar gument , by st at i ng t o t he boar d t hat
what I sai d was undoubt edl y t he case about cast - i r on. The ot her ni ght
he had r un hi s buggy i n t he dar k agai nst a l amp- post whi ch was of
cast - i r on and t he l amp- post had br oken t o pi eces. AmI t o be censur ed
i f I had l i t t l e di f f i cul t y her e i n r ecogni zi ng somet hi ng aki n t o t he
hand of Pr ovi dence, wi t h Per r y Smi t h t he mani f est agent ?

" Ah, gent l emen, " I sai d, " t her e i s t he poi nt . A l i t t l e mor e money and
you coul d have had t he i ndest r uct i bl e wr ought - i r on and your br i dge
woul d st and agai nst any st eamboat . We never have bui l t and we never
wi l l bui l d a cheap br i dge. Our s don' t f al l . "

Ther e was a pause; t hen t he pr esi dent of t he br i dge company, Mr .
Al l i son, t he gr eat Senat or , asked i f I woul d excuse t hemf or a f ew
moment s. I r et i r ed. Soon t hey r ecal l ed me and of f er ed t he cont r act ,
pr ovi ded we t ook t he l ower pr i ce, whi ch was onl y a f ew t housand
dol l ar s l ess. I agr eed t o t he concessi on. That cast - i r on l amp- post so
oppor t unel y smashed gave us one of our most pr of i t abl e cont r act s and,
what i s mor e, obt ai ned f or us t he r eput at i on of havi ng t aken t he
Dubuque br i dge agai nst al l compet i t or s. I t al so l ai d t he f oundat i on
f or me of a l i f el ong, unbr oken f r i endshi p wi t h one of Amer i ca' s best
and most val uabl e publ i c men, Senat or Al l i son.

The mor al of t hat st or y l i es on t he sur f ace. I f you want a cont r act ,
be on t he spot when i t i s l et . A smashed l amp- post or somet hi ng
equal l y unt hought of may secur e t he pr i ze i f t he bi dder be on hand.
And i f possi bl e st ay on hand unt i l you can t ake t he wr i t t en cont r act
home i n your pocket . Thi s we di d at Dubuque, al t hough i t was suggest ed
we coul d l eave and i t woul d be sent af t er us t o execut e. We pr ef er r ed
t o r emai n, bei ng anxi ous t o see mor e of t he char ms of Dubuque.

Af t er bui l di ng t he St eubenvi l l e Br i dge, i t became a necessi t y f or t he
Bal t i mor e and Ohi o Rai l r oad Company t o bui l d br i dges acr oss t he Ohi o
Ri ver at Par ker sbur g and Wheel i ng, t o pr event t hei r gr eat r i val , t he
Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad Company, f r ompossessi ng a deci ded advant age.
The days of f er r yboat s wer e t hen f ast passi ng away. I t was i n
connect i on wi t h t he cont r act s f or t hese br i dges t hat I had t he
pl easur e of maki ng t he acquai nt ance of a man, t hen of gr eat posi t i on,
Mr . Gar r et t , pr esi dent of t he Bal t i mor e and Ohi o.

We wer e most anxi ous t o secur e bot h br i dges and al l t he appr oaches t o
t hem, but I f ound Mr . Gar r et t deci dedl y of t he opi ni on t hat we wer e
qui t e unabl e t o do so much wor k i n t he t i me speci f i ed. He wi shed t o
bui l d t he appr oaches and t he shor t spans i n hi s own shops, and asked
me i f we woul d per mi t hi mt o use our pat ent s. I r epl i ed t hat we woul d
f eel hi ghl y honor ed by t he Bal t i mor e and Ohi o doi ng so. The st amp of
Page 73 of 222
appr oval of t he Bal t i mor e and Ohi o Rai l r oad woul d be wor t h t en t i mes
t he pat ent f ees. He coul d use al l , and ever yt hi ng, we had.

Ther e was no doubt as t o t he f avor abl e i mpr essi on t hat made upon t he
gr eat r ai l way magnat e. He was much pl eased and, t o my ut t er sur pr i se,
t ook me i nt o hi s pr i vat e r oomand opened up a f r ank conver sat i on upon
mat t er s i n gener al . He t ouched especi al l y upon hi s quar r el s wi t h t he
Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad peopl e, wi t h Mr . Thomson and Mr . Scot t , t he
pr esi dent and vi ce- pr esi dent , whomhe knew t o be my speci al f r i ends.
Thi s l ed me t o say t hat I had passed t hr ough Phi l adel phi a on my way t o
see hi mand had been asked by Mr . Scot t wher e I was goi ng.

" I t ol d hi mt hat I was goi ng t o vi si t you t o obt ai n t he cont r act s f or
your gr eat br i dges over t he Ohi o Ri ver . Mr . Scot t sai d i t was not
of t en t hat I went on a f ool ' s er r and, but t hat I was cer t ai nl y on one
now; t hat Mr . Gar r et t woul d never t hi nk f or a moment of gi vi ng me hi s
cont r act s, f or ever y one knew t hat I was, as a f or mer empl oyee, al ways
f r i endl y t o t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad. Wel l , I sai d, we shal l bui l d
Mr . Gar r et t ' s br i dges. "

Mr . Gar r et t pr ompt l y r epl i ed t hat when t he i nt er est s of hi s company
wer e at st ake i t was t he best al ways t hat won. Hi s engi neer s had
r epor t ed t hat our pl ans wer e t he best and t hat Scot t and Thomson woul d
see t hat he had onl y one r ul e- - t he i nt er est s of hi s company. Al t hough
he ver y wel l knew t hat I was a Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad man, yet he f el t
i t hi s dut y t o awar d us t he wor k.

The negot i at i on was st i l l unsat i sf act or y t o me, because we wer e t o get
al l t he di f f i cul t par t of t he wor k- - t he gr eat spans of whi ch t he r i sk
was t hen consi der abl e- - whi l e Mr . Gar r et t was t o bui l d al l t he smal l
and pr of i t abl e spans at hi s own shops upon our pl ans and pat ent s. I
vent ur ed t o ask whet her he was di vi di ng t he wor k because he honest l y
bel i eved we coul d not open hi s br i dges f or t r af f i c as soon as hi s
masonr y woul d per mi t . He admi t t ed he was. I t ol d hi mt hat he need not
have any f ear upon t hat poi nt .

" Mr . Gar r et t , " I sai d, " woul d you consi der my per sonal bond a good
secur i t y?"

" Cer t ai nl y, " he sai d.

" Wel l , now, " I r epl i ed, " bi nd me! I know what I amdoi ng. I wi l l t ake
t he r i sk. How much of a bond do you want me t o gi ve you t hat your
br i dges wi l l be opened f or t r af f i c at t he speci f i ed t i me i f you gi ve
us t he ent i r e cont r act , pr ovi ded you get your masonr y r eady?"

" Wel l , I woul d want a hundr ed t housand dol l ar s f r omyou, young man. "

" Al l r i ght , " I sai d, " pr epar e your bond. Gi ve us t he wor k. Our f i r mi s
not goi ng t o l et me l ose a hundr ed t housand dol l ar s. You know t hat . "

" Yes, " he sai d, " I bel i eve i f you ar e bound f or a hundr ed t housand
dol l ar s your company wi l l wor k day and ni ght and I wi l l get my
br i dges. "

Thi s was t he ar r angement whi ch gave us what wer e t hen t he gi gant i c
cont r act s of t he Bal t i mor e and Ohi o Rai l r oad. I t i s needl ess t o say
Page 74 of 222
t hat I never had t o pay t hat bond. My par t ner s knew much bet t er t han
Mr . Gar r et t t he condi t i ons of hi s wor k. The Ohi o Ri ver was not t o be
t r i f l ed wi t h, and l ong bef or e hi s masonr y was r eady we had r el i eved
our sel ves f r omal l r esponsi bi l i t y upon t he bond by pl aci ng t he
super st r uct ur e on t he banks awai t i ng t he compl et i on of t he
subst r uct ur e whi ch he was st i l l bui l di ng.

Mr . Gar r et t was ver y pr oud of hi s Scot t i sh bl ood, and Bur ns havi ng
been once t ouched upon bet ween us we became f i r mf r i ends. He
af t er war ds t ook me t o hi s f i ne mansi on i n t he count r y. He was one of
t he f ew Amer i cans who t hen l i ved i n t he gr and st yl e of a count r y
gent l eman, wi t h many hundr eds of acr es of beaut i f ul l and, par k- l i ke
dr i ves, a st ud of t hor oughbr ed hor ses, wi t h cat t l e, sheep, and dogs,
and a home t hat r eal i zed what one had r ead of t he count r y l i f e of a
nobl eman i n Engl and.

At a l at er dat e he had f ul l y det er mi ned t hat hi s r ai l r oad company
shoul d engage i n t he manuf act ur e of st eel r ai l s and had appl i ed f or
t he r i ght t o use t he Bessemer pat ent s. Thi s was a mat t er of gr eat
moment t o us. The Bal t i mor e and Ohi o Rai l r oad Company was one of our
best cust omer s, and we wer e nat ur al l y anxi ous t o pr event t he bui l di ng
of st eel - r ai l r ol l i ng mi l l s at Cumber l and. I t woul d have been a l osi ng
ent er pr i se f or t he Bal t i mor e and Ohi o, f or I was sur e i t coul d buy i t s
st eel r ai l s at a much cheaper r at e t han i t coul d possi bl y make t he
smal l quant i t y needed f or i t sel f . I vi si t ed Mr . Gar r et t t o t al k t he
mat t er over wi t h hi m. He was t hen much pl eased wi t h t he f or ei gn
commer ce and t he l i nes of st eamshi ps whi ch made Bal t i mor e t hei r por t .
He dr ove me, accompani ed by sever al of hi s st af f , t o t he whar ves wher e
he was t o deci de about t hei r ext ensi on, and as t he f or ei gn goods wer e
bei ng di schar ged f r omt he st eamshi p si de and pl aced i n t he r ai l way
car s, he t ur ned t o me and sai d:

" Mr . Car negi e, you can now begi n t o appr eci at e t he magni t ude of our
vast syst emand under st and why i t i s necessar y t hat we shoul d make
ever yt hi ng f or our sel ves, even our st eel r ai l s. We cannot depend upon
pr i vat e concer ns t o suppl y us wi t h any of t he pr i nci pal ar t i cl es we
consume. We shal l be a wor l d t o our sel ves. "

" Wel l , " I sai d, " Mr . Gar r et t , i t i s al l ver y gr and, but r eal l y your
' vast syst em' does not over whel mme. I r ead your l ast annual r epor t
and saw t hat you col l ect ed l ast year f or t r anspor t i ng t he goods of
ot her s t he sumof f our t een mi l l i ons of dol l ar s. The f i r ms I cont r ol
dug t he mat er i al f r omt he hi l l s, made t hei r own goods, and sol d t hem
t o a much gr eat er val ue t han t hat . You ar e r eal l y a ver y smal l concer n
compar ed wi t h Car negi e Br ot her s and Company. "

My r ai l r oad appr ent i ceshi p came i n t her e t o advant age. We hear d no
mor e of t he Bal t i mor e and Ohi o Rai l r oad Company ent er i ng i nt o
compet i t i on wi t h us. Mr . Gar r et t and I r emai ned good f r i ends t o t he
end. He even pr esent ed me wi t h a Scot ch col l i e dog of hi s own r ear i ng.
That I had been a Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad man was dr owned i n t he " wee
dr ap o' Scot ch bl ui d at ween us. "



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CHAPTER X

THE IRON WORKS


The Keyst one Wor ks have al ways been my pet as bei ng t he par ent of al l
t he ot her wor ks. But t hey had not been l ong i n exi st ence bef or e t he
advant age of wr ought - over cast - i r on became mani f est . Accor di ngl y, t o
i nsur e uni f or mqual i t y, and al so t o make cer t ai n shapes whi ch wer e not
t hen t o be obt ai ned, we det er mi ned t o embar k i n t he manuf act ur e of
i r on. My br ot her and I became i nt er est ed wi t h Thomas N. Mi l l er , Henr y
Phi pps, and Andr ew Kl oman i n a smal l i r on mi l l . Mi l l er was t he f i r st
t o embar k wi t h Kl oman and he br ought Phi pps i n, l endi ng hi mei ght
hundr ed dol l ar s t o buy a one- si xt h i nt er est , i n November , 1861.

I must not f ai l t o r ecor d t hat Mr . Mi l l er was t he pi oneer of our i r on
manuf act ur i ng pr oj ect s. We wer e al l i ndebt ed t o Tom, who st i l l l i ves
( J ul y 20, 1911) and sheds upon us t he sweet ness and l i ght of a most
l ovabl e nat ur e, a f r i end who gr ows mor e pr eci ous as t he year s r ol l by.
He has sof t ened by age, and even hi s out bur st s agai nst t heol ogy as
ant agoni st i c t o t r ue r el i gi on ar e i n hi s f i ne ol d age much l ess
al ar mi ng. We ar e al l pr one t o gr ow phi l osophi c i n age, and per haps
t hi s i s wel l . [ I n r e- r eadi ng t hi s- - J ul y 19, 1912- - i n our r et r eat upon
t he hi gh moor s at Aul t nagar , I dr op a t ear f or my bosomf r i end, dear
TomMi l l er , who di ed i n Pi t t sbur gh l ast wi nt er . Mr s. Car negi e and I
at t ended hi s f uner al . Hencef or t h l i f e l acks somet hi ng, l acks much- - my
f i r st par t ner i n ear l y year s, my dear est f r i end i n ol d age. May I go
wher e he i s, wher ever t hat may be. ]

Andr ew Kl oman had a smal l st eel - hammer i n Al l egheny Ci t y. As a
super i nt endent of t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad I had f ound t hat he made
t he best axl es. He was a gr eat mechani c- - one who had di scover ed, what
was t hen unknown i n Pi t t sbur gh, t hat what ever was wor t h doi ng wi t h
machi ner y was wor t h doi ng wel l . Hi s Ger man mi nd made hi mt hor ough.
What he const r uct ed cost enor mousl y, but when once st ar t ed i t di d t he
wor k i t was i nt ended t o do f r omyear ' s end t o year ' s end. I n t hose
ear l y days i t was a quest i on wi t h axl es gener al l y whet her t hey woul d
r un any speci f i ed t i me or br eak. Ther e was no anal ysi s of mat er i al , no
sci ent i f i c t r eat ment of i t .

How much t hi s Ger man cr eat ed! He was t he f i r st man t o i nt r oduce t he
col d saw t hat cut col d i r on t he exact l engt hs. He i nvent ed upset t i ng
machi nes t o make br i dge l i nks, and al so bui l t t he f i r st " uni ver sal "
mi l l i n Amer i ca. Al l t hese wer e er ect ed at our wor ks. When Capt ai n
Eads coul d not obt ai n t he coupl i ngs f or t he St . Loui s Br i dge ar ches
( t he cont r act or s f ai l i ng t o make t hem) and mat t er s wer e at a
st andst i l l , Kl oman t ol d us t hat he coul d make t hemand why t he ot her s
had f ai l ed. He succeeded i n maki ng t hem. Up t o t hat dat e t hey wer e t he
l ar gest semi ci r cl es t hat had ever been r ol l ed. Our conf i dence i n Mr .
Kl oman may be j udged f r omt he f act t hat when he sai d he coul d make
t hemwe unhesi t at i ngl y cont r act ed t o f ur ni sh t hem.

I have al r eady spoken of t he i nt i macy bet ween our f ami l y and t hat of
t he Phi ppses. I n t he ear l y days my chi ef compani on was t he el der
br ot her , J ohn. Henr y was sever al year s my j uni or , but had not f ai l ed
t o at t r act my at t ent i on as a br i ght , cl ever l ad. One day he asked hi s
Page 76 of 222
br ot her J ohn t o l end hi ma quar t er of a dol l ar . J ohn saw t hat he had
i mpor t ant use f or i t and handed hi mt he shi ni ng quar t er wi t hout
i nqui r y. Next mor ni ng an adver t i sement appear ed i n t he " Pi t t sbur gh
Di spat ch" :

" A wi l l i ng boy wi shes wor k. "

Thi s was t he use t he ener get i c and wi l l i ng Har r y had made of hi s
quar t er , pr obabl y t he f i r st quar t er he had ever spent at one t i me i n
hi s l i f e. A r esponse came f r omt he wel l - known f i r mof Di l wor t h and
Bi dwel l . They asked t he " wi l l i ng boy" t o cal l . Har r y went and obt ai ned
a posi t i on as er r and boy, and as was t hen t he cust om, hi s f i r st dut y
ever y mor ni ng was t o sweep t he of f i ce. He went t o hi s par ent s and
obt ai ned t hei r consent , and i n t hi s way t he young l ad l aunched hi msel f
upon t he sea of busi ness. Ther e was no hol di ng back a boy l i ke t hat .
I t was t he ol d st or y. He soon became i ndi spensabl e t o hi s empl oyer s,
obt ai ned a smal l i nt er est i n a col l at er al br anch of t hei r busi ness;
and t hen, ever on t he al er t , i t was not many year s bef or e he at t r act ed
t he at t ent i on of Mr . Mi l l er , who made a smal l i nvest ment f or hi mwi t h
Andr ew Kl oman. That f i nal l y r esul t ed i n t he bui l di ng of t he i r on mi l l
i n Twent y- Ni nt h St r eet . He had been a school mat e and gr eat cr ony of my
br ot her Tom. As chi l dr en t hey had pl ayed t oget her , and t hr oughout
l i f e, unt i l my br ot her ' s deat h i n 1886, t hese t wo f or med, as i t wer e,
a par t ner shi p wi t hi n a par t ner shi p. They i nvar i abl y hel d equal
i nt er est s i n t he var i ous f i r ms wi t h whi ch t hey wer e connect ed. What
one di d t he ot her di d.

The er r and boy i s now one of t he r i chest men i n t he Uni t ed St at es and
has begun t o pr ove t hat he knows how t o expend hi s sur pl us. Year s ago
he gave beaut i f ul conser vat or i es t o t he publ i c par ks of Al l egheny and
Pi t t sbur gh. That he speci f i ed " t hat t hese shoul d be open upon Sunday"
shows t hat he i s a man of hi s t i me. Thi s cl ause i n t he gi f t cr eat ed
much exci t ement . Mi ni st er s denounced hi mf r omt he pul pi t and
assembl i es of t he chur ch passed r esol ut i ons decl ar i ng agai nst t he
desecr at i on of t he Lor d' s Day. But t he peopl e r ose, _en masse_,
agai nst t hi s nar r ow- mi nded cont ent i on and t he Counci l of t he ci t y
accept ed t he gi f t wi t h accl amat i on. The sound common sense of my
par t ner was wel l expr essed when he sai d i n r epl y t o a r emonst r ance by
mi ni st er s:

" I t i s al l ver y wel l f or you, gent l emen, who wor k one day i n t he week
and ar e mast er s of your t i me t he ot her si x dur i ng whi ch you can vi ew
t he beaut i es of Nat ur e- - al l ver y wel l f or you- - but I t hi nk i t shamef ul
t hat you shoul d endeavor t o shut out f r omt he t oi l i ng masses al l t hat
i s cal cul at ed t o ent er t ai n and i nst r uct t hemdur i ng t he onl y day whi ch
you wel l know t hey have at t hei r di sposal . "

These same mi ni st er s have r ecent l y been quar r el i ng i n t hei r convent i on
at Pi t t sbur gh upon t he subj ect of i nst r ument al musi c i n chur ches. But
whi l e t hey ar e debat i ng whet her i t i s r i ght t o have or gans i n
chur ches, i nt el l i gent peopl e ar e openi ng museums, conser vat or i es, and
l i br ar i es upon t he Sabbat h; and unl ess t he pul pi t soon l ear ns how t o
meet t he r eal want s of t he peopl e i n t hi s l i f e ( wher e al one men' s
dut i es l i e) much bet t er t han i t i s doi ng at pr esent , t hese r i val
cl ai mant s f or popul ar f avor may soon empt y t hei r chur ches.

Unf or t unat el y Kl oman and Phi pps soon di f f er ed wi t h Mi l l er about t he
Page 77 of 222
busi ness and f or ced hi mout . Bei ng convi nced t hat Mi l l er was unf ai r l y
t r eat ed, I uni t ed wi t h hi mi n bui l di ng new wor ks. These wer e t he
Cycl ops Mi l l s of 1864. Af t er t hey wer e set r unni ng i t became possi bl e,
and t her ef or e advi sabl e, t o uni t e t he ol d and t he new wor ks, and t he
Uni on I r on Mi l l s wer e f or med by t hei r consol i dat i on i n 1867. I di d
not bel i eve t hat Mr . Mi l l er ' s r el uct ance t o associ at e agai n wi t h hi s
f or mer par t ner s, Phi pps and Kl oman, coul d not be over come, because
t hey woul d not cont r ol t he Uni on Wor ks. Mr . Mi l l er , my br ot her , and I
woul d hol d t he cont r ol l i ng i nt er est . But Mr . Mi l l er pr oved obdur at e
and begged me t o buy hi s i nt er est , whi ch I r el uct ant l y di d af t er al l
ef f or t s had f ai l ed t o i nduce hi mt o l et bygones be bygones. He was
I r i sh, and t he I r i sh bl ood when ar oused i s uncont r ol l abl e. Mr . Mi l l er
has si nce r egr et t ed ( t o me) hi s r ef usal of my ear nest r equest , whi ch
woul d have enabl ed t he pi oneer of al l of us t o r eap what was onl y hi s
r i ght f ul r ewar d- - mi l l i onai r edomf or hi msel f and hi s f ol l ower s.

We wer e young i n manuf act ur i ng t hen and obt ai ned f or t he Cycl ops Mi l l s
what was consi der ed at t he t i me an enor mous ext ent of l and- - seven
acr es. For some year s we of f er ed t o l ease a por t i on of t he gr ound t o
ot her s. I t soon became a quest i on whet her we coul d cont i nue t he
manuf act ur e of i r on wi t hi n so smal l an ar ea. Mr . Kl oman succeeded i n
maki ng i r on beams and f or many year s our mi l l was f ar i n advance of
any ot her i n t hat r espect . We began at t he new mi l l by maki ng al l
shapes whi ch wer e r equi r ed, and especi al l y such as no ot her concer n
woul d under t ake, dependi ng upon an i ncr easi ng demand i n our gr owi ng
count r y f or t hi ngs t hat wer e onl y r ar el y needed at f i r st . What ot her s
coul d not or woul d not do we woul d at t empt , and t hi s was a r ul e of our
busi ness whi ch was st r i ct l y adher ed t o. Al so we woul d make not hi ng
except of excel l ent qual i t y. We al ways accommodat ed our cust omer s,
even al t hough at some expense t o our sel ves, and i n cases of di sput e we
gave t he ot her par t y t he benef i t of t he doubt and set t l ed. These wer e
our r ul es. We had no l awsui t s.

As I became acquai nt ed wi t h t he manuf act ur e of i r on I was gr eat l y
sur pr i sed t o f i nd t hat t he cost of each of t he var i ous pr ocesses was
unknown. I nqui r i es made of t he l eadi ng manuf act ur er s of Pi t t sbur gh
pr oved t hi s. I t was a l ump busi ness, and unt i l st ock was t aken and t he
books bal anced at t he end of t he year , t he manuf act ur er s wer e i n t ot al
i gnor ance of r esul t s. I hear d of men who t hought t hei r busi ness at t he
end of t he year woul d show a l oss and had f ound a pr of i t , and
_vi ce- ver sa_. I f el t as i f we wer e mol es bur r owi ng i n t he dar k, and
t hi s t o me was i nt ol er abl e. I i nsi st ed upon such a syst emof wei ghi ng
and account i ng bei ng i nt r oduced t hr oughout our wor ks as woul d enabl e
us t o know what our cost was f or each pr ocess and especi al l y what each
man was doi ng, who saved mat er i al , who wast ed i t , and who pr oduced t he
best r esul t s.

To ar r i ve at t hi s was a much mor e di f f i cul t t ask t han one woul d
i magi ne. Ever y manager i n t he mi l l s was nat ur al l y agai nst t he new
syst em. Year s wer e r equi r ed bef or e an accur at e syst emwas obt ai ned,
but event ual l y, by t he ai d of many cl er ks and t he i nt r oduct i on of
wei ghi ng scal es at var i ous poi nt s i n t he mi l l , we began t o know not
onl y what ever y depar t ment was doi ng, but what each one of t he many
men wor ki ng at t he f ur naces was doi ng, and t hus t o compar e one wi t h
anot her . One of t he chi ef sour ces of success i n manuf act ur i ng i s t he
i nt r oduct i on and st r i ct mai nt enance of a per f ect syst emof account i ng
so t hat r esponsi bi l i t y f or money or mat er i al s can be br ought home t o
Page 78 of 222
ever y man. Owner s who, i n t he of f i ce, woul d not t r ust a cl er k wi t h
f i ve dol l ar s wi t hout havi ng a check upon hi m, wer e suppl yi ng t ons of
mat er i al dai l y t o men i n t he mi l l s wi t hout exact i ng an account of
t hei r st ewar dshi p by wei ghi ng what each r et ur ned i n t he f i ni shed
f or m.

The Si emens Gas Fur nace had been used t o some ext ent i n Gr eat Br i t ai n
f or heat i ng st eel and i r on, but i t was supposed t o be t oo expensi ve. I
wel l r emember t he cr i t i ci sms made by ol der heads among t he Pi t t sbur gh
manuf act ur er s about t he ext r avagant expendi t ur e we wer e maki ng upon
t hese new- f angl ed f ur naces. But i n t he heat i ng of gr eat masses of
mat er i al , al most hal f t he wast e coul d somet i mes be saved by usi ng t he
new f ur naces. The expendi t ur e woul d have been j ust i f i ed, even i f i t
had been doubl ed. Yet i t was many year s bef or e we wer e f ol l owed i n
t hi s new depar t ur e; and i n some of t hose year s t he mar gi n of pr of i t
was so smal l t hat t he most of i t was made up f r omt he savi ngs der i ved
f r omt he adopt i on of t he i mpr oved f ur naces.

Our st r i ct syst emof account i ng enabl ed us t o det ect t he gr eat wast e
possi bl e i n heat i ng l ar ge masses of i r on. Thi s i mpr ovement r eveal ed t o
us a val uabl e man i n a cl er k, Wi l l i amBor nt r aeger , a di st ant r el at i ve
of Mr . Kl oman, who came f r omGer many. He sur pr i sed us one day by
pr esent i ng a det ai l ed st at ement showi ng r esul t s f or a per i od, whi ch
seemed i ncr edi bl e. Al l t he needed l abor i n pr epar i ng t hi s st at ement he
had per f or med at ni ght unasked and unknown t o us. The f or madapt ed was
uni quel y or i gi nal . Needl ess t o say, Wi l l i amsoon became super i nt endent
of t he wor ks and l at er a par t ner , and t he poor Ger man l ad di ed a
mi l l i onai r e. He wel l deser ved hi s f or t une.

I t was i n 1862 t hat t he gr eat oi l wel l s of Pennsyl vani a at t r act ed
at t ent i on. My f r i end Mr . Wi l l i amCol eman, whose daught er became, at a
l at er dat e, my si st er - i n- l aw, was deepl y i nt er est ed i n t he di scover y,
and not hi ng woul d do but t hat I shoul d t ake a t r i p wi t h hi mt o t he oi l
r egi ons. I t was a most i nt er est i ng excur si on. Ther e had been a r ush t o
t he oi l f i el ds and t he i nf l ux was so gr eat t hat i t was i mpossi bl e f or
al l t o obt ai n shel t er . Thi s, however , t o t he cl ass of men who f l ocked
t hi t her , was but a sl i ght dr awback. A f ew hour s suf f i ced t o knock up a
shant y, and i t was sur pr i si ng i n how shor t a t i me t hey wer e abl e t o
sur r ound t hemsel ves wi t h many of t he comf or t s of l i f e. They wer e men
above t he aver age, men who had saved consi der abl e sums and wer e abl e
t o vent ur e somet hi ng i n t he sear ch f or f or t une.

What sur pr i sed me was t he good humor whi ch pr evai l ed ever ywher e. I t
was a vast pi cni c, f ul l of amusi ng i nci dent s. Ever ybody was i n hi gh
gl ee; f or t unes wer e supposedl y wi t hi n r each; ever yt hi ng was boomi ng.
On t he t ops of t he der r i cks f l oat ed f l ags on whi ch st r ange mot t oes
wer e di spl ayed. I r emember l ooki ng down t owar d t he r i ver and seei ng
t wo men wor ki ng t hei r t r eadl es bor i ng f or oi l upon t he banks of t he
st r eam, and i nscr i bed upon t hei r f l ag was " Hel l or Chi na. " They wer e
goi ng down, no mat t er how f ar .

The adapt abi l i t y of t he Amer i can was never bet t er di spl ayed t han i n
t hi s r egi on. Or der was soon evol ved out of chaos. When we vi si t ed t he
pl ace not l ong af t er we wer e ser enaded by a br ass band t he pl ayer s of
whi ch wer e made up of t he new i nhabi t ant s al ong t he cr eek. I t woul d be
saf e t o wager t hat a t housand Amer i cans i n a new l and woul d or gani ze
t hemsel ves, est abl i sh school s, chur ches, newspaper s, and br ass
Page 79 of 222
bands- - i n shor t , pr ovi de t hemsel ves wi t h al l t he appl i ances of
ci vi l i zat i on- - and go ahead devel opi ng t hei r count r y bef or e an equal
number of Br i t i sh woul d have di scover ed who among t hemwas t he hi ghest
i n her edi t ar y r ank and had t he best cl ai ms t o l eader shi p owi ng t o hi s
gr andf at her . Ther e i s but one r ul e among Amer i cans- - t he t ool s t o t hose
who can use t hem.

To- day Oi l Cr eek i s a t own of many t housand i nhabi t ant s, as i s al so
Ti t usvi l l e at t he ot her end of t he cr eek. The di st r i ct whi ch began by
f ur ni shi ng a f ew bar r el s of oi l ever y season, gat her ed wi t h bl anket s
f r omt he sur f ace of t he cr eek by t he Seneca I ndi ans, has now sever al
t owns and r ef i ner i es, wi t h mi l l i ons of dol l ar s of capi t al . I n t hose
ear l y days al l t he ar r angement s wer e of t he cr udest char act er . When
t he oi l was obt ai ned i t was r un i nt o f l at - bot t omed boat s whi ch l eaked
badl y. Wat er r an i nt o t he boat s and t he oi l over f l owed i nt o t he r i ver .
The cr eek was dammed at var i ous pl aces, and upon a st i pul at ed day and
hour t he dams wer e opened and upon t he f l ood t he oi l boat s f l oat ed t o
t he Al l egheny Ri ver , and t hence t o Pi t t sbur gh.

I n t hi s way not onl y t he cr eek, but t he Al l egheny Ri ver , became
l i t er al l y cover ed wi t h oi l . The l oss i nvol ved i n t r anspor t at i on t o
Pi t t sbur gh was est i mat ed at f ul l y a t hi r d of t he t ot al quant i t y, and
bef or e t he oi l boat s st ar t ed i t i s saf e t o say t hat anot her t hi r d was
l ost by l eakage. The oi l gat her ed by t he I ndi ans i n t he ear l y days was
bot t l ed i n Pi t t sbur gh and sol d at hi gh pr i ces as medi ci ne- - a dol l ar
f or a smal l vi al . I t had gener al r eput at i on as a sur e cur e f or
r heumat i c t endenci es. As i t became pl ent i f ul and cheap i t s vi r t ues
vani shed. What f ool s we mor t al s be!

The most cel ebr at ed wel l s wer e upon t he St or ey f ar m. Upon t hese we
obt ai ned an opt i on of pur chase f or f or t y t housand dol l ar s. We bought
t hem. Mr . Col eman, ever r eady at suggest i on, pr oposed t o make a l ake
of oi l by excavat i ng a pool suf f i ci ent t o hol d a hundr ed t housand
bar r el s ( t he wast e t o be made good ever y day by r unni ng st r eams of oi l
i nt o i t ) , and t o hol d i t f or t he not f ar di st ant day when, as we t hen
expect ed, t he oi l suppl y woul d cease. Thi s was pr ompt l y act ed upon,
but af t er l osi ng many t housands of bar r el s wai t i ng f or t he expect ed
day ( whi ch has not yet ar r i ved) we abandoned t he r eser ve. Col eman
pr edi ct ed t hat when t he suppl y st opped, oi l woul d br i ng t en dol l ar s a
bar r el and t her ef or e we woul d have a mi l l i on dol l ar s wor t h i n t he
l ake. We di d not t hi nk t hen of Nat ur e' s st or ehouse bel ow whi ch st i l l
keeps on yi el di ng many t housands of bar r el s per day wi t hout appar ent
exhaust i on.

Thi s f or t y- t housand- dol l ar i nvest ment pr oved f or us t he best of al l so
f ar . The r evenues f r omi t came at t he most oppor t une t i me. [ 28] The
bui l di ng of t he new mi l l i n Pi t t sbur gh r equi r ed not onl y al l t he
capi t al we coul d gat her , but t he use of our cr edi t , whi ch I consi der ,
l ooki ng backwar d, was r emar kabl y good f or young men.

[ Foot not e 28: The wel l s on t he St or ey f ar mpai d i n one year a mi l l i on
dol l ar s i n cash and di vi dends, and t he f ar mi t sel f event ual l y became
wor t h, on a st ock basi s, f i ve mi l l i on dol l ar s. ]

Havi ng become i nt er est ed i n t hi s oi l vent ur e, I made sever al
excur si ons t o t he di st r i ct and al so, i n 1864, t o an oi l f i el d i n Ohi o
wher e a gr eat wel l had been st r uck whi ch yi el ded a pecul i ar qual i t y of
Page 80 of 222
oi l wel l f i t t ed f or l ubr i cat i ng pur poses. My j our ney t hi t her wi t h Mr .
Col eman and Mr . Davi d Ri t chi e was one of t he st r angest exper i ences I
ever had. We l ef t t he r ai l way l i ne some hundr eds of mi l es f r om
Pi t t sbur gh and pl unged t hr ough a spar sel y i nhabi t ed di st r i ct t o t he
wat er s of Duck Cr eek t o see t he monst er wel l . We bought i t bef or e
l eavi ng.

I t was upon our r et ur n t hat advent ur es began. The weat her had been
f i ne and t he r oads qui t e passabl e dur i ng our j our ney t hi t her , but r ai n
had set i n dur i ng our st ay. We st ar t ed back i n our wagon, but bef or e
goi ng f ar f el l i nt o di f f i cul t i es. The r oad had become a mass of sof t ,
t enaci ous mud and our wagon l abor ed f ear f ul l y. The r ai n f el l i n
t or r ent s, and i t soon became evi dent t hat we wer e i n f or a ni ght of
i t . Mr . Col eman l ay at f ul l l engt h on one si de of t he wagon, and Mr .
Ri t chi e on t he ot her , and I , bei ng t hen ver y t hi n, wei ghi ng not much
mor e t han a hundr ed pounds, was ni cel y sandwi ched bet ween t he t wo
por t l y gent l emen. Ever y now and t hen t he wagon pr oceeded a f ew f eet
heavi ng up and down i n t he most out r ageous manner , and f i nal l y
st i cki ng f ast . I n t hi s f ashi on we passed t he ni ght . Ther e was i n f r ont
a seat acr oss t he wagon, under whi ch we got our heads, and i n spi t e of
our condi t i on t he ni ght was spent i n upr oar i ous mer r i ment .

By t he next ni ght we succeeded i n r eachi ng a count r y t own i n t he wor st
possi bl e pl i ght . We saw t he l i t t l e f r ame chur ch of t he t own l i ght ed
and hear d t he bel l r i ngi ng. We had j ust r eached our t aver n when a
commi t t ee appear ed st at i ng t hat t hey had been wai t i ng f or us and t hat
t he congr egat i on was assembl ed. I t appear s t hat a not ed exhor t er had
been expect ed who had no doubt been del ayed as we had been. I was
t aken f or t he absent ee mi ni st er and asked how soon I woul d be r eady t o
accompany t hemt o t he meet i ng- house. I was al most pr epar ed wi t h my
compani ons t o car r y out t he j oke ( we wer e i n f or f un) , but I f ound I
was t oo exhaust ed wi t h f at i gue t o at t empt i t . I had never bef or e come
so near occupyi ng a pul pi t .

My i nvest ment s now began t o r equi r e so much of my per sonal at t ent i on
t hat I r esol ved t o l eave t he ser vi ce of t he r ai l way company and devot e
mysel f excl usi vel y t o my own af f ai r s. I had been honor ed a shor t t i me
bef or e t hi s deci si on by bei ng cal l ed by Pr esi dent Thomson t o
Phi l adel phi a. He desi r ed t o pr omot e me t o t he of f i ce of assi st ant
gener al super i nt endent wi t h headquar t er s at Al t oona under Mr . Lewi s. I
decl i ned, t el l i ng hi mt hat I had deci ded t o gi ve up t he r ai l r oad
ser vi ce al t oget her , t hat I was det er mi ned t o make a f or t une and I saw
no means of doi ng t hi s honest l y at any sal ar y t he r ai l r oad company
coul d af f or d t o gi ve, and I woul d not do i t by i ndi r ect i on. When I l ay
down at ni ght I was goi ng t o get a ver di ct of appr oval f r omt he
hi ghest of al l t r i bunal s, t he j udge wi t hi n.

I r epeat ed t hi s i n my par t i ng l et t er t o Pr esi dent Thomson, who war ml y
congr at ul at ed me upon i t i n hi s l et t er of r epl y. I r esi gned my
posi t i on Mar ch 28, 1865, and r ecei ved f r omt he men on t he r ai l way a
gol d wat ch. Thi s and Mr . Thomson' s l et t er I t r easur e among my most
pr eci ous mement os.

The f ol l owi ng l et t er was wr i t t en t o t he men on t he Di vi si on:

PENNSYLVANI A RAI LROAD COMPANY
SUPERI NTENDENT' S OFFI CE, PI TTSBURGH DI VI SI ON
Page 81 of 222
PI TTSBURGH, _Mar ch 28, 1865_

To t he Of f i cer s and Empl oyees of t he Pi t t sbur gh Di vi si on

GENTLEMEN:

I cannot al l ow my connect i on wi t h you t o cease wi t hout some
expr essi on of t he deep r egr et f el t at par t i ng.

Twel ve year s of pl easant i nt er cour se have ser ved t o i nspi r e
f eel i ngs of per sonal r egar d f or t hose who have so f ai t hf ul l y
l abor ed wi t h me i n t he ser vi ce of t he Company. The comi ng
change i s pai nf ul onl y as I r ef l ect t hat i n consequence
t her eof I amnot t o be i n t he f ut ur e, as i n t he past ,
i nt i mat el y associ at ed wi t h you and wi t h many ot her s i n t he
var i ous depar t ment s, who have t hr ough busi ness i nt er cour se,
become my per sonal f r i ends. I assur e you al t hough t he
of f i ci al r el at i ons hi t her t o exi st i ng bet ween us must soon
cl ose, I can never f ai l t o f eel and evi nce t he l i vel i est
i nt er est i n t he wel f ar e of such as have been i dent i f i ed wi t h
t he Pi t t sbur gh Di vi si on i n t i mes past , and who ar e, I t r ust ,
f or many year s t o come t o cont r i but e t o t he success of t he
Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad Company, and shar e i n i t s j ust l y
deser ved pr osper i t y.

Thanki ng you most si ncer el y f or t he uni f or mki ndness shown
t owar d me, f or your zeal ous ef f or t s made at al l t i mes t o
meet my wi shes, and aski ng f or my successor si mi l ar suppor t
at your hands, I bi d you al l f ar ewel l .

Ver y r espect f ul l y

( Si gned) ANDREWCARNEGI E

Thencef or t h I never wor ked f or a sal ar y. A man must necessar i l y occupy
a nar r ow f i el d who i s at t he beck and cal l of ot her s. Even i f he
becomes pr esi dent of a gr eat cor por at i on he i s har dl y hi s own mast er ,
unl ess he hol ds cont r ol of t he st ock. The abl est pr esi dent s ar e
hamper ed by boar ds of di r ect or s and shar ehol der s, who can know but
l i t t l e of t he busi ness. But I amgl ad t o say t hat among my best
f r i ends t o- day ar e t hose wi t h whomI l abor ed i n t he ser vi ce of t he
Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad Company.

I n t he year 1867, Mr . Phi pps, Mr . J . W. Vandevor t , and mysel f r evi si t ed
Eur ope, t r avel i ng ext ensi vel y t hr ough Engl and and Scot l and, and made
t he t our of t he Cont i nent . " Vandy" had become my cl osest compani on. We
had bot h been f i r ed by r eadi ng Bayar d Tayl or ' s " Vi ews Af oot . " I t was
i n t he days of t he oi l exci t ement and shar es wer e goi ng up l i ke
r ocket s. One Sunday, l yi ng i n t he gr ass, I sai d t o " Vandy" :

" I f you coul d make t hr ee t housand dol l ar s woul d you spend i t i n a t our
t hr ough Eur ope wi t h me?"

" Woul d a duck swi mor an I r i shman eat pot at oes?" was hi s r epl y.

The sumwas soon made i n oi l st ock by t he i nvest ment of a f ew hundr ed
dol l ar s whi ch " Vandy" had saved. Thi s was t he begi nni ng of our
Page 82 of 222
excur si on. We asked my par t ner , Har r y Phi pps, who was by t hi s t i me
qui t e a capi t al i st , t o j oi n t he par t y. We vi si t ed most of t he capi t al s
of Eur ope, and i n al l t he ent husi asmof yout h cl i mbed ever y spi r e,
sl ept on mount ai n- t ops, and car r i ed our l uggage i n knapsacks upon our
backs. We ended our j our ney upon Vesuvi us, wher e we r esol ved some day
t o go ar ound t he wor l d.

Thi s vi si t t o Eur ope pr oved most i nst r uct i ve. Up t o t hi s t i me I had
known not hi ng of pai nt i ng or scul pt ur e, but i t was not l ong bef or e I
coul d cl assi f y t he wor ks of t he gr eat pai nt er s. One may not at t he
t i me j ust l y appr eci at e t he advant age he i s r ecei vi ng f r omexami ni ng
t he gr eat mast er pi eces, but upon hi s r et ur n t o Amer i ca he wi l l f i nd
hi msel f unconsci ousl y r ej ect i ng what bef or e seemed t r ul y beaut i f ul ,
and j udgi ng pr oduct i ons whi ch come bef or e hi mby a new st andar d. That
whi ch i s t r ul y gr eat has so i mpr essed i t sel f upon hi mt hat what i s
f al se or pr et ent i ous pr oves no l onger at t r act i ve.

My vi si t t o Eur ope al so gave me my f i r st gr eat t r eat i n musi c. The
Handel Anni ver sar y was t hen bei ng cel ebr at ed at t he Cr yst al Pal ace i n
London, and I had never up t o t hat t i me, nor have I of t en si nce, f el t
t he power and maj est y of musi c i n such hi gh degr ee. What I hear d at
t he Cr yst al Pal ace and what I subsequent l y hear d on t he Cont i nent i n
t he cat hedr al s, and at t he oper a, cer t ai nl y enl ar ged my appr eci at i on
of musi c. At Rome t he Pope' s choi r and t he cel ebr at i ons i n t he
chur ches at Chr i st mas and East er f ur ni shed, as i t wer e, a gr and cl i max
t o t he whol e.

These vi si t s t o Eur ope wer e al so of gr eat ser vi ce i n a commer ci al
sense. One has t o get out of t he swi r l of t he gr eat Republ i c t o f or ma
j ust est i mat e of t he vel oci t y wi t h whi ch i t spi ns. I f el t t hat a
manuf act ur i ng concer n l i ke our s coul d scar cel y devel op f ast enough f or
t he want s of t he Amer i can peopl e, but abr oad not hi ng seemed t o be
goi ng f or war d. I f we except ed a f ew of t he capi t al s of Eur ope,
ever yt hi ng on t he Cont i nent seemed t o be al most at a st andst i l l , whi l e
t he Republ i c r epr esent ed t hr oughout i t s ent i r e ext ent such a scene as
t her e must have been at t he Tower of Babel , as pi ct ur ed i n t he
st or y- books- - hundr eds r ushi ng t o and f r o, each mor e act i ve t han hi s
nei ghbor , and al l engaged i n const r uct i ng t he mi ght y edi f i ce.

I t was Cousi n " Dod" ( Mr . Geor ge Lauder ) t o whomwe wer e i ndebt ed f or a
new devel opment i n our mi l l oper at i ons- - t he f i r st of i t s ki nd i n
Amer i ca. He i t was who t ook our Mr . Col eman t o Wi gan i n Engl and and
expl ai ned t he pr ocess of washi ng and coki ng t he dr oss f r omcoal mi nes.
Mr . Col eman had const ant l y been t el l i ng us how gr and i t woul d be t o
ut i l i ze what was t hen bei ng t hr own away at our mi nes, and was i ndeed
an expense t o di spose of . Our Cousi n " Dod" was a mechani cal engi neer ,
educat ed under Lor d Kel vi n at Gl asgow Uni ver si t y, and as he
cor r obor at ed al l t hat Mr . Col eman st at ed, i n December , 1871, I
under t ook t o advance t he capi t al t o bui l d wor ks al ong t he l i ne of t he
Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad. Cont r act s f or t en year s wer e made wi t h t he
l eadi ng coal compani es f or t hei r dr oss and wi t h t he r ai l way compani es
f or t r anspor t at i on, and Mr . Lauder , who came t o Pi t t sbur gh and
super i nt ended t he whol e oper at i on f or year s, began t he const r uct i on of
t he f i r st coal - washi ng machi ner y i n Amer i ca. He made a success of
i t - - he never f ai l ed t o do t hat i n any mi ni ng or mechani cal oper at i on
he under t ook- - and he soon cl ear ed t he cost of t he wor ks. No wonder
t hat at a l at er dat e my par t ner s desi r ed t o embr ace t he coke wor ks i n
Page 83 of 222
our gener al f i r mand t hus capt ur e not onl y t hese, but Lauder al so.
" Dod" had won hi s spur s.

[ I l l ust r at i on: GEORGE LAUDER]

The ovens wer e ext ended f r omt i me t o t i me unt i l we had f i ve hundr ed of
t hem, washi ng near l y f i f t een hundr ed t ons of coal dai l y. I conf ess I
never pass t hese coal ovens at Lar i mer ' s St at i on wi t hout f eel i ng t hat
i f he who makes t wo bl ades of gr ass gr ow wher e one gr ew bef or e i s a
publ i c benef act or and l ays t he r ace under obl i gat i on, t hose who
pr oduce super i or coke f r ommat er i al t hat has been f or al l pr evi ous
year s t hr own over t he bank as wor t hl ess, have gr eat cause f or
sel f - congr at ul at i on. I t i s f i ne t o make somet hi ng out of not hi ng; i t
i s al so somet hi ng t o be t he f i r st f i r mt o do t hi s upon our cont i nent .

We had anot her val uabl e par t ner i n a second cousi n of mi ne, a son of
Cousi n Mor r i son of Dunf er ml i ne. Wal ki ng t hr ough t he shops one day, t he
super i nt endent asked me i f I knew I had a r el at i ve t her e who was
pr ovi ng an except i onal mechani c. I r epl i ed i n t he negat i ve and asked
t hat I mi ght speak wi t h hi mon our way ar ound. We met . I asked hi s
name.

" Mor r i son, " was t he r epl y, " son of Rober t " - - my cousi n Bob.

" Wel l , how di d you come her e?"

" I t hought we coul d bet t er our sel ves, " he sai d.

" Who have you wi t h you?"

" My wi f e, " was t he r epl y.

" Why di dn' t you come f i r st t o see your r el at i ve who mi ght have been
abl e t o i nt r oduce you her e?"

" Wel l , I di dn' t f eel I needed hel p i f I onl y got a chance. "

Ther e spoke t he t r ue Mor r i son, t aught t o depend on hi msel f , and
i ndependent as Luci f er . Not l ong af t er war ds I hear d of hi s pr omot i on
t o t he super i nt endency of our newl y acqui r ed wor ks at Duquesne, and
f r omt hat posi t i on he st eadi l y mar ched upwar d. He i s t o- day a
bl oomi ng, but st i l l sensi bl e, mi l l i onai r e. We ar e al l pr oud of Tom
Mor r i son. [ A not e r ecei ved f r omhi myest er day i nvi t es Mr s. Car negi e
and mysel f t o be hi s guest s dur i ng our comi ng vi si t of a f ew days at
t he annual cel ebr at i on of t he Car negi e I nst i t ut e. ]

I was al ways advi si ng t hat our i r on wor ks shoul d be ext ended and new
devel opment s made i n connect i on wi t h t he manuf act ur e of i r on and
st eel , whi ch I saw was onl y i n i t s i nf ancy. Al l appr ehensi on of i t s
f ut ur e devel opment was di spel l ed by t he act i on of Amer i ca wi t h r egar d
t o t he t ar i f f upon f or ei gn i mpor t s. I t was cl ear t o my mi nd t hat t he
Ci vi l War had r esul t ed i n a f i xed det er mi nat i on upon t he par t of t he
Amer i can peopl e t o bui l d a nat i on wi t hi n i t sel f , i ndependent of Eur ope
i n al l t hi ngs essent i al t o i t s saf et y. Amer i ca had been obl i ged t o
i mpor t al l her st eel of ever y f or mand most of t he i r on needed,
Br i t ai n bei ng t he chi ef sel l er . The peopl e demanded a home suppl y and
Congr ess gr ant ed t he manuf act ur er s a t ar i f f of t went y- ei ght per cent
Page 84 of 222
_ad val or em_ on st eel r ai l s- - t he t ar i f f t hen bei ng equal t o about
t went y- ei ght dol l ar s per t on. Rai l s wer e sel l i ng at about a hundr ed
dol l ar s per t on, and ot her r at es i n pr opor t i on.

Pr ot ect i on has pl ayed a gr eat par t i n t he devel opment of manuf act ur i ng
i n t he Uni t ed St at es. Pr evi ous t o t he Ci vi l War i t was a par t y
quest i on, t he Sout h st andi ng f or f r ee t r ade and r egar di ng a t ar i f f as
f avor abl e onl y t o t he Nor t h. The sympat hy shown by t he Br i t i sh
Gover nment f or t he Conf eder acy, cul mi nat i ng i n t he escape of t he
Al abama and ot her pr i vat eer s t o pr ey upon Amer i can commer ce, ar oused
host i l i t y agai nst t hat Gover nment , not wi t hst andi ng t he maj or i t y of her
common peopl e f avor ed t he Uni t ed St at es. The t ar i f f became no l onger a
par t y quest i on, but a nat i onal pol i cy, appr oved by bot h par t i es. I t
had become a pat r i ot i c dut y t o devel op vi t al r esour ces. No l ess t han
ni net y Nor t her n Democr at s i n Congr ess, i ncl udi ng t he Speaker of t he
House, agr eed upon t hat poi nt .

Capi t al no l onger hesi t at ed t o embar k i n manuf act ur i ng, conf i dent as
i t was t hat t he nat i on woul d pr ot ect i t as l ong as necessar y. Year s
af t er t he war , demands f or a r educt i on of t he t ar i f f ar ose and i t was
my l ot t o be dr awn i nt o t he cont r over sy. I t was of t en char ged t hat
br i ber y of Congr essmen by manuf act ur er s was common. So f ar as I know
t her e was no f oundat i on f or t hi s. Cer t ai nl y t he manuf act ur er s never
r ai sed any sums beyond t hose needed t o mai nt ai n t he I r on and St eel
Associ at i on, a mat t er of a f ew t housand dol l ar s per year . They di d,
however , subscr i be f r eel y t o a campai gn when t he i ssue was Pr ot ect i on
_ver sus_ Fr ee Tr ade.

The dut i es upon st eel wer e successi vel y r educed, wi t h my cor di al
suppor t , unt i l t he t went y- ei ght dol l ar s dut y on r ai l s became onl y one
f our t h or seven dol l ar s per t on. [ To- day ( 1911) t he dut y i s onl y about
one hal f of t hat , and even t hat shoul d go i n t he next r evi si on. ] The
ef f or t of Pr esi dent Cl evel and t o pass a mor e dr ast i c new t ar i f f was
i nt er est i ng. I t cut t oo deep i n many pl aces and i t s passage woul d have
i nj ur ed mor e t han one manuf act ur e. I was cal l ed t o Washi ngt on, and
t r i ed t o modi f y and, as I bel i eve, i mpr ove, t he Wi l son Bi l l . Senat or
Gor man, Democr at i c l eader of t he Senat e, Gover nor Fl ower of New Yor k,
and a number of t he abl est Democr at s wer e as sound pr ot ect i oni st s i n
moder at i on as I was. Sever al of t hese wer e di sposed t o oppose t he
Wi l son Bi l l as bei ng unnecessar i l y sever e and cer t ai n t o cr i ppl e some
of our domest i c i ndust r i es. Senat or Gor man sai d t o me he wi shed as
l i t t l e as I di d t o i nj ur e any home pr oducer , and he t hought hi s
col l eagues had conf i dence i n and woul d be gui ded by me as t o i r on and
st eel r at es, pr ovi ded t hat l ar ge r educt i ons wer e made and t hat t he
Republ i can Senat or s woul d st and uni t edl y f or a bi l l of t hat char act er .
I r emember hi s wor ds, " I can af f or d t o f i ght t he Pr esi dent and beat
hi m, but I can' t af f or d t o f i ght hi mand be beat en. "

Gover nor Fl ower shar ed t hese vi ews. Ther e was l i t t l e t r oubl e i n
get t i ng our par t y t o agr ee t o t he l ar ge r educt i ons I pr oposed. The
Wi l son- Gor man Tar i f f Bi l l was adopt ed. Meet i ng Senat or Gor man l at er ,
he expl ai ned t hat he had t o gi ve way on cot t on t i es t o secur e sever al
Sout her n Senat or s. Cot t on t i es had t o be f r ee. So t ar i f f l egi sl at i on
goes.

I was not suf f i ci ent l y pr omi nent i n manuf act ur i ng t o t ake par t i n
get t i ng t he t ar i f f est abl i shed i mmedi at el y af t er t he war , so i t
Page 85 of 222
happened t hat my par t has al ways been t o f avor r educt i on of dut i es,
opposi ng ext r emes- - t he unr easonabl e pr ot ect i oni st s who consi der t he
hi gher t he dut i es t he bet t er and decl ai magai nst any r educt i on, and
t he ot her ext r emi st s who denounce al l dut i es and woul d adopt
unr est r ai ned f r ee t r ade.

We coul d now ( 1907) abol i sh al l dut i es upon st eel and i r on wi t hout
i nj ur y, essent i al as t hese dut i es wer e at t he begi nni ng. Eur ope has
not much sur pl us pr oduct i on, so t hat shoul d pr i ces r i se exor bi t ant l y
her e onl y a smal l amount coul d be dr awn f r omt her e and t hi s woul d
i nst ant l y r ai se pr i ces i n Eur ope, so t hat our home manuf act ur er s coul d
not be ser i ousl y af f ect ed. Fr ee t r ade woul d onl y t end t o pr event
exor bi t ant pr i ces her e f or a t i me when t he demand was excessi ve. Home
i r on and st eel manuf act ur er s have not hi ng t o f ear f r omf r ee t r ade. [ I
r ecent l y ( 1910) st at ed t hi s i n evi dence bef or e t he Tar i f f Commi ssi on
at Washi ngt on. ]



Page 86 of 222
CHAPTER XI

NEW YORK AS HEADQUARTERS


Our busi ness cont i nued t o expand and r equi r ed f r equent vi si t s on my
par t t o t he East , especi al l y t o New Yor k, whi ch i s as London t o
Br i t ai n- - t he headquar t er s of al l r eal l y i mpor t ant ent er pr i ses i n
Amer i ca. No l ar ge concer n coul d ver y wel l get on wi t hout bei ng
r epr esent ed t her e. My br ot her and Mr . Phi pps had f ul l gr asp of t he
busi ness at Pi t t sbur gh. My f i el d appear ed t o be t o di r ect t he gener al
pol i cy of t he compani es and negot i at e t he i mpor t ant cont r act s.

My br ot her had been so f or t unat e as t o mar r y Mi ss Lucy Col eman,
daught er of one of our most val ued par t ner s and f r i ends. Our f ami l y
r esi dence at Homewood was gi ven over t o hi m, and I was once mor e
compel l ed t o br eak ol d associ at i ons and l eave Pi t t sbur gh i n 1867 t o
t ake up my r esi dence i n New Yor k. The change was har d enough f or me,
but much har der f or my mot her ; but she was st i l l i n t he pr i me of l i f e
and we coul d be happy anywher e so l ong as we wer e t oget her . St i l l she
di d f eel t he l eavi ng of our home ver y much. We wer e per f ect st r anger s
i n New Yor k, and at f i r st t ook up our quar t er s i n t he St . Ni chol as
Hot el , t hen i n i t s gl or y. I opened an of f i ce i n Br oad St r eet .

For some t i me t he Pi t t sbur gh f r i ends who came t o New Yor k wer e our
chi ef sour ce of happi ness, and t he Pi t t sbur gh paper s seemed necessar y
t o our exi st ence. I made f r equent vi si t s t her e and my mot her of t en
accompani ed me, so t hat our connect i on wi t h t he ol d home was st i l l
mai nt ai ned. But af t er a t i me new f r i endshi ps wer e f or med and new
i nt er est s awakened and New Yor k began t o be cal l ed home. When t he
pr opr i et or s of t he St . Ni chol as opened t he Wi ndsor Hot el upt own, we
t ook up our r esi dence t her e and up t o t he year 1887 t hat was our New
Yor k home. Mr . Hawk, t he pr opr i et or , became one of our val ued f r i ends
and hi s nephew and namesake st i l l r emai ns so.

Among t he educat i ve i nf l uences f r omwhi ch I der i ved gr eat advant age i n
New Yor k, none r anks hi gher t han t he Ni net eent h Cent ur y Cl ub or gani zed
by Mr . and Mr s. Cour t l andt Pal mer . The cl ub met at t hei r house once a
mont h f or t he di scussi on of var i ous t opi cs and soon at t r act ed many
abl e men and women. I t was t o Madame Bot t a I owed my el ect i on t o
member shi p- - a r emar kabl e woman, wi f e of Pr of essor Bot t a, whose
dr awi ng- r oombecame mor e of a sal on t han any i n t he ci t y, i f i ndeed i t
wer e not t he onl y one r esembl i ng a sal on at t hat t i me. I was honor ed
by an i nvi t at i on one day t o di ne at t he Bot t as' and t her e met f or t he
f i r st t i me sever al di st i ngui shed peopl e, among t hemone who became my
l i f el ong f r i end and wi se counsel or , Andr ew D. Whi t e, t hen pr esi dent of
Cor nel l Uni ver si t y, af t er war ds Ambassador t o Russi a and Ger many, and
our chi ef del egat e t o t he Hague Conf er ence.

Her e i n t he Ni net eent h Cent ur y Cl ub was an ar ena, i ndeed. Abl e men and
women di scussed t he l eadi ng t opi cs of t he day i n due f or m, addr essi ng
t he audi ence one af t er anot her . The gat her i ngs soon became t oo l ar ge
f or a pr i vat e r oom. The mont hl y meet i ngs wer e t hen hel d i n t he
Amer i can Ar t Gal l er i es. I r emember t he f i r st eveni ng I t ook par t as
one of t he speaker s t he subj ect was " The Ar i st ocr acy of t he Dol l ar . "
Col onel Thomas Went wor t h Hi ggi nson was t he f i r st speaker . Thi s was my
Page 87 of 222
i nt r oduct i on t o a New Yor k audi ence. Ther eaf t er I spoke now and t hen.
I t was excel l ent t r ai ni ng, f or one had t o r ead and st udy f or each
appear ance.

I had l i ved l ong enough i n Pi t t sbur gh t o acqui r e t he manuf act ur i ng, as
di st i ngui shed f r omt he specul at i ve, spi r i t . My knowl edge of af f ai r s,
der i ved f r ommy posi t i on as t el egr aph oper at or , had enabl ed me t o know
t he f ew Pi t t sbur gh men or f i r ms whi ch t hen had deal i ngs upon t he New
Yor k St ock Exchange, and I wat ched t hei r car eer s wi t h deep i nt er est .
To me t hei r oper at i ons seemed si mpl y a speci es of gambl i ng. I di d not
t hen know t hat t he cr edi t of al l t hese men or f i r ms was ser i ousl y
i mpai r ed by t he knowl edge ( whi ch i t i s al most i mpossi bl e t o conceal )
t hat t hey wer e gi ven t o specul at i on. But t he f i r ms wer e t hen so f ew
t hat I coul d have count ed t hemon t he f i nger s of one hand. The Oi l and
St ock Exchanges i n Pi t t sbur gh had not as yet been f ounded and br oker s'
of f i ces wi t h wi r es i n connect i on wi t h t he st ock exchanges of t he East
wer e unnecessar y. Pi t t sbur gh was emphat i cal l y a manuf act ur i ng t own.

I was sur pr i sed t o f i nd how ver y di f f er ent was t he st at e of af f ai r s i n
New Yor k. Ther e wer e f ew even of t he busi ness men who had not t hei r
vent ur es i n Wal l St r eet t o a gr eat er or l ess ext ent . I was besi eged
wi t h i nqui r i es f r omal l quar t er s i n r egar d t o t he var i ous r ai l way
ent er pr i ses wi t h whi ch I was connect ed. Of f er s wer e made t o me by
per sons who wer e wi l l i ng t o f ur ni sh capi t al f or i nvest ment and al l ow
me t o manage i t - - t he supposi t i on bei ng t hat f r omt he i nsi de vi ew whi ch
I was enabl ed t o obt ai n I coul d i nvest f or t hemsuccessf ul l y.
I nvi t at i ons wer e ext ended t o me t o j oi n par t i es who i nt ended qui et l y
t o buy up t he cont r ol of cer t ai n pr oper t i es. I n f act t he whol e
specul at i ve f i el d was l ai d out bef or e me i n i t s most seduct i ve gui se.

Al l t hese al l ur ement s I decl i ned. The most not abl e of f er of t hi s ki nd
I ever r ecei ved was one mor ni ng i n t he Wi ndsor Hot el soon af t er my
r emoval t o New Yor k. J ay Goul d, t hen i n t he hei ght of hi s car eer ,
appr oached me and sai d he had hear d of me and he woul d pur chase
cont r ol of t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad Company and gi ve me one hal f of
al l pr of i t s i f I woul d agr ee t o devot e mysel f t o i t s management . I
t hanked hi mand sai d t hat , al t hough Mr . Scot t and I had par t ed company
i n busi ness mat t er s, I woul d never r ai se my hand agai nst hi m.
Subsequent l y Mr . Scot t t ol d me he had hear d I had been sel ect ed by New
Yor k i nt er est s t o succeed hi m. I do not know how he had l ear ned t hi s,
as I had never ment i oned i t . I was abl e t o r eassur e hi mby sayi ng t hat
t he onl y r ai l r oad company I woul d be pr esi dent of woul d be one I
owned.

St r ange what changes t he whi r l i gi g of t i me br i ngs i n. I t was my par t
one mor ni ng i n 1900, some t hi r t y year s af t er war ds, t o t el l t he son of
Mr . Goul d of hi s f at her ' s of f er and t o say t o hi m:

" Your f at her of f er ed me cont r ol of t he gr eat Pennsyl vani a syst em. Now
I of f er hi s son i n r et ur n t he cont r ol of an i nt er nat i onal l i ne f r om
ocean t o ocean. "

The son and I agr eed upon t he f i r st st ep- - t hat was t he br i ngi ng of hi s
Wabash l i ne t o Pi t t sbur gh. Thi s was successf ul l y done under a cont r act
gi ven t he Wabash of one t hi r d of t he t r af f i c of our st eel company. We
wer e about t o t ake up t he east er n ext ensi on f r omPi t t sbur gh t o t he
At l ant i c when Mr . Mor gan appr oached me i n Mar ch, 1901, t hr ough Mr .
Page 88 of 222
Schwab, and asked i f I r eal l y wi shed t o r et i r e f r ombusi ness. I
answer ed i n t he af f i r mat i ve and t hat put an end t o our r ai l way
oper at i ons.

I have never bought or sol d a shar e of st ock specul at i vel y i n my l i f e,
except one smal l l ot of Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad shar es t hat I bought
ear l y i n l i f e f or i nvest ment and f or whi ch I di d not pay at t he t i me
because banker s of f er ed t o car r y i t f or me at a l ow r at e. I have
adher ed t o t he r ul e never t o pur chase what I di d not pay f or , and
never t o sel l what I di d not own. I n t hose ear l y days, however , I had
sever al i nt er est s t hat wer e t aken over i n t he cour se of busi ness. They
i ncl uded some st ocks and secur i t i es t hat wer e quot ed on t he New Yor k
St ock Exchange, and I f ound t hat when I opened my paper i n t he mor ni ng
I was t empt ed t o l ook f i r st at t he quot at i ons of t he st ock mar ket . As
I had det er mi ned t o sel l al l my i nt er est s i n ever y out si de concer n and
concent r at e my at t ent i on upon our manuf act ur i ng concer ns i n
Pi t t sbur gh, I f ur t her r esol ved not even t o own any st ock t hat was
bought and sol d upon any st ock exchange. Wi t h t he except i on of
t r i f l i ng amount s whi ch came t o me i n var i ous ways I have adher ed
st r i ct l y t o t hi s r ul e.

Such a cour se shoul d commend i t sel f t o ever y man i n t he manuf act ur i ng
busi ness and t o al l pr of essi onal men. For t he manuf act ur i ng man
especi al l y t he r ul e woul d seemal l - i mpor t ant . Hi s mi nd must be kept
cal mand f r ee i f he i s t o deci de wi sel y t he pr obl ems whi ch ar e
cont i nual l y comi ng bef or e hi m. Not hi ng t el l s i n t he l ong r un l i ke good
j udgment , and no sound j udgment can r emai n wi t h t he man whose mi nd i s
di st ur bed by t he mer cur i al changes of t he St ock Exchange. I t pl aces
hi munder an i nf l uence aki n t o i nt oxi cat i on. What i s not , he sees, and
what he sees, i s not . He cannot j udge of r el at i ve val ues or get t he
t r ue per spect i ve of t hi ngs. The mol ehi l l seems t o hi ma mount ai n and
t he mount ai n a mol ehi l l , and he j umps at concl usi ons whi ch he shoul d
ar r i ve at by r eason. Hi s mi nd i s upon t he st ock quot at i ons and not
upon t he poi nt s t hat r equi r e cal mt hought . Specul at i on i s a par asi t e
f eedi ng upon val ues, cr eat i ng none.

My f i r st i mpor t ant ent er pr i se af t er set t l i ng i n New Yor k was
under t aki ng t o bui l d a br i dge acr oss t he Mi ssi ssi ppi at Keokuk. [ 29]
Mr . Thomson, pr esi dent of t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad, and I cont r act ed
f or t he whol e st r uct ur e, f oundat i on, masonr y, and super st r uct ur e,
t aki ng bonds and st ocks i n payment . The under t aki ng was a spl endi d
success i n ever y r espect , except f i nanci al l y. A pani c t hr ew t he
connect i ng r ai l ways i nt o bankr upt cy. They wer e unabl e t o pay t he
st i pul at ed sums. Ri val syst ems bui l t a br i dge acr oss t he Mi ssi ssi ppi
at Bur l i ngt on and a r ai l way down t he west si de of t he Mi ssi ssi ppi t o
Keokuk. The handsome pr of i t s whi ch we saw i n pr ospect wer e never
r eal i zed. Mr . Thomson and mysel f , however , escaped l oss, al t hough
t her e was l i t t l e mar gi n l ef t .

[ Foot not e 29: I t was an i r on br i dge 2300 f eet i n l engt h wi t h a
380- f oot span. ]

The super st r uct ur e f or t hi s br i dge was bui l t at our Keyst one Wor ks i n
Pi t t sbur gh. The under t aki ng r equi r ed me t o vi si t Keokuk occasi onal l y,
and t her e I made t he acquai nt ance of cl ever and del i ght f ul peopl e,
among t hemGener al and Mr s. Rei d, and Mr . and Mr s. Lei ght on. Vi si t i ng
Keokuk wi t h some Engl i sh f r i ends at a l at er dat e, t he i mpr essi on t hey
Page 89 of 222
r ecei ved of soci et y i n t he Far West , on what t o t hemseemed t he ver y
out ski r t s of ci vi l i zat i on, was sur pr i si ng. A r ecept i on gi ven t o us one
eveni ng by Gener al Rei d br ought t oget her an assembl y cr edi t abl e t o any
t own i n Br i t ai n. Mor e t han one of t he guest s had di st i ngui shed hi msel f
dur i ng t he war and had r i sen t o pr omi nence i n t he nat i onal counci l s.

The r eput at i on obt ai ned i n t he bui l di ng of t he Keokuk br i dge l ed t o my
bei ng appl i ed t o by t hose who wer e i n char ge of t he scheme f or
br i dgi ng t he Mi ssi ssi ppi at St . Loui s, t o whi ch I have al r eady
r ef er r ed. Thi s was connect ed wi t h my f i r st l ar ge f i nanci al
t r ansact i on. One day i n 1869 t he gent l eman i n char ge of t he
ent er pr i se, Mr . Macpher son ( he was ver y Scot ch) , cal l ed at my New Yor k
of f i ce and sai d t hey wer e t r yi ng t o r ai se capi t al t o bui l d t he br i dge.
He wi shed t o know i f I coul d not enl i st some of t he East er n r ai l r oad
compani es i n t he scheme. Af t er car ef ul exami nat i on of t he pr oj ect I
made t he cont r act f or t he const r uct i on of t he br i dge on behal f of t he
Keyst one Br i dge Wor ks. I al so obt ai ned an opt i on upon f our mi l l i on
dol l ar s of f i r st mor t gage bonds of t he br i dge company and set out f or
London i n Mar ch, 1869, t o negot i at e t hei r sal e.

Dur i ng t he voyage I pr epar ed a pr ospect us whi ch I had pr i nt ed upon my
ar r i val i n London, and, havi ng upon my pr evi ous vi si t made t he
acquai nt ance of J uni us S. Mor gan, t he gr eat banker , I cal l ed upon hi m
one mor ni ng and opened negot i at i ons. I l ef t wi t h hi ma copy of t he
pr ospect us, and upon cal l i ng next day was del i ght ed t o f i nd t hat Mr .
Mor gan vi ewed t he mat t er f avor abl y. I sol d hi mpar t of t he bonds wi t h
t he opt i on t o t ake t he r emai nder ; but when hi s l awyer s wer e cal l ed i n
f or advi ce a scor e of changes wer e r equi r ed i n t he wor di ng of t he
bonds. Mr . Mor gan sai d t o me t hat as I was goi ng t o Scot l and I had
bet t er go now; I coul d wr i t e t he par t i es i n St . Loui s and ascer t ai n
whet her t hey woul d agr ee t o t he changes pr oposed. I t woul d be t i me
enough, he sai d, t o cl ose t he mat t er upon my r et ur n t hr ee weeks hence.

But I had no i dea of al l owi ng t he f i sh t o pl ay so l ong, and i nf or med
hi mt hat I woul d have a t el egr ami n t he mor ni ng agr eei ng t o al l t he
changes. The At l ant i c cabl e had been open f or some t i me, but i t i s
doubt f ul i f i t had yet car r i ed so l ong a pr i vat e cabl e as I sent t hat
day. I t was an easy mat t er t o number t he l i nes of t he bond and t hen
goi ng car ef ul l y over t hemt o st at e what changes, omi ssi ons, or
addi t i ons wer e r equi r ed i n each l i ne. I showed Mr . Mor gan t he message
bef or e sendi ng i t and he sai d:

" Wel l , young man, i f you succeed i n t hat you deser ve a r ed mar k. "

When I ent er ed t he of f i ce next mor ni ng, I f ound on t he desk t hat had
been appr opr i at ed t o my use i n Mr . Mor gan' s pr i vat e of f i ce t he col or ed
envel ope whi ch cont ai ned t he answer . Ther e i t was: " Boar d meet i ng l ast
ni ght ; changes al l appr oved. " " Now, Mr . Mor gan, " I sai d, " we can
pr oceed, assumi ng t hat t he bond i s as your l awyer s desi r e. " The paper s
wer e soon cl osed.

[ I l l ust r at i on: J UNI US SPENCER MORGAN]

Whi l e I was i n t he of f i ce Mr . Sampson, t he f i nanci al edi t or of " The
Ti mes, " came i n. I had an i nt er vi ew wi t h hi m, wel l knowi ng t hat a f ew
wor ds f r omhi mwoul d go f ar i n l i f t i ng t he pr i ce of t he bonds on t he
Exchange. Amer i can secur i t i es had r ecent l y been f i er cel y at t acked,
Page 90 of 222
owi ng t o t he pr oceedi ngs of Fi sk and Goul d i n connect i on wi t h t he Er i e
Rai l way Company, and t hei r cont r ol of t he j udges i n New Yor k, who
seemed t o do t hei r bi ddi ng. I knew t hi s woul d be handed out as an
obj ect i on, and t her ef or e I met i t at once. I cal l ed Mr . Sampson' s
at t ent i on t o t he f act t hat t he char t er of t he St . Loui s Br i dge Company
was f r omt he Nat i onal Gover nment . I n case of necessi t y appeal l ay
di r ect l y t o t he Supr eme Cour t of t he Uni t ed St at es, a body vyi ng wi t h
t hei r own hi gh t r i bunal s. He sai d he woul d be del i ght ed t o gi ve
pr omi nence t o t hi s commendabl e f eat ur e. I descr i bed t he br i dge as a
t ol l - gat e on t he cont i nent al hi ghway and t hi s appear ed t o pl ease hi m.
I t was al l pl ai n and easy sai l i ng, and when he l ef t t he of f i ce, Mr .
Mor gan cl apped me on t he shoul der and sai d:

" Thank you, young man; you have r ai sed t he pr i ce of t hose bonds f i ve
per cent t hi s mor ni ng. "

" Al l r i ght , Mr . Mor gan, " I r epl i ed; " now show me how I can r ai se t hem
f i ve per cent mor e f or you. "

The i ssue was a gr eat success, and t he money f or t he St . Loui s Br i dge
was obt ai ned. I had a consi der abl e mar gi n of pr of i t upon t he
negot i at i on. Thi s was my f i r st f i nanci al negot i at i on wi t h t he banker s
of Eur ope. Mr . Pul l man t ol d me a f ew days l at er t hat Mr . Mor gan at a
di nner par t y had t ol d t he t el egr aphi c i nci dent and pr edi ct ed, " That
young man wi l l be hear d f r om. "

Af t er cl osi ng wi t h Mr . Mor gan, I vi si t ed my nat i ve t own, Dunf er ml i ne,
and at t hat t i me made t he t own a gi f t of publ i c bat hs. I t i s not abl e
l ar gel y because i t was t he f i r st consi der abl e gi f t I had ever made.
Long bef or e t hat I had, at my Uncl e Lauder ' s suggest i on, sent a
subscr i pt i on t o t he f und f or t he Wal l ace Monument on St i r l i ng Hei ght s
over l ooki ng Bannockbur n. I t was not much, but I was t hen i n t he
t el egr aph of f i ce and i t was consi der abl e out of a r evenue of t hi r t y
dol l ar s per mont h wi t h f ami l y expenses st ar i ng us i n t he f ace. Mot her
di d not gr udge i t ; on t he cont r ar y, she was a ver y pr oud woman t hat
her son' s name was seen on t he l i st of cont r i but or s, and her son f el t
he was r eal l y begi nni ng t o be somet hi ng of a man. Year s af t er war d my
mot her and I vi si t ed St i r l i ng, and t her e unvei l ed, i n t he Wal l ace
Tower , a bust of Si r Wal t er Scot t , whi ch she had pr esent ed t o t he
monument commi t t ee. We had t hen made gr eat pr ogr ess, at l east
f i nanci al l y, si nce t he ear l y subscr i pt i on. But di st r i but i on had not
yet begun. [ 30] So f ar wi t h me i t had been t he age of accumul at i on.

[ Foot not e 30: The ambi t i ons of Mr . Car negi e at t hi s t i me ( 1868) ar e
set f or t h i n t he f ol l owi ng memor andummade by hi m. I t has onl y
r ecent l y come t o l i ght :

_St . Ni chol as Hot el , New Yor k, December , 1868_

Thi r t y- t hr ee and an i ncome of $50, 000 per annum! By t hi s t i me t wo
year s I can so ar r ange al l my busi ness as t o secur e at l east $50, 000
per annum. Beyond t hi s never ear n- - make no ef f or t t o i ncr ease f or t une,
but spend t he sur pl us each year f or benevol ent pur poses. Cast asi de
busi ness f or ever , except f or ot her s.

Set t l e i n Oxf or d and get a t hor ough educat i on, maki ng t he acquai nt ance
of l i t er ar y men- - t hi s wi l l t ake t hr ee year s' act i ve wor k- - pay especi al
Page 91 of 222
at t ent i on t o speaki ng i n publ i c. Set t l e t hen i n London and pur chase a
cont r ol l i ng i nt er est i n some newspaper or l i ve r evi ew and gi ve t he
gener al management of i t at t ent i on, t aki ng a par t i n publ i c mat t er s,
especi al l y t hose connect ed wi t h educat i on and i mpr ovement of t he
poor er cl asses.

Man must have an i dol - - t he amassi ng of weal t h i s one of t he wor st
speci es of i dol at r y- - no i dol mor e debasi ng t han t he wor shi p of money.
What ever I engage i n I must push i nor di nat el y; t her ef or e shoul d I be
car ef ul t o choose t hat l i f e whi ch wi l l be t he most el evat i ng i n i t s
char act er . To cont i nue much l onger over whel med by busi ness car es and
wi t h most of my t hought s whol l y upon t he way t o make mor e money i n t he
shor t est t i me, must degr ade me beyond hope of per manent r ecover y. I
wi l l r esi gn busi ness at t hi r t y- f i ve, but dur i ng t he ensui ng t wo year s
I wi sh t o spend t he af t er noons i n r ecei vi ng i nst r uct i on and i n r eadi ng
syst emat i cal l y. ]

Whi l e vi si t i ng t he Cont i nent of Eur ope i n 1867 and deepl y i nt er est ed
i n what I saw, i t must not be t hought t hat my mi nd was not upon
af f ai r s at home. Fr equent l et t er s kept me advi sed of busi ness mat t er s.
The quest i on of r ai l way communi cat i on wi t h t he Paci f i c had been
br ought t o t he f r ont by t he Ci vi l War , and Congr ess had passed an act
t o encour age t he const r uct i on of a l i ne. The f i r st sod had j ust been
cut at Omaha and i t was i nt ended t hat t he l i ne shoul d ul t i mat el y be
pushed t hr ough t o San Fr anci sco. One day whi l e i n Rome i t st r uck me
t hat t hi s mi ght be done much sooner t han was t hen ant i ci pat ed. The
nat i on, havi ng made up i t s mi nd t hat i t s t er r i t or y must be bound
t oget her , mi ght be t r ust ed t o see t hat no t i me was l ost i n
accompl i shi ng i t . I wr ot e my f r i end Mr . Scot t , suggest i ng t hat we
shoul d obt ai n t he cont r act t o pl ace sl eepi ng- car s upon t he gr eat
Cal i f or ni a l i ne. Hi s r epl y cont ai ned t hese wor ds:

" Wel l , young man, you do t ake t i me by t he f or el ock. "

Never t hel ess, upon my r et ur n t o Amer i ca. I pur sued t he i dea. The
sl eepi ng- car busi ness, i n whi ch I was i nt er est ed, had gone on
i ncr easi ng so r api dl y t hat i t was i mpossi bl e t o obt ai n car s enough t o
suppl y t he demand. Thi s ver y f act l ed t o t he f or mi ng of t he pr esent
Pul l man Company. The Cent r al Tr anspor t at i on Company was si mpl y unabl e
t o cover t he t er r i t or y wi t h suf f i ci ent r api di t y, and Mr . Pul l man
begi nni ng at t he gr eat est of al l r ai l way cent er s i n t he
wor l d- - Chi cago- - soon r i val ed t he par ent concer n. He had al so seen t hat
t he Paci f i c Rai l r oad woul d be t he gr eat sl eepi ng- car l i ne of t he
wor l d, and I f ound hi mwor ki ng f or what I had st ar t ed af t er . He was,
i ndeed, a l i on i n t he pat h. Agai n, one may l ear n, f r oman i nci dent
whi ch I had f r omMr . Pul l man hi msel f , by what t r i f l es i mpor t ant
mat t er s ar e somet i mes det er mi ned.

The pr esi dent of t he Uni on Paci f i c Rai l way was passi ng t hr ough
Chi cago. Mr . Pul l man cal l ed upon hi mand was shown i nt o hi s r oom.
Lyi ng upon t he t abl e was a t el egr amaddr essed t o Mr . Scot t , sayi ng,
" Your pr oposi t i on f or sl eepi ng- car s i s accept ed. " Mr . Pul l man r ead
t hi s i nvol unt ar i l y and bef or e he had t i me t o r ef r ai n. He coul d not
hel p seei ng i t wher e i t l ay. When Pr esi dent Dur r ant ent er ed t he r oom
he expl ai ned t hi s t o hi mand sai d:

" I t r ust you wi l l not deci de t hi s mat t er unt i l I have made a
Page 92 of 222
pr oposi t i on t o you. "

Mr . Dur r ant pr omi sed t o wai t . A meet i ng of t he boar d of di r ect or s of
t he Uni on Paci f i c Company was hel d soon af t er t hi s i n New Yor k. Mr .
Pul l man and mysel f wer e i n at t endance, bot h st r i vi ng t o obt ai n t he
pr i ze whi ch nei t her he nor I under val ued. One eveni ng we began t o
mount t he br oad st ai r case i n t he St . Ni chol as Hot el at t he same t i me.
We had met bef or e, but wer e not wel l acquai nt ed. I sai d, however , as
we wal ked up t he st ai r s:

" Good- eveni ng, Mr . Pul l man! Her e we ar e t oget her , and ar e we not
maki ng a ni ce coupl e of f ool s of our sel ves?" He was not di sposed t o
admi t anyt hi ng and sai d:

" What do you mean?"

I expl ai ned t he si t uat i on t o hi m. We wer e dest r oyi ng by our r i val
pr oposi t i ons t he ver y advant ages we desi r ed t o obt ai n.

" Wel l , " he sai d, " what do you pr opose t o do about i t ?"

" Uni t e, " I sai d. " Make a j oi nt pr oposi t i on t o t he Uni on Paci f i c, your
par t y and mi ne, and or gani ze a company. "

" What woul d you cal l i t ?" he asked.

" The Pul l man Pal ace Car Company, " I r epl i ed.

Thi s sui t ed hi mexact l y; and i t sui t ed me equal l y wel l .

" Come i nt o my r oomand t al k i t over , " sai d t he gr eat sl eepi ng- car man.

I di d so, and t he r esul t was t hat we obt ai ned t he cont r act j oi nt l y.
Our company was subsequent l y mer ged i n t he gener al Pul l man Company and
we t ook st ock i n t hat company f or our Paci f i c i nt er est s. Unt i l
compel l ed t o sel l my shar es dur i ng t he subsequent f i nanci al pani c of
1873 t o pr ot ect our i r on and st eel i nt er est s, I was, I bel i eve, t he
l ar gest shar ehol der i n t he Pul l man Company.

Thi s man Pul l man and hi s car eer ar e so t hor oughl y Amer i can t hat a f ew
wor ds about hi mwi l l not be out of pl ace. Mr . Pul l man was at f i r st a
wor ki ng car pent er , but when Chi cago had t o be el evat ed he t ook a
cont r act on hi s own account t o move or el evat e houses f or a
st i pul at ed sum. Of cour se he was successf ul , and f r omt hi s smal l
begi nni ng he became one of t he pr i nci pal and best - known cont r act or s i n
t hat l i ne. I f a gr eat hot el was t o be r ai sed t en f eet wi t hout
di st ur bi ng i t s hundr eds of guest s or i nt er f er i ng i n any way wi t h i t s
busi ness, Mr . Pul l man was t he man. He was one of t hose r ar e char act er s
who can see t he dr i f t of t hi ngs, and was al ways t o be f ound, so t o
speak, swi mmi ng i n t he mai n cur r ent wher e movement was t he f ast est . He
soon saw, as I di d, t hat t he sl eepi ng- car was a posi t i ve necessi t y
upon t he Amer i can cont i nent . He began t o const r uct a f ew car s at
Chi cago and t o obt ai n cont r act s upon t he l i nes cent er i ng t her e.

The East er n concer n was i n no condi t i on t o cope wi t h t hat of an
ext r aor di nar y man l i ke Mr . Pul l man. I soon r ecogni zed t hi s, and
al t hough t he or i gi nal pat ent s wer e wi t h t he East er n company and Mr .
Page 93 of 222
Woodr uf f hi msel f , t he or i gi nal pat ent ee, was a l ar ge shar ehol der , and
al t hough we mi ght have obt ai ned damages f or i nf r i ngement of pat ent
af t er some year s of l i t i gat i on, yet t he t i me l ost bef or e t hi s coul d be
done woul d have been suf f i ci ent t o make Pul l man' s t he gr eat company of
t he count r y. I t her ef or e ear nest l y advocat ed t hat we shoul d uni t e wi t h
Mr . Pul l man, as I had uni t ed wi t h hi mbef or e i n t he Uni on Paci f i c
cont r act . As t he per sonal r el at i ons bet ween Mr . Pul l man and some
member s of t he East er n company wer e unsat i sf act or y, i t was deemed best
t hat I shoul d under t ake t he negot i at i ons, bei ng upon f r i endl y f oot i ng
wi t h bot h par t i es. We soon agr eed t hat t he Pul l man Company shoul d
absor b our company, t he Cent r al Tr anspor t at i on Company, and by t hi s
means Mr . Pul l man, i nst ead of bei ng conf i ned t o t he West , obt ai ned
cont r ol of t he r i ght s on t he gr eat Pennsyl vani a t r unk l i ne t o t he
At l ant i c seaboar d. Thi s pl aced hi s company beyond al l possi bl e r i val s.
Mr . Pul l man was one of t he abl est men of af f ai r s I have ever known,
and I ami ndebt ed t o hi m, among ot her t hi ngs, f or one st or y whi ch
car r i ed a mor al .

Mr . Pul l man, l i ke ever y ot her man, had hi s di f f i cul t i es and
di sappoi nt ment s, and di d not hi t t he mar k ever y t i me. No one does.
I ndeed, I do not know any one but hi msel f who coul d have sur mount ed
t he di f f i cul t i es sur r oundi ng t he busi ness of r unni ng sl eepi ng- car s i n
a sat i sf act or y manner and st i l l r et ai ned some r i ght s whi ch t he r ai l way
compani es wer e bound t o r espect . Rai l way compani es shoul d, of cour se,
oper at e t hei r own sl eepi ng- car s. On one occasi on when we wer e
compar i ng not es he t ol d me t hat he al ways f ound comf or t i n t hi s st or y.
An ol d man i n a West er n count y havi ng suf f er ed f r omal l t he i l l s t hat
f l esh i s hei r t o, and a gr eat many mor e t han i t usual l y encount er s,
and bei ng commi ser at ed by hi s nei ghbor s, r epl i ed:

" Yes, my f r i ends, al l t hat you say i s t r ue. I have had a l ong, l ong
l i f e f ul l of t r oubl es, but t her e i s one cur i ous f act about t hem- - ni ne
t ent hs of t hemnever happened. "

Tr ue i ndeed; most of t he t r oubl es of humani t y ar e i magi nar y and shoul d
be l aughed out of cour t . I t i s f ol l y t o cr oss a br i dge unt i l you come
t o i t , or t o bi d t he Devi l good- mor ni ng unt i l you meet hi m- - per f ect
f ol l y. Al l i s wel l unt i l t he st r oke f al l s, and even t hen ni ne t i mes
out of t en i t i s not so bad as ant i ci pat ed. A wi se man i s t he
conf i r med opt i mi st .

Success i n t hese var i ous negot i at i ons had br ought me i nt o some not i ce
i n New Yor k, and my next l ar ge oper at i on was i n connect i on wi t h t he
Uni on Paci f i c Rai l way i n 1871. One of i t s di r ect or s came t o me sayi ng
t hat t hey must r ai se i n some way a sumof si x hundr ed t housand dol l ar s
( equal t o many mi l l i ons t o- day) t o car r y t hemt hr ough a cr i si s; and
some f r i ends who knew me and wer e on t he execut i ve commi t t ee of t hat
r oad had suggest ed t hat I mi ght be abl e t o obt ai n t he money and at t he
same t i me get f or t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad Company vi r t ual cont r ol of
t hat i mpor t ant West er n l i ne. I bel i eve Mr . Pul l man came wi t h t he
di r ect or , or per haps i t was Mr . Pul l man hi msel f who f i r st came t o me
on t he subj ect .

I t ook up t he mat t er , and i t occur r ed t o me t hat i f t he di r ect or s of
t he Uni on Paci f i c Rai l way woul d be wi l l i ng t o el ect t o i t s boar d of
di r ect or s a f ew such men as t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad woul d nomi nat e,
t he t r af f i c t o be t hus obt ai ned f or t he Pennsyl vani a woul d j ust i f y
Page 94 of 222
t hat company i n hel pi ng t he Uni on Paci f i c. I went t o Phi l adel phi a and
l ai d t he subj ect bef or e Pr esi dent Thomson. I suggest ed t hat i f t he
Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad Company woul d t r ust me wi t h secur i t i es upon
whi ch t he Uni on Paci f i c coul d bor r ow money i n New Yor k, we coul d
cont r ol t he Uni on Paci f i c i n t he i nt er est s of t he Pennsyl vani a. Among
many mar ks of Mr . Thomson' s conf i dence t hi s was up t o t hat t i me t he
gr eat est . He was much mor e conser vat i ve when handl i ng t he money of t he
r ai l r oad company t han hi s own, but t he pr i ze of f er ed was t oo gr eat t o
be mi ssed. Even i f t he si x hundr ed t housand dol l ar s had been l ost , i t
woul d not have been a l osi ng i nvest ment f or hi s company, and t her e was
l i t t l e danger of t hi s because we wer e r eady t o hand over t o hi mt he
secur i t i es whi ch we obt ai ned i n r et ur n f or t he l oan t o t he Uni on
Paci f i c.

My i nt er vi ew wi t h Mr . Thomson t ook pl ace at hi s house i n Phi l adel phi a,
and as I r ose t o go he l ai d hi s hand upon my shoul der , sayi ng:

" Remember , Andy, I l ook t o you i n t hi s mat t er . I t i s you I t r ust , and
I depend on your hol di ng al l t he secur i t i es you obt ai n and seei ng
t hat t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad i s never i n a posi t i on wher e i t can
l ose a dol l ar . "

I accept ed t he r esponsi bi l i t y, and t he r esul t was a t r i umphant
success. The Uni on Paci f i c Company was exceedi ngl y anxi ous t hat Mr .
Thomson hi msel f shoul d t ake t he pr esi dency, but t hi s he sai d was out
of t he quest i on. He nomi nat ed Mr . Thomas A. Scot t , vi ce- pr esi dent of
t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad, f or t he posi t i on. Mr . Scot t , Mr . Pul l man,
and mysel f wer e accor di ngl y el ect ed di r ect or s of t he Uni on Paci f i c
Rai l way Company i n 1871.

The secur i t i es obt ai ned f or t he l oan consi st ed of t hr ee mi l l i ons of
t he shar es of t he Uni on Paci f i c, whi ch wer e l ocked i n my saf e, wi t h
t he opt i on of t aki ng t hemat a pr i ce. As was t o be expect ed, t he
accessi on of t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad par t y r ender ed t he st ock of t he
Uni on Paci f i c i nf i ni t el y mor e val uabl e. The shar es advanced
enor mousl y. At t hi s t i me I under t ook t o negot i at e bonds i n London f or
a br i dge t o cr oss t he Mi ssour i at Omaha, and whi l e I was absent upon
t hi s busi ness Mr . Scot t deci ded t o sel l our Uni on Paci f i c shar es. I
had l ef t i nst r uct i ons wi t h my secr et ar y t hat Mr . Scot t , as one of t he
par t ner s i n t he vent ur e, shoul d have access t o t he vaul t , as i t mi ght
be necessar y i n my absence t hat t he secur i t i es shoul d be wi t hi n r each
of some one; but t he i dea t hat t hese shoul d be sol d, or t hat our par t y
shoul d l ose t he spl endi d posi t i on we had acqui r ed i n connect i on wi t h
t he Uni on Paci f i c, never ent er ed my br ai n.

I r et ur ned t o f i nd t hat , i nst ead of bei ng a t r ust ed col l eague of t he
Uni on Paci f i c di r ect or s, I was r egar ded as havi ng used t hemf or
specul at i ve pur poses. No quar t et of men ever had a f i ner oppor t uni t y
f or i dent i f yi ng t hemsel ves wi t h a gr eat wor k t han we had; and never
was an oppor t uni t y mor e r eckl essl y t hr own away. Mr . Pul l man was
i gnor ant of t he mat t er and as i ndi gnant as mysel f , and I bel i eve t hat
he at once r e- i nvest ed hi s pr of i t s i n t he shar es of t he Uni on Paci f i c.
I f el t t hat much as I wi shed t o do t hi s and t o r epudi at e what had been
done, i t woul d be unbecomi ng and per haps ungr at ef ul i n me t o separ at e
mysel f so di st i nct l y f r ommy f i r st of f r i ends, Mr . Scot t .

At t he f i r st oppor t uni t y we wer e i gnomi ni ousl y but deser vedl y expel l ed
Page 95 of 222
f r omt he Uni on Paci f i c boar d. I t was a bi t t er dose f or a young man t o
swal l ow. And t he t r ansact i on mar ked my f i r st ser i ous di f f er ence wi t h a
man who up t o t hat t i me had t he gr eat est i nf l uence wi t h me, t he ki nd
and af f ect i onat e empl oyer of my boyhood, Thomas A. Scot t . Mr . Thomson
r egr et t ed t he mat t er , but , as he sai d, havi ng pai d no at t ent i on t o i t
and havi ng l ef t t he whol e cont r ol of i t i n t he hands of Mr . Scot t and
mysel f , he pr esumed t hat I had t hought best t o sel l out . For a t i me I
f ear ed I had l ost a val ued f r i end i n Levi P. Mor t on, of Mor t on, Bl i ss
& Co. , who was i nt er est ed i n Uni on Paci f i c, but at l ast he f ound out
t hat I was i nnocent .

The negot i at i ons concer ni ng t wo and a hal f mi l l i ons of bonds f or t he
const r uct i on of t he Omaha Br i dge wer e successf ul , and as t hese bonds
had been pur chased by per sons connect ed wi t h t he Uni on Paci f i c bef or e
I had anyt hi ng t o do wi t h t he company, i t was f or t hemand not f or t he
Uni on Paci f i c Company t hat t he negot i at i ons wer e conduct ed. Thi s was
not expl ai ned t o me by t he di r ect or who t al ked wi t h me bef or e I l ef t
f or London. Unf or t unat el y, when I r et ur ned t o New Yor k I f ound t hat
t he ent i r e pr oceeds of t he bonds, i ncl udi ng my pr of i t , had been
appr opr i at ed by t he par t i es t o pay t hei r own debt s, and I was t hus
beat en out of a handsome sum, and had t o cr edi t t o pr of i t and l oss my
expenses and t i me. I had never bef or e been cheat ed and f ound i t out so
posi t i vel y and so cl ear l y. I saw t hat I was st i l l young and had a good
deal t o l ear n. Many men can be t r ust ed, but a f ew need wat chi ng.



Page 96 of 222
CHAPTER XII

BUSINESS NEGOTIATIONS


Compl et e success at t ended a negot i at i on whi ch I conduct ed about t hi s
t i me f or Col onel Wi l l i amPhi l l i ps, pr esi dent of t he Al l egheny Val l ey
Rai l way at Pi t t sbur gh. One day t he Col onel ent er ed my New Yor k of f i ce
and t ol d me t hat he needed money badl y, but t hat he coul d get no house
i n Amer i ca t o ent er t ai n t he i dea of pur chasi ng f i ve mi l l i ons of bonds
of hi s company al t hough t hey wer e t o be guar ant eed by t he Pennsyl vani a
Rai l r oad Company. The ol d gent l eman f el t sur e t hat he was bei ng dr i ven
f r ompi l l ar t o post by t he banker s because t hey had agr eed among
t hemsel ves t o pur chase t he bonds onl y upon t hei r own t er ms. He asked
ni net y cent s on t he dol l ar f or t hem, but t hi s t he banker s consi der ed
pr epost er ousl y hi gh. Those wer e t he days when West er n r ai l way bonds
wer e of t en sol d t o t he banker s at ei ght y cent s on t he dol l ar .

Col onel Phi l l i ps sai d he had come t o see whet her I coul d not suggest
some way out of hi s di f f i cul t y. He had pr essi ng need f or t wo hundr ed
and f i f t y t housand dol l ar s, and t hi s Mr . Thomson, of t he Pennsyl vani a
Rai l r oad, coul d not gi ve hi m. The Al l egheny bonds wer e seven per
cent s, but t hey wer e payabl e, not i n gol d, but i n cur r ency, i n
Amer i ca. They wer e t her ef or e whol l y unsui t ed f or t he f or ei gn mar ket .
But I knew t hat t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad Company had a l ar ge amount
of Phi l adel phi a and Er i e Rai l r oad si x per cent gol d bonds i n i t s
t r easur y. I t woul d be a most desi r abl e exchange on i t s par t , I
t hought , t o gi ve t hese bonds f or t he seven per cent Al l egheny bonds
whi ch bor e i t s guar ant ee.

I t el egr aphed Mr . Thomson, aski ng i f t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad Company
woul d t ake t wo hundr ed and f i f t y t housand dol l ar s at i nt er est and l end
i t t o t he Al l egheny Rai l way Company. Mr . Thomson r epl i ed, " Cer t ai nl y. "
Col onel Phi l l i ps was happy. He agr eed, i n consi der at i on of my
ser vi ces, t o gi ve me a si xt y- days opt i on t o t ake hi s f i ve mi l l i ons of
bonds at t he desi r ed ni net y cent s on t he dol l ar . I l ai d t he mat t er
bef or e Mr . Thomson and suggest ed an exchange, whi ch t hat company was
onl y t oo gl ad t o make, as i t saved one per cent i nt er est on t he bonds.
I sai l ed at once f or London wi t h t he cont r ol of f i ve mi l l i ons of f i r st
mor t gage Phi l adel phi a and Er i e Bonds, guar ant eed by t he Pennsyl vani a
Rai l r oad Company- - a magni f i cent secur i t y f or whi ch I want ed a hi gh
pr i ce. And her e comes i n one of t he gr eat est of t he hi t s and mi sses of
my f i nanci al l i f e.

I wr ot e t he Bar i ngs f r omQueenst own t hat I had f or sal e a secur i t y
whi ch even t hei r house mi ght unhesi t at i ngl y consi der . On my ar r i val i n
London I f ound at t he hot el a not e f r omt hemr equest i ng me t o cal l . I
di d so t he next mor ni ng, and bef or e I had l ef t t hei r banki ng house I
had cl osed an agr eement by whi ch t hey wer e t o br i ng out t hi s l oan, and
t hat unt i l t hey sol d t he bonds at par , l ess t hei r t wo and a hal f per
cent commi ssi on, t hey woul d advance t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad Company
f our mi l l i ons of dol l ar s at f i ve per cent i nt er est . The sal e l ef t me a
cl ear pr of i t of mor e t han hal f a mi l l i on dol l ar s.

The paper s wer e or der ed t o be dr awn up, but as I was l eavi ng Mr .
Russel l St ur gi s sai d t hey had j ust hear d t hat Mr . Bar i ng hi msel f was
Page 97 of 222
comi ng up t o t own i n t he mor ni ng. They had ar r anged t o hol d a
" cour t , " and as i t woul d be f i t t i ng t o l ay t he t r ansact i on bef or e hi m
as a mat t er of cour t esy t hey woul d post pone t he si gni ng of t he paper s
unt i l t he mor r ow. I f I woul d cal l at t wo o' cl ock t he t r ansact i on woul d
be cl osed.

Never shal l I f or get t he oppr essed f eel i ng whi ch over came me as I
st epped out and pr oceeded t o t he t el egr aph of f i ce t o wi r e Pr esi dent
Thomson. Somet hi ng t ol d me t hat I ought not t o do so. I woul d wai t
t i l l t o- mor r ow when I had t he cont r act i n my pocket . I wal ked f r omt he
banki ng house t o t he LanghamHot el - - f our l ong mi l es. When I r eached
t her e I f ound a messenger wai t i ng br eat hl ess t o hand me a seal ed not e
f r omt he Bar i ngs. Bi smar ck had l ocked up a hundr ed mi l l i ons i n
Magdebur g. The f i nanci al wor l d was pani c- st r i cken, and t he Bar i ngs
begged t o say t hat under t he ci r cumst ances t hey coul d not pr opose t o
Mr . Bar i ng t o go on wi t h t he mat t er . Ther e was as much chance t hat I
shoul d be st r uck by l i ght ni ng on my way home as t hat an ar r angement
agr eed t o by t he Bar i ngs shoul d be br oken. And yet i t was. I t was t oo
gr eat a bl ow t o pr oduce anyt hi ng l i ke i r r i t at i on or i ndi gnat i on. I was
meek enough t o be qui t e r esi gned, and mer el y congr at ul at ed mysel f t hat
I had not t el egr aphed Mr . Thomson.

I deci ded not t o r et ur n t o t he Bar i ngs, and al t hough J . S. Mor gan & Co.
had been br i ngi ng out a gr eat many Amer i can secur i t i es I subsequent l y
sol d t he bonds t o t hemat a r educed pr i ce as compar ed wi t h t hat agr eed
t o by t he Bar i ngs. I t hought i t best not t o go t o Mor gan & Co. at
f i r st , because I had under st ood f r omCol onel Phi l l i ps t hat t he bonds
had been unsuccessf ul l y of f er ed by hi mt o t hei r house i n Amer i ca and I
supposed t hat t he Mor gans i n London mi ght consi der t hemsel ves
connect ed wi t h t he negot i at i ons t hr ough t hei r house i n New Yor k. But
i n al l subsequent negot i at i ons I made i t a r ul e t o gi ve t he f i r st
of f er t o J uni us S. Mor gan, who sel domper mi t t ed me t o l eave hi s
banki ng house wi t hout t aki ng what I had t o of f er . I f he coul d not buy
f or hi s own house, he pl aced me i n communi cat i on wi t h a f r i endl y house
t hat di d, he t aki ng an i nt er est i n t he i ssue. I t i s a gr eat
sat i sf act i on t o r ef l ect t hat I never negot i at ed a secur i t y whi ch di d
not t o t he end command a pr emi um. Of cour se i n t hi s case I made a
mi st ake i n not r et ur ni ng t o t he Bar i ngs, gi vi ng t hemt i me and l et t i ng
t he pani c subsi de, whi ch i t soon di d. When one par t y t o a bar gai n
becomes exci t ed, t he ot her shoul d keep cool and pat i ent .

As an i nci dent of my f i nanci al oper at i ons I r emember sayi ng t o Mr .
Mor gan one day:

" Mr . Mor gan, I wi l l gi ve you an i dea and hel p you t o car r y i t f or war d
i f you wi l l gi ve me one quar t er of al l t he money you make by act i ng
upon i t . "

He l aughi ngl y sai d: " That seems f ai r , and as I have t he opt i on t o act
upon i t , or not , cer t ai nl y we ought t o be wi l l i ng t o pay you a quar t er
of t he pr of i t . "

I cal l ed at t ent i on t o t he f act t hat t he Al l egheny Val l ey Rai l way bonds
whi ch I had exchanged f or t he Phi l adel phi a and Er i e bonds bor e t he
guar ant ee of t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad Company, and t hat t hat gr eat
company was al ways i n need of money f or essent i al ext ensi ons. A pr i ce
mi ght be of f er ed f or t hese bonds whi ch mi ght t empt t he company t o sel l
Page 98 of 222
t hem, and t hat at t he moment t her e appear ed t o be such a demand f or
Amer i can secur i t i es t hat no doubt t hey coul d be f l oat ed. I woul d wr i t e
a pr ospect us whi ch I t hought woul d f l oat t he bonds. Af t er exami ni ng
t he mat t er wi t h hi s usual car e he deci ded t hat he woul d act upon my
suggest i on.

Mr . Thomson was t hen i n Par i s and I r an over t her e t o see hi m. Knowi ng
t hat t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad had need f or money I t ol d hi mt hat I
had r ecommended t hese secur i t i es t o Mr . Mor gan and i f he woul d gi ve me
a pr i ce f or t hemI woul d see i f I coul d not sel l t hem. He named a
pr i ce whi ch was t hen ver y hi gh, but l ess t han t he pr i ce whi ch t hese
bonds have si nce r eached. Mr . Mor gan pur chased par t of t hemwi t h t he
r i ght t o buy ot her s, and i n t hi s way t he whol e ni ne or t en mi l l i ons of
Al l egheny bonds wer e mar ket ed and t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad Company
pl aced i n f unds.

The sal e of t he bonds had not gone ver y f ar when t he pani c of 1873 was
upon us. One of t he sour ces of r evenue whi ch I t hen had was Mr .
Pi er pont Mor gan. He sai d t o me one day:

" My f at her has cabl ed t o ask whet her you wi sh t o sel l out your
i nt er est i n t hat i dea you gave hi m. "

I sai d: " Yes, I do. I n t hese days I wi l l sel l anyt hi ng f or money. "

" Wel l , " he sai d, " what woul d you t ake?"

I sai d I bel i eved t hat a st at ement r ecent l y r ender ed t o me showed t hat
t her e wer e al r eady f i f t y t housand dol l ar s t o my cr edi t , and I woul d
t ake si xt y t housand. Next mor ni ng when I cal l ed Mr . Mor gan handed me
checks f or sevent y t housand dol l ar s.

" Mr . Car negi e, " he sai d, " you wer e mi st aken. You sol d out f or t en
t housand dol l ar s l ess t han t he st at ement showed t o your cr edi t . I t now
shows not f i f t y but si xt y t housand t o your cr edi t , and t he addi t i onal
t en makes sevent y. "

The payment s wer e i n t wo checks, one f or si xt y t housand dol l ar s and
t he ot her f or t he addi t i onal t en t housand. I handed hi mback t he
t en- t housand- dol l ar check, sayi ng:

" Wel l , t hat i s somet hi ng wor t hy of you. Wi l l you pl ease accept t hese
t en t housand wi t h my best wi shes?"

" No, t hank you, " he sai d, " I cannot do t hat . "

Such act s, showi ng a ni ce sense of honor abl e under st andi ng as agai nst
mer e l egal r i ght s, ar e not so uncommon i n busi ness as t he uni ni t i at ed
mi ght bel i eve. And, af t er t hat , i t i s not t o be wonder ed at i f I
det er mi ned t hat so f ar as l ay i n my power nei t her Mor gan, f at her or
son, nor t hei r house, shoul d suf f er t hr ough me. They had i n me
hencef or t h a f i r mf r i end.

[ I l l ust r at i on: J OHN PI ERPONT MORGAN]

A gr eat busi ness i s sel domi f ever bui l t up, except on l i nes of t he
st r i ct est i nt egr i t y. A r eput at i on f or " cut eness" and shar p deal i ng i s
Page 99 of 222
f at al i n gr eat af f ai r s. Not t he l et t er of t he l aw, but t he spi r i t ,
must be t he r ul e. The st andar d of commer ci al mor al i t y i s now ver y
hi gh. A mi st ake made by any one i n f avor of t he f i r mi s cor r ect ed as
pr ompt l y as i f t he er r or wer e i n f avor of t he ot her par t y. I t i s
essent i al t o per manent success t hat a house shoul d obt ai n a r eput at i on
f or bei ng gover ned by what i s f ai r r at her t han what i s mer el y l egal . A
r ul e whi ch we adopt ed and adher ed t o has gi ven gr eat er r et ur ns t han
one woul d bel i eve possi bl e, namel y: al ways gi ve t he ot her par t y t he
benef i t of t he doubt . Thi s, of cour se, does not appl y t o t he
specul at i ve cl ass. An ent i r el y di f f er ent at mospher e per vades t hat
wor l d. Men ar e onl y gambl er s t her e. St ock gambl i ng and honor abl e
busi ness ar e i ncompat i bl e. I n r ecent year s i t must be admi t t ed t hat
t he ol d- f ashi oned " banker , " l i ke J uni us S. Mor gan of London, has
become r ar e.

Soon af t er bei ng deposed as pr esi dent of t he Uni on Paci f i c, Mr .
Scot t [ 31] r esol ved upon t he const r uct i on of t he Texas Paci f i c
Rai l way. He t el egr aphed me one day i n New Yor k t o meet hi mat
Phi l adel phi a wi t hout f ai l . I met hi mt her e wi t h sever al ot her f r i ends,
among t hemMr . J . N. McCul l ough, vi ce- pr esi dent of t he Pennsyl vani a
Rai l r oad Company at Pi t t sbur gh. A l ar ge l oan f or t he Texas Paci f i c had
f al l en due i n London and i t s r enewal was agr eed t o by Mor gan & Co. ,
pr ovi ded I woul d j oi n t he ot her par t i es t o t he l oan. I decl i ned. I was
t hen asked whet her I woul d br i ng t hemal l t o r ui n by r ef usi ng t o st and
by my f r i ends. I t was one of t he most t r yi ng moment s of my whol e l i f e.
Yet I was not t empt ed f or a moment t o ent er t ai n t he i dea of i nvol vi ng
mysel f . The quest i on of what was my dut y came f i r st and pr event ed
t hat . Al l my capi t al was i n manuf act ur i ng and ever y dol l ar of i t was
r equi r ed. I was t he capi t al i st ( t hen a modest one, i ndeed) of our
concer n. Al l depended upon me. My br ot her wi t h hi s wi f e and f ami l y,
Mr . Phi pps and hi s f ami l y, Mr . Kl oman and hi s f ami l y, al l r ose up
bef or e me and cl ai med pr ot ect i on.

[ Foot not e 31: Col onel Thomas A. Scot t l ef t t he Uni on Paci f i c i n 1872.
The same year he became pr esi dent of t he Texas Paci f i c, and i n 1874
pr esi dent of t he Pennsyl vani a. ]

I t ol d Mr . Scot t t hat I had done my best t o pr event hi mf r ombegi nni ng
t o const r uct a gr eat r ai l way bef or e he had secur ed t he necessar y
capi t al . I had i nsi st ed t hat t housands of mi l es of r ai l way l i nes coul d
not be const r uct ed by means of t empor ar y l oans. Besi des, I had pai d
t wo hundr ed and f i f t y t housand dol l ar s cash f or an i nt er est i n i t ,
whi ch he t ol d me upon my r et ur n f r omEur ope he had r eser ved f or me,
al t hough I had never appr oved t he scheme. But not hi ng i n t he wor l d
woul d ever i nduce me t o be gui l t y of endor si ng t he paper of t hat
const r uct i on company or of any ot her concer n t han our own f i r m.

I knew t hat i t woul d be i mpossi bl e f or me t o pay t he Mor gan l oan i n
si xt y days, or even t o pay my pr opor t i on of i t . Besi des, i t was not
t hat l oan by i t sel f , but t he hal f - dozen ot her l oans t hat woul d be
r equi r ed t her eaf t er t hat had t o be consi der ed. Thi s mar ked anot her
st ep i n t he t ot al busi ness separ at i on whi ch had t o come bet ween Mr .
Scot t and mysel f . I t gave mor e pai n t han al l t he f i nanci al t r i al s t o
whi ch I had been subj ect ed up t o t hat t i me.

I t was not l ong af t er t hi s meet i ng t hat t he di sast er came and t he
count r y was st ar t l ed by t he f ai l ur e of t hose whomi t had r egar ded as
Page 100 of 222
i t s st r ongest men. I f ear Mr . Scot t ' s pr emat ur e deat h[ 32] can
measur abl y be at t r i but ed t o t he humi l i at i on whi ch he had t o bear . He
was a sensi t i ve r at her t han a pr oud man, and hi s seemi ngl y i mpendi ng
f ai l ur e cut hi mt o t he qui ck. Mr . McManus and Mr . Bai r d, par t ner s i n
t he ent er pr i se, al so soon passed away. These t wo men wer e
manuf act ur er s l i ke mysel f and i n no posi t i on t o engage i n r ai l way
const r uct i on.

[ Foot not e 32: Di ed May 21, 1881. ]

The busi ness man has no r ock mor e danger ous t o encount er i n hi s car eer
t han t hi s ver y one of endor si ng commer ci al paper . I t can easi l y be
avoi ded i f he asks hi msel f t wo quest i ons: Have I sur pl us means f or al l
possi bl e r equi r ement s whi ch wi l l enabl e me t o pay wi t hout
i nconveni ence t he ut most sumf or whi ch I aml i abl e under t hi s
endor sement ? Secondl y: AmI wi l l i ng t o l ose t hi s sumf or t he f r i end
f or whomI endor se? I f t hese t wo quest i ons can be answer ed i n t he
af f i r mat i ve he may be per mi t t ed t o obl i ge hi s f r i end, but not
ot her wi se, i f he be a wi se man. And i f he can answer t he f i r st
quest i on i n t he af f i r mat i ve i t wi l l be wel l f or hi mt o consi der
whet her i t woul d not be bet t er t hen and t her e t o pay t he ent i r e sum
f or whi ch hi s name i s asked. I amsur e i t woul d be. A man' s means ar e
a t r ust t o be sacr edl y hel d f or hi s own cr edi t or s as l ong as he has
debt s and obl i gat i ons.

Not wi t hst andi ng my r ef usal t o endor se t he Mor gan r enewal , I was
i nvi t ed t o accompany t he par t i es t o New Yor k next mor ni ng i n t hei r
speci al car f or t he pur pose of consul t at i on. Thi s I was onl y t oo gl ad
t o do. Ant hony Dr exel was al so cal l ed i n t o accompany us. Dur i ng t he
j our ney Mr . McCul l ough r emar ked t hat he had been l ooki ng ar ound t he
car and had made up hi s mi nd t hat t her e was onl y one sensi bl e man i n
i t ; t he r est had al l been " f ool s. " Her e was " Andy" who had pai d f or
hi s shar es and di d not owe a dol l ar or have any r esponsi bi l i t y i n t he
mat t er , and t hat was t he posi t i on t hey al l ought t o have been i n.

Mr . Dr exel sai d he woul d l i ke me t o expl ai n how I had been abl e t o
st eer cl ear of t hese unf or t unat e t r oubl es. I answer ed: by st r i ct
adher ence t o what I bel i eved t o be my dut y never t o put my name t o
anyt hi ng whi ch I knew I coul d not pay at mat ur i t y; or , t o r ecal l t he
f ami l i ar sayi ng of a West er n f r i end, never t o go i n wher e you coul dn' t
wade. Thi s wat er was al t oget her t oo deep f or me.

Regar d f or t hi s r ul e has kept not onl y mysel f but my par t ner s out of
t r oubl e. I ndeed, we had gone so f ar i n our par t ner shi p agr eement as t o
pr event our sel ves f r omendor si ng or commi t t i ng our sel ves i n any way
beyond t r i f l i ng sums, except f or t he f i r m. Thi s I al so gave as a
r eason why I coul d not endor se.

Dur i ng t he per i od whi ch t hese event s cover I had made r epeat ed
j our neys t o Eur ope t o negot i at e var i ous secur i t i es, and i n al l I sol d
some t hi r t y mi l l i ons of dol l ar s wor t h. Thi s was at a t i me when t he
At l ant i c cabl e had not yet made New Yor k a par t of London f i nanci al l y
consi der ed, and when London banker s woul d l end t hei r bal ances t o
Par i s, Vi enna, or Ber l i n f or a shadow of di f f er ence i n t he r at e of
i nt er est r at her t han t o t he Uni t ed St at es at a hi gher r at e. The
Republ i c was consi der ed l ess saf e t han t he Cont i nent by t hese good
peopl e. My br ot her and Mr . Phi pps conduct ed t he i r on busi ness so
Page 101 of 222
successf ul l y t hat I coul d l eave f or weeks at a t i me wi t hout anxi et y.
Ther e was danger l est I shoul d dr i f t away f r omt he manuf act ur i ng t o
t he f i nanci al and banki ng busi ness. My successes abr oad br ought me
t empt i ng oppor t uni t i es, but my pr ef er ence was al ways f or
manuf act ur i ng. I wi shed t o make somet hi ng t angi bl e and sel l i t and I
cont i nued t o i nvest my pr of i t s i n ext endi ng t he wor ks at Pi t t sbur gh.

The smal l shops put up or i gi nal l y f or t he Keyst one Br i dge Company had
been l eased f or ot her pur poses and t en acr es of gr ound had been
secur ed i n Lawr encevi l l e on whi ch new and ext ensi ve shops wer e
er ect ed. Repeat ed addi t i ons t o t he Uni on I r on Mi l l s had made t hemt he
l eadi ng mi l l s i n t he Uni t ed St at es f or al l sor t s of st r uct ur al shapes.
Busi ness was pr omi si ng and al l t he sur pl us ear ni ngs I was maki ng i n
ot her f i el ds wer e r equi r ed t o expand t he i r on busi ness. I had become
i nt er est ed, wi t h my f r i ends of t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad Company, i n
bui l di ng some r ai l ways i n t he West er n St at es, but gr adual l y wi t hdr ew
f r omal l such ent er pr i ses and made up my mi nd t o go ent i r el y cont r ar y
t o t he adage not t o put al l one' s eggs i n one basket . I det er mi ned
t hat t he pr oper pol i cy was " t o put al l good eggs i n one basket and
t hen wat ch t hat basket . "

I bel i eve t he t r ue r oad t o pr emi nent success i n any l i ne i s t o make
your sel f mast er i n t hat l i ne. I have no f ai t h i n t he pol i cy of
scat t er i ng one' s r esour ces, and i n my exper i ence I have r ar el y i f ever
met a man who achi eved pr emi nence i n money- maki ng- - cer t ai nl y never
one i n manuf act ur i ng- - who was i nt er est ed i n many concer ns. The men who
have succeeded ar e men who have chosen one l i ne and st uck t o i t . I t i s
sur pr i si ng how f ew men appr eci at e t he enor mous di vi dends der i vabl e
f r omi nvest ment i n t hei r own busi ness. Ther e i s scar cel y a
manuf act ur er i n t he wor l d who has not i n hi s wor ks some machi ner y t hat
shoul d be t hr own out and r epl aced by i mpr oved appl i ances; or who does
not f or t he want of addi t i onal machi ner y or new met hods l ose mor e t han
suf f i ci ent t o pay t he l ar gest di vi dend obt ai nabl e by i nvest ment beyond
hi s own domai n. And yet most busi ness men whomI have known i nvest i n
bank shar es and i n f ar - away ent er pr i ses, whi l e t he t r ue gol d mi ne l i es
r i ght i n t hei r own f act or i es.

I have t r i ed al ways t o hol d f ast t o t hi s i mpor t ant f act . I t has been
wi t h me a car di nal doct r i ne t hat I coul d manage my own capi t al bet t er
t han any ot her per son, much bet t er t han any boar d of di r ect or s. The
l osses men encount er dur i ng a busi ness l i f e whi ch ser i ousl y embar r ass
t hemar e r ar el y i n t hei r own busi ness, but i n ent er pr i ses of whi ch t he
i nvest or i s not mast er . My advi ce t o young men woul d be not onl y t o
concent r at e t hei r whol e t i me and at t ent i on on t he one busi ness i n l i f e
i n whi ch t hey engage, but t o put ever y dol l ar of t hei r capi t al i nt o
i t . I f t her e be any busi ness t hat wi l l not bear ext ensi on, t he t r ue
pol i cy i s t o i nvest t he sur pl us i n f i r st - cl ass secur i t i es whi ch wi l l
yi el d a moder at e but cer t ai n r evenue i f some ot her gr owi ng busi ness
cannot be f ound. As f or mysel f my deci si on was t aken ear l y. I woul d
concent r at e upon t he manuf act ur e of i r on and st eel and be mast er i n
t hat .

My vi si t s t o Br i t ai n gave me excel l ent oppor t uni t i es t o r enew and make
acquai nt ance wi t h t hose pr omi nent i n t he i r on and st eel
busi ness- - Bessemer i n t he f r ont , Si r Lot hi an Bel l , Si r Ber nar d
Samuel son, Si r Wi ndsor Ri char ds, Edwar d Mar t i n, Bi ngl ey, Evans, and
t he whol e host of capt ai ns i n t hat i ndust r y. My el ect i on t o t he
Page 102 of 222
counci l , and f i nal l y t o t he pr esi dency of t he Br i t i sh I r on and St eel
I nst i t ut e soon f ol l owed, I bei ng t he f i r st pr esi dent who was not a
Br i t i sh subj ect . That honor was hi ghl y appr eci at ed, al t hough at f i r st
decl i ned, because I f ear ed t hat I coul d not gi ve suf f i ci ent t i me t o
i t s dut i es, owi ng t o my r esi dence i n Amer i ca.

As we had been compel l ed t o engage i n t he manuf act ur e of wr ought - i r on
i n or der t o make br i dges and ot her st r uct ur es, so now we t hought i t
desi r abl e t o manuf act ur e our own pi g i r on. And t hi s l ed t o t he
er ect i on of t he Lucy Fur nace i n t he year 1870- - a vent ur e whi ch woul d
have been post poned had we f ul l y appr eci at ed i t s magni t ude. We hear d
f r omt i me t o t i me t he omi nous pr edi ct i ons made by our ol der br et hr en
i n t he manuf act ur i ng busi ness wi t h r egar d t o t he r api d gr owt h and
ext ensi on of our young concer n, but we wer e not det er r ed. We t hought
we had suf f i ci ent capi t al and cr edi t t o j ust i f y t he bui l di ng of one
bl ast f ur nace.

The est i mat es made of i t s cost , however , di d not cover mor e t han hal f
t he expendi t ur e. I t was an exper i ment wi t h us. Mr . Kl oman knew not hi ng
about bl ast - f ur nace oper at i ons. But even wi t hout exact knowl edge no
ser i ous bl under was made. The yi el d of t he Lucy Fur nace ( named af t er
my br i ght si st er - i n- l aw) exceeded our most sangui ne expect at i ons and
t he t hen unpr ecedent ed out put of a hundr ed t ons per day was made f r om
one bl ast f ur nace, f or one week- - an out put t hat t he wor l d had never
hear d of bef or e. We hel d t he r ecor d and many vi si t or s came t o mar vel
at t he mar vel .

I t was not , however , al l smoot h sai l i ng wi t h our i r on busi ness. Year s
of pani c came at i nt er val s. We had passed saf el y t hr ough t he f al l i n
val ues f ol l owi ng t he war , when i r on f r omni ne cent s per pound dr opped
t o t hr ee. Many f ai l ur es occur r ed and our f i nanci al manager had hi s
t i me f ul l y occupi ed i n pr ovi di ng f unds t o meet emer genci es. Among many
wr ecks our f i r mst ood wi t h cr edi t uni mpai r ed. But t he manuf act ur e of
pi g i r on gave us mor e anxi et y t han any ot her depar t ment of our
busi ness so f ar . The gr eat est ser vi ce r ender ed us i n t hi s br anch of
manuf act ur i ng was by Mr . Whi t wel l , of t he cel ebr at ed Whi t wel l Br ot her s
of Engl and, whose bl ast - f ur nace st oves wer e so gener al l y used. Mr .
Whi t wel l was one of t he best - known of t he vi si t or s who came t o mar vel
at t he Lucy Fur nace, and I l ai d t he di f f i cul t y we t hen wer e
exper i enci ng bef or e hi m. He sai d i mmedi at el y:

" That comes f r omt he angl e of t he bel l bei ng wr ong. "

He expl ai ned how i t shoul d be changed. Our Mr . Kl oman was sl ow t o
bel i eve t hi s, but I ur ged t hat a smal l gl ass- model f ur nace and t wo
bel l s be made, one as t he Lucy was and t he ot her as Mr . Whi t wel l
advi sed i t shoul d be. Thi s was done, and upon my next vi si t
exper i ment s wer e made wi t h each, t he r esul t bei ng j ust as Mr . Whi t wel l
had f or et ol d. Our bel l di st r i but ed t he l ar ge pi eces t o t he si des of
t he f ur nace, l eavi ng t he cent er a dense mass t hr ough whi ch t he bl ast
coul d onl y par t i al l y penet r at e. The Whi t wel l bel l t hr ew t he pi eces t o
t he cent er l eavi ng t he ci r cumf er ence dense. Thi s made al l t he
di f f er ence i n t he wor l d. The Lucy' s t r oubl es wer e over .

What a ki nd, bi g, br oad man was Mr . Whi t wel l , wi t h no nar r ow j eal ousy,
no wi t hhol di ng hi s knowl edge! We had i n some depar t ment s l ear ned new
t hi ngs and wer e abl e t o be of ser vi ce t o hi s f i r mi n r et ur n. At al l
Page 103 of 222
event s, af t er t hat ever yt hi ng we had was open t o t he Whi t wel l s.
[ To- day, as I wr i t e, I r ej oi ce t hat one of t he t wo st i l l i s wi t h us
and t hat our f r i endshi p i s st i l l war m. He was my pr edecessor i n t he
pr esi dency of t he Br i t i sh I r on and St eel I nst i t ut e. ]



Page 104 of 222
CHAPTER XIII

THE AGE OF STEEL


Looki ng back t o- day i t seems i ncr edi bl e t hat onl y f or t y year s ago
( 1870) chemi st r y i n t he Uni t ed St at es was an al most unknown agent i n
connect i on wi t h t he manuf act ur e of pi g i r on. I t was t he agency, above
al l ot her s, most needf ul i n t he manuf act ur e of i r on and st eel . The
bl ast - f ur nace manager of t hat day was usual l y a r ude bul l y, gener al l y
a f or ei gner , who i n addi t i on t o hi s ot her acqui r ement s was abl e t o
knock down a man now and t hen as a l esson t o t he ot her unr ul y spi r i t s
under hi m. He was supposed t o di agnose t he condi t i on of t he f ur nace by
i nst i nct , t o possess some al most super nat ur al power of di vi nat i on,
l i ke hi s congener i n t he count r y di st r i ct s who was r eput ed t o be abl e
t o l ocat e an oi l wel l or wat er suppl y by means of a hazel r od. He was
a ver i t abl e quack doct or who appl i ed what ever r emedi es occur r ed t o hi m
f or t he t r oubl es of hi s pat i ent .

The Lucy Fur nace was out of one t r oubl e and i nt o anot her , owi ng t o t he
gr eat var i et y of or es, l i mest one, and coke whi ch wer e t hen suppl i ed
wi t h l i t t l e or no r egar d t o t hei r component par t s. Thi s st at e of
af f ai r s became i nt ol er abl e t o us. We f i nal l y deci ded t o di spense wi t h
t he r ul e- of - t humb- and- i nt ui t i on manager , and t o pl ace a young man i n
char ge of t he f ur nace. We had a young shi ppi ng cl er k, Henr y M. Cur r y,
who had di st i ngui shed hi msel f , and i t was r esol ved t o make hi m
manager .

Mr . Phi pps had t he Lucy Fur nace under hi s speci al char ge. Hi s dai l y
vi si t s t o i t saved us f r omf ai l ur e t her e. Not t hat t he f ur nace was not
doi ng as wel l as ot her f ur naces i n t he West as t o money- maki ng, but
bei ng so much l ar ger t han ot her f ur naces i t s var i at i ons ent ai l ed much
mor e ser i ous r esul t s. I amaf r ai d my par t ner had somet hi ng t o answer
f or i n hi s Sunday mor ni ng vi si t s t o t he Lucy Fur nace when hi s good
f at her and si st er l ef t t he house f or mor e devot i onal dut i es. But even
i f he had gone wi t h t hemhi s r eal ear nest pr ayer coul d not but have
had r ef er ence at t i mes t o t he pr ecar i ous condi t i on of t he Lucy Fur nace
t hen absor bi ng hi s t hought s.

The next st ep t aken was t o f i nd a chemi st as Mr . Cur r y' s assi st ant and
gui de. We f ound t he man i n a l ear ned Ger man, Dr . Fr i cke, and gr eat
secr et s di d t he doct or open up t o us. I r on st one f r ommi nes t hat had a
hi gh r eput at i on was now f ound t o cont ai n t en, f i f t een, and even t went y
per cent l ess i r on t han i t had been cr edi t ed wi t h. Mi nes t hat hi t her t o
had a poor r eput at i on we f ound t o be now yi el di ng super i or or e. The
good was bad and t he bad was good, and ever yt hi ng was t opsy- t ur vy.
Ni ne t ent hs of al l t he uncer t ai nt i es of pi g- i r on maki ng wer e di spel l ed
under t he bur ni ng sun of chemi cal knowl edge.

At a most cr i t i cal per i od when i t was necessar y f or t he cr edi t of t he
f i r mt hat t he bl ast f ur nace shoul d make i t s best pr oduct , i t had been
st opped because an exceedi ngl y r i ch and pur e or e had been subst i t ut ed
f or an i nf er i or or e- - an or e whi ch di d not yi el d mor e t han t wo t hi r ds
of t he quant i t y of i r on of t he ot her . The f ur nace had met wi t h
di sast er because t oo much l i me had been used t o f l ux t hi s
except i onal l y pur e i r onst one. The ver y super i or i t y of t he mat er i al s
Page 105 of 222
had i nvol ved us i n ser i ous l osses.

What f ool s we had been! But t hen t her e was t hi s consol at i on: we wer e
not as gr eat f ool s as our compet i t or s. I t was year s af t er we had t aken
chemi st r y t o gui de us t hat i t was sai d by t he pr opr i et or s of some
ot her f ur naces t hat t hey coul d not af f or d t o empl oy a chemi st . Had
t hey known t he t r ut h t hen, t hey woul d have known t hat t hey coul d not
af f or d t o be wi t hout one. Looki ng back i t seems par donabl e t o r ecor d
t hat we wer e t he f i r st t o empl oy a chemi st at bl ast
f ur naces- - somet hi ng our compet i t or s pr onounced ext r avagant .

The Lucy Fur nace became t he most pr of i t abl e br anch of our busi ness,
because we had al most t he ent i r e monopol y of sci ent i f i c management .
Havi ng di scover ed t he secr et , i t was not l ong ( 1872) bef or e we deci ded
t o er ect an addi t i onal f ur nace. Thi s was done wi t h gr eat economy as
compar ed wi t h our f i r st exper i ment . The mi nes whi ch had no r eput at i on
and t he pr oduct s of whi ch many f i r ms woul d not per mi t t o be used i n
t hei r bl ast f ur naces f ound a pur chaser i n us. Those mi nes whi ch wer e
abl e t o obt ai n an enor mous pr i ce f or t hei r pr oduct s, owi ng t o a
r eput at i on f or qual i t y, we qui et l y i gnor ed. A cur i ous i l l ust r at i on of
t hi s was t he cel ebr at ed Pi l ot Knob mi ne i n Mi ssour i . I t s pr oduct was,
so t o speak, under a cl oud. A smal l por t i on of i t onl y coul d be used,
i t was sai d, wi t hout obst r uct i ng t he f ur nace. Chemi st r y t ol d us t hat
i t was l ow i n phosphor us, but ver y hi gh i n si l i con. Ther e was no
bet t er or e and scar cel y any as r i ch, i f i t wer e pr oper l y f l uxed. We
t her ef or e bought heavi l y of t hi s and r ecei ved t he t hanks of t he
pr opr i et or s f or r ender i ng t hei r pr oper t y val uabl e.

I t i s har dl y bel i evabl e t hat f or sever al year s we wer e abl e t o di spose
of t he hi ghl y phosphor i c ci nder f r omt he puddl i ng f ur naces at a hi gher
pr i ce t han we had t o pay f or t he pur e ci nder f r omt he heat i ng f ur naces
of our compet i t or s- - a ci nder whi ch was r i cher i n i r on t han t he puddl ed
ci nder and much f r eer f r omphosphor us. Upon some occasi on a bl ast
f ur nace had at t empt ed t o smel t t he f l ue ci nder , and f r omi t s gr eat er
pur i t y t he f ur nace di d not wor k wel l wi t h a mi xt ur e i nt ended f or an
i mpur er ar t i cl e; hence f or year s i t was t hr own over t he banks of t he
r i ver at Pi t t sbur gh by our compet i t or s as wor t hl ess. I n some cases we
wer e even abl e t o exchange a poor ar t i cl e f or a good one and obt ai n a
bonus.

But i t i s st i l l mor e unbel i evabl e t hat a pr ej udi ce, equal l y unf ounded,
exi st ed agai nst put t i ng i nt o t he bl ast f ur naces t he r ol l - scal e f r om
t he mi l l s whi ch was pur e oxi de of i r on. Thi s r emi nds me of my dear
f r i end and f el l ow- Dunf er ml i ne t ownsman, Mr . Chi shol m, of Cl evel and. We
had many pr anks t oget her . One day, when I was vi si t i ng hi s wor ks at
Cl evel and, I saw men wheel i ng t hi s val uabl e r ol l - scal e i nt o t he yar d.
I asked Mr . Chi shol mwher e t hey wer e goi ng wi t h i t , and he sai d:

" To t hr ow i t over t he bank. Our manager s have al ways compl ai ned t hat
t hey had bad l uck when t hey at t empt ed t o r emel t i t i n t he bl ast
f ur nace. "

I sai d not hi ng, but upon my r et ur n t o Pi t t sbur gh I set about havi ng a
j oke at hi s expense. We had t hen a young man i n our ser vi ce named Du
Puy, whose f at her was known as t he i nvent or of a di r ect pr ocess i n
i r on- maki ng wi t h whi ch he was t hen exper i ment i ng i n Pi t t sbur gh. I
r ecommended our peopl e t o send Du Puy t o Cl evel and t o cont r act f or al l
Page 106 of 222
t he r ol l - scal e of my f r i end' s est abl i shment . He di d so, buyi ng i t f or
f i f t y cent s per t on and havi ng i t shi pped t o hi mdi r ect . Thi s
cont i nued f or some t i me. I expect ed al ways t o hear of t he j oke bei ng
di scover ed. The pr emat ur e deat h of Mr . Chi shol moccur r ed bef or e I
coul d appr i se hi mof i t . Hi s successor s soon, however , f ol l owed our
exampl e.

I had not f ai l ed t o not i ce t he gr owt h of t he Bessemer pr ocess. I f t hi s
pr oved successf ul I knew t hat i r on was dest i ned t o gi ve pl ace t o
st eel ; t hat t he I r on Age woul d pass away and t he St eel Age t ake i t s
pl ace. My f r i end, J ohn A. Wr i ght , pr esi dent of t he Fr eedomI r on Wor ks
at Lewi st on, Pennsyl vani a, had vi si t ed Engl and pur posel y t o
i nvest i gat e t he new pr ocess. He was one of our best and most
exper i enced manuf act ur er s, and hi s deci si on was so st r ongl y i n i t s
f avor t hat he i nduced hi s company t o er ect Bessemer wor ks. He was
qui t e r i ght , but j ust a l i t t l e i n advance of hi s t i me. The capi t al
r equi r ed was gr eat er t han he est i mat ed. Mor e t han t hi s, i t was not t o
be expect ed t hat a pr ocess whi ch was even t hen i n somewhat of an
exper i ment al st age i n Br i t ai n coul d be t r anspl ant ed t o t he new count r y
and oper at ed successf ul l y f r omt he st ar t . The exper i ment was cer t ai n
t o be l ong and cost l y, and f or t hi s my f r i end had not made suf f i ci ent
al l owance.

At a l at er dat e, when t he pr ocess had become est abl i shed i n Engl and,
capi t al i st s began t o er ect t he pr esent Pennsyl vani a St eel Wor ks at
Har r i sbur g. These al so had t o pass t hr ough an exper i ment al st age and
at a cr i t i cal moment woul d pr obabl y have been wr ecked but f or t he
t i mel y assi st ance of t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad Company. I t r equi r ed a
br oad and abl e man l i ke Pr esi dent Thomson, of t he Pennsyl vani a
Rai l r oad, t o r ecommend t o hi s boar d of di r ect or s t hat so l ar ge a sum
as si x hundr ed t housand dol l ar s shoul d be advanced t o a manuf act ur i ng
concer n on hi s r oad, t hat st eel r ai l s mi ght be secur ed f or t he l i ne.
The r esul t f ul l y j ust i f i ed hi s act i on.

The quest i on of a subst i t ut e f or i r on r ai l s upon t he Pennsyl vani a
Rai l r oad and ot her l eadi ng l i nes had become a ver y ser i ous one. Upon
cer t ai n cur ves at Pi t t sbur gh, on t he r oad connect i ng t he Pennsyl vani a
wi t h t he For t Wayne, I had seen new i r on r ai l s pl aced ever y si x weeks
or t wo mont hs. Bef or e t he Bessemer pr ocess was known I had cal l ed
Pr esi dent Thomson' s at t ent i on t o t he ef f or t s of Mr . Dodds i n Engl and,
who had car boni zed t he heads of i r on r ai l s wi t h good r esul t s. I went
t o Engl and and obt ai ned cont r ol of t he Dodds pat ent s and r ecommended
Pr esi dent Thomson t o appr opr i at e t went y t housand dol l ar s f or
exper i ment s at Pi t t sbur gh, whi ch he di d. We bui l t a f ur nace on our
gr ounds at t he upper mi l l and t r eat ed sever al hundr ed t ons of r ai l s
f or t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad Company and wi t h r emar kabl y good r esul t s
as compar ed wi t h i r on r ai l s. These wer e t he f i r st har d- headed r ai l s
used i n Amer i ca. We pl aced t hemon some of t he shar pest cur ves and
t hei r super i or ser vi ce f ar mor e t han compensat ed f or t he advance made
by Mr . Thomson. Had t he Bessemer pr ocess not been successf ul l y
devel oped, I ver i l y bel i eve t hat we shoul d ul t i mat el y have been abl e
t o i mpr ove t he Dodds pr ocess suf f i ci ent l y t o make i t s adopt i on
gener al . But t her e was not hi ng t o be compar ed wi t h t he sol i d st eel
ar t i cl e whi ch t he Bessemer pr ocess pr oduced.

Our f r i ends of t he Cambr i a I r on Company at J ohnst own, near
Pi t t sbur gh- - t he pr i nci pal manuf act ur er s of r ai l s i n Amer i ca- - deci ded
Page 107 of 222
t o er ect a Bessemer pl ant . I n Engl and I had seen i t demonst r at ed, at
l east t o my sat i sf act i on, t hat t he pr ocess coul d be made a gr and
success wi t hout undue expendi t ur e of capi t al or gr eat r i sk. Mr .
Wi l l i amCol eman, who was ever al i ve t o new met hods, ar r i ved at t he
same concl usi on. I t was agr eed we shoul d ent er upon t he manuf act ur e of
st eel r ai l s at Pi t t sbur gh. He became a par t ner and al so my dear f r i end
Mr . Davi d McCandl ess, who had so ki ndl y of f er ed ai d t o my mot her at my
f at her ' s deat h. The l at t er was not f or got t en. Mr . J ohn Scot t and Mr .
Davi d A. St ewar t , and ot her s j oi ned me; Mr . Edgar Thomson and Mr .
Thomas A. Scot t , pr esi dent and vi ce- pr esi dent of t he Pennsyl vani a
Rai l r oad, al so became st ockhol der s, anxi ous t o encour age t he
devel opment of st eel . The st eel - r ai l company was or gani zed J anuar y 1,
1873.

The quest i on of l ocat i on was t he f i r st t o engage our ser i ous
at t ent i on. I coul d not r econci l e mysel f t o any l ocat i on t hat was
pr oposed, and f i nal l y went t o Pi t t sbur gh t o consul t wi t h my par t ner s
about i t . The subj ect was const ant l y i n my mi nd and i n bed Sunday
mor ni ng t he si t e suddenl y appear ed t o me. I r ose and cal l ed t o my
br ot her :

" Tom, you and Mr . Col eman ar e r i ght about t he l ocat i on; r i ght at
Br addock' s, bet ween t he Pennsyl vani a, t he Bal t i mor e and Ohi o, and t he
r i ver , i s t he best si t uat i on i n Amer i ca; and l et ' s cal l t he wor ks
af t er our dear f r i end Edgar Thomson. Let us go over t o Mr . Col eman' s
and dr i ve out t o Br addock' s. "

We di d so t hat day, and t he next mor ni ng Mr . Col eman was at wor k
t r yi ng t o secur e t he pr oper t y. Mr . McKi nney, t he owner , had a hi gh
i dea of t he val ue of hi s f ar m. What we had expect ed t o pur chase f or
f i ve or si x hundr ed dol l ar s an acr e cost us t wo t housand. But si nce
t hen we have been compel l ed t o add t o our or i gi nal pur chase at a cost
of f i ve t housand dol l ar s per acr e.

Ther e, on t he ver y f i el d of Br addock' s def eat , we began t he er ect i on
of our st eel - r ai l mi l l s. I n excavat i ng f or t he f oundat i ons many r el i cs
of t he bat t l e wer e f ound- - bayonet s, swor ds, and t he l i ke. I t was t her e
t hat t he t hen pr ovost of Dunf er ml i ne, Si r Ar t hur Hal ket t , and hi s son
wer e sl ai n. How di d t hey come t o be t her e wi l l ver y nat ur al l y be
asked. I t must not be f or got t en t hat , i n t hose days, t he pr ovost s of
t he ci t i es of Br i t ai n wer e member s of t he ar i st ocr acy- - t he gr eat men
of t he di st r i ct who condescended t o enj oy t he honor of t he posi t i on
wi t hout per f or mi ng t he dut i es. No one i n t r ade was consi der ed good
enough f or t he pr ovost shi p. We have r emnant s of t hi s ar i st ocr at i c
not i on t hr oughout Br i t ai n t o- day. Ther e i s scar cel y any l i f e assur ance
or r ai l way company, or i n some cases manuf act ur i ng company but must
have at i t s head, t o enj oy t he honor s of t he pr esi dency, some t i t l ed
per son t ot al l y i gnor ant of t he dut i es of t he posi t i on. So i t was t hat
Si r Ar t hur Hal ket t , as a gent l eman, was Pr ovost of Dunf er ml i ne, but by
cal l i ng he f ol l owed t he pr of essi on of ar ms and was ki l l ed on t hi s
spot . I t was a coi nci dence t hat what had been t he f i el d of deat h t o
t wo nat i ve- bor n ci t i zens of Dunf er ml i ne shoul d be t ur ned i nt o an
i ndust r i al hi ve by t wo ot her s.

Anot her cur i ous f act has r ecent l y been di scover ed. Mr . J ohn Mor l ey' s
addr ess, i n 1904 on Founder ' s Day at t he Car negi e I nst i t ut e,
Pi t t sbur gh, r ef er r ed t o t he capt ur e of For t Duquesne by Gener al For bes
Page 108 of 222
and hi s wr i t i ng Pr i me Mi ni st er Pi t t t hat he had r echr i st ened i t
" Pi t t sbur gh" f or hi m. Thi s Gener al For bes was t hen Lai r d of
Pi t t encr i ef f and was bor n i n t he Gl en whi ch I pur chased i n 1902 and
pr esent ed t o Dunf er ml i ne f or a publ i c par k. So t hat t wo Dunf er ml i ne
men have been Lai r ds of Pi t t encr i ef f whose chi ef wor k was i n
Pi t t sbur gh. One named Pi t t sbur gh and t he ot her l abor ed f or i t s
devel opment .

I n nami ng t he st eel mi l l s as we di d t he desi r e was t o honor my f r i end
Edgar Thomson, but when I asked per mi ssi on t o use hi s name hi s r epl y
was si gni f i cant . He sai d t hat as f ar as Amer i can st eel r ai l s wer e
concer ned, he di d not f eel t hat he wi shed t o connect hi s name wi t h
t hem, f or t hey had pr oved t o be f ar f r omcr edi t abl e. Uncer t ai nt y was,
of cour se, i nsepar abl e f r omt he exper i ment al st age; but , when I
assur ed hi mt hat i t was now possi bl e t o make st eel r ai l s i n Amer i ca
as good i n ever y par t i cul ar as t he f or ei gn ar t i cl e, and t hat we
i nt ended t o obt ai n f or our r ai l s t he r eput at i on enj oyed by t he
Keyst one br i dges and t he Kl oman axl es, he consent ed.

He was ver y anxi ous t o have us pur chase l and upon t he Pennsyl vani a
Rai l r oad, as hi s f i r st t hought was al ways f or t hat company. Thi s woul d
have gi ven t he Pennsyl vani a a monopol y of our t r af f i c. When he vi si t ed
Pi t t sbur gh a f ew mont hs l at er and Mr . Rober t Pi t cai r n, my successor as
super i nt endent of t he Pi t t sbur gh Di vi si on of t he Pennsyl vani a, poi nt ed
out t o hi mt he si t uat i on of t he new wor ks at Br addock' s St at i on, whi ch
gave us not onl y a connect i on wi t h hi s own l i ne, but al so wi t h t he
r i val Bal t i mor e and Ohi o l i ne, and wi t h a r i val i n one r espect gr eat er
t han ei t her - - t he Ohi o Ri ver - - he sai d, wi t h a t wi nkl e of hi s eye t o
Rober t , as Rober t t ol d me:

" Andy shoul d have l ocat ed hi s wor ks a f ew mi l es f ar t her east . " But Mr .
Thomson knew t he good and suf f i ci ent r easons whi ch det er mi ned t he
sel ect i on of t he unr i val ed si t e.

The wor ks wer e wel l advanced when t he f i nanci al pani c of Sept ember ,
1873, came upon us. I t hen ent er ed upon t he most anxi ous per i od of my
busi ness l i f e. Al l was goi ng wel l when one mor ni ng i n our summer
cot t age, i n t he Al l egheny Mount ai ns at Cr esson, a t el egr amcame
announci ng t he f ai l ur e of J ay Cooke & Co. Al most ever y hour af t er
br ought news of some f r esh di sast er . House af t er house f ai l ed. The
quest i on ever y mor ni ng was whi ch woul d go next . Ever y f ai l ur e depl et ed
t he r esour ces of ot her concer ns. Loss af t er l oss ensued, unt i l a t ot al
par al ysi s of busi ness set i n. Ever y weak spot was di scover ed and
houses t hat ot her wi se woul d have been st r ong wer e bor ne down l ar gel y
because our count r y l acked a pr oper banki ng syst em.

We had not much r eason t o be anxi ous about our debt s. Not what we had
t o pay of our own debt s coul d gi ve us much t r oubl e, but r at her what we
mi ght have t o pay f or our debt or s. I t was not our bi l l s payabl e but
our bi l l s r ecei vabl e whi ch r equi r ed at t ent i on, f or we soon had t o
begi n meet i ng bot h. Even our own banks had t o beg us not t o dr aw upon
our bal ances. One i nci dent wi l l shed some l i ght upon t he cur r ency
si t uat i on. One of our pay- days was appr oachi ng. One hundr ed t housand
dol l ar s i n smal l not es wer e absol ut el y necessar y, and t o obt ai n t hese
we pai d a pr emi umof t went y- f our hundr ed dol l ar s i n New Yor k and had
t hemexpr essed t o Pi t t sbur gh. I t was i mpossi bl e t o bor r ow money, even
upon t he best col l at er al s; but by sel l i ng secur i t i es, whi ch I had i n
Page 109 of 222
r eser ve, consi der abl e sums wer e r eal i zed- - t he company under t aki ng t o
r epl ace t heml at er .

I t happened t hat some of t he r ai l way compani es whose l i nes cent er ed i n
Pi t t sbur gh owed us l ar ge sums f or mat er i al f ur ni shed- - t he For t Wayne
r oad bei ng t he l ar gest debt or . I r emember cal l i ng upon Mr . Thaw, t he
vi ce- pr esi dent of t he For t Wayne, and t el l i ng hi mwe must have our
money. He r epl i ed:

" You ought t o have your money, but we ar e not payi ng anyt hi ng t hese
days t hat i s not pr ot est abl e. "

" Ver y good, " I sai d, " your f r ei ght bi l l s ar e i n t hat cat egor y and we
shal l f ol l ow your excel l ent exampl e. Now I amgoi ng t o or der t hat we
do not pay you one dol l ar f or f r ei ght . "

" Wel l , i f you do t hat , " he sai d, " we wi l l st op your f r ei ght . "

I sai d we woul d r i sk t hat . The r ai l way company coul d not pr oceed t o
t hat ext r emi t y. And as a mat t er of f act we r an f or some t i me wi t hout
payi ng t he f r ei ght bi l l s. I t was si mpl y i mpossi bl e f or t he
manuf act ur er s of Pi t t sbur gh t o pay t hei r accr ui ng l i abi l i t i es when
t hei r cust omer s st opped payment . The banks wer e f or ced t o r enew
mat ur i ng paper . They behaved spl endi dl y t o us, as t hey al ways have
done, and we st eer ed saf el y t hr ough. But i n a cr i t i cal per i od l i ke
t hi s t her e was one t hought upper most wi t h me, t o gat her mor e capi t al
and keep i t i n our busi ness so t hat come what woul d we shoul d never
agai n be cal l ed upon t o endur e such ni ght s and days of r acki ng
anxi et y.

Speaki ng f or mysel f i n t hi s gr eat cr i si s, I was at f i r st t he most
exci t ed and anxi ous of t he par t ner s. I coul d scar cel y cont r ol mysel f .
But when I f i nal l y saw t he st r engt h of our f i nanci al posi t i on I became
phi l osophi cal l y cool and f ound mysel f qui t e pr epar ed, i f necessar y, t o
ent er t he di r ect or s' r ooms of t he var i ous banks wi t h whi ch we deal t ,
and l ay our ent i r e posi t i on bef or e t hei r boar ds. I f el t t hat t hi s
coul d r esul t i n not hi ng di scr edi t abl e t o us. No one i nt er est ed i n our
busi ness had l i ved ext r avagant l y. Our manner of l i f e had been t he ver y
r ever se of t hi s. No money had been wi t hdr awn f r omt he busi ness t o
bui l d cost l y homes, and, above al l , not one of us had made specul at i ve
vent ur es upon t he st ock exchange, or i nvest ed i n any ot her ent er pr i ses
t han t hose connect ed wi t h t he mai n busi ness. Nei t her had we exchanged
endor sement s wi t h ot her s. Besi des t hi s we coul d show a pr osper ous
busi ness t hat was maki ng money ever y year .

I was t hus enabl ed t o l augh away t he f ear s of my par t ner s, but none of
t hemr ej oi ced mor e t han I di d t hat t he necessi t y f or openi ng our l i ps
t o anybody about our f i nances di d not ar i se. Mr . Col eman, good f r i end
and t r ue, wi t h pl ent i f ul means and spl endi d cr edi t , di d not f ai l t o
vol unt eer t o gi ve us hi s endor sement s. I n t hi s we st ood al one; Wi l l i am
Col eman' s name, a t ower of st r engt h, was f or us onl y. How t he gr and
ol d man comes bef or e me as I wr i t e. Hi s pat r i ot i smknew no bounds.
Once when vi si t i ng hi s mi l l s, st opped f or t he Four t h of J ul y, as t hey
al ways wer e, he f ound a cor ps of men at wor k r epai r i ng t he boi l er s. He
cal l ed t he manager t o hi mand asked what t hi s meant . He or der ed al l
wor k suspended.

Page 110 of 222
" Wor k on t he Four t h of J ul y! " he excl ai med, " when t her e' s pl ent y of
Sundays f or r epai r s! " He was f ur i ous.

When t he cycl one of 1873 st r uck us we at once began t o r eef sai l i n
ever y quar t er . Ver y r el uct ant l y di d we deci de t hat t he const r uct i on of
t he new st eel wor ks must cease f or a t i me. Sever al pr omi nent per sons,
who had i nvest ed i n t hem, became unabl e t o meet t hei r payment s and I
was compel l ed t o t ake over t hei r i nt er est s, r epayi ng t he f ul l cost t o
al l . I n t hat way cont r ol of t he company came i nt o my hands.

The f i r st out bur st of t he st or mhad af f ect ed t he f i nanci al wor l d
connect ed wi t h t he St ock Exchange. I t was some t i me bef or e i t r eached
t he commer ci al and manuf act ur i ng wor l d. But t he si t uat i on gr ew wor se
and wor se and f i nal l y l ed t o t he cr ash whi ch i nvol ved my f r i ends i n
t he Texas Paci f i c ent er pr i se, of whi ch I have al r eady spoken. Thi s was
t o me t he sever est bl ow of al l . Peopl e coul d, wi t h di f f i cul t y, bel i eve
t hat occupyi ng such i nt i mat e r el at i ons as I di d wi t h t he Texas gr oup,
I coul d by any possi bi l i t y have kept mysel f cl ear of t hei r f i nanci al
obl i gat i ons.

Mr . Schoenber ger , pr esi dent of t he Exchange Bank at Pi t t sbur gh, wi t h
whi ch we conduct ed a l ar ge busi ness, was i n New Yor k when t he news
r eached hi mof t he embar r assment of Mr . Scot t and Mr . Thomson. He
hast ened t o Pi t t sbur gh, and at a meet i ng of hi s boar d next mor ni ng
sai d i t was si mpl y i mpossi bl e t hat I was not i nvol ved wi t h t hem. He
suggest ed t hat t he bank shoul d r ef use t o di scount mor e of our bi l l s
r ecei vabl e. He was al ar med t o f i nd t hat t he amount of t hese bear i ng
our endor sement and under di scount , was so l ar ge. Pr ompt act i on on my
par t was necessar y t o pr event ser i ous t r oubl e. I t ook t he f i r st t r ai n
f or Pi t t sbur gh, and was abl e t o announce t her e t o al l concer ned t hat ,
al t hough I was a shar ehol der i n t he Texas ent er pr i se, my i nt er est was
pai d f or . My name was not upon one dol l ar of t hei r paper or of any
ot her out st andi ng paper . I st ood cl ear and cl ean wi t hout a f i nanci al
obl i gat i on or pr oper t y whi ch I di d not own and whi ch was not f ul l y
pai d f or . My onl y obl i gat i ons wer e t hose connect ed wi t h our busi ness;
and I was pr epar ed t o pl edge f or i t ever y dol l ar I owned, and t o
endor se ever y obl i gat i on t he f i r mhad out st andi ng.

Up t o t hi s t i me I had t he r eput at i on i n busi ness of bei ng a bol d,
f ear l ess, and per haps a somewhat r eckl ess young man. Our oper at i ons
had been ext ensi ve, our gr owt h r api d and, al t hough st i l l young, I had
been handl i ng mi l l i ons. My own car eer was t hought by t he el der l y ones
of Pi t t sbur gh t o have been r at her mor e br i l l i ant t han subst ant i al . I
know of an exper i enced one who decl ar ed t hat i f " Andr ew Car negi e' s
br ai ns di d not car r y hi mt hr ough hi s l uck woul d. " But I t hi nk not hi ng
coul d be f ar t her f r omt he t r ut h t han t he est i mat e t hus suggest ed. I am
sur e t hat any compet ent j udge woul d be sur pr i sed t o f i nd how l i t t l e I
ever r i sked f or mysel f or my par t ner s. When I di d bi g t hi ngs, some
l ar ge cor por at i on l i ke t he Pennsyl vani a Rai l r oad Company was behi nd me
and t he r esponsi bl e par t y. My suppl y of Scot ch caut i on never has been
smal l ; but I was appar ent l y somet hi ng of a dar e- devi l now and t hen t o
t he manuf act ur i ng f at her s of Pi t t sbur gh. They wer e ol d and I was
young, whi ch made al l t he di f f er ence.

The f r i ght whi ch Pi t t sbur gh f i nanci al i nst i t ut i ons had wi t h r egar d t o
mysel f and our ent er pr i ses r api dl y gave pl ace t o per haps somewhat
unr easoni ng conf i dence. Our cr edi t became unassai l abl e, and t her eaf t er
Page 111 of 222
i n t i mes of f i nanci al pr essur e t he of f er i ngs of money t o us i ncr eased
r at her t han di mi ni shed, j ust as t he deposi t s of t he ol d Bank of
Pi t t sbur gh wer e never so gr eat as when t he deposi t s i n ot her banks r an
l ow. I t was t he onl y bank i n Amer i ca whi ch r edeemed i t s ci r cul at i on i n
gol d, di sdai ni ng t o t ake r ef uge under t he l aw and pay i t s obl i gat i ons
i n gr eenbacks. I t had f ew not es, and I doubt not t he deci si on pai d as
an adver t i sement .

I n addi t i on t o t he embar r assment of my f r i ends Mr . Scot t , Mr . Thomson,
and ot her s, t her e came upon us l at er an even sever er t r i al i n t he
di scover y t hat our par t ner , Mr . Andr ew Kl oman, had been l ed by a par t y
of specul at i ve peopl e i nt o t he Escanaba I r on Company. He was assur ed
t hat t he concer n was t o be made a st ock company, but bef or e t hi s was
done hi s col l eagues had succeeded i n cr eat i ng an enor mous amount of
l i abi l i t i es- - about seven hundr ed t housand dol l ar s. Ther e was not hi ng
but bankr upt cy as a means of r ei nst at i ng Mr . Kl oman.

Thi s gave us mor e of a shock t han al l t hat had pr eceded, because Mr .
Kl oman, bei ng a par t ner , had no r i ght t o i nvest i n anot her i r on
company, or i n any ot her company i nvol vi ng per sonal debt , wi t hout
i nf or mi ng hi s par t ner s. Ther e i s one i mper at i ve r ul e f or men i n
busi ness- - no secr et s f r ompar t ner s. Di sr egar d of t hi s r ul e i nvol ved
not onl y Mr . Kl oman hi msel f , but our company, i n per i l , comi ng, as i t
di d, at op of t he di f f i cul t i es of my Texas Paci f i c f r i ends wi t h whomI
had been i nt i mat el y associ at ed. The quest i on f or a t i me was whet her
t her e was anyt hi ng r eal l y sound. Wher e coul d we f i nd bedr ock upon
whi ch we coul d st and?

Had Mr . Kl oman been a busi ness man i t woul d have been i mpossi bl e ever
t o al l ow hi mt o be a par t ner wi t h us agai n af t er t hi s di scover y. He
was not such, however , but t he abl est of pr act i cal mechani cs wi t h some
busi ness abi l i t y. Mr . Kl oman' s ambi t i on had been t o be i n t he of f i ce,
wher e he was wor se t han usel ess, r at her t han i n t he mi l l devi si ng and
r unni ng new machi ner y, wher e he was wi t hout a peer . We had some
di f f i cul t y i n pl aci ng hi mi n hi s pr oper posi t i on and keepi ng hi m
t her e, whi ch may have l ed hi mt o seek an out l et el sewher e. He was
per haps f l at t er ed by men who wer e wel l known i n t he communi t y; and i n
t hi s case he was l ed by per sons who knew how t o r each hi mby ext ol l i ng
hi s wonder f ul busi ness abi l i t i es i n addi t i on t o hi s mechani cal
geni us- - abi l i t i es whi ch hi s own par t ner s, as al r eady suggest ed, but
f ai nt l y r ecogni zed.

Af t er Mr . Kl oman had passed t hr ough t he bankr upt cy cour t and was agai n
f r ee, we of f er ed hi ma t en per cent i nt er est i n our busi ness, char gi ng
f or i t onl y t he act ual capi t al i nvest ed, wi t h not hi ng what ever f or
good- wi l l . Thi s we wer e t o car r y f or hi munt i l t he pr of i t s pai d f or
i t . We wer e t o char ge i nt er est onl y on t he cost , and he was t o assume
no r esponsi bi l i t y. The of f er was accompani ed by t he condi t i on t hat he
shoul d not ent er i nt o any ot her busi ness or endor se f or ot her s, but
gi ve hi s whol e t i me and at t ent i on t o t he mechani cal and not t he
busi ness management of t he mi l l s. Coul d he have been per suaded t o
accept t hi s, he woul d have been a mul t i mi l l i onai r e; but hi s pr i de, and
mor e par t i cul ar l y t hat of hi s f ami l y, per haps, woul d not per mi t t hi s.
He woul d go i nt o busi ness on hi s own account , and, not wi t hst andi ng
t he most ur gent appeal s on my par t , and t hat of my col l eagues, he
per si st ed i n t he det er mi nat i on t o st ar t a new r i val concer n wi t h hi s
sons as busi ness manager s. The r esul t was f ai l ur e and pr emat ur e deat h.
Page 112 of 222

How f ool i sh we ar e not t o r ecogni ze what we ar e best f i t t ed f or and
can per f or m, not onl y wi t h ease but wi t h pl easur e, as mast er s of t he
cr af t . Mor e t han one abl e man I have known has per si st ed i n bl under i ng
i n an of f i ce when he had gr eat t al ent f or t he mi l l , and has wor n
hi msel f out , oppr essed wi t h car es and anxi et i es, hi s l i f e a cont i nual
r ound of mi ser y, and t he r esul t at l ast f ai l ur e. I never r egr et t ed
par t i ng wi t h any man so much as Mr . Kl oman. Hi s was a good hear t , a
gr eat mechani cal br ai n, and had he been l ef t t o hi msel f I bel i eve he
woul d have been gl ad t o r emai n wi t h us. Of f er s of capi t al f r om
ot her s- - of f er s whi ch f ai l ed when needed- - t ur ned hi s head, and t he
gr eat mechani c soon pr oved t he poor man of af f ai r s. [ 33]

[ Foot not e 33: Long af t er t he ci r cumst ances her e r eci t ed, Mr . I si dor
St r aus cal l ed upon Mr . Henr y Phi pps and asked hi mi f t wo st at ement s
whi ch had been publ i cl y made about Mr . Car negi e and hi s par t ner s i n
t he st eel company wer e t r ue. Mr . Phi pps r epl i ed t hey wer e not . Then
sai d Mr . St r aus:

" Mr . Phi pps, you owe i t t o your sel f and al so t o Mr . Car negi e t o say so
publ i cl y. "

Thi s Mr . Phi pps di d i n t he _New Yor k Her al d_, J anuar y 30, 1904, i n t he
f ol l owi ng handsome manner and wi t hout Mr . Car negi e' s knowl edge:

_Quest i on: _ " I n a r ecent publ i cat i on ment i on was made of Mr .
Car negi e' s not havi ng t r eat ed Mr . Mi l l er , Mr . Kl oman, and your sel f
pr oper l y dur i ng your ear l y par t ner shi p, and at i t s t er mi nat i on. Can
you t el l me anyt hi ng about t hi s?"

_Answer : _ " Mr . Mi l l er has al r eady spoken f or hi msel f i n t hi s mat t er ,
and I can say t hat t he t r eat ment r ecei ved f r omMr . Car negi e dur i ng our
par t ner shi p, so f ar as I was concer ned, was al ways f ai r and l i ber al .

" My associ at i on wi t h Mr . Kl oman i n busi ness goes back f or t y- t hr ee
year s. Ever yt hi ng i n connect i on wi t h Mr . Car negi e' s par t ner shi p wi t h
Mr . Kl oman was of a pl easant nat ur e.

" At a much mor e r ecent dat e, when t he f i r mof Car negi e, Kl oman and
Company was f or med, t he par t ner s wer e Andr ew Car negi e, Thomas M.
Car negi e, Andr ew Kl oman, and mysel f . The Car negi es hel d t he
cont r ol l i ng i nt er est .

" Af t er t he par t ner shi p agr eement was si gned, Mr . Kl oman sai d t o me
t hat t he Car negi es, owni ng t he l ar ger i nt er est , mi ght be t oo
ent er pr i si ng i n maki ng i mpr ovement s, whi ch mi ght l ead us i nt o ser i ous
t r oubl e; and he t hought t hat t hey shoul d consent t o an ar t i cl e i n t he
par t ner shi p agr eement r equi r i ng t he consent of t hr ee par t ner s t o make
ef f ect i ve any vot e f or i mpr ovement s. I t ol d hi mt hat we coul d not
exact what he asked, as t hei r l ar ger i nt er est assur ed t hemcont r ol ,
but I woul d speak t o t hem. When t he subj ect was br oached, Mr . Car negi e
pr ompt l y sai d t hat i f he coul d not car r y Mr . Kl oman or mysel f wi t h hi s
br ot her i n any i mpr ovement s he woul d not wi sh t hemmade. Ot her mat t er s
wer e ar r anged by cour t esy dur i ng our par t ner shi p i n t he same manner . "

_Quest i on: _ " What you have t ol d me suggest s t he quest i on, why di d Mr .
Kl oman l eave t he f i r m?"
Page 113 of 222

_Answer : _ " Dur i ng t he gr eat depr essi on whi ch f ol l owed t he pani c of
1873, Mr . Kl oman, t hr ough an unf or t unat e par t ner shi p i n t he Escanaba
Fur nace Company, l ost hi s means, and hi s i nt er est i n our f i r mhad t o
be di sposed of . We bought i t at book val ue at a t i me when
manuf act ur i ng pr oper t i es wer e sel l i ng at r ui nous pr i ces, of t en as l ow
as one t hi r d or one hal f t hei r cost .

" Af t er t he set t l ement had been made wi t h t he cr edi t or s of t he Escanaba
Company, Mr . Kl oman was of f er ed an i nt er est by Mr . Car negi e of
$100, 000 i n our f i r m, t o be pai d onl y f r omf ut ur e pr of i t s. Thi s Mr .
Kl oman decl i ned, as he di d not f eel l i ke t aki ng an i nt er est whi ch
f or mer l y had been much l ar ger . Mr . Car negi e gave hi m$40, 000 f r omt he
f i r mt o make a new st ar t . Thi s amount was i nvest ed i n a r i val concer n,
whi ch soon cl osed.

" I knew of no di sagr eement dur i ng t hi s ear l y per i od wi t h Mr . Car negi e,
and t hei r r el at i ons cont i nued pl easant as l ong as Mr . Kl oman l i ved.
Har mony al ways mar ked t hei r i nt er cour se, and t hey had t he ki ndl i est
f eel i ng one f or t he ot her . " ]



Page 114 of 222
CHAPTER XIV

PARTNERS, BOOKS, AND TRAVEL


When Mr . Kl oman had sever ed hi s connect i on wi t h us t her e was no
hesi t at i on i n pl aci ng Wi l l i amBor nt r aeger i n char ge of t he mi l l s. I t
has al ways been wi t h especi al pl easur e t hat I have poi nt ed t o t he
car eer of Wi l l i am. He came di r ect f r omGer many- - a young man who coul d
not speak Engl i sh, but bei ng di st ant l y connect ed wi t h Mr . Kl oman was
empl oyed i n t he mi l l s, at f i r st i n a mi nor capaci t y. He pr ompt l y
l ear ned Engl i sh and became a shi ppi ng cl er k at si x dol l ar s per week.
He had not a par t i cl e of mechani cal knowl edge, and yet such was hi s
unf l aggi ng zeal and i ndust r y f or t he i nt er est s of hi s empl oyer t hat he
soon became mar ked f or bei ng ever ywher e about t he mi l l , knowi ng
ever yt hi ng, and at t endi ng t o ever yt hi ng.

Wi l l i amwas a char act er . He never got over hi s Ger man i di oms and hi s
i nver t ed Engl i sh made hi s r emar ks ver y ef f ect i ve. Under hi s
super i nt endence t he Uni on I r on Mi l l s became a most pr of i t abl e br anch
of our busi ness. He had over wor ked hi msel f af t er a f ew year s'
appl i cat i on and we deci ded t o gi ve hi ma t r i p t o Eur ope. He came t o
New Yor k by way of Washi ngt on. When he cal l ed upon me i n New Yor k he
expr essed hi msel f as mor e anxi ous t o r et ur n t o Pi t t sbur gh t han t o
r evi si t Ger many. I n ascendi ng t he Washi ngt on Monument he had seen t he
Car negi e beams i n t he st ai r way and al so at ot her poi nt s i n publ i c
bui l di ngs, and as he expr essed i t :

" I t yust make me so br oud dat I want t o go r i ght back and see dat
ever yt i ng i s goi ng r i ght at de mi l l . "

Ear l y hour s i n t he mor ni ng and l at e i n t he dar k hour s at ni ght
Wi l l i amwas i n t he mi l l s. Hi s l i f e was t her e. He was among t he f i r st
of t he young men we admi t t ed t o par t ner shi p, and t he poor Ger man l ad
at hi s deat h was i n r ecei pt of an i ncome, as I r emember , of about
$50, 000 a year , ever y cent of whi ch was deser ved. St or i es about hi m
ar e many. At a di nner of our par t ner s t o cel ebr at e t he year ' s
busi ness, shor t speeches wer e i n or der f r omever y one. Wi l l i amsummed
up hi s speech t hus:

" What we haf t o do, shent l emens, i s t o get br i ces up and cost s down
and ef er y man _st and on hi s own bot t om_. " Ther e was l oud, pr ol onged,
and r epeat ed l aught er .

Capt ai n Evans ( " Fi ght i ng Bob" ) was at one t i me gover nment i nspect or at
our mi l l s. He was a sever e one. Wi l l i amwas sor el y t r oubl ed at t i mes
and f i nal l y of f ended t he Capt ai n, who compl ai ned of hi s behavi or . We
t r i ed t o get Wi l l i amt o r eal i ze t he i mpor t ance of pl easi ng a
gover nment of f i ci al . Wi l l i am' s r epl y was:

" But he gomes i n and smokes my ci gar s" ( bol d Capt ai n! Wi l l i amr evel ed
i n one- cent Wheel i ng t obi es) " and t hen he goes and cont ems my i r on.
What does you t i nks of a man l i ke dat ? But I apol ogi ze and dr eat hi m
r i ght t o- mor r ow. "

The Capt ai n was assur ed Wi l l i amhad agr eed t o make due amends, but he
Page 115 of 222
l aughi ngl y t ol d us af t er war d t hat Wi l l i am' s apol ogy was:

" Vel l , Capt ai n, I hope you vas al l r i ght di s mor ni ng. I haf not i ng
agai nst you, Capt ai n, " hol di ng out hi s hand, whi ch t he Capt ai n f i nal l y
t ook and al l was wel l .

Wi l l i amonce sol d t o our nei ghbor , t he pi oneer st eel - maker of
Pi t t sbur gh, J ames Par k, a l ar ge l ot of ol d r ai l s whi ch we coul d not
use. Mr . Par k f ound t hemof a ver y bad qual i t y. He made cl ai ms f or
damages and Wi l l i amwas t ol d t hat he must go wi t h Mr . Phi pps t o meet
Mr . Par k and set t l e. Mr . Phi pps went i nt o Mr . Par k' s of f i ce, whi l e
Wi l l i amt ook a l ook ar ound t he wor ks i n sear ch of t he condemned
mat er i al , whi ch was nowher e t o be seen. Wel l di d Wi l l i amknow wher e t o
l ook. He f i nal l y ent er ed t he of f i ce, and bef or e Mr . Par k had t i me t o
say a wor d Wi l l i ambegan:

" Mr . Par k, I vas gl ad t o hear dat de ol d r ai l s what I sel l you don' t
sui t f or st eel . I wi l l buy demal l f r omyou back, f i ve dol l ar s t on
pr of i t f or you. " Wel l di d Wi l l i amknow t hat t hey had al l been used.
Mr . Par k was non- pl ussed, and t he af f ai r ended. Wi l l i amhad t r i umphed.

Upon one of my vi si t s t o Pi t t sbur gh Wi l l i amt ol d me he had somet hi ng
" par t i cul ar " he wi shed t o t el l me- - somet hi ng he coul dn' t t el l any one
el se. Thi s was upon hi s r et ur n f r omt he t r i p t o Ger many. Ther e he had
been asked t o vi si t f or a f ew days a f or mer school f el l ow, who had
r i sen t o be a pr of essor :

" Wel l , Mr . Car negi e, hi s si st er who kept hi s house was ver y ki nd t o
me, and ven I got t o Hambur g I t ought I sent her yust a l i t t l e
pr esent . She wr i t e me a l et t er , t hen I wr i t e her a l et t er . She wr i t e
me and I wr i t e her , and den I ask her woul d she mar r y me. She was ver y
educat ed, but she wr i t e yes. Den I ask her t o come t o New Yor k, and I
meet her der e, but , Mr . Car negi e, dempeopl e don' t know not i ng about
busi ness and de mi l l s. Her br uder wr i t e me dey want me t o go der e
agai n and mar r y her i n Chai r many, and I can go away not agai n f r omde
mi l l s. I t ought I yust ask you aboud i t . "

" Of cour se you can go agai n. Qui t e r i ght , Wi l l i am, you shoul d go. I
t hi nk t he bet t er of her peopl e f or f eel i ng so. You go over at once and
br i ng her home. I ' l l ar r ange i t . " Then, when par t i ng, I sai d:
" Wi l l i am, I suppose your sweet hear t i s a beaut i f ul , t al l ,
' peaches- and- cr eam' ki nd of Ger man young l ady. "

" Vel l , Mr . Car negi e, she i s a l eet l e st out . I f _I had t he r ol l i ng of
her I gi ve her yust one mor e pass_. " Al l Wi l l i am' s i l l ust r at i ons wer e
f ounded on mi l l pr act i ce. [ I f i nd mysel f bur st i ng i nt o f i t s of
l aught er t hi s mor ni ng ( J une, 1912) as I r e- r ead t hi s st or y. But I di d
t hi s al so when r eadi ng t hat " Ever y man must st and on hi s own bot t om. " ]

Mr . Phi pps had been head of t he commer ci al depar t ment of t he mi l l s,
but when our busi ness was enl ar ged, he was r equi r ed f or t he st eel
busi ness. Anot her young man, Wi l l i amL. Abbot t , t ook hi s pl ace. Mr .
Abbot t ' s hi st or y i s somewhat aki n t o Bor nt r aeger ' s. He came t o us as a
cl er k upon a smal l sal ar y and was soon assi gned t o t he f r ont i n char ge
of t he busi ness of t he i r on mi l l s. He was no l ess successf ul t han was
Wi l l i am. He became a par t ner wi t h an i nt er est equal t o Wi l l i am' s, and
f i nal l y was pr omot ed t o t he pr esi dency of t he company.
Page 116 of 222

Mr . Cur r y had di st i ngui shed hi msel f by t hi s t i me i n hi s management of
t he Lucy Fur naces, and he t ook hi s pl ace among t he par t ner s, shar i ng
equal l y wi t h t he ot her s. Ther e i s no way of maki ng a busi ness
successf ul t hat can vi e wi t h t he pol i cy of pr omot i ng t hose who r ender
except i onal ser vi ce. We f i nal l y conver t ed t he f i r mof Car negi e,
McCandl ess & Co. i nt o t he Edgar Thomson St eel Company, and i ncl uded my
br ot her and Mr . Phi pps, bot h of whomhad decl i ned at f i r st t o go i nt o
t he st eel busi ness wi t h t hei r t oo ent er pr i si ng seni or . But when I
showed t hemt he ear ni ngs f or t he f i r st year and t ol d t hemi f t hey di d
not get i nt o st eel t hey woul d f i nd t hemsel ves i n t he wr ong boat , t hey
bot h r econsi der ed and came wi t h us. I t was f or t unat e f or t hemas f or
us.

My exper i ence has been t hat no par t ner shi p of new men gat her ed
pr omi scuousl y f r omvar i ous f i el ds can pr ove a good wor ki ng
or gani zat i on as at f i r st const i t ut ed. Changes ar e r equi r ed. Our Edgar
Thomson St eel Company was no except i on t o t hi s r ul e. Even bef or e we
began t o make r ai l s, Mr . Col eman became di ssat i sf i ed wi t h t he
management of a r ai l way of f i ci al who had come t o us wi t h a gr eat and
deser ved r eput at i on f or met hod and abi l i t y. I had, t her ef or e, t o t ake
over Mr . Col eman' s i nt er est . I t was not l ong, however , bef or e we f ound
t hat hi s j udgment was cor r ect . The new man had been a r ai l way audi t or ,
and was excel l ent i n account s, but i t was unj ust t o expect hi m, or any
ot her of f i ce man, t o be abl e t o st ep i nt o manuf act ur i ng and be
successf ul f r omt he st ar t . He had nei t her t he knowl edge nor t he
t r ai ni ng f or t hi s new wor k. Thi s does not mean t hat he was not a
spl endi d audi t or . I t was our own bl under i n expect i ng t he i mpossi bl e.

The mi l l s wer e at l ast about r eady t o begi n[ 34] and an or gani zat i on
t he audi t or pr oposed was l ai d bef or e me f or appr oval . I f ound he had
di vi ded t he wor ks i nt o t wo depar t ment s and had gi ven cont r ol of one t o
Mr . St evenson, a Scot sman who af t er war ds made a f i ne r ecor d as a
manuf act ur er , and cont r ol of t he ot her t o a Mr . J ones. Not hi ng, I am
cer t ai n, ever af f ect ed t he success of t he st eel company mor e t han t he
deci si on whi ch I gave upon t hat pr oposal . Upon no account coul d t wo
men be i n t he same wor ks wi t h equal aut hor i t y. An ar my wi t h t wo
commander s- i n- chi ef , a shi p wi t h t wo capt ai ns, coul d not f ar e mor e
di sast r ousl y t han a manuf act ur i ng concer n wi t h t wo men i n command upon
t he same gr ound, even t hough i n t wo di f f er ent depar t ment s. I sai d:

" Thi s wi l l not do. I do not know Mr . St evenson, nor do I know Mr .
J ones, but one or t he ot her must be made capt ai n and he al one must
r epor t t o you. "

[ Foot not e 34: The st eel - r ai l mi l l s wer e r eady and r ai l s wer e r ol l ed i n
1874. ]

The deci si on f el l upon Mr . J ones and i n t hi s way we obt ai ned " The
Capt ai n, " who af t er war d made hi s name f amous wher ever t he manuf act ur e
of Bessemer st eel i s known.

The Capt ai n was t hen qui t e young, spar e and act i ve, bear i ng t r aces of
hi s Wel sh descent even i n hi s st at ur e, f or he was qui t e shor t . He came
t o us as a t wo- dol l ar - a- day mechani c f r omt he nei ghbor i ng wor ks at
J ohnst own. We soon saw t hat he was a char act er . Ever y movement t ol d
i t . He had vol unt eer ed as a pr i vat e dur i ng t he Ci vi l War and car r i ed
Page 117 of 222
hi msel f so f i nel y t hat he became capt ai n of a company whi ch was never
known t o f l i nch. Much of t he success of t he Edgar Thomson Wor ks
bel ongs t o t hi s man.

I n l at er year s he decl i ned an i nt er est i n t he f i r mwhi ch woul d have
made hi ma mi l l i onai r e. I t ol d hi mone day t hat some of t he young men
who had been gi ven an i nt er est wer e now maki ng much mor e t han he was
and we had vot ed t o make hi ma par t ner . Thi s ent ai l ed no f i nanci al
r esponsi bi l i t y, as we al ways pr ovi ded t hat t he cost of t he i nt er est
gi ven was payabl e onl y out of pr of i t s.

" No, " he sai d, " I don' t want t o have my t hought s r unni ng on busi ness.
I have enough t r oubl e l ooki ng af t er t hese wor ks. J ust gi ve me a h- - l
of a sal ar y i f you t hi nk I ' mwor t h i t . "

" Al l r i ght , Capt ai n, t he sal ar y of t he Pr esi dent of t he Uni t ed St at es
i s your s. "

" That ' s t he t al k, " sai d t he l i t t l e Wel shman. [ 35]

[ Foot not e 35: The st or y i s t ol d t hat when Mr . Car negi e was sel ect i ng
hi s younger par t ner s he one day sent f or a young Scot sman, Al exander
R. Peacock, and asked hi mr at her abr upt l y:

" Peacock, what woul d you gi ve t o be made a mi l l i onai r e?"

" A l i ber al di scount f or cash, si r , " was t he answer .

He was a par t ner owni ng a t wo per cent i nt er est when t he Car negi e
St eel Company was mer ged i nt o t he Uni t ed St at es St eel Cor por at i on. ]

Our compet i t or s i n st eel wer e at f i r st di sposed t o i gnor e us. Knowi ng
t he di f f i cul t i es t hey had i n st ar t i ng t hei r own st eel wor ks, t hey
coul d not bel i eve we woul d be r eady t o del i ver r ai l s f or anot her year
and decl i ned t o r ecogni ze us as compet i t or s. The pr i ce of st eel r ai l s
when we began was about sevent y dol l ar s per t on. We sent our agent
t hr ough t he count r y wi t h i nst r uct i ons t o t ake or der s at t he best
pr i ces he coul d obt ai n; and bef or e our compet i t or s knew i t , we had
obt ai ned a l ar ge number - - qui t e suf f i ci ent t o j ust i f y us i n maki ng a
st ar t .

So per f ect was t he machi ner y, so admi r abl e t he pl ans, so ski l l f ul wer e
t he men sel ect ed by Capt ai n J ones, and so gr eat a manager was he
hi msel f , t hat our success was phenomenal . I t hi nk I pl ace a uni que
st at ement on r ecor d when I say t hat t he r esul t of t he f i r st mont h' s
oper at i ons l ef t a mar gi n of pr of i t of $11, 000. I t i s al so r emar kabl e
t hat so per f ect was our syst emof account s t hat we knew t he exact
amount of t he pr of i t . We had l ear ned f r omexper i ence i n our i r on wor ks
what exact account i ng meant . Ther e i s not hi ng mor e pr of i t abl e t han
cl er ks t o check up each t r ansf er of mat er i al f r omone depar t ment t o
anot her i n pr ocess of manuf act ur e.

The new vent ur e i n st eel havi ng st ar t ed of f so pr omi si ngl y, I began t o
t hi nk of t aki ng a hol i day, and my l ong- cher i shed pur pose of goi ng
ar ound t he wor l d came t o t he f r ont . Mr . J . W. Vandevor t ( " Vandy" ) and I
accor di ngl y set out i n t he aut umn of 1878. I t ook wi t h me sever al pads
sui t abl e f or penci l i ng and began t o make a f ew not es day by day, not
Page 118 of 222
wi t h any i nt ent i on of publ i shi ng a book; but t hi nki ng, per haps, I
mi ght pr i nt a f ew copi es of my not es f or pr i vat e ci r cul at i on. The
sensat i on whi ch one has when he f i r st sees hi s r emar ks i n t he f or mof
a pr i nt ed book i s gr eat . When t he package came f r omt he pr i nt er s I
r e- r ead t he book t r yi ng t o deci de whet her i t was wor t h whi l e t o send
copi es t o my f r i ends. I came t o t he concl usi on t hat upon t he whol e i t
was best t o do so and awai t t he ver di ct .

The wr i t er of a book desi gned f or hi s f r i ends has no r eason t o
ant i ci pat e an unki nd r ecept i on, but t her e i s al ways some danger of i t s
bei ng damned wi t h f ai nt pr ai se. The r esponses i n my case, however ,
exceeded expect at i ons, and wer e of such a char act er as t o sat i sf y me
t hat t he wr i t er s r eal l y had enj oyed t he book, or meant at l east a par t
of what t hey sai d about i t . Ever y aut hor i s pr one t o bel i eve sweet
wor ds. Among t he f i r st t hat came wer e i n a l et t er f r omAnt hony Dr exel ,
Phi l adel phi a' s gr eat banker , compl ai ni ng t hat I had r obbed hi mof
sever al hour s of sl eep. Havi ng begun t he book he coul d not l ay i t down
and r et i r ed at t wo o' cl ock i n t he mor ni ng af t er f i ni shi ng. Sever al
si mi l ar l et t er s wer e r ecei ved. I r emember Mr . Hunt i ngt on, pr esi dent of
t he Cent r al Paci f i c Rai l way, meet i ng me one mor ni ng and sayi ng he was
goi ng t o pay me a gr eat compl i ment .

" What i s i t ?" Tasked.

" Oh, I r ead your book f r omend t o end. "

" Wel l , " I sai d, " t hat i s not such a gr eat compl i ment . Ot her s of our
mut ual f r i ends have done t hat . "

" Oh, yes, but pr obabl y none of your f r i ends ar e l i ke me. I have not
r ead a book f or year s except my l edger and I di d not i nt end t o r ead
your s, but when I began i t I coul d not l ay i t down. My l edger i s t he
onl y book I have gone t hr ough f or f i ve year s. "

I was not di sposed t o cr edi t al l t hat my f r i ends sai d, but ot her s who
had obt ai ned t he book f r omt hemwer e pl eased wi t h i t and I l i ved f or
some mont hs under i nt oxi cat i ng, but I t r ust not per i l ousl y per ni ci ous,
f l at t er y. Sever al edi t i ons of t he book wer e pr i nt ed t o meet t he
r equest f or copi es. Some not i ces of i t and ext r act s got i nt o t he
paper s, and f i nal l y Char l es Scr i bner ' s Sons asked t o publ i sh i t f or
t he mar ket . So " Round t he Wor l d" [ 36] came bef or e t he publ i c and I was
at l ast " an aut hor . "

[ Foot not e 36: _Round t he Wor l d_, by Andr ew Car negi e. New Yor k and
London, 1884. ]

A new hor i zon was opened up t o me by t hi s voyage. I t qui t e changed my
i nt el l ect ual out l ook. Spencer and Dar wi n wer e t hen hi gh i n t he zeni t h,
and I had become deepl y i nt er est ed i n t hei r wor k. I began t o vi ew t he
var i ous phases of human l i f e f r omt he st andpoi nt of t he evol ut i oni st .
I n Chi na I r ead Conf uci us; i n I ndi a, Buddha and t he sacr ed books of
t he Hi ndoos; among t he Par sees, i n Bombay, I st udi ed Zor oast er . The
r esul t of my j our ney was t o br i ng a cer t ai n ment al peace. Wher e t her e
had been chaos t her e was now or der . My mi nd was at r est . I had a
phi l osophy at l ast . The wor ds of Chr i st " The Ki ngdomof Heaven i s
wi t hi n you, " had a new meani ng f or me. Not i n t he past or i n t he
f ut ur e, but now and her e i s Heaven wi t hi n us. Al l our dut i es l i e i n
Page 119 of 222
t hi s wor l d and i n t he pr esent , and t r yi ng i mpat i ent l y t o peer i nt o
t hat whi ch l i es beyond i s as vai n as f r ui t l ess.

Al l t he r emnant s of t heol ogy i n whi ch I had been bor n and br ed, al l
t he i mpr essi ons t hat Swedenbor g had made upon me, now ceased t o
i nf l uence me or t o occupy my t hought s. I f ound t hat no nat i on had al l
t he t r ut h i n t he r evel at i on i t r egar ds as di vi ne, and no t r i be i s so
l ow as t o be l ef t wi t hout some t r ut h; t hat ever y peopl e has had i t s
gr eat t eacher ; Buddha f or one; Conf uci us f or anot her ; Zor oast er f or a
t hi r d; Chr i st f or a f our t h. The t eachi ngs of al l t hese I f ound
et hi cal l y aki n so t hat I coul d say wi t h Mat t hew Ar nol d, one I was so
pr oud t o cal l f r i end:

" Chi l dr en of men! t he unseen Power , whose eye
For ever dot h accompany manki nd
Hat h l ooked on no r el i gi on scor nf ul l y
That men di d ever f i nd.

Whi ch has not t aught weak wi l l s how much t hey can?
Whi ch has not f al l ' n i n t he dr y hear t l i ke r ai n?
Whi ch has not cr i ed t o sunk, sel f - wear y man,
_Thou must be bor n agai n_. "

" The Li ght of Asi a, " by Edwi n Ar nol d, came out at t hi s t i me and gave
me gr eat er del i ght t han any si mi l ar poet i cal wor k I had r ecent l y r ead.
I had j ust been i n I ndi a and t he book t ook me t her e agai n. My
appr eci at i on of i t r eached t he aut hor ' s ear s and l at er havi ng made hi s
acquai nt ance i n London, he pr esent ed me wi t h t he or i gi nal manuscr i pt
of t he book. I t i s one of my most pr eci ous t r easur es. Ever y per son who
can, even at a sacr i f i ce, make t he voyage ar ound t he wor l d shoul d do
so. Al l ot her t r avel compar ed t o i t seems i ncompl et e, gi ves us mer el y
vague i mpr essi ons of par t s of t he whol e. When t he ci r cl e has been
compl et ed, you f eel on your r et ur n t hat you have seen ( of cour se onl y
i n t he mass) al l t her e i s t o be seen. The par t s f i t i nt o one
symmet r i cal whol e and you see humani t y wher ever i t i s pl aced wor ki ng
out a dest i ny t endi ng t o one def i ni t e end.

The wor l d t r avel er who gi ves car ef ul st udy t o t he bi bl es of t he
var i ous r el i gi ons of t he East wi l l be wel l r epai d. The concl usi on
r eached wi l l be t hat t he i nhabi t ant s of each count r y consi der t hei r
own r el i gi on t he best of al l . They r ej oi ce t hat t hei r l ot has been
cast wher e i t i s, and ar e di sposed t o pi t y t he l ess f or t unat e
condemned t o l i ve beyond t hei r sacr ed l i mi t s. The masses of al l
nat i ons ar e usual l y happy, each mass cer t ai n t hat :

" East or West
Home i s best . "

Two i l l ust r at i ons of t hi s f r omour " Round t he Wor l d" t r i p may be
not ed:

Vi si t i ng t he t api oca wor ker s i n t he woods near Si ngapor e, we
f ound t hembusi l y engaged, t he chi l dr en r unni ng about st ar k
naked, t he par ent s cl ot hed i n t he usual l oose r ags. Our
par t y at t r act ed gr eat at t ent i on. We asked our gui de t o t el l
t he peopl e t hat we came f r oma count r y wher e t he wat er i n
such a pond as t hat bef or e us woul d become sol i d at t hi s
Page 120 of 222
season of t he year and we coul d wal k upon i t and t hat
somet i mes i t woul d be so har d hor ses and wagons cr ossed wi de
r i ver s on t he i ce. They wonder ed and asked why we di dn' t
come and l i ve among t hem. They r eal l y wer e ver y happy.

Agai n:

On t he way t o t he Nor t h Cape we vi si t ed a r ei ndeer camp of
t he Lapl ander s. A sai l or f r omt he shi p was deput ed t o go
wi t h t he par t y. I wal ked homewar d wi t h hi m, and as we
appr oached t he f i or d l ooki ng down and over t o t he opposi t e
shor e we saw a f ew st r aggl i ng hut s and one t wo- st or y house
under const r uct i on. What i s t hat new bui l di ng f or ? we asked.

" That i s t o be t he home of a man bor n i n Tr omso who has made
a gr eat deal of money and has now come back t o spend hi s
days t her e. He i s ver y r i ch. "

" You t ol d me you had t r avel l ed al l over t he wor l d. You have
seen London, New Yor k, Cal cut t a, Mel bour ne, and ot her
pl aces. I f you made a f or t une l i ke t hat man what pl ace woul d
you make your home i n ol d age?" Hi s eye gl i st ened as he
sai d:

" Ah, t her e' s no pl ace l i ke Tr omso. " Thi s i s i n t he ar ct i c
ci r cl e, si x mont hs of ni ght , but he had been bor n i n Tr omso.
Home, sweet , sweet home!

Among t he condi t i ons of l i f e or t he l aws of nat ur e, some of whi ch seem
t o us f aul t y, some appar ent l y unj ust and mer ci l ess, t her e ar e many
t hat amaze us by t hei r beaut y and sweet ness. Love of home, r egar dl ess
of i t s char act er or l ocat i on, cer t ai nl y i s one of t hese. And what a
pl easur e i t i s t o f i nd t hat , i nst ead of t he Supr eme Bei ng conf i ni ng
r evel at i on t o one r ace or nat i on, ever y r ace has t he message best
adapt ed f or i t i n i t s pr esent st age of devel opment . The Unknown Power
has negl ect ed none.




Page 121 of 222
CHAPTER XV

COACHING TRIP AND MARRIAGE


The Fr eedomof my nat i ve t own ( Dunf er ml i ne) was conf er r ed upon me J ul y
12, 1877, t he f i r st Fr eedomand t he gr eat est honor I ever r ecei ved. I
was over whel med. Onl y t wo si gnat ur es upon t he r ol l came bet ween mi ne
and Si r Wal t er Scot t ' s, who had been made a Bur gess. My par ent s had
seen hi mone day sket chi ng Dunf er ml i ne Abbey and of t en t ol d me about
hi s appear ance. My speech i n r epl y t o t he Fr eedomwas t he subj ect of
much concer n. I spoke t o my Uncl e Bai l i e Mor r i son, t el l i ng hi mI j ust
f el t l i ke sayi ng so and so, as t hi s r eal l y was i n my hear t . He was an
or at or hi msel f and he spoke wor ds of wi sdomt o me t hen.

" J ust say t hat , Andr a; not hi ng l i ke sayi ng j ust what you r eal l y f eel . "

I t was a l esson i n publ i c speaki ng whi ch I t ook t o hear t . Ther e i s one
r ul e I mi ght suggest f or yout hf ul or at or s. When you st and up bef or e an
audi ence r ef l ect t hat t her e ar e bef or e you onl y men and women. You
shoul d speak t o t hemas you speak t o ot her men and women i n dai l y
i nt er cour se. I f you ar e not t r yi ng t o be somet hi ng di f f er ent f r om
your sel f , t her e i s no mor e occasi on f or embar r assment t han i f you wer e
t al ki ng i n your of f i ce t o a par t y of your own peopl e- - none what ever .
I t i s t r yi ng t o be ot her t han one' s sel f t hat unmans one. Be your own
nat ur al sel f and go ahead. I once asked Col onel I nger sol l , t he most
ef f ect i ve publ i c speaker I ever hear d, t o what he at t r i but ed hi s
power . " Avoi d el ocut i oni st s l i ke snakes, " he sai d, " and be your sel f . "

[ I l l ust r at i on: AN AMERI CAN FOUR- I N- HAND I N BRI TAI N]

I spoke agai n at Dunf er ml i ne, J ul y 27, 1881, when my mot her l ai d t he
f oundat i on st one t her e of t he f i r st f r ee l i br ar y bui l di ng I ever gave.
My f at her was one of f i ve weaver s who f ounded t he ear l i est l i br ar y i n
t he t own by openi ng t hei r own books t o t hei r nei ghbor s. Dunf er ml i ne
named t he bui l di ng I gave " Car negi e Li br ar y. " The ar chi t ect asked f or
my coat of ar ms. I i nf or med hi mI had none, but suggest ed t hat above
t he door t her e mi ght be car ved a r i si ng sun sheddi ng i t s r ays wi t h t he
mot t o: " Let t her e be l i ght . " Thi s he adopt ed.

We had come up t o Dunf er ml i ne wi t h a coachi ng par t y. When wal ki ng
t hr ough Engl and i n t he year 1867 wi t h Geor ge Lauder and Har r y Phi pps I
had f or med t he i dea of coachi ng f r omBr i ght on t o I nver ness wi t h a
par t y of my dear est f r i ends. The t i me had come f or t he l ong- pr omi sed
t r i p, and i n t he spr i ng of 1881 we sai l ed f r omNew Yor k, a par t y of
el even, t o enj oy one of t he happi est excur si ons of my l i f e. I t was one
of t he hol i days f r ombusi ness t hat kept me young and happy- - wor t h al l
t he medi ci ne i n t he wor l d.

Al l t he not es I made of t he coachi ng t r i p wer e a f ew l i nes a day i n
t wopenny pass- books bought bef or e we st ar t ed. As wi t h " Round t he
Wor l d, " I t hought t hat I mi ght some day wr i t e a magazi ne ar t i cl e, or
gi ve some account of my excur si on f or t hose who accompani ed me; but
one wi nt r y day I deci ded t hat i t was scar cel y wor t h whi l e t o go down
t o t he New Yor k of f i ce, t hr ee mi l es di st ant , and t he quest i on was how
I shoul d occupy t he spar e t i me. I t hought of t he coachi ng t r i p, and
Page 122 of 222
deci ded t o wr i t e a f ew l i nes j ust t o see how I shoul d get on. The
nar r at i ve f l owed f r eel y, and bef or e t he day was over I had wr i t t en
bet ween t hr ee and f our t housand wor ds. I t ook up t he pl easi ng t ask
ever y st or my day when i t was unnecessar y f or me t o vi si t t he of f i ce,
and i n exact l y t went y si t t i ngs I had f i ni shed a book. I handed t he
not es t o Scr i bner ' s peopl e and asked t hemt o pr i nt a f ew hundr ed
copi es f or pr i vat e ci r cul at i on. The vol ume pl eased my f r i ends, as
" Round t he Wor l d" had done. Mr . Champl i n one day t ol d me t hat Mr .
Scr i bner had r ead t he book and woul d l i ke ver y much t o publ i sh i t f or
gener al ci r cul at i on upon hi s own account , subj ect t o a r oyal t y.

The vai n aut hor i s easi l y per suaded t hat what he has done i s
mer i t or i ous, and I consent ed. [ Ever y year t hi s st i l l net s me a smal l
sumi n r oyal t i es. And t hi r t y year s have gone by, 1912. ] The l et t er s I
r ecei ved upon t he publ i cat i on[ 37] of i t wer e so numer ous and some so
gushi ng t hat my peopl e saved t hemand t hey ar e now bound t oget her i n
scr apbook f or m, t o whi ch addi t i ons ar e made f r omt i me t o t i me. The
number of i nval i ds who have been pl eased t o wr i t e me, st at i ng t hat t he
book had br i ght ened t hei r l i ves, has been gr at i f yi ng. I t s r ecept i on i n
Br i t ai n was cor di al ; t he " Spect at or " gave i t a f avor abl e r evi ew. But
any mer i t t hat t he book has comes, I amsur e, f r omt he t ot al absence
of ef f or t on my par t t o make an i mpr essi on. I wr ot e f or my f r i ends;
and what one does easi l y, one does wel l . I r evel ed i n t he wr i t i ng of
t he book, as I had i n t he j our ney i t sel f .

[ Foot not e 37: Publ i shed pr i vat el y i n 1882 under t he t i t l e _Our
Coachi ng Tr i p, Br i ght on t o I nver ness_. Publ i shed by t he Scr i bner s i n
1883 under t he t i t l e of _An Amer i can Four - i n- Hand i n Br i t ai n_. ]

The year 1886 ended i n deep gl oomf or me. My l i f e as a happy car el ess
young man, wi t h ever y want l ooked af t er , was over . I was l ef t al one i n
t he wor l d. My mot her and br ot her passed away i n November , wi t hi n a f ew
days of each ot her , whi l e I l ay i n bed under a sever e at t ack of
t yphoi d f ever , unabl e t o move and, per haps f or t unat el y, unabl e t o
f eel t he f ul l wei ght of t he cat ast r ophe, bei ng mysel f f ace t o f ace
wi t h deat h.

I was t he f i r st st r i cken, upon r et ur ni ng f r oma vi si t i n t he East t o
our cot t age at Cr esson Spr i ngs on t op of t he Al l eghani es wher e my
mot her and I spent our happy summer s. I had been qui t e unwel l f or a
day or t wo bef or e l eavi ng New Yor k. A physi ci an bei ng summoned, my
t r oubl e was pr onounced t yphoi d f ever . Pr of essor Denni s was cal l ed f r om
New Yor k and he cor r obor at ed t he di agnosi s. An at t endant physi ci an and
t r ai ned nur se wer e pr ovi ded at once. Soon af t er my mot her br oke down
and my br ot her i n Pi t t sbur gh al so was r epor t ed i l l .

I was despai r ed of , I was so l ow, and t hen my whol e nat ur e seemed t o
change. I became r econci l ed, i ndul ged i n pl easi ng medi t at i ons, was
wi t hout t he sl i ght est pai n. My mot her ' s and br ot her ' s ser i ous
condi t i on had not been r eveal ed t o me, and when I was i nf or med t hat
bot h had l ef t me f or ever i t seemed onl y nat ur al t hat I shoul d f ol l ow
t hem. We had never been separ at ed; why shoul d we be now? But i t was
decr eed ot her wi se.

I r ecover ed sl owl y and t he f ut ur e began t o occupy my t hought s. Ther e
was onl y one r ay of hope and comf or t i n i t . Towar d t hat my t hought s
al ways t ur ned. For sever al year s I had known Mi ss Loui se Whi t f i el d.
Page 123 of 222
Her mot her per mi t t ed her t o r i de wi t h me i n t he Cent r al Par k. We wer e
bot h ver y f ond of r i di ng. Ot her young l adi es wer e on my l i st . I had
f i ne hor ses and of t en r ode i n t he Par k and ar ound New Yor k wi t h one or
t he ot her of t he ci r cl e. I n t he end t he ot her s al l f aded i nt o or di nar y
bei ngs. Mi ss Whi t f i el d r emai ned al one as t he per f ect one beyond any I
had met . Fi nal l y I began t o f i nd and admi t t o mysel f t hat she st ood
t he supr eme t est I had appl i ed t o sever al f ai r ones i n my t i me. She
al one di d so of al l I had ever known. I coul d r ecommend young men t o
appl y t hi s t est bef or e of f er i ng t hemsel ves. I f t hey can honest l y
bel i eve t he f ol l owi ng l i nes, as I di d, t hen al l i s wel l :

" Ful l many a l ady
I ' ve eyed wi t h best r egar d: f or sever al vi r t ues
Have I l i ked sever al women, never any
Wi t h so f ul l soul , but some def ect i n her
Di d quar r el wi t h t he nobl est gr ace she owed,
And put i t t o t he f oi l ; but you, O you,
So per f ect and so peer l ess ar e cr eat ed
Of ever y cr eat ur e' s best . " [ 38]

[ Foot not e 38: Fer di nand t o Mi r anda i n _The Tempest _. ]

I n my soul I coul d echo t hose ver y wor ds. To- day, af t er t went y year s
of l i f e wi t h her , i f I coul d f i nd st r onger wor ds I coul d t r ut hf ul l y
use t hem.

My advances met wi t h i ndi f f er ent success. She was not wi t hout ot her
and younger admi r er s. My weal t h and f ut ur e pl ans wer e agai nst me. I
was r i ch and had ever yt hi ng and she f el t she coul d be of l i t t l e use or
benef i t t o me. Her i deal was t o be t he r eal hel pmeet of a young,
st r uggl i ng man t o whomshe coul d and woul d be i ndi spensabl e, as her
mot her had been t o her f at her . The car e of her own f ami l y had l ar gel y
f al l en upon her af t er her f at her ' s deat h when she was t went y- one. She
was now t went y- ei ght ; her vi ews of l i f e wer e f or med. At t i mes she
seemed mor e f avor abl e and we cor r esponded. Once, however , she r et ur ned
my l et t er s sayi ng she f el t she must put asi de al l t hought of accept i ng
me.

Pr of essor and Mr s. Denni s t ook me f r omCr esson t o t hei r own home i n
New Yor k, as soon as I coul d be r emoved, and I l ay t her e some t i me
under t he f or mer ' s per sonal super vi si on. Mi ss Whi t f i el d cal l ed t o see
me, f or I had wr i t t en her t he f i r st wor ds f r omCr esson I was abl e
t o wr i t e. She saw now t hat I needed her . I was l ef t al one i n t he
wor l d. Now she coul d be i n ever y sense t he " hel pmeet . " Bot h her hear t
and head wer e now wi l l i ng and t he day was f i xed. We wer e mar r i ed i n
New Yor k Apr i l 22, 1887, and sai l ed f or our honeymoon whi ch was passed
on t he I sl e of Wi ght .

[ I l l ust r at i on: ANDREWCARNEGI E

( ABOUT 1878) ]

Her del i ght was i nt ense i n f i ndi ng t he wi l d f l ower s. She had r ead of
Wander i ng Wi l l i e, Hear t sease, For get - me- not s, t he Pr i mr ose, Wi l d
Thyme, and t he whol e l i st of homel y names t hat had been t o her onl y
names t i l l now. Ever yt hi ng char med her . Uncl e Lauder and one of my
cousi ns came down f r omScot l and and vi si t ed us, and t hen we soon
Page 124 of 222
f ol l owed t o t he r esi dence at Ki l gr ast on t hey had sel ect ed f or us i n
whi ch t o spend t he summer . Scot l and capt ur ed her . Ther e was no doubt
about t hat . Her gi r l i sh r eadi ng had been of Scot l and- - Scot t ' s novel s
and " Scot t i sh Chi ef s" bei ng her f avor i t es. She soon became mor e Scot ch
t han I . Al l t hi s was f ul f i l l i ng my f ondest dr eams.

We spent some days i n Dunf er ml i ne and enj oyed t hemmuch. The haunt s
and i nci dent s of my boyhood wer e vi si t ed and r eci t ed t o her by al l and
sundr y. She got not hi ng but f l at t er i ng account s of her husband whi ch
gave me a good st ar t wi t h her .

I was pr esent ed wi t h t he Fr eedomof Edi nbur gh as we passed
nor t hwar d- - Lor d Roseber y maki ng t he speech. The cr owd i n Edi nbur gh was
gr eat . I addr essed t he wor ki ng- men i n t he l ar gest hal l and r ecei ved a
pr esent f r omt hemas di d Mr s. Car negi e al so- - a br ooch she val ues
hi ghl y. She hear d and saw t he pi per s i n al l t hei r gl or y and begged
t her e shoul d be one at our home- - a pi per t o wal k ar ound and waken us
i n t he mor ni ng and al so t o pl ay us i n t o di nner . Amer i can as she i s t o
t he cor e, and Connect i cut Pur i t an at t hat , she decl ar ed t hat i f
condemned t o l i ve upon a l onel y i sl and and al l owed t o choose onl y one
musi cal i nst r ument , i t woul d be t he pi pes. The pi per was secur ed
qui ckl y enough. One cal l ed and pr esent ed cr edent i al s f r omCl uny
McPher son. We engaged hi mand wer e pr eceded by hi mpl ayi ng t he pi pes
as we ent er ed our Ki l gr ast on house.

We enj oyed Ki l gr ast on, al t hough Mr s. Car negi e st i l l l onged f or a
wi l der and mor e Hi ghl and home. Mat t hew Ar nol d vi si t ed us, as di d Mr .
and Mr s. Bl ai ne, Senat or and Mr s. Eugene Hal e, and many f r i ends. [ 39]
Mr s. Car negi e woul d have my r el at i ves up f r omDunf er ml i ne, especi al l y
t he ol der uncl es and aunt i es. She char med ever y one. They expr essed
t hei r sur pr i se t o me t hat she ever mar r i ed me, but I t ol d t hemI was
equal l y sur pr i sed. The mat ch had evi dent l y been pr edest i ned.

[ Foot not e 39: J ohn Hay, wr i t i ng t o hi s f r i end Henr y Adams under dat e
of London, August 25, 1887, has t he f ol l owi ng t o say about t he par t y
at Ki l gr ast on: " Af t er t hat we went t o Andy Car negi e i n Per t hshi r e, who
i s keepi ng hi s honeymoon, havi ng j ust mar r i ed a pr et t y gi r l . . . . The
house i s t hr onged wi t h vi si t or s- - si xt een when we came away- - we mer el y
st ayed t hr ee days: t he ot her s wer e t her e f or a f or t ni ght . Among t hem
wer e your f r i ends Bl ai ne and Hal e of Mai ne. Car negi e l i kes i t so wel l
he i s goi ng t o do i t ever y summer and i s l ooki ng at al l t he gr eat
est at es i n t he Count y wi t h a vi ew of r ent i ng or pur chasi ng. We went
wi t h hi mone day t o Duppl i n Cast l e, wher e I saw t he most beaut i f ul
t r ees I ever behel d i n my wander i ng l i f e. The ol d Ear l of - - - - i s
mi ser abl y poor - - not abl e t o buy a bot t l e of sel t zer - - wi t h an est at e
wor t h mi l l i ons i n t he hands of hi s cr edi t or s, and sur e t o be sol d one
of t hese days t o some ent er pr i si ng Yankee or Br i t i sh But t onmaker . I
wi sh you or Car negi e woul d buy i t . I woul d vi si t you f r equent l y. "
( Thayer , _Li f e and Let t er s of J ohn Hay_, vol . I I , p. 74. ) ]

We t ook our pi per wi t h us when we r et ur ned t o New Yor k, and al so our
housekeeper and some of t he ser vant s. Mr s. Ni col l r emai ns wi t h us
st i l l and i s now, af t er t went y year s' f ai t hf ul ser vi ce, as a member of
t he f ami l y. Geor ge I r vi ne, our but l er , came t o us a year l at er and i s
al so as one of us. Maggi e Ander son, one of t he ser vant s, i s t he same.
They ar e devot ed peopl e, of hi gh char act er and t r ue l oyal t y. [ 40]

Page 125 of 222
[ Foot not e 40: " No man i s a t r ue gent l eman who does not i nspi r e t he
af f ect i on and devot i on of hi s ser vant s. " ( _Pr obl ems of To- day_, by
Andr ew Car negi e. New Yor k, 1908, p. 59. ) ]

The next year we wer e of f er ed and t ook Cl uny Cast l e. Our pi per was
j ust t he man t o t el l us al l about i t . He had been bor n and br ed t her e
and per haps i nf l uenced our sel ect i on of t hat r esi dence wher e we spent
sever al summer s.

On Mar ch 30, 1897, t her e came t o us our daught er . As I f i r st gazed
upon her Mr s. Car negi e sai d,

" Her name i s Mar gar et af t er your mot her . Now one r equest I have t o
make. "

" What i s i t , Lou?"

" We must get a summer home si nce t hi s l i t t l e one has been gi ven us. We
cannot r ent one and be obl i ged t o go i n and go out at a cer t ai n dat e.
I t shoul d be our home. "

" Yes, " I agr eed.

" I make onl y one condi t i on. "

" What i s t hat ?" I asked.

" I t must be i n t he Hi ghl ands of Scot l and. "

" Bl ess you, " was my r epl y. " That sui t s me. You know I have t o keep out
of t he sun' s r ays, and wher e can we do t hat so sur el y as among t he
heat her ? I ' l l be a commi t t ee of one t o i nqui r e and r epor t . "

Ski bo Cast l e was t he r esul t .

I t i s now t went y year s si nce Mr s. Car negi e ent er ed and changed my
l i f e, a f ew mont hs af t er t he passi ng of my mot her and onl y br ot her
l ef t me al one i n t he wor l d. My l i f e has been made so happy by her t hat
I cannot i magi ne mysel f l i vi ng wi t hout her guar di anshi p. I t hought I
knew her when she st ood Fer di nand' s t est , [ 41] but i t was onl y t he
sur f ace of her qual i t i es I had seen and f el t . Of t hei r pur i t y,
hol i ness, wi sdom, I had not sounded t he dept h. I n ever y emer gency of
our act i ve, changi ng, and i n l at er year s somewhat publ i c l i f e, i n al l
her r el at i ons wi t h ot her s, i ncl udi ng my f ami l y and her own, she has
pr oved t he di pl omat and peace- maker . Peace and good- wi l l at t end her
f oot st eps wher ever her bl essed i nf l uence ext ends. I n t he r ar e
i nst ances demandi ng her oi c act i on i t i s she who f i r st r eal i zes t hi s
and pl ays t he par t .

[ Foot not e 41: The r ef er ence i s t o t he quot at i on f r om_The Tempest _ on
page 214. ]

The Peace- Maker has never had a quar r el i n al l her l i f e, not even wi t h
a school mat e, and t her e does not l i ve a soul upon t he ear t h who has
met her who has t he sl i ght est cause t o compl ai n of negl ect . Not t hat
she does not wel come t he best and gent l y avoi d t he undesi r abl e- - none
i s mor e f ast i di ous t han she- - but nei t her r ank, weal t h, nor soci al
Page 126 of 222
posi t i on af f ect s her one i ot a. She i s i ncapabl e of act i ng or speaki ng
r udel y; al l i s i n per f ect good t ast e. St i l l , she never l ower s t he
st andar d. Her i nt i mat es ar e onl y of t he best . She i s al ways t hi nki ng
how she can do good t o t hose ar ound her - - pl anni ng f or t hi s one and
t hat i n case of need and maki ng such j udi ci ous ar r angement s or
pr esent s as sur pr i se t hose coper at i ng wi t h her .

I cannot i magi ne mysel f goi ng t hr ough t hese t went y year s wi t hout her .
Nor can I endur e t he t hought of l i vi ng af t er her . I n t he cour se of
nat ur e I have not t hat t o meet ; but t hen t he t hought of what wi l l be
cast upon her , a woman l ef t al one wi t h so much r equi r i ng at t ent i on and
needi ng a man t o deci de, gi ves me i nt ense pai n and I somet i mes wi sh I
had t hi s t o endur e f or her . But t hen she wi l l have our bl essed
daught er i n her l i f e and per haps t hat wi l l keep her pat i ent . Besi des,
Mar gar et needs her mor e t han she does her f at her .

[ I l l ust r at i on: MRS. ANDREWCARNEGI E]

[ I l l ust r at i on: MARGARET CARNEGI E AT FI FTEEN]

Why, oh, why, ar e we compel l ed t o l eave t he heaven we have f ound on
ear t h and go we know not wher e! For I can say wi t h J essi ca:

" I t i s ver y meet
The Lor d Bassani o l i ve an upr i ght l i f e;
For , havi ng such a bl essi ng i n hi s l ady,
He f i nds t he j oys of heaven her e on ear t h. "




Page 127 of 222
CHAPTER XVI

MILLS AND THE MEN


The one vi t al l esson i n i r on and st eel t hat I l ear ned i n Br i t ai n was
t he necessi t y f or owni ng r aw mat er i al s and f i ni shi ng t he compl et ed
ar t i cl e r eady f or i t s pur pose. Havi ng sol ved t he st eel - r ai l pr obl emat
t he Edgar Thomson Wor ks, we soon pr oceeded t o t he next st ep. The
di f f i cul t i es and uncer t ai nt i es of obt ai ni ng r egul ar suppl i es of pi g
i r on compel l ed us t o begi n t he er ect i on of bl ast f ur naces. Thr ee of
t hese wer e bui l t , one, however , bei ng a r econst r uct ed bl ast f ur nace
pur chased f r omt he Escanaba I r on Company, wi t h whi ch Mr . Kl oman had
been connect ed. As i s usual i n such cases, t he f ur nace cost us as much
as a new one, and i t never was as good. Ther e i s not hi ng so
unsat i sf act or y as pur chases of i nf er i or pl ant s.

But al t hough t hi s pur chase was a mi st ake, di r ect l y consi der ed, i t
pr oved, at a subsequent dat e, a sour ce of gr eat pr of i t because i t gave
us a f ur nace smal l enough f or t he manuf act ur e of spi egel and, at a
l at er dat e, of f er r o- manganese. We wer e t he second f i r mi n t he Uni t ed
St at es t o manuf act ur e our own spi egel , and t he f i r st , and f or year s
t he onl y, f i r mi n Amer i ca t hat made f er r o- manganese. We had been
dependent upon f or ei gner s f or a suppl y of t hi s i ndi spensabl e ar t i cl e,
payi ng as hi gh as ei ght y dol l ar s a t on f or i t . The manager of our
bl ast f ur naces, Mr . J ul i an Kennedy, i s ent i t l ed t o t he cr edi t of
suggest i ng t hat wi t h t he or es wi t hi n r each we coul d make
f er r o- manganese i n our smal l f ur nace. The exper i ment was wor t h t r yi ng
and t he r esul t was a gr eat success. We wer e abl e t o suppl y t he ent i r e
Amer i can demand and pr i ces f el l f r omei ght y t o f i f t y dol l ar s per t on
as a consequence.

Whi l e t est i ng t he or es of Vi r gi ni a we f ound t hat t hese wer e bei ng
qui et l y pur chased by Eur opeans f or f er r o- manganese, t he owner s of t he
mi ne bei ng l ed t o bel i eve t hat t hey wer e used f or ot her pur poses. Our
Mr . Phi pps at once set about pur chasi ng t hat mi ne. He obt ai ned an
opt i on f r omt he owner s, who had nei t her capi t al nor ski l l t o wor k i t
ef f i ci ent l y. A hi gh pr i ce was pai d t o t hemf or t hei r i nt er est s, and
( wi t h one of t hem, Mr . Davi s, a ver y abl e young man) we became t he
owner s, but not unt i l a t hor ough i nvest i gat i on of t he mi ne had pr oved
t hat t her e was enough of manganese or e i n si ght t o r epay us. Al l t hi s
was done wi t h speed; not a day was l ost when t he di scover y was made.
And her e l i es t he gr eat advant age of a par t ner shi p over a cor por at i on.
The pr esi dent of t he l at t er woul d have had t o consul t a boar d of
di r ect or s and wai t sever al weeks and per haps mont hs f or t hei r
deci si on. By t hat t i me t he mi ne woul d pr obabl y have become t he
pr oper t y of ot her s.

We cont i nued t o devel op our bl ast - f ur nace pl ant , ever y new one bei ng a
gr eat i mpr ovement upon t he pr ecedi ng, unt i l at l ast we t hought we had
ar r i ved at a st andar d f ur nace. Mi nor i mpr ovement s woul d no doubt be
made, but so f ar as we coul d see we had a per f ect pl ant and our
capaci t y was t hen f i f t y t housand t ons per mont h of pi g i r on.

The bl ast - f ur nace depar t ment was no sooner added t han anot her st ep was
seen t o be essent i al t o our i ndependence and success. The suppl y of
Page 128 of 222
super i or coke was a f i xed quant i t y- - t he Connel l svi l l e f i el d bei ng
def i ned. We f ound t hat we coul d not get on wi t hout a suppl y of t he
f uel essent i al t o t he smel t i ng of pi g i r on; and a ver y t hor ough
i nvest i gat i on of t he quest i on l ed us t o t he concl usi on t hat t he Fr i ck
Coke Company had not onl y t he best coal and coke pr oper t y, but t hat i t
had i n Mr . Fr i ck hi msel f a man wi t h a posi t i ve geni us f or i t s
management . He had pr oved hi s abi l i t y by st ar t i ng as a poor r ai l way
cl er k and succeedi ng. I n 1882 we pur chased one hal f of t he st ock of
t hi s company, and by subsequent pur chases f r omot her hol der s we became
owner s of t he gr eat bul k of t he shar es.

Ther e now r emai ned t o be acqui r ed onl y t he suppl y of i r on st one. I f we
coul d obt ai n t hi s we shoul d be i n t he posi t i on occupi ed by onl y t wo or
t hr ee of t he Eur opean concer ns. We t hought at one t i me we had
succeeded i n di scover i ng i n Pennsyl vani a t hi s l ast r emai ni ng l i nk i n
t he chai n. We wer e mi sl ed, however , i n our i nvest ment i n t he Tyr one
r egi on, and l ost consi der abl e sums as t he r esul t of our at t empt s t o
mi ne and use t he or es of t hat sect i on. They pr omi sed wel l at t he edges
of t he mi nes, wher e t he act i on of t he weat her f or ages had washed away
i mpur i t i es and enr i ched t he or e, but when we penet r at ed a smal l
di st ance t hey pr oved t oo " l ean" t o wor k.

Our chemi st , Mr . Pr ousser , was t hen sent t o a Pennsyl vani a f ur nace
among t he hi l l s whi ch we had l eased, wi t h i nst r uct i ons t o anal yze al l
t he mat er i al s br ought t o hi mf r omt he di st r i ct , and t o encour age
peopl e t o br i ng hi mspeci mens of mi ner al s. A st r i ki ng exampl e of t he
awe i nspi r ed by t he chemi st i n t hose days was t hat onl y wi t h gr eat
di f f i cul t y coul d he obt ai n a man or a boy t o assi st hi mi n t he
l abor at or y. He was suspect ed of i l l i ci t i nt er cour se wi t h t he Power s of
Evi l when he under t ook t o t el l by hi s suspi ci ous- l ooki ng appar at us
what a st one cont ai ned. I bel i eve t hat at l ast we had t o send hi ma
man f r omour of f i ce at Pi t t sbur gh.

One day he sent us a r epor t of anal yses of or e r emar kabl e f or t he
absence of phosphor us. I t was r eal l y an or e sui t abl e f or maki ng
Bessemer st eel . Such a di scover y at t r act ed our at t ent i on at once. The
owner of t he pr oper t y was Moses Thompson, a r i ch f ar mer , pr opr i et or of
seven t housand acr es of t he most beaut i f ul agr i cul t ur al l and i n Cent er
Count y, Pennsyl vani a. An appoi nt ment was made t o meet hi mupon t he
gr ound f r omwhi ch t he or e had been obt ai ned. We f ound t he mi ne had
been wor ked f or a char coal bl ast f ur nace f i f t y or si xt y year s bef or e,
but i t had not bor ne a good r eput at i on t hen, t he r eason no doubt bei ng
t hat i t s pr oduct was so much pur er t han ot her or es t hat t he same
amount of f l ux used caused t r oubl e i n smel t i ng. I t was so good i t was
good f or not hi ng i n t hose days of ol d.

We f i nal l y obt ai ned t he r i ght t o t ake t he mi ne over at any t i me wi t hi n
si x mont hs, and we t her ef or e began t he wor k of exami nat i on, whi ch
ever y pur chaser of mi ner al pr oper t y shoul d make most car ef ul l y. We r an
l i nes acr oss t he hi l l si de f i f t y f eet apar t , wi t h cr oss- l i nes at
di st ances of a hundr ed f eet apar t , and at each poi nt of i nt er sect i on
we put a shaf t down t hr ough t he or e. I bel i eve t her e wer e ei ght y such
shaf t s i n al l and t he or e was anal yzed at ever y f ew f eet of dept h, so
t hat bef or e we pai d over t he hundr ed t housand dol l ar s asked we knew
exact l y what t her e was of or e. The r esul t hoped f or was mor e t han
r eal i zed. Thr ough t he abi l i t y of my cousi n and par t ner , Mr . Lauder ,
t he cost of mi ni ng and washi ng was r educed t o a l ow f i gur e, and t he
Page 129 of 222
Scot i a or e made good al l t he l osses we had i ncur r ed i n t he ot her
mi nes, pai d f or i t sel f , and l ef t a pr of i t besi des. I n t hi s case, at
l east , we snat ched vi ct or y f r omt he j aws of def eat . We t r od upon sur e
gr ound wi t h t he chemi st as our gui de. I t wi l l be seen t hat we wer e
det er mi ned t o get r aw mat er i al s and wer e act i ve i n t he pur sui t .

We had l ost and won, but t he escapes i n busi ness af f ai r s ar e somet i mes
ver y nar r ow. Dr i vi ng wi t h Mr . Phi pps f r omt he mi l l s one day we passed
t he Nat i onal Tr ust Company of f i ce on Penn St r eet , Pi t t sbur gh. I
not i ced t he l ar ge gi l t l et t er s acr oss t he wi ndow, " St ockhol der s
i ndi vi dual l y l i abl e. " That ver y mor ni ng i n l ooki ng over a st at ement of
our af f ai r s I had not i ced t went y shar es " Nat i onal Tr ust Company" on
t he l i st of asset s. I sai d t o Har r y:

" I f t hi s i s t he concer n we own shar es i n, won' t you pl ease sel l t hem
bef or e you r et ur n t o t he of f i ce t hi s af t er noon?"

He saw no need f or hast e. I t woul d be done i n good t i me.

" No, Har r y, obl i ge me by doi ng i t i nst ant l y. "

He di d so and had i t t r ansf er r ed. For t unat e, i ndeed, was t hi s, f or i n
a shor t t i me t he bank f ai l ed wi t h an enor mous def i ci t . My cousi n, Mr .
Mor r i s, was among t he r ui ned shar ehol der s. Many ot her s met t he same
f at e. Ti mes wer e pani cky, and had we been i ndi vi dual l y l i abl e f or al l
t he debt s of t he Nat i onal Tr ust Company our cr edi t woul d i nevi t abl y
have been ser i ousl y i mper i l ed. I t was a nar r ow escape. And wi t h onl y
t went y shar es ( t wo t housand dol l ar s' wor t h of st ock) , t aken t o obl i ge
f r i ends who wi shed our name on t hei r l i st of shar ehol der s! The l esson
was not l ost . The sound r ul e i n busi ness i s t hat you may gi ve money
f r eel y when you have a sur pl us, but your name never - - nei t her as
endor ser nor as member of a cor por at i on wi t h i ndi vi dual l i abi l i t y. A
t r i f l i ng i nvest ment of a f ew t housand dol l ar s, a mer e t r i f l e- - yes, but
a t r i f l e possessed of deadl y expl osi ve power .

The r api d subst i t ut i on of st eel f or i r on i n t he i mmedi at e f ut ur e had
become obvi ous t o us. Even i n our Keyst one Br i dge Wor ks, st eel was
bei ng used mor e and mor e i n pl ace of i r on. Ki ng I r on was about t o be
deposed by t he new Ki ng St eel , and we wer e becomi ng mor e and mor e
dependent upon i t . We had about concl uded i n 1886 t o bui l d al ongsi de
of t he Edgar Thomson Mi l l s new wor ks f or t he manuf act ur e of
mi scel l aneous shapes of st eel when i t was suggest ed t o us t hat t he
f i ve or si x l eadi ng manuf act ur er s of Pi t t sbur gh, who had combi ned t o
bui l d st eel mi l l s at Homest ead, wer e wi l l i ng t o sel l t hei r mi l l s t o
us.

These wor ks had been bui l t or i gi nal l y by a syndi cat e of manuf act ur er s,
wi t h t he vi ew of obt ai ni ng t he necessar y suppl i es of st eel whi ch t hey
r equi r ed i n t hei r var i ous concer ns, but t he st eel - r ai l busi ness, bei ng
t hen i n one of i t s booms, t hey had been t empt ed t o change pl ans and
const r uct a st eel - r ai l mi l l . They had been abl e t o make r ai l s as l ong
as pr i ces r emai ned hi gh, but , as t he mi l l s had not been speci al l y
desi gned f or t hi s pur pose, t hey wer e wi t hout t he i ndi spensabl e bl ast
f ur naces f or t he suppl y of pi g i r on, and had no coke l ands f or t he
suppl y of f uel . They wer e i n no condi t i on t o compet e wi t h us.

I t was advant ageous f or us t o pur chase t hese wor ks. I f el t t her e was
Page 130 of 222
onl y one way we coul d deal wi t h t hei r owner s, and t hat was t o pr opose
a consol i dat i on wi t h Car negi e Br ot her s & Co. We of f er ed t o do so on
equal t er ms, ever y dol l ar t hey had i nvest ed t o r ank agai nst our
dol l ar s. Upon t hi s basi s t he negot i at i on was pr ompt l y concl uded. We,
however , gave t o al l par t i es t he opt i on t o t ake cash, and most
f or t unat el y f or us, al l el ect ed t o do so except Mr . Geor ge Si nger , who
cont i nued wi t h us t o hi s and our ent i r e sat i sf act i on. Mr . Si nger t ol d
us af t er war ds t hat hi s associ at es had been gr eat l y exer ci sed as t o how
t hey coul d meet t he pr oposi t i on I was t o l ay bef or e t hem. They wer e
much af r ai d of bei ng over r eached but when I pr oposed equal i t y al l
ar ound, dol l ar f or dol l ar , t hey wer e speechl ess.

Thi s pur chase l ed t o t he r econst r uct i on of al l our f i r ms. The new f i r m
of Car negi e, Phi pps & Co. was or gani zed i n 1886 t o r un t he Homest ead
Mi l l s. The f i r mof Wi l son, Wal ker & Co. was embr aced i n t he f i r mof
Car negi e, Phi pps & Co. , Mr . Wal ker bei ng el ect ed chai r man. My br ot her
was chai r man of Car negi e Br ot her s & Co. and at t he head of al l . A
f ur t her ext ensi on of our busi ness was t he est abl i shi ng of t he Har t man
St eel Wor ks at Beaver Fal l s, desi gned t o wor k i nt o a hundr ed var i ous
f or ms t he pr oduct of t he Homest ead Mi l l s. So now we made al most
ever yt hi ng i n st eel f r oma wi r e nai l up t o a t went y- i nch st eel gi r der ,
and i t was t hen not t hought pr obabl e t hat we shoul d ent er i nt o any new
f i el d.

I t may be i nt er est i ng her e t o not e t he pr ogr ess of our wor ks dur i ng
t he decade 1888 t o 1897. I n 1888 we had t went y mi l l i ons of dol l ar s
i nvest ed; i n 1897 mor e t han doubl e or over f or t y- f i ve mi l l i ons. The
600, 000 t ons of pi g i r on we made per annumi n 1888 was t r ebl ed; we
made near l y 2, 000, 000. Our pr oduct of i r on and st eel was i n 1888, say,
2000 t ons per day; i t gr ew t o exceed 6000 t ons. Our coke wor ks t hen
embr aced about 5000 ovens; t hey wer e t r ebl ed i n number , and our
capaci t y, t hen 6000 t ons, became 18, 000 t ons per day. Our Fr i ck Coke
Company i n 1897 had 42, 000 acr es of coal l and, mor e t han t wo t hi r ds of
t he t r ue Connel l svi l l e vei n. Ten year s hence i ncr eased pr oduct i on may
be f ound t o have been equal l y r api d. I t may be accept ed as an axi om
t hat a manuf act ur i ng concer n i n a gr owi ng count r y l i ke our s begi ns t o
decay when i t st ops ext endi ng.

To make a t on of st eel one and a hal f t ons of i r on st one has t o be
mi ned, t r anspor t ed by r ai l a hundr ed mi l es t o t he Lakes, car r i ed by
boat hundr eds of mi l es, t r ansf er r ed t o car s, t r anspor t ed by r ai l one
hundr ed and f i f t y mi l es t o Pi t t sbur gh; one and a hal f t ons of coal
must be mi ned and manuf act ur ed i nt o coke and car r i ed f i f t y- odd mi l es
by r ai l ; and one t on of l i mest one mi ned and car r i ed one hundr ed and
f i f t y mi l es t o Pi t t sbur gh. How t hen coul d st eel be manuf act ur ed and
sol d wi t hout l oss at t hr ee pounds f or t wo cent s? Thi s, I conf ess,
seemed t o me i ncr edi bl e, and l i t t l e l ess t han mi r acul ous, but i t was
so.

Amer i ca i s soon t o change f r ombei ng t he dear est st eel manuf act ur i ng
count r y t o t he cheapest . Al r eady t he shi pyar ds of Bel f ast ar e our
cust omer s. Thi s i s but t he begi nni ng. Under pr esent condi t i ons Amer i ca
can pr oduce st eel as cheapl y as any ot her l and, not wi t hst andi ng i t s
hi gher - pr i ced l abor . Ther e i s no l abor so cheap as t he dear est i n t he
mechani cal f i el d, pr ovi ded i t i s f r ee, cont ent ed, zeal ous, and r eapi ng
r ewar d as i t r ender s ser vi ce. And her e Amer i ca l eads.

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One gr eat advant age whi ch Amer i ca wi l l have i n compet i ng i n t he
mar ket s of t he wor l d i s t hat her manuf act ur er s wi l l have t he best home
mar ket . Upon t hi s t hey can depend f or a r et ur n upon capi t al , and t he
sur pl us pr oduct can be expor t ed wi t h advant age, even when t he pr i ces
r ecei ved f or i t do not mor e t han cover act ual cost , pr ovi ded t he
expor t s be char ged wi t h t hei r pr opor t i on of al l expenses. The nat i on
t hat has t he best home mar ket , especi al l y i f pr oduct s ar e
st andar di zed, as our s ar e, can soon out sel l t he f or ei gn pr oducer . The
phr ase I used i n Br i t ai n i n t hi s connect i on was: " The Law of t he
Sur pl us. " I t af t er war d came i nt o gener al use i n commer ci al
di scussi ons.




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CHAPTER XVII

THE HOMESTEAD STRIKE


Whi l e upon t he subj ect of our manuf act ur i ng i nt er est s, I may r ecor d
t hat on J ul y 1, 1892, dur i ng my absence i n t he Hi ghl ands of Scot l and,
t her e occur r ed t he one r eal l y ser i ous quar r el wi t h our wor kmen i n our
whol e hi st or y. For t went y- si x year s I had been act i vel y i n char ge of
t he r el at i ons bet ween our sel ves and our men, and i t was t he pr i de of
my l i f e t o t hi nk how del i ght f ul l y sat i sf act or y t hese had been and
wer e. I hope I f ul l y deser ved what my chi ef par t ner , Mr . Phi pps, sai d
i n hi s l et t er t o t he " New Yor k Her al d, " J anuar y 30, 1904, i n r epl y t o
one who had decl ar ed I had r emai ned abr oad dur i ng t he Homest ead
st r i ke, i nst ead of f l yi ng back t o suppor t my par t ner s. I t was t o t he
ef f ect t hat " I was al ways di sposed t o yi el d t o t he demands of t he men,
however unr easonabl e" ; hence one or t wo of my par t ner s di d not wi sh me
t o r et ur n. [ 42] Taki ng no account of t he r ewar d t hat comes f r om
f eel i ng t hat you and your empl oyees ar e f r i ends and j udgi ng onl y f r om
economi cal r esul t s, I bel i eve t hat hi gher wages t o men who r espect
t hei r empl oyer s and ar e happy and cont ent ed ar e a good i nvest ment ,
yi el di ng, i ndeed, bi g di vi dends.

[ Foot not e 42: The f ul l st at ement of Mr . Phi pps i s as f ol l ows:

_Quest i on: _ " I t was st at ed t hat Mr . Car negi e act ed i n a cowar dl y
manner i n not r et ur ni ng t o Amer i ca f r omScot l and and bei ng pr esent
when t he st r i ke was i n pr ogr ess at Homest ead. "

_Answer : _ " When Mr . Car negi e hear d of t he t r oubl e at Homest ead he
i mmedi at el y wi r ed t hat he woul d t ake t he f i r st shi p f or Amer i ca, but
hi s par t ner s begged hi mnot t o appear , as t hey wer e of t he opi ni on
t hat t he wel f ar e of t he Company r equi r ed t hat he shoul d not be i n t hi s
count r y at t he t i me. They knew of hi s ext r eme di sposi t i on t o al ways
gr ant t he demands of l abor , however unr easonabl e.

" I have never known of any one i nt er est ed i n t he busi ness t o make any
compl ai nt about Mr . Car negi e' s absence at t hat t i me, but al l t he
par t ner s r ej oi ced t hat t hey wer e per mi t t ed t o manage t he af f ai r i n
t hei r own way. " ( Henr y Phi pps i n t he _New Yor k Her al d_, J anuar y 30,
1904. ) ]

The manuf act ur e of st eel was r evol ut i oni zed by t he Bessemer
open- hear t h and basi c i nvent i ons. The machi ner y hi t her t o empl oyed had
become obsol et e, and our f i r m, r ecogni zi ng t hi s, spent sever al
mi l l i ons at Homest ead r econst r uct i ng and enl ar gi ng t he wor ks. The new
machi ner y made about si xt y per cent mor e st eel t han t he ol d. Two
hundr ed and ei ght een t onnage men ( t hat i s, men who wer e pai d by t he
t on of st eel pr oduced) wer e wor ki ng under a t hr ee year s' cont r act ,
par t of t he l ast year bei ng wi t h t he new machi ner y. Thus t hei r
ear ni ngs had i ncr eased al most si xt y per cent bef or e t he end of t he
cont r act .

The f i r mof f er ed t o di vi de t hi s si xt y per cent wi t h t hemi n t he new
scal e t o be made t her eaf t er . That i s t o say, t he ear ni ngs of t he men
woul d have been t hi r t y per cent gr eat er t han under t he ol d scal e and
Page 133 of 222
t he ot her t hi r t y per cent woul d have gone t o t he f i r mt o r ecompense i t
f or i t s out l ay. The wor k of t he men woul d not have been much har der
t han i t had been hi t her t o, as t he i mpr oved machi ner y di d t he wor k.
Thi s was not onl y f ai r and l i ber al , i t was gener ous, and under
or di nar y ci r cumst ances woul d have been accept ed by t he men wi t h
t hanks. But t he f i r mwas t hen engaged i n maki ng ar mor f or t he Uni t ed
St at es Gover nment , whi ch we had decl i ned t wi ce t o manuf act ur e and
whi ch was ur gent l y needed. I t had al so t he cont r act t o f ur ni sh
mat er i al f or t he Chi cago Exhi bi t i on. Some of t he l eader s of t he men,
knowi ng t hese condi t i ons, i nsi st ed upon demandi ng t he whol e si xt y per
cent , t hi nki ng t he f i r mwoul d be compel l ed t o gi ve i t . The f i r mcoul d
not agr ee, nor shoul d i t have agr eed t o such an at t empt as t hi s t o
t ake i t by t he t hr oat and say, " St and and del i ver . " I t ver y r i ght l y
decl i ned. Had I been at home not hi ng woul d have i nduced me t o yi el d t o
t hi s unf ai r at t empt t o ext or t .

Up t o t hi s poi nt al l had been r i ght enough. The pol i cy I had pur sued
i n cases of di f f er ence wi t h our men was t hat of pat i ent l y wai t i ng,
r easoni ng wi t h t hem, and showi ng t hemt hat t hei r demands wer e unf ai r ;
but never at t empt i ng t o empl oy new men i n t hei r pl aces- - never . The
super i nt endent of Homest ead, however , was assur ed by t he t hr ee
t housand men who wer e not concer ned i n t he di sput e t hat t hey coul d r un
t he wor ks, and wer e anxi ous t o r i d t hemsel ves of t he t wo hundr ed and
ei ght een men who had banded t hemsel ves i nt o a uni on and i nt o whi ch
t hey had hi t her t o r ef used t o admi t t hose i n ot her depar t ment s- - onl y
t he " heat er s" and " r ol l er s" of st eel bei ng el i gi bl e.

My par t ner s wer e mi sl ed by t hi s super i nt endent , who was hi msel f
mi sl ed. He had not had gr eat exper i ence i n such af f ai r s, havi ng
r ecent l y been pr omot ed f r oma subor di nat e posi t i on. The unj ust demands
of t he f ew uni on men, and t he opi ni on of t he t hr ee t housand non- uni on
men t hat t hey wer e unj ust , ver y nat ur al l y l ed hi mi nt o t hi nki ng t her e
woul d be no t r oubl e and t hat t he wor kmen woul d do as t hey had
pr omi sed. Ther e wer e many men among t he t hr ee t housand who coul d t ake,
and wi shed t o t ake, t he pl aces of t he t wo hundr ed and ei ght een- - at
l east so i t was r epor t ed t o me.

I t i s easy t o l ook back and say t hat t he vi t al st ep of openi ng t he
wor ks shoul d never have been t aken. Al l t he f i r mhad t o do was t o say
t o t he men: " Ther e i s a l abor di sput e her e and you must set t l e i t
bet ween your sel ves. The f i r mhas made you a most l i ber al of f er . The
wor ks wi l l r un when t he di sput e i s adj ust ed, and not t i l l t hen.
Meanwhi l e your pl aces r emai n open t o you. " Or , i t mi ght have been wel l
i f t he super i nt endent had sai d t o t he t hr ee t housand men, " Al l r i ght ,
i f you wi l l come and r un t he wor ks wi t hout pr ot ect i on, " t hus t hr owi ng
upon t hemt he r esponsi bi l i t y of pr ot ect i ng t hemsel ves- - t hr ee t housand
men as agai nst t wo hundr ed and ei ght een. I nst ead of t hi s i t was
t hought advi sabl e ( as an addi t i onal pr ecaut i on by t he st at e of f i ci al s,
I under st and) t o have t he sher i f f wi t h guar ds t o pr ot ect t he t housands
agai nst t he hundr eds. The l eader s of t he l at t er wer e vi ol ent and
aggr essi ve men; t hey had guns and pi st ol s, and, as was soon pr oved,
wer e abl e t o i nt i mi dat e t he t housands.

I quot e what I once l ai d down i n wr i t i ng as our r ul e: " My i dea i s t hat
t he Company shoul d be known as det er mi ned t o l et t he men at any wor ks
st op wor k; t hat i t wi l l conf er f r eel y wi t h t hemand wai t pat i ent l y
unt i l t hey deci de t o r et ur n t o wor k, never t hi nki ng of t r yi ng new
Page 134 of 222
men- - never . " The best men as men, and t he best wor kmen, ar e not
wal ki ng t he st r eet s l ooki ng f or wor k. Onl y t he i nf er i or cl ass as a
r ul e i s i dl e. The ki nd of men we desi r ed ar e r ar el y al l owed t o l ose
t hei r j obs, even i n dul l t i mes. I t i s i mpossi bl e t o get new men t o r un
successf ul l y t he compl i cat ed machi ner y of a moder n st eel pl ant . The
at t empt t o put i n new men conver t ed t he t housands of ol d men who
desi r ed t o wor k, i nt o l ukewar msuppor t er s of our pol i cy, f or wor kmen
can al ways be r el i ed upon t o r esent t he empl oyment of new men. Who can
bl ame t hem?

I f I had been at home, however , I mi ght have been per suaded t o open
t he wor ks, as t he super i nt endent desi r ed, t o t est whet her our ol d men
woul d go t o wor k as t hey had pr omi sed. But i t shoul d be not ed t hat
t he wor ks wer e not opened at f i r st by my par t ner s f or new men. On t he
cont r ar y, i t was, as I was i nf or med upon my r et ur n, at t he wi sh of t he
t housands of our ol d men t hat t hey wer e opened. Thi s i s a vi t al poi nt .
My par t ner s wer e i n no way bl amabl e f or maki ng t he t r i al so
r ecommended by t he super i nt endent . Our r ul e never t o empl oy new men,
but t o wai t f or t he ol d t o r et ur n, had not been vi ol at ed so f ar . I n
r egar d t o t he second openi ng of t he wor ks, af t er t he st r i ker s had shot
t he sher i f f ' s of f i cer s, i t i s al so easy t o l ook back and say, " How
much bet t er had t he wor ks been cl osed unt i l t he ol d men vot ed t o
r et ur n" ; but t he Gover nor of Pennsyl vani a, wi t h ei ght t housand t r oops,
had meanwhi l e t aken char ge of t he si t uat i on.

I was t r avel i ng i n t he Hi ghl ands of Scot l and when t he t r oubl e ar ose,
and di d not hear of i t unt i l t wo days af t er . Not hi ng I have ever had
t o meet i n al l my l i f e, bef or e or si nce, wounded me so deepl y. No
pangs r emai n of any wound r ecei ved i n my busi ness car eer save t hat of
Homest ead. I t was so unnecessar y. The men wer e out r ageousl y wr ong. The
st r i ker s, wi t h t he new machi ner y, woul d have made f r omf our t o ni ne
dol l ar s a day under t he new scal e- - t hi r t y per cent mor e t han t hey wer e
maki ng wi t h t he ol d machi ner y. Whi l e i n Scot l and I r ecei ved t he
f ol l owi ng cabl e f r omt he of f i cer s of t he uni on of our wor kmen:

" Ki nd mast er , t el l us what you wi sh us t o do and we shal l do i t f or
you. "

Thi s was most t ouchi ng, but , al as, t oo l at e. The mi schi ef was done,
t he wor ks wer e i n t he hands of t he Gover nor ; i t was t oo l at e.

I r ecei ved, whi l e abr oad, numer ous ki nd messages f r omf r i ends
conver sant wi t h t he ci r cumst ances, who i magi ned my unhappi ness. The
f ol l owi ng f r omMr . Gl adst one was gr eat l y appr eci at ed:

MY DEAR MR. CARNEGI E,

My wi f e has l ong ago of f er ed her t hanks, wi t h my own, f or
your most ki nd congr at ul at i ons. But I do not f or get t hat you
have been suf f er i ng your sel f f r omanxi et i es, and have been
exposed t o i mput at i ons i n connect i on wi t h your gal l ant
ef f or t s t o di r ect r i ch men i nt o a cour se of act i on mor e
enl i ght ened t han t hat whi ch t hey usual l y f ol l ow. I wi sh I
coul d r el i eve you f r omt hese i mput at i ons of j our nal i st s, t oo
of t en r ash, concei t ed or censor i ous, r ancor ous, i l l - nat ur ed.
I wi sh t o do t he l i t t l e, t he ver y l i t t l e, t hat i s i n my
power , whi ch i s si mpl y t o say how sur e I amt hat no one who
Page 135 of 222
knows you wi l l be pr ompt ed by t he unf or t unat e occur r ences
acr oss t he wat er ( of whi ch mani f est l y we cannot know t he
exact mer i t s) t o qual i f y i n t he sl i ght est degr ee ei t her hi s
conf i dence i n your gener ous vi ews or hi s admi r at i on of t he
good and gr eat wor k you have al r eady done.

Weal t h i s at pr esent l i ke a monst er t hr eat eni ng t o swal l ow
up t he mor al l i f e of man; you by pr ecept and by exampl e have
been t eachi ng hi mt o di sgor ge. I f or one t hank you.

Bel i eve me

Ver y f ai t hf ul l y your s

( Si gned) W. E. GLADSTONE

I i nser t t hi s as gi vi ng pr oof , i f pr oof wer e needed, of Mr .
Gl adst one' s l ar ge, sympat het i c nat ur e, al i ve and sensi t i ve t o
ever yt hi ng t r anspi r i ng of a nat ur e t o ar ouse sympat hy- - Neapol i t ans,
Gr eeks, and Bul gar i ans one day, or a st r i cken f r i end t he next .

The gener al publ i c, of cour se, di d not know t hat I was i n Scot l and and
knew not hi ng of t he i ni t i al t r oubl e at Homest ead. Wor kmen had been
ki l l ed at t he Car negi e Wor ks, of whi ch I was t he cont r ol l i ng owner .
That was suf f i ci ent t o make my name a by- wor d f or year s. But at l ast
some sat i sf act i on came. Senat or Hanna was pr esi dent of t he Nat i onal
Ci vi c Feder at i on, a body composed of capi t al i st s and wor kmen whi ch
exer t ed a beni gn i nf l uence over bot h empl oyer s and empl oyed, and t he
Honor abl e Oscar St r aus, who was t hen vi ce- pr esi dent , i nvi t ed me t o
di ne at hi s house and meet t he of f i ci al s of t he Feder at i on. Bef or e t he
dat e appoi nt ed Mar k Hanna, i t s pr esi dent , my l i f el ong f r i end and
f or mer agent at Cl evel and, had suddenl y passed away. I at t ended t he
di nner . At i t s cl ose Mr . St r aus ar ose and sai d t hat t he quest i on of a
successor t o Mr . Hanna had been consi der ed, and he had t o r epor t t hat
ever y l abor or gani zat i on hear d f r omhad f avor ed me f or t he posi t i on.
Ther e wer e pr esent sever al of t he l abor l eader s who, one af t er
anot her , ar ose and cor r obor at ed Mr . St r aus.

I do not r emember so compl et e a sur pr i se and, I shal l conf ess, one so
gr at ef ul t o me. That I deser ved wel l f r oml abor I f el t . I knew mysel f
t o be war ml y sympat het i c wi t h t he wor ki ng- man, and al so t hat I had t he
r egar d of our own wor kmen; but t hr oughout t he count r y i t was nat ur al l y
t he r ever se, owi ng t o t he Homest ead r i ot . The Car negi e Wor ks meant t o
t he publ i c Mr . Car negi e' s war upon l abor ' s j ust ear ni ngs.

I ar ose t o expl ai n t o t he of f i ci al s at t he St r aus di nner t hat I coul d
not possi bl y accept t he gr eat honor , because I had t o escape t he heat
of summer and t he head of t he Feder at i on must be on hand at al l
seasons r eady t o gr appl e wi t h an out br eak, shoul d one occur . My
embar r assment was gr eat , but I managed t o l et al l under st and t hat t hi s
was f el t t o be t he most wel come t r i but e I coul d have r ecei ved- - a bal m
t o t he hur t mi nd. I cl osed by sayi ng t hat i f el ect ed t o my l ament ed
f r i end' s pl ace upon t he Execut i ve Commi t t ee I shoul d est eemi t an
honor t o ser ve. To t hi s posi t i on I was el ect ed by unani mous vot e. I
was t hus r el i eved f r omt he f eel i ng t hat I was consi der ed r esponsi bl e
by l abor gener al l y, f or t he Homest ead r i ot and t he ki l l i ng of wor kmen.

Page 136 of 222
I owe t hi s vi ndi cat i on t o Mr . Oscar St r aus, who had r ead my ar t i cl es
and speeches of ear l y days upon l abor quest i ons, and who had quot ed
t hese f r equent l y t o wor kmen. The t wo l abor l eader s of t he Amal gamat ed
Uni on, Whi t e and Schaef f er f r omPi t t sbur gh, who wer e at t hi s di nner ,
wer e al so abl e and anxi ous t o enl i ght en t hei r f el l ow- wor kmen member s
of t he Boar d as t o my r ecor d wi t h l abor , and di d not f ai l t o do so.

A mass meet i ng of t he wor kmen and t hei r wi ves was af t er war ds hel d i n
t he Li br ar y Hal l at Pi t t sbur gh t o gr eet me, and I addr essed t hemf r om
bot h my head and my hear t . The one sent ence I r emember , and al ways
shal l , was t o t he ef f ect t hat capi t al , l abor , and empl oyer wer e a
t hr ee- l egged st ool , none bef or e or af t er t he ot her s, al l equal l y
i ndi spensabl e. Then came t he cor di al hand- shaki ng and al l was wel l .
Havi ng t hus r ej oi ned hands and hear t s wi t h our empl oyees and t hei r
wi ves, I f el t t hat a gr eat wei ght had been ef f ect ual l y l i f t ed, but I
had had a t er r i bl e exper i ence al t hough t housands of mi l es f r omt he
scene.

An i nci dent f l owi ng f r omt he Homest ead t r oubl e i s t ol d by my f r i end,
Pr of essor J ohn C. Van Dyke, of Rut ger s Col l ege.

I n t he spr i ng of 1900, I went up f r omGuaymas, on t he Gul f
of Cal i f or ni a, t o t he r anch of a f r i end at La Nor i a Ver de,
t hi nki ng t o have a week' s shoot i ng i n t he mount ai ns of
Sonor a. The r anch was f ar enough r emoved f r omci vi l i zat i on,
and I had expect ed meet i ng t her e onl y a f ew Mexi cans and
many Yaqui I ndi ans, but much t o my sur pr i se I f ound an
Engl i sh- speaki ng man, who pr oved t o be an Amer i can. I di d
not have l ong t o wai t i n or der t o f i nd out what br ought hi m
t her e, f or he was ver y l onesome and di sposed t o t al k. Hi s
name was McLucki e, and up t o 1892 he had been a ski l l ed
mechani c i n t he empl oy of t he Car negi e St eel Wor ks at
Homest ead. He was what was cal l ed a " t op hand, " r ecei ved
l ar ge wages, was mar r i ed, and at t hat t i me had a home and
consi der abl e pr oper t y. I n addi t i on, he had been honor ed by
hi s f el l ow- t ownsmen and had been made bur gomast er of
Homest ead.

When t he st r i ke of 1892 came McLucki e nat ur al l y si ded wi t h
t he st r i ker s, and i n hi s capaci t y as bur gomast er gave t he
or der t o ar r est t he Pi nker t on det ect i ves who had come t o
Homest ead by st eamer t o pr ot ect t he wor ks and pr eser ve
or der . He bel i eved he was f ul l y j ust i f i ed i n doi ng t hi s. As
he expl ai ned i t t o me, t he det ect i ves wer e an ar med f or ce
i nvadi ng hi s bai l i wi ck, and he had a r i ght t o ar r est and
di sar mt hem. The or der l ed t o bl oodshed, and t he conf l i ct
was begun i n r eal ear nest .

The st or y of t he st r i ke i s, of cour se, wel l known t o al l .
The st r i ker s wer e f i nal l y def eat ed. As f or McLucki e, he was
i ndi ct ed f or mur der , r i ot , t r eason, and I know not what
ot her of f enses. He was compel l ed t o f l ee f r omt he St at e, was
wounded, st ar ved, pur sued by t he of f i cer s of t he l aw, and
obl i ged t o go i nt o hi di ng unt i l t he st or mbl ew over . Then he
f ound t hat he was bl ackl i st ed by al l t he st eel men i n t he
Uni t ed St at es and coul d not get empl oyment anywher e. Hi s
money was gone, and, as a f i nal bl ow, hi s wi f e di ed and hi s
Page 137 of 222
home was br oken up. Af t er many vi ci ssi t udes he r esol ved t o
go t o Mexi co, and at t he t i me I met hi mhe was t r yi ng t o get
empl oyment i n t he mi nes about f i f t een mi l es f r omLa Nor i a
Ver de. But he was t oo good a mechani c f or t he Mexi cans, who
r equi r ed i n mi ni ng t he cheapest ki nd of unski l l ed peon
l abor . He coul d get not hi ng t o do and had no money. He was
l i t er al l y down t o hi s l ast copper . Nat ur al l y, as he t ol d t he
st or y of hi s mi sf or t unes, I f el t ver y sor r y f or hi m,
especi al l y as he was a most i nt el l i gent per son and di d no
unnecessar y whi ni ng about hi s t r oubl es.

I do not t hi nk I t ol d hi mat t he t i me t hat I knew Mr .
Car negi e and had been wi t h hi mat Cl uny i n Scot l and shor t l y
af t er t he Homest ead st r i ke, nor t hat I knew f r omMr .
Car negi e t he ot her si de of t he st or y. But McLucki e was
r at her car ef ul not t o bl ame Mr . Car negi e, sayi ng t o me
sever al t i mes t hat i f " Andy" had been t her e t he t r oubl e
woul d never have ar i sen. He seemed t o t hi nk " t he boys"
coul d get on ver y wel l wi t h " Andy" but not so wel l wi t h some
of hi s par t ner s.

I was at t he r anch f or a week and saw a good deal of
McLucki e i n t he eveni ngs. When I l ef t t her e, I went di r ect l y
t o Tucson, Ar i zona, and f r omt her e I had occasi on t o wr i t e
t o Mr . Car negi e, and i n t he l et t er I t ol d hi mabout meet i ng
wi t h McLucki e. I added t hat I f el t ver y sor r y f or t he man
and t hought he had been t r eat ed r at her badl y. Mr . Car negi e
answer ed at once, and on t he mar gi n of t he l et t er wr ot e i n
l ead penci l : " Gi ve McLucki e al l t he money he want s, but
don' t ment i on my name. " I wr ot e t o McLucki e i mmedi at el y,
of f er i ng hi mwhat money he needed, ment i oni ng no sum, but
gi vi ng hi mt o under st and t hat i t woul d be suf f i ci ent t o put
hi mon hi s f eet agai n. He decl i ned i t . He sai d he woul d
f i ght i t out and make hi s own way, whi ch was t he
r i ght - enough Amer i can spi r i t . I coul d not hel p but admi r e i t
i n hi m.

As I r emember now, I spoke about hi ml at er t o a f r i end, Mr .
J . A. Naugl e, t he gener al manager of t he Sonor a Rai l way. At
any r at e, McLucki e got a j ob wi t h t he r ai l way at dr i vi ng
wel l s, and made a gr eat success of i t . A year l at er , or
per haps i t was i n t he aut umn of t he same year , I agai n met
hi mat Guaymas, wher e he was super i nt endi ng some r epai r s on
hi s machi ner y at t he r ai l way shops. He was much changed f or
t he bet t er , seemed happy, and t o add t o hi s cont ent ment , had
t aken unt o hi msel f a Mexi can wi f e. And now t hat hi s sky was
cl ear ed, I was anxi ous t o t el l hi mt he t r ut h about my of f er
t hat he mi ght not t hi nk unj ust l y of t hose who had been
compel l ed t o f i ght hi m. So bef or e I l ef t hi m, I sai d,

" McLucki e, I want you t o know now t hat t he money I of f er ed
you was not mi ne. That was Andr ew Car negi e' s money. I t was
hi s of f er , made t hr ough me. "

McLucki e was f ai r l y st unned, and al l he coul d say was:

" Wel l , t hat was damned whi t e of Andy, wasn' t i t ?"
Page 138 of 222

I woul d r at her r i sk t hat ver di ct of McLucki e' s as a passpor t t o
Par adi se t han al l t he t heol ogi cal dogmas i nvent ed by man. I knew
McLucki e wel l as a good f el l ow. I t was sai d hi s pr oper t y i n Homest ead
was wor t h t hi r t y t housand dol l ar s. He was under ar r est f or t he
shoot i ng of t he pol i ce of f i cer s because he was t he bur gomast er , and
al so t he chai r man of t he Men' s Commi t t ee of Homest ead. He had t o f l y,
l eavi ng al l behi nd hi m.

Af t er t hi s st or y got i nt o pr i nt , t he f ol l owi ng ski t appear ed i n t he
newspaper s because I had decl ar ed I ' d r at her have McLucki e' s f ew wor ds
on my t ombst one t han any ot her i nscr i pt i on, f or i t i ndi cat ed I had
been ki nd t o one of our wor kmen:

" J UST BY THE WAY"

SANDY ON ANDY

Oh! hae ye hear ed what Andy' s spi er ed t o hae upo' hi s t omb,
When a' hi s gowd i s gi e' n awa an' Deat h has seal ed hi s doom!
Nae Scr i pt ur ' l i ne wi ' t r i but e f i ne t hat deal er s aye keep handy,
But j ui st t hi s i r r el eegi ous scr eed- - " That ' s damned whi t e of Andy! "

The gude Scot l aughs at epi t aphs t hat ar e but meant t o f l at t er ,
But never ar e was sae pr of ane, an' t hat ' s nae l aughi n' mat t er .
Yet , gi n he gi es hi s si l l er al l awa, mon, he' s a dandy,
An' we' l l admi t hi s r i ght t o i t , f or " That ' s damned whi t e of Andy! "

Ther e' s not t o be a " bi g, bi g D, " an' t hen a dash t her eaf t er ,
For Andy woul d na spoi l t he wor d by t r yi ng t o make i t saf t er ;
He' s not t he l ad t o j uggl e t er ms, or soot hi ng speech t o bandy.
A bl unt , st r ai ght f or war d mon i s he- - an' " That ' s damned whi t e of Andy! "

Sae when he' s dei d, we' l l gi e good heed, an' wr i t e i t as he aski t ;
We' l l car ve i t on hi s headst one an' we' l l st amp i t on hi s casket :
" Wha dees r i ch, dees di sgr aced, " says he, an' sur e' s my name i s Sandy,
' T wul l be nae r i ch man t hat he' l l dee- - an' " That ' s damned whi t e
of Andy! " [ 43]

[ Foot not e 43: Mr . Car negi e was ver y f ond of t hi s st or y because, bei ng
human, he was f ond of appl ause and, bei ng a Rober t Bur ns r adi cal , he
pr ef er r ed t he appl ause of Labor t o t hat of Rank. That one of hi s men
t hought he had act ed " whi t e" pl eased hi mbeyond measur e. He st opped
shor t wi t h t hat t r i but e and never asked, never knew, why or how t he
st or y happened t o be t ol d. Per haps t hi s i s t he t i me and pl ace t o t el l
t he st or y of t he st or y.

Somet i me i n 1901 over a di nner t abl e i n New Yor k, I hear d a st at ement
r egar di ng Mr . Car negi e t hat he never gave anyt hi ng wi t hout t he
r equi r ement t hat hi s name be at t ached t o t he gi f t . The r emar k came
f r oma pr omi nent man who shoul d have known he was t al ki ng nonsense. I t
r at her anger ed me. I deni ed t he st at ement , sayi ng t hat I , per sonal l y,
had gi ven away money f or Mr . Car negi e t hat onl y he and I knew about ,
and t hat he had gi ven many t housands i n t hi s way t hr ough ot her s. By
way of i l l ust r at i on I t ol d t he st or y about McLucki e. A Pi t t sbur gh man
at t he t abl e car r i ed t he st or y back t o Pi t t sbur gh, t ol d i t t her e, and
i t f i nal l y got i nt o t he newspaper s. Of cour se t he ar gument of t he
Page 139 of 222
st or y, namel y, t hat Mr . Car negi e somet i mes gave wi t hout publ i ci t y, was
l ost si ght of and onl y t he r ef r ai n, " I t was damned whi t e of Andy, "
r emai ned. Mr . Car negi e never knew t hat t her e was an ar gument . He l i ked
t he r ef r ai n. Some year s af t er war d at Ski bo ( 1906) , when he was wr i t i ng
t hi s Aut obi ogr aphy, he asked me i f I woul d not wr i t e out t he st or y f or
hi m. I di d so. I amnow gl ad of t he chance t o wr i t e an expl anat or y
not e about i t . . . . _J ohn C. Van Dyke. _]




Page 140 of 222
CHAPTER XVIII

PROBLEMS OF LABOR


I shoul d l i ke t o r ecor d her e some of t he l abor di sput es I have had t o
deal wi t h, as t hese may poi nt a mor al t o bot h capi t al and l abor .

The wor ker s at t he bl ast f ur naces i n our st eel - r ai l wor ks once sent i n
a " r ound- r obi n" st at i ng t hat unl ess t he f i r mgave t heman advance of
wages by Monday af t er noon at f our o' cl ock t hey woul d l eave t he
f ur naces. Now, t he scal e upon whi ch t hese men had agr eed t o wor k di d
not l apse unt i l t he end of t he year , sever al mont hs of f . I f el t i f men
woul d br eak an agr eement t her e was no use i n maki ng a second agr eement
wi t h t hem, but never t hel ess I t ook t he ni ght t r ai n f r omNew Yor k and
was at t he wor ks ear l y i n t he mor ni ng.

I asked t he super i nt endent t o cal l t oget her t he t hr ee commi t t ees whi ch
gover ned t he wor ks- - not onl y t he bl ast - f ur nace commi t t ee t hat was
al one i nvol ved, but t he mi l l and t he conver t i ng wor ks commi t t ees as
wel l . They appear ed and, of cour se, wer e r ecei ved by me wi t h gr eat
cour t esy, not because i t was good pol i cy t o be cour t eous, but because
I have al ways enj oyed meet i ng our men. I ambound t o say t hat t he mor e
I know of wor ki ng- men t he hi gher I r at e t hei r vi r t ues. But i t i s wi t h
t hemas Bar r i e says wi t h women: " Doot l ess t he Lor d made a' t hi ngs
weel , but he l ef t some mi cht y queer ki nks i n women. " They have t hei r
pr ej udi ces and " r ed r ags, " whi ch have t o be r espect ed, f or t he mai n
r oot of t r oubl e i s i gnor ance, not host i l i t y. The commi t t ee sat i n a
semi ci r cl e bef or e me, al l wi t h t hei r hat s of f , of cour se, as mi ne
was al so; and r eal l y t her e was t he appear ance of a model assembl y.

Addr essi ng t he chai r man of t he mi l l commi t t ee, I sai d:

" Mr . Mackay" ( he was an ol d gent l eman and wor e spect acl es) , " have we
an agr eement wi t h you cover i ng t he r emai nder of t he year ?"

Taki ng t he spect acl es of f sl owl y, and hol di ng t hemi n hi s hand, he
sai d:

" Yes, si r , you have, Mr . Car negi e, and you haven' t got enough money t o
make us br eak i t ei t her . "

" Ther e spoke t he t r ue Amer i can wor kman, " I sai d. " I ampr oud of you. "

" Mr . J ohnson" ( who was chai r man of t he r ai l conver t er s' commi t t ee) ,
" have we a si mi l ar agr eement wi t h you?"

Mr . J ohnson was a smal l , spar e man; he spoke ver y del i ber at el y:

" Mr . Car negi e, when an agr eement i s pr esent ed t o me t o si gn, I r ead i t
car ef ul l y, and i f i t don' t sui t me, I don' t si gn i t , and i f i t does
sui t me, I do si gn i t , and when I si gn i t I keep i t . "

" Ther e agai n speaks t he sel f - r espect i ng Amer i can wor kman, " I sai d.

Tur ni ng now t o t he chai r man of t he bl ast - f ur naces commi t t ee, an
Page 141 of 222
I r i shman named Kel l y, I addr essed t he same quest i on t o hi m:

" Mr . Kel l y, have we an agr eement wi t h you cover i ng t he r emai nder of
t hi s year ?"

Mr . Kel l y answer ed t hat he coul dn' t say exact l y. Ther e was a paper
sent r ound and he si gned i t , but di dn' t r ead i t over car ef ul l y, and
di dn' t under st and j ust what was i n i t . At t hi s moment our
super i nt endent , Capt ai n J ones, excel l ent manager , but i mpul si ve,
excl ai med abr upt l y:

" Now, Mr . Kel l y, you know I r ead t hat over t wi ce and di scussed i t wi t h
you! "

" Or der , or der , Capt ai n! Mr . Kel l y i s ent i t l ed t o gi ve hi s expl anat i on.
I si gn many a paper t hat I do not r ead- - document s our l awyer s and
par t ner s pr esent t o me t o si gn. Mr . Kel l y st at es t hat he si gned t hi s
document under such ci r cumst ances and hi s st at ement must be r ecei ved.
But , Mr . Kel l y, I have al ways f ound t hat t he best way i s t o car r y out
t he pr ovi si ons of t he agr eement one si gns car el essl y and r esol ve t o be
mor e car ef ul next t i me. Woul d i t not be bet t er f or you t o cont i nue
f our mont hs l onger under t hi s agr eement , and t hen, when you si gn t he
next one, see t hat you under st and i t ?"

Ther e was no answer t o t hi s, and I ar ose and sai d:

" Gent l emen of t he Bl ast - Fur nace Commi t t ee, you have t hr eat ened our
f i r mt hat you wi l l br eak your agr eement and t hat you wi l l l eave t hese
bl ast f ur naces ( whi ch means di sast er ) unl ess you get a f avor abl e
answer t o your t hr eat by f our o' cl ock t o- day. I t i s not yet t hr ee, but
your answer i s r eady. You may l eave t he bl ast f ur naces. The gr ass wi l l
gr ow ar ound t hembef or e we yi el d t o your t hr eat . The wor st day t hat
l abor has ever seen i n t hi s wor l d i s t hat day i n whi ch i t di shonor s
i t sel f by br eaki ng i t s agr eement . You have your answer . "

The commi t t ee f i l ed out sl owl y and t her e was si l ence among t he
par t ner s. A st r anger who was comi ng i n on busi ness met t he commi t t ee
i n t he passage and he r epor t ed:

" As I came i n, a man wear i ng spect acl es pushed up al ongsi de of an
I r i shman he cal l ed Kel l y, and he sai d: ' You f el l ows mi ght j ust as wel l
under st and i t now as l at er . Ther e' s t o be no d- - - - d monkeyi ng r ound
t hese wor ks. ' "

That meant busi ness. Lat er we hear d f r omone of our cl er ks what t ook
pl ace at t he f ur naces. Kel l y and hi s commi t t ee mar ched down t o t hem.
Of cour se, t he men wer e wai t i ng and wat chi ng f or t he commi t t ee and a
cr owd had gat her ed. When t he f ur naces wer e r eached, Kel l y cal l ed out
t o t hem:

" Get t o wor k, you spal peens, what ar e you doi ng her e? Begor r a, t he
l i t t l e boss j ust hi t f r omt he shoul der . He won' t f i ght , but he says he
has sat down, and begor r a, we al l know he' l l be a skel et on af or e he
r i ses. Get t o wor k, ye spal peens. "

The I r i sh and Scot ch- I r i sh ar e queer , but t he easi est and best f el l ows
t o get on wi t h, i f you onl y know how. That man Kel l y was my st anch
Page 142 of 222
f r i end and admi r er ever af t er war d, and he was bef or e t hat one of our
most vi ol ent men. My exper i ence i s t hat you can al ways r el y upon t he
gr eat body of wor ki ng- men t o do what i s r i ght , pr ovi ded t hey have not
t aken up a posi t i on and pr omi sed t hei r l eader s t o st and by t hem. But
t hei r l oyal t y t o t hei r l eader s even when mi st aken, i s somet hi ng t o
make us pr oud of t hem. Anyt hi ng can be done wi t h men who have t hi s
f eel i ng of l oyal t y wi t hi n t hem. They onl y need t o be t r eat ed f ai r l y.

The way a st r i ke was once br oken at our st eel - r ai l mi l l s i s
i nt er est i ng. Her e agai n, I amsor r y t o say, one hundr ed and
t hi r t y- f our men i n one depar t ment had bound t hemsel ves under secr et
oat h t o demand i ncr eased wages at t he end of t he year , sever al mont hs
away. The new year pr oved ver y unf avor abl e f or busi ness, and ot her
i r on and st eel manuf act ur er s t hr oughout t he count r y had ef f ect ed
r educt i ons i n wages. Never t hel ess, t hese men, havi ng secr et l y swor n
mont hs pr evi ousl y t hat t hey woul d not wor k unl ess t hey got i ncr eased
wages, t hought t hemsel ves bound t o i nsi st upon t hei r demands. We coul d
not advance wages when our compet i t or s wer e r educi ng t hem, and t he
wor ks wer e st opped i n consequence. Ever y depar t ment of t he wor ks was
br ought t o a st and by t hese st r i ker s. The bl ast f ur naces wer e
abandoned a day or t wo bef or e t he t i me agr eed upon, and we wer e
gr eat l y t r oubl ed i n consequence.

I went t o Pi t t sbur gh and was sur pr i sed t o f i nd t he f ur naces had been
banked, cont r ar y t o agr eement . I was t o meet t he men i n t he mor ni ng
upon ar r i val at Pi t t sbur gh, but a message was sent t o me f r omt he
wor ks st at i ng t hat t he men had " l ef t t he f ur naces and woul d meet me
t o- mor r ow. " Her e was a ni ce r ecept i on! My r epl y was:

" No t hey won' t . Tel l t hemI shal l not be her e t o- mor r ow. Anybody can
st op wor k; t he t r i ck i s t o st ar t i t agai n. Some f i ne day t hese men
wi l l want t he wor ks st ar t ed and wi l l be l ooki ng ar ound f or somebody
who can st ar t t hem, and I wi l l t el l t hemt hen j ust what I do now: t hat
t he wor ks wi l l never st ar t except upon a sl i di ng scal e based upon t he
pr i ces we get f or our pr oduct s. That scal e wi l l l ast t hr ee year s and
i t wi l l not be submi t t ed by t he men. They have submi t t ed many scal es
t o us. I t i s our t ur n now, and we ar e goi ng t o submi t a scal e t o t hem.

" Now, " I sai d t o my par t ner s, " I amgoi ng back t o New Yor k i n t he
af t er noon. Not hi ng mor e i s t o be done. "

A shor t t i me af t er my message was r ecei ved by t he men t hey asked i f
t hey coul d come i n and see me t hat af t er noon bef or e I l ef t .

I answer ed: " Cer t ai nl y! "

They came i n and I sai d t o t hem:

" Gent l emen, your chai r man her e, Mr . Bennet t , assur ed you t hat I woul d
make my appear ance and set t l e wi t h you i n some way or ot her , as I
al ways have set t l ed. That i s t r ue. And he t ol d you t hat I woul d not
f i ght , whi ch i s al so t r ue. He i s a t r ue pr ophet . But he t ol d you
somet hi ng el se i n whi ch he was sl i ght l y mi st aken. He sai d I _coul d_
not f i ght . Gent l emen, " l ooki ng Mr . Bennet t st r ai ght i n t he eye and
cl osi ng and r ai si ng my f i st , " he f or got t hat I was Scot ch. But I wi l l
t el l you somet hi ng; I wi l l never f i ght you. I know bet t er t han t o
f i ght l abor . I wi l l not f i ght , but I can beat any commi t t ee t hat was
Page 143 of 222
ever made at si t t i ng down, and I have sat down. These wor ks wi l l never
st ar t unt i l t he men vot e by a t wo- t hi r ds maj or i t y t o st ar t t hem, and
t hen, as I t ol d you t hi s mor ni ng, t hey wi l l st ar t on our sl i di ng
scal e. I have not hi ng mor e t o say. "

They r et i r ed. I t was about t wo weeks af t er war ds t hat one of t he house
ser vant s came t o my l i br ar y i n New Yor k wi t h a car d, and I f ound upon
i t t he names of t wo of our wor kmen, and al so t he name of a r ever end
gent l eman. The men sai d t hey wer e f r omt he wor ks at Pi t t sbur gh and
woul d l i ke t o see me.

" Ask i f ei t her of t hese gent l emen bel ongs t o t he bl ast - f ur nace wor ker s
who banked t he f ur naces cont r ar y t o agr eement . "

The man r et ur ned and sai d " No. " I r epl i ed: " I n t hat case go down and
t el l t hemt hat I shal l be pl eased t o have t hemcome up. "

Of cour se t hey wer e r ecei ved wi t h genui ne war mt h and cor di al i t y and we
sat and t al ked about New Yor k, f or some t i me, t hi s bei ng t hei r f i r st
vi si t .

" Mr . Car negi e, we r eal l y came t o t al k about t he t r oubl e at t he wor ks, "
t he mi ni st er sai d at l ast .

" Oh, i ndeed! " I answer ed. " Have t he men vot ed?"

" No, " he sai d.

My r ej oi nder was:

" You wi l l have t o excuse me f r oment er i ng upon t hat subj ect ; I sai d I
never woul d di scuss i t unt i l t hey vot ed by a t wo- t hi r ds maj or i t y t o
st ar t t he mi l l s. Gent l emen, you have never seen New Yor k. Let me t ake
you out and show you Fi f t h Avenue and t he Par k, and we shal l come back
her e t o l unch at hal f - past one. "

Thi s we di d, t al ki ng about ever yt hi ng except t he one t hi ng t hat t hey
wi shed t o t al k about . We had a good t i me, and I know t hey enj oyed
t hei r l unch. Ther e i s one gr eat di f f er ence bet ween t he Amer i can
wor ki ng- man and t he f or ei gner . The Amer i can i s a man; he si t s down at
l unch wi t h peopl e as i f he wer e ( as he gener al l y i s) a gent l eman bor n.
I t i s spl endi d.

They r et ur ned t o Pi t t sbur gh, not anot her wor d havi ng been sai d about
t he wor ks. But t he men soon vot ed ( t her e wer e ver y f ew vot es agai nst
st ar t i ng) and I went agai n t o Pi t t sbur gh. I l ai d bef or e t he commi t t ee
t he scal e under whi ch t hey wer e t o wor k. I t was a sl i di ng scal e based
on t he pr i ce of t he pr oduct . Such a scal e r eal l y makes capi t al and
l abor par t ner s, shar i ng pr osper ous and di sast r ous t i mes t oget her . Of
cour se i t has a mi ni mum, so t hat t he men ar e al ways sur e of l i vi ng
wages. As t he men had seen t hese scal es, i t was unnecessar y t o go over
t hem. The chai r man sai d:

" Mr . Car negi e, we wi l l agr ee t o ever yt hi ng. And now, " he sai d
hesi t at i ngl y, " we have one f avor t o ask of you, and we hope you wi l l
not r ef use i t . "

Page 144 of 222
" Wel l , gent l emen, i f i t be r easonabl e I shal l sur el y gr ant i t . "

" Wel l , i t i s t hi s: That you per mi t t he of f i cer s of t he uni on t o si gn
t hese paper s f or t he men. "

" Why, cer t ai nl y, gent l emen! Wi t h t he gr eat est pl easur e! And t hen I
have a smal l f avor t o ask of you, whi ch I hope you wi l l not r ef use, as
I have gr ant ed your s. J ust t o pl ease me, af t er t he of f i cer s have
si gned, l et ever y wor kman si gn al so f or hi msel f . You see, Mr .
Bennet t , t hi s scal e l ast s f or t hr ee year s, and some man, or body of
men, mi ght di sput e whet her your pr esi dent of t he uni on had aut hor i t y
t o bi nd t hemf or so l ong, but i f we have hi s si gnat ur e al so, t her e
cannot be any mi sunder st andi ng. "

Ther e was a pause; t hen one man at hi s si de whi sper ed t o Mr . Bennet t
( but I hear d hi mper f ect l y) :

" By gol l y, t he j i g' s up! "

So i t was, but i t was not by di r ect at t ack, but by a f l ank movement .
Had I not al l owed t he uni on of f i cer s t o si gn, t hey woul d have had a
gr i evance and an excuse f or war . As i t was, havi ng al l owed t hemt o do
so, how coul d t hey r ef use so si mpl e a r equest as mi ne, t hat each f r ee
and i ndependent Amer i can ci t i zen shoul d al so si gn f or hi msel f . My
r ecol l ect i on i s t hat as a mat t er of f act t he of f i cer s of t he uni on
never si gned, but t hey may have done so. Why shoul d t hey, i f ever y
man' s si gnat ur e was r equi r ed? Besi des t hi s, t he wor kmen, knowi ng t hat
t he uni on coul d do not hi ng f or t hemwhen t he scal e was adopt ed,
negl ect ed t o pay dues and t he uni on was deser t ed. We never hear d of i t
agai n. [ That was i n 1889, now t went y- seven year s ago. The scal e has
never been changed. The men woul d not change i t i f t hey coul d; i t
wor ks f or t hei r benef i t , as I t ol d t hemi t woul d. ]

Of al l my ser vi ces r ender ed t o l abor t he i nt r oduct i on of t he sl i di ng
scal e i s chi ef . I t i s t he sol ut i on of t he capi t al and l abor pr obl em,
because i t r eal l y makes t hempar t ner s- - al i ke i n pr osper i t y and
adver si t y. Ther e was a year l y scal e i n oper at i on i n t he Pi t t sbur gh
di st r i ct i n t he ear l y year s, but i t i s not a good pl an because men and
empl oyer s at once begi n pr epar i ng f or a st r uggl e whi ch i s al most
cer t ai n t o come. I t i s f ar bet t er f or bot h empl oyer s and empl oyed t o
set no dat e f or an agr eed- upon scal e t o end. I t shoul d be subj ect t o
si x mont hs' or a year ' s not i ce on ei t her si de, and i n t hat way mi ght
and pr obabl y woul d r un on f or year s.

To show upon what t r i f l es a cont est bet ween capi t al and l abor may
t ur n, l et me t el l of t wo i nst ances whi ch wer e ami cabl y set t l ed by mer e
i nci dent s of seemi ngl y l i t t l e consequence. Once when I went out t o
meet a men' s commi t t ee, whi ch had i n our opi ni on made unf ai r demands,
I was i nf or med t hat t hey wer e i nf l uenced by a man who secr et l y owned a
dr i nki ng sal oon, al t hough wor ki ng i n t he mi l l s. He was a gr eat bul l y.
The sober , qui et wor kmen wer e af r ai d of hi m, and t he dr i nki ng men wer e
hi s debt or s. He was t he r eal i nst i gat or of t he movement .

We met i n t he usual f r i endl y f ashi on. I was gl ad t o see t he men, many
of whomI had l ong known and coul d cal l by name. When we sat down at
t he t abl e t he l eader ' s seat was at one end and mi ne at t he ot her . We
t her ef or e f aced each ot her . Af t er I had l ai d our pr oposi t i on bef or e
Page 145 of 222
t he meet i ng, I saw t he l eader pi ck up hi s hat f r omt he f l oor and
sl owl y put i t on hi s head, i nt i mat i ng t hat he was about t o depar t .
Her e was my chance.

" Si r , you ar e i n t he pr esence of gent l emen! Pl ease be so good as t o
t ake your hat of f or l eave t he r oom! "

My eyes wer e kept f ul l upon hi m. Ther e was a si l ence t hat coul d be
f el t . The gr eat bul l y hesi t at ed, but I knew what ever he di d, he was
beat en. I f he l ef t i t was because he had t r eat ed t he meet i ng
di scour t eousl y by keepi ng hi s hat on, he was no gent l eman; i f he
r emai ned and t ook of f hi s hat , he had been cr ushed by t he r ebuke. I
di dn' t car e whi ch cour se he t ook. He had onl y t wo and ei t her of t hem
was f at al . He had del i ver ed hi msel f i nt o my hands. He ver y sl owl y t ook
of f t he hat and put i t on t he f l oor . Not a wor d di d he speak
t her eaf t er i n t hat conf er ence. I was t ol d af t er war d t hat he had t o
l eave t he pl ace. The men r ej oi ced i n t he epi sode and a set t l ement was
har moni ousl y ef f ect ed.

When t he t hr ee year s' scal e was pr oposed t o t he men, a commi t t ee of
si xt een was chosen by t hemt o conf er wi t h us. Li t t l e pr ogr ess was made
at f i r st , and I announced my engagement s compel l ed me t o r et ur n t he
next day t o New Yor k. I nqui r y was made as t o whet her we woul d meet a
commi t t ee of t hi r t y- t wo, as t he men wi shed ot her s added t o t he
commi t t ee- - a sur e si gn of di vi si on i n t hei r r anks. Of cour se we
agr eed. The commi t t ee came f r omt he wor ks t o meet me at t he of f i ce i n
Pi t t sbur gh. The pr oceedi ngs wer e opened by one of our best men, Bi l l y
Edwar ds ( I r emember hi mwel l ; he r ose t o hi gh posi t i on af t er war ds) ,
who t hought t hat t he t ot al of f er ed was f ai r , but t hat t he scal e was
not equabl e. Some depar t ment s wer e al l r i ght , ot her s wer e not f ai r l y
deal t wi t h. Most of t he men wer e nat ur al l y of t hi s opi ni on, but when
t hey came t o i ndi cat e t he under pai d, t her e was a di f f er ence, as was t o
be expect ed. No t wo men i n t he di f f er ent depar t ment s coul d agr ee.
Bi l l y began:

" Mr . Car negi e, we agr ee t hat t he t ot al sumper t on t o be pai d i s f ai r ,
but we t hi nk i t i s not pr oper l y di st r i but ed among us. Now, Mr .
Car negi e, you t ake my j ob- - "

" Or der , or der ! " I cr i ed. " None of t hat , Bi l l y. Mr . Car negi e ' t akes no
man' s j ob. ' Taki ng anot her ' s j ob i s an unpar donabl e of f ense among
hi gh- cl assed wor kmen. "

Ther e was l oud l aught er , f ol l owed by appl ause, and t hen mor e l aught er .
I l aughed wi t h t hem. We had scor ed on Bi l l y. Of cour se t he di sput e was
soon set t l ed. I t i s not sol el y, of t en i t i s not chi ef l y, a mat t er of
dol l ar s wi t h wor kmen. Appr eci at i on, ki nd t r eat ment , a f ai r
deal - - t hese ar e of t en t he pot ent f or ces wi t h t he Amer i can wor kmen.

Empl oyer s can do so many desi r abl e t hi ngs f or t hei r men at l i t t l e
cost . At one meet i ng when I asked what we coul d do f or t hem, I
r emember t hi s same Bi l l y Edwar ds r ose and sai d t hat most of t he men
had t o r un i n debt t o t he st or ekeeper s because t hey wer e pai d mont hl y.
Wel l I r emember hi s wor ds:

" I have a good woman f or wi f e who manages wel l . We go i nt o Pi t t sbur gh
ever y f our t h Sat ur day af t er noon and buy our suppl i es whol esal e f or t he
Page 146 of 222
next mont h and save one t hi r d. Not many of your men can do t hi s.
Shopkeeper s her e char ge so much. And anot her t hi ng, t hey char ge ver y
hi gh f or coal . I f you pai d your men ever y t wo weeks, i nst ead of
mont hl y, i t woul d be as good f or t he car ef ul men as a r ai se i n wages
of t en per cent or mor e. "

" Mr . Edwar ds, t hat shal l be done, " I r epl i ed.

I t i nvol ved i ncr eased l abor and a f ew mor e cl er ks, but t hat was a
smal l mat t er . The r emar k about hi gh pr i ces char ged set me t o t hi nki ng
why t he men coul d not open a coper at i ve st or e. Thi s was al so
ar r anged- - t he f i r magr eei ng t o pay t he r ent of t he bui l di ng, but
i nsi st i ng t hat t he men t hemsel ves t ake t he st ock and manage i t . Out of
t hat came t he Br addock' s Coper at i ve Soci et y, a val uabl e i nst i t ut i on
f or many r easons, not t he l east of t hemt hat i t t aught t he men t hat
busi ness had i t s di f f i cul t i es.

The coal t r oubl e was cur ed ef f ect i vel y by our agr eei ng t hat t he
company sel l al l i t s men coal at t he net cost pr i ce t o us ( about hal f
of what had been char ged by coal deal er s, so I was t ol d) and ar r angi ng
t o del i ver i t at t he men' s houses- - t he buyer payi ng onl y act ual cost
of car t age.

Ther e was anot her mat t er . We f ound t hat t he men' s savi ngs caused t hem
anxi et y, f or l i t t l e f ai t h have t he pr udent , savi ng men i n banks and,
unf or t unat el y, our Gover nment at t hat t i me di d not f ol l ow t he Br i t i sh
i n havi ng post - of f i ce deposi t banks. We of f er ed t o t ake t he act ual
savi ngs of each wor kman, up t o t wo t housand dol l ar s, and pay si x per
cent i nt er est upon t hem, t o encour age t hr i f t . Thei r money was kept
separ at e f r omt he busi ness, i n a t r ust f und, and l ent t o such as
wi shed t o bui l d homes f or t hemsel ves. I consi der t hi s one of t he best
t hi ngs t hat can be done f or t he savi ng wor kman.

I t was such concessi ons as t hese t hat pr oved t he most pr of i t abl e
i nvest ment s ever made by t he company, even f r oman economi cal
st andpoi nt . I t pays t o go beyond t he l et t er of t he bond wi t h your men.
Two of my par t ner s, as Mr . Phi pps has put i t , " knew my ext r eme
di sposi t i on t o al ways gr ant t he demands of l abor , however
unr easonabl e, " but l ooki ng back upon my f ai l i ng i n t hi s r espect , I
wi sh i t had been gr eat er - - much gr eat er . No expendi t ur e r et ur ned such
di vi dends as t he f r i endshi p of our wor kmen.

We soon had a body of wor kmen, I t r ul y bel i eve, whol l y unequal ed- - t he
best wor kmen and t he best men ever dr awn t oget her . Quar r el s and
st r i kes became t hi ngs of t he past . Had t he Homest ead men been our own
ol d men, i nst ead of men we had t o pi ck up, i t i s scar cel y possi bl e
t hat t he t r oubl e t her e i n 1892 coul d have ar i sen. The scal e at t he
st eel - r ai l mi l l s, i nt r oduced i n 1889, has been r unni ng up t o t he
pr esent t i me ( 1914) , and I t hi nk t her e never has been a l abor
gr i evance at t he wor ks si nce. The men, as I have al r eady st at ed,
di ssol ved t hei r ol d uni on because t her e was no use payi ng dues t o a
uni on when t he men t hemsel ves had a t hr ee year s' cont r act . Al t hough
t hei r l abor uni on i s di ssol ved anot her and a bet t er one has t aken i t s
pl ace- - a cor di al uni on bet ween t he empl oyer s and t hei r men, t he best
uni on of al l f or bot h par t i es.

I t i s f or t he i nt er est of t he empl oyer t hat hi s men shal l make good
Page 147 of 222
ear ni ngs and have st eady wor k. The sl i di ng scal e enabl es t he company
t o meet t he mar ket ; and somet i mes t o t ake or der s and keep t he wor ks
r unni ng, whi ch i s t he mai n t hi ng f or t he wor ki ng- men. Hi gh wages ar e
wel l enough, but t hey ar e not t o be compar ed wi t h st eady empl oyment .
The Edgar Thomson Mi l l s ar e, i n my opi ni on, t he i deal wor ks i n r espect
t o t he r el at i ons of capi t al and l abor . I amt ol d t he men i n our day,
and even t o t hi s day ( 1914) pr ef er t wo t o t hr ee t ur ns, but t hr ee t ur ns
ar e sur e t o come. Labor ' s hour s ar e t o be shor t ened as we pr ogr ess.
Ei ght hour s wi l l be t he r ul e- - ei ght f or wor k, ei ght f or sl eep, and
ei ght f or r est and r ecr eat i on.

Ther e have been many i nci dent s i n my busi ness l i f e pr ovi ng t hat l abor
t r oubl es ar e not sol el y f ounded upon wages. I bel i eve t he best
pr event i ve of quar r el s t o be r ecogni t i on of , and si ncer e i nt er est i n,
t he men, sat i sf yi ng t hemt hat you r eal l y car e f or t hemand t hat you
r ej oi ce i n t hei r success. Thi s I can si ncer el y say- - t hat I al ways
enj oyed my conf er ences wi t h our wor kmen, whi ch wer e not al ways i n
r egar d t o wages, and t hat t he bet t er I knew t he men t he mor e I l i ked
t hem. They have usual l y t wo vi r t ues t o t he empl oyer ' s one, and t hey
ar e cer t ai nl y mor e gener ous t o each ot her .

Labor i s usual l y hel pl ess agai nst capi t al . The empl oyer , per haps,
deci des t o shut up t he shops; he ceases t o make pr of i t s f or a shor t
t i me. Ther e i s no change i n hi s habi t s, f ood, cl ot hi ng, pl easur es- - no
agoni zi ng f ear of want . Cont r ast t hi s wi t h hi s wor kman whose l esseni ng
means of subsi st ence t or ment hi m. He has f ew comf or t s, scar cel y t he
necessi t i es f or hi s wi f e and chi l dr en i n heal t h, and f or t he si ck
l i t t l e ones no pr oper t r eat ment . I t i s not capi t al we need t o guar d,
but hel pl ess l abor . I f I r et ur ned t o busi ness t o- mor r ow, f ear of l abor
t r oubl es woul d not ent er my mi nd, but t ender ness f or poor and
somet i mes mi sgui ded t hough wel l - meani ng l abor er s woul d f i l l my hear t
and sof t en i t ; and t her eby sof t en t hei r s.

Upon my r et ur n t o Pi t t sbur gh i n 1892, af t er t he Homest ead t r oubl e, I
went t o t he wor ks and met many of t he ol d men who had not been
concer ned i n t he r i ot . They expr essed t he opi ni on t hat i f I had been
at home t he st r i ke woul d never have happened. I t ol d t hemt hat t he
company had of f er ed gener ous t er ms and beyond i t s of f er I shoul d not
have gone; t hat bef or e t hei r cabl e r eached me i n Scot l and, t he
Gover nor of t he St at e had appear ed on t he scene wi t h t r oops and wi shed
t he l aw vi ndi cat ed; t hat t he quest i on had t hen passed out of my
par t ner s' hands. I added:

" You wer e badl y advi sed. My par t ner s' of f er shoul d have been accept ed.
I t was ver y gener ous. I don' t know t hat I woul d have of f er ed so much. "

To t hi s one of t he r ol l er s sai d t o me:

" Oh, Mr . Car negi e, i t wasn' t a quest i on of dol l ar s. The boys woul d
have l et you ki ck ' em, but t hey woul dn' t l et t hat ot her man st r oke
t hei r hai r . "

So much does sent i ment count f or i n t he pr act i cal af f ai r s of l i f e,
even wi t h t he l abor i ng cl asses. Thi s i s not gener al l y bel i eved by
t hose who do not know t hem, but I amcer t ai n t hat di sput es about wages
do not account f or one hal f t he di sagr eement s bet ween capi t al and
l abor . Ther e i s l ack of due appr eci at i on and of ki nd t r eat ment of
Page 148 of 222
empl oyees upon t he par t of t he empl oyer s.

Sui t s had been ent er ed agai nst many of t he st r i ker s, but upon my
r et ur n t hese wer e pr ompt l y di smi ssed. Al l t he ol d men who r emai ned,
and had not been gui l t y of vi ol ence, wer e t aken back. I had cabl ed
f r omScot l and ur gi ng t hat Mr . Schwab be sent back t o Homest ead. He had
been onl y r ecent l y pr omot ed t o t he Edgar Thomson Wor ks. He went back,
and " Char l i e, " as he was af f ect i onat el y cal l ed, soon r est or ed or der ,
peace, and har mony. Had he r emai ned at t he Homest ead Wor ks, i n al l
pr obabi l i t y no ser i ous t r oubl e woul d have ar i sen. " Char l i e" l i ked hi s
wor kmen and t hey l i ked hi m; but t her e st i l l r emai ned at Homest ead an
unsat i sf act or y el ement i n t he men who had pr evi ousl y been di scar ded
f r omour var i ous wor ks f or good r easons and had f ound empl oyment at
t he new wor ks bef or e we pur chased t hem.




Page 149 of 222
CHAPTER XIX

THE "GOSPEL OF WEALTH"


Af t er my book, " The Gospel of Weal t h, " [ 44] was publ i shed, i t was
i nevi t abl e t hat I shoul d l i ve up t o i t s t eachi ngs by ceasi ng t o
st r uggl e f or mor e weal t h. I r esol ved t o st op accumul at i ng and begi n
t he i nf i ni t el y mor e ser i ous and di f f i cul t t ask of wi se di st r i but i on.
Our pr of i t s had r eached f or t y mi l l i ons of dol l ar s per year and t he
pr ospect of i ncr eased ear ni ngs bef or e us was amazi ng. Our successor s,
t he Uni t ed St at es St eel Cor por at i on, soon af t er t he pur chase, net t ed
si xt y mi l l i ons i n one year . Had our company cont i nued i n busi ness and
adher ed t o our pl ans of ext ensi on, we f i gur ed t hat sevent y mi l l i ons i n
t hat year mi ght have been ear ned.

[ Foot not e 44: _The Gospel of Weal t h_ ( Cent ur y Company, New Yor k, 1900)
cont ai ns var i ous magazi ne ar t i cl es wr i t t en bet ween 1886 and 1899 and
publ i shed i n t he _Yout h' s Compani on_, t he _Cent ur y Magazi ne_, t he
_Nor t h Amer i can Revi ew_, t he _For um_, t he _Cont empor ar y Revi ew_, t he
_For t ni ght l y Revi ew_, t he _Ni net eent h Cent ur y_, and t he _Scot t i sh
Leader _. Gl adst one asked t hat t he ar t i cl e i n t he _Nor t h Amer i can
Revi ew_ be pr i nt ed i n Engl and. I t was publ i shed i n t he _Pal l Mal l
Budget _ and chr i st ened t he " Gospel of Weal t h. " Gl adst one, Car di nal
Manni ng, Rev. Hugh Pr i ce, and Rev. Dr . Her mann Adl er answer ed i t , and
Mr . Car negi e r epl i ed t o t hem. ]

St eel had ascended t he t hr one and was dr i vi ng away al l i nf er i or
mat er i al . I t was cl ear l y seen t hat t her e was a gr eat f ut ur e ahead; but
so f ar as I was concer ned I knew t he t ask of di st r i but i on bef or e me
woul d t ax me i n my ol d age t o t he ut most . As usual , Shakespear e had
pl aced hi s t al i smani c t ouch upon t he t hought and f r amed t he sent ence- -

" So di st r i but i on shoul d undo excess,
And each man have enough. "

At t hi s j unct ur e- - t hat i s Mar ch, 1901- - Mr . Schwab t ol d me Mr . Mor gan
had sai d t o hi mhe shoul d r eal l y l i ke t o know i f I wi shed t o r et i r e
f r ombusi ness; i f so he t hought he coul d ar r ange i t . He al so sai d he
had consul t ed our par t ner s and t hat t hey wer e di sposed t o sel l , bei ng
at t r act ed by t he t er ms Mr . Mor gan had of f er ed. I t ol d Mr . Schwab t hat
i f my par t ner s wer e desi r ous t o sel l I woul d concur , and we f i nal l y
sol d.

[ I l l ust r at i on: CHARLES M. SCHWAB]

Ther e had been so much decept i on by specul at or s buyi ng ol d i r on and
st eel mi l l s and f oi st i ng t hemupon i nnocent pur chaser s at i nf l at ed
val ues- - hundr ed- dol l ar shar es i n some cases sel l i ng f or a t r i f l e- - t hat
I decl i ned t o t ake anyt hi ng f or t he common st ock. Had I done so, i t
woul d have gi ven me j ust about one hundr ed mi l l i ons mor e of f i ve per
cent bonds, whi ch Mr . Mor gan sai d af t er war ds I coul d have obt ai ned.
Such was t he pr osper i t y and such t he money val ue of our st eel
busi ness. Event s pr oved I shoul d have been qui t e j ust i f i ed i n aski ng
t he addi t i onal sumnamed, f or t he common st ock has pai d f i ve per cent
cont i nuousl y si nce. [ 45] But I had enough, as has been pr oved, t o keep
Page 150 of 222
me busi er t han ever bef or e, t r yi ng t o di st r i but e i t .

[ Foot not e 45: The Car negi e St eel Company was bought by Mr . Mor gan at
Mr . Car negi e' s own pr i ce. Ther e was some t al k at t he t i me of hi s
hol di ng out f or a hi gher pr i ce t han he r ecei ved, but t est i f yi ng bef or e
a commi t t ee of t he House of Repr esent at i ves i n J anuar y, 1912, Mr .
Car negi e sai d: " I consi der ed what was f ai r : and t hat i s t he opt i on
Mor gan got . Schwab went down and ar r anged i t . I never saw Mor gan on
t he subj ect or any man connect ed wi t h hi m. Never a wor d passed bet ween
hi mand me. I gave my memor andumand Mor gan saw i t was emi nent l y f ai r .
I have been t ol d many t i mes si nce by i nsi der s t hat I shoul d have asked
$100, 000, 000 mor e and coul d have got i t easi l y. Once f or al l , I want
t o put a st op t o al l t hi s t al k about Mr . Car negi e ' f or ci ng hi gh pr i ces
f or anyt hi ng. ' " ]

My f i r st di st r i but i on was t o t he men i n t he mi l l s. The f ol l owi ng
l et t er s and paper s wi l l expl ai n t he gi f t :

_New Yor k, N. Y. , Mar ch 12, 1901_

I make t hi s f i r st use of sur pl us weal t h, f our mi l l i ons of
f i r st mor t gage 5%Bonds, upon r et i r i ng f r ombusi ness, as an
acknowl edgment of t he deep debt whi ch I owe t o t he
wor kmen who have cont r i but ed so gr eat l y t o my success. I t i s
desi gned t o r el i eve t hose who may suf f er f r omacci dent s, and
pr ovi de smal l pensi ons f or t hose needi ng hel p i n ol d age.

I n addi t i on I gi ve one mi l l i on dol l ar s of such bonds, t he
pr oceeds t her eof t o be used t o mai nt ai n t he l i br ar i es and
hal l s I have bui l t f or our wor kmen.

I n r et ur n, t he Homest ead wor kmen pr esent ed t he f ol l owi ng addr ess:

_Munhal l , Pa. , Feb' y 23, 1903_

MR. ANDREWCARNEGI E
New Yor k, N. Y.

DEAR SI R:

We, t he empl oyees of t he Homest ead St eel Wor ks, desi r e by
t hi s means t o expr ess t o you t hr ough our Commi t t ee our gr eat
appr eci at i on of your benevol ence i n est abl i shi ng t he " Andr ew
Car negi e Rel i ef Fund, " t he f i r st annual r epor t of i t s
oper at i on havi ng been pl aced bef or e us dur i ng t he past
mont h.

The i nt er est whi ch you have al ways shown i n your wor kmen has
won f or you an appr eci at i on whi ch cannot be expr essed by
mer e wor ds. Of t he many channel s t hr ough whi ch you have
sought t o do good, we bel i eve t hat t he " Andr ew Car negi e
Rel i ef Fund" st ands f i r st . We have per sonal knowl edge of
car es l i ght ened and of hope and st r engt h r enewed i n homes
wher e human pr ospect s seemed dar k and di scour agi ng.

Respect f ul l y your s

Page 151 of 222
{ HARRY F. ROSE, _Rol l er _
{ J OHN BELL, J R. , _Bl acksmi t h_
Commi t t ee { J . A. HORTON, _Ti mekeeper _
{ WALTER A. GREI G, _El ect r i c For eman_
{ HARRY CUSACK, _Yar dmast er _

The Lucy Fur nace men pr esent ed me wi t h a beaut i f ul si l ver pl at e and
i nscr i bed upon i t t he f ol l owi ng addr ess:

ANDREWCARNEGI E RELI EF FUND

LUCY FURNACES

_Wher eas_, Mr . Andr ew Car negi e, i n hi s muni f i cent
phi l ant hr opy, has endowed t he " Andr ew Car negi e Rel i ef Fund"
f or t he benef i t of empl oyees of t he Car negi e Company,
Ther ef or e be i t

_Resol ved_, t hat t he empl oyees of t he Lucy Fur naces, i n
speci al meet i ng assembl ed, do convey t o Mr . Andr ew Car negi e
t hei r si ncer e t hanks f or and appr eci at i on of hi s unexcel l ed
and bount eous endowment , and f ur t her mor e be i t

_Resol ved_, t hat i t i s t hei r ear nest wi sh and pr ayer t hat
hi s l i f e may be l ong spar ed t o enj oy t he f r ui t s of hi s
wor ks.

{ J AMES SCOTT, _Chai r man_
{ LOUI S A. HUTCHI SON, _Secr et ar y_
{ J AMES DALY
Commi t t ee { R. C. TAYLOR
{ J OHN V. WARD
{ FREDERI CK VOELKER
{ J OHN M. VEI GH

I sai l ed soon f or Eur ope, and as usual some of my par t ner s di d not
f ai l t o accompany me t o t he st eamer and bade me good- bye. But , oh! t he
di f f er ence t o me! Say what we woul d, do what we woul d, t he sol emn
change had come. Thi s I coul d not f ai l t o r eal i ze. The wr ench was
i ndeed sever e and t her e was pai n i n t he good- bye whi ch was al so a
f ar ewel l .

Upon my r et ur n t o New Yor k some mont hs l at er , I f el t mysel f ent i r el y
out of pl ace, but was much cheer ed by seei ng sever al of " t he boys" on
t he pi er t o wel come me- - t he same dear f r i ends, but so di f f er ent . I had
l ost my par t ner s, but not my f r i ends. Thi s was somet hi ng; i t was much.
St i l l a vacancy was l ef t . I had now t o t ake up my sel f - appoi nt ed t ask
of wi sel y di sposi ng of sur pl us weal t h. That woul d keep me deepl y
i nt er est ed.

One day my eyes happened t o see a l i ne i n t hat most val uabl e paper ,
t he " Scot t i sh Amer i can, " i n whi ch I had f ound many gems. Thi s was t he
l i ne:

" The gods send t hr ead f or a web begun. "

I t seemed al most as i f i t had been sent di r ect l y t o me. Thi s sank i nt o
Page 152 of 222
my hear t , and I r esol ved t o begi n at once my f i r st web. Tr ue enough,
t he gods sent t hr ead i n t he pr oper f or m. Dr . J . S. Bi l l i ngs, of t he New
Yor k Publ i c Li br ar i es, came as t hei r agent , and of dol l ar s, f i ve and a
quar t er mi l l i ons went at one st r oke f or si xt y- ei ght br anch l i br ar i es,
pr omi sed f or New Yor k Ci t y. Twent y mor e l i br ar i es f or Br ookl yn
f ol l owed.

My f at her , as I have st at ed, had been one of t he f i ve pi oneer s i n
Dunf er ml i ne who combi ned and gave access t o t hei r f ew books t o t hei r
l ess f or t unat e nei ghbor s. I had f ol l owed i n hi s f oot st eps by gi vi ng my
nat i ve t own a l i br ar y- - i t s f oundat i on st one l ai d by my mot her - - so t hat
t hi s publ i c l i br ar y was r eal l y my f i r st gi f t . I t was f ol l owed by
gi vi ng a publ i c l i br ar y and hal l t o Al l egheny Ci t y- - our f i r st home i n
Amer i ca. Pr esi dent Har r i son ki ndl y accompani ed me f r omWashi ngt on and
opened t hese bui l di ngs. Soon af t er t hi s, Pi t t sbur gh asked f or a
l i br ar y, whi ch was gi ven. Thi s devel oped, i n due cour se, i nt o a gr oup
of bui l di ngs embr aci ng a museum, a pi ct ur e gal l er y, t echni cal school s,
and t he Mar gar et Mor r i son School f or Young Women. Thi s gr oup of
bui l di ngs I opened t o t he publ i c November 5, 1895. I n Pi t t sbur gh I had
made my f or t une and i n t he t went y- f our mi l l i ons al r eady spent on t hi s
gr oup, [ 46] she get s back onl y a smal l par t of what she gave, and t o
whi ch she i s r i chl y ent i t l ed.

[ Foot not e 46: The t ot al gi f t s t o t he Car negi e I nst i t ut e at Pi t t sbur gh
amount ed t o about t went y- ei ght mi l l i on dol l ar s. ]

The second l ar ge gi f t was t o f ound t he Car negi e I nst i t ut i on of
Washi ngt on. The 28t h of J anuar y, 1902, I gave t en mi l l i on dol l ar s i n
f i ve per cent bonds, t o whi ch t her e has been added suf f i ci ent t o make
t he t ot al cash val ue t went y- f i ve mi l l i ons of dol l ar s, t he addi t i ons
bei ng made upon r ecor d of r esul t s obt ai ned. I nat ur al l y wi shed t o
consul t Pr esi dent Roosevel t upon t he mat t er , and i f possi bl e t o i nduce
t he Secr et ar y of St at e, Mr . J ohn Hay, t o ser ve as chai r man, whi ch he
r eadi l y agr eed t o do. Wi t h hi mwer e associ at ed as di r ect or s my ol d
f r i end Abr amS. Hewi t t , Dr . Bi l l i ngs, Wi l l i amE. Dodge, El i hu Root ,
Col onel Hi ggi nson, D. O. Mi l l s, Dr . S. Wei r Mi t chel l , and ot her s.

When I showed Pr esi dent Roosevel t t he l i st of t he di st i ngui shed men
who had agr eed t o ser ve, he r emar ked: " You coul d not dupl i cat e i t . " He
st r ongl y f avor ed t he f oundat i on, whi ch was i ncor por at ed by an act of
Congr ess Apr i l 28, 1904, as f ol l ows:

To encour age i n t he br oadest and most l i ber al manner
i nvest i gat i ons, r esear ch and di scover y, and t he appl i cat i on
of knowl edge t o t he i mpr ovement of manki nd; and, i n
par t i cul ar , t o conduct , endow and assi st i nvest i gat i on i n
any depar t ment of sci ence, l i t er at ur e or ar t , and t o t hi s
end t o coper at e wi t h gover nment s, uni ver si t i es, col l eges,
t echni cal school s, l ear ned soci et i es, and i ndi vi dual s.

[ I l l ust r at i on: THE CARNEGI E I NSTI TUTE AT PI TTSBURGH]

I was i ndebt ed t o Dr . Bi l l i ngs as my gui de, i n sel ect i ng Dr . Dani el C.
Gi l man as t he f i r st Pr esi dent . He passed away some year s l at er . Dr .
Bi l l i ngs t hen r ecommended t he pr esent hi ghl y successf ul pr esi dent , Dr .
Rober t S. Woodwar d. Long may he cont i nue t o gui de t he af f ai r s of t he
I nst i t ut i on! The hi st or y of i t s achi evement s i s so wel l known t hr ough
Page 153 of 222
i t s publ i cat i ons t hat det ai l s her e ar e unnecessar y. I may, however ,
r ef er t o t wo of i t s under t aki ngs t hat ar e somewhat uni que. I t i s doi ng
a wor l d- wi de ser vi ce wi t h t he wood- and- br onze yacht , " Car negi e, " whi ch
i s voyagi ng ar ound t he wor l d cor r ect i ng t he er r or s of t he ear l i er
sur veys. Many of t hese ocean sur veys have been f ound mi sl eadi ng, owi ng
t o var i at i ons of t he compass. Br onze bei ng non- magnet i c, whi l e i r on
and st eel ar e hi ghl y so, pr evi ous obser vat i ons have pr oved l i abl e t o
er r or . A not abl e i nst ance i s t hat of t he st r andi ng of a Cunar d
st eamshi p near t he Azor es. Capt ai n Pet er s, of t he " Car negi e, " t hought
i t advi sabl e t o t est t hi s case and f ound t hat t he capt ai n of t he
i l l - f at ed st eamer was sai l i ng on t he cour se l ai d down upon t he
admi r al t y map, and was not t o bl ame. The or i gi nal obser vat i on was
wr ong. The er r or caused by var i at i on was pr ompt l y cor r ect ed.

Thi s i s onl y one of numer ous cor r ect i ons r epor t ed t o t he nat i ons who
go down t o t he sea i n shi ps. Thei r t hanks ar e our ampl e r ewar d. I n t he
deed of gi f t I expr essed t he hope t hat our young Republ i c mi ght some
day be abl e t o r epay, at l east i n some degr ee, t he gr eat debt i t owes
t o t he ol der l ands. Not hi ng gi ves me deeper sat i sf act i on t han t he
knowl edge t hat i t has t o some ext ent al r eady begun t o do so.

Wi t h t he uni que ser vi ce r ender ed by t he wander i ng " Car negi e, " we may
r ank t hat of t he f i xed obser vat or y upon Mount Wi l son, Cal i f or ni a, at
an al t i t ude of 5886 f eet . Pr of essor Hal e i s i n char ge of i t . He
at t ended t he gat her i ng of l eadi ng ast r onomer s i n Rome one year , and
such wer e hi s r evel at i ons t her e t hat t hese savant s r esol ved t hei r next
meet i ng shoul d be on t op of Mount Wi l son. And so i t was.

Ther e i s but one Mount Wi l son. Fr oma dept h sevent y- t wo f eet down i n
t he ear t h phot ogr aphs have been t aken of new st ar s. On t he f i r st of
t hese pl at es many new wor l ds- - I bel i eve si xt een- - wer e di scover ed. On
t he second I t hi nk i t was si xt y new wor l ds whi ch had come i nt o our
ken, and on t he t hi r d pl at e t her e wer e est i mat ed t o be mor e t han a
hundr ed- - sever al of t hemsai d t o be t went y t i mes t he si ze of our sun.
Some of t hemwer e so di st ant as t o r equi r e ei ght year s f or t hei r l i ght
t o r each us, whi ch i ncl i nes us t o bow our heads whi sper i ng t o
our sel ves, " Al l we know i s as not hi ng t o t he unknown. " When t he
monst er new gl ass, t hr ee t i mes l ar ger t han any exi st i ng, i s i n
oper at i on, what r evel at i ons ar e t o come! I amassur ed i f a r ace
i nhabi t s t he moon t hey wi l l be cl ear l y seen.

The t hi r d del i ght f ul t ask was f oundi ng t he Her o Fund, i n whi ch my
whol e hear t was concer ned. I had hear d of a ser i ous acci dent i n a coal
pi t near Pi t t sbur gh, and how t he f or mer super i nt endent , Mr . Tayl or ,
al t hough t hen engaged i n ot her pur sui t s, had i nst ant l y dr i ven t o t he
scene, hopi ng t o be of use i n t he cr i si s. Ral l yi ng vol unt eer s, who
r esponded eager l y, he l ed t hemdown t he pi t t o r escue t hose bel ow.
Al as, al as, he t he her oi c l eader l ost hi s own l i f e.

I coul d not get t he t hought of t hi s out of my mi nd. My dear , dear
f r i end, Mr . Ri char d Wat son Gi l der , had sent me t he f ol l owi ng t r ue and
beaut i f ul poem, and I r e- r ead i t t he mor ni ng af t er t he acci dent , and
r esol ved t hen t o est abl i sh t he Her o Fund.

I N THE TI ME OF PEACE

' Twas sai d: " When r ol l of dr umand bat t l e' s r oar
Page 154 of 222
Shal l cease upon t he ear t h, O, t hen no mor e

The deed- - t he r ace- - of her oes i n t he l and. "
But scar ce t hat wor d was br eat hed when one smal l hand

Li f t ed vi ct or i ous o' er a gi ant wr ong
That had i t s vi ct i ms cr ushed t hr ough ages l ong;

Some woman set her pal e and qui ver i ng f ace
Fi r mas a r ock agai nst a man' s di sgr ace;

A l i t t l e chi l d suf f er ed i n si l ence l est
Hi s savage pai n shoul d wound a mot her ' s br east ;

Some qui et schol ar f l ung hi s gaunt l et down
And r i sked, i n Tr ut h' s gr eat name, t he synod' s f r own;

A ci vi c her o, i n t he cal mr eal mof l aws,
Di d t hat whi ch suddenl y dr ew a wor l d' s appl ause;

And one t o t he pest hi s l i t he young body gave
That he a t housand t housand l i ves mi ght save.

Hence ar ose t he f i ve- mi l l i on- dol l ar f und t o r ewar d her oes, or t o
suppor t t he f ami l i es of her oes, who per i sh i n t he ef f or t t o ser ve or
save t hei r f el l ows, and t o suppl ement what empl oyer s or ot her s do i n
cont r i but i ng t o t he suppor t of t he f ami l i es of t hose l ef t dest i t ut e
t hr ough acci dent s. Thi s f und, est abl i shed Apr i l 15, 1904, has pr oved
f r omever y poi nt of vi ew a deci ded success. I cher i sh a f at her l y
r egar d f or i t si nce no one suggest ed i t t o me. As f ar as I know, i t
never had been t hought of ; hence i t i s emphat i cal l y " my ai n bai r n. "
Lat er I ext ended i t t o my nat i ve l and, Gr eat Br i t ai n, wi t h
headquar t er s at Dunf er ml i ne- - t he Tr ust ees of t he Car negi e Dunf er ml i ne
Tr ust under t aki ng i t s admi ni st r at i on, and spl endi dl y have t hey
succeeded. I n due t i me i t was ext ended t o Fr ance, Ger many, I t al y,
Bel gi um, Hol l and, Nor way, Sweden, Swi t zer l and, and Denmar k.

Regar di ng i t s wor ki ngs i n Ger many, I r ecei ved a l et t er f r omDavi d
J ayne Hi l l , our Amer i can Ambassador at Ber l i n, f r omwhi ch I quot e:

My mai n obj ect i n wr i t i ng now i s t o t el l you how pl eased Hi s
Maj est y i s wi t h t he wor ki ng of t he Ger man Her o Fund. He i s
ent husi ast i c about i t and spoke i n most compl i ment ar y t er ms
of your di scer nment , as wel l as your gener osi t y i n f oundi ng
i t . He di d not bel i eve i t woul d f i l l so i mpor t ant a pl ace
as i t i s doi ng. He t ol d me of sever al cases t hat ar e r eal l y
t ouchi ng, and whi ch woul d ot her wi se have been whol l y
unpr ovi ded f or . One was t hat of a young man who saved a boy
f r omdr owni ng and j ust as t hey wer e about t o l i f t hi mout of
t he wat er , af t er passi ng up t he chi l d i nt o a boat , hi s hear t
f ai l ed, and he sank. He l ef t a l ovel y young wi f e and a
l i t t l e boy. She has al r eady been hel ped by t he Her o Fund t o
est abl i sh a l i t t l e busi ness f r omwhi ch she can make a
l i vi ng, and t he educat i on of t he boy, who i s ver y br i ght ,
wi l l be l ooked af t er . Thi s i s but one exampl e.

Val ent i ni ( Chi ef of t he Ci vi l Cabi net ) , who was somewhat
Page 155 of 222
skept i cal at f i r st r egar di ng t he need of such a f und, i s now
gl owi ng wi t h ent husi asmabout i t , and he t el l s me t he whol e
Commi ssi on, whi ch i s composed of car ef ul l y chosen men, i s
ear nest l y devot ed t o t he wor k of maki ng t he ver y best and
wi sest use of t hei r means and has devot ed much t i me t o t hei r
deci si ons.

They have cor r esponded wi t h t he Engl i sh and Fr ench
Commi ssi on, ar r anged t o exchange r epor t s, and made pl ans t o
keep i n t ouch wi t h one anot her i n t hei r wor k. They wer e
deepl y i nt er est ed i n t he Amer i can r epor t and have l ear ned
much f r omi t .

Ki ng Edwar d of Br i t ai n was deepl y i mpr essed by t he pr ovi si ons of t he
f und, and wr ot e me an aut ogr aph l et t er of appr eci at i on of t hi s and
ot her gi f t s t o my nat i ve l and, whi ch I deepl y val ue, and hence i nser t .

_Wi ndsor Cast l e, November 21, 1908_

DEAR MR. CARNEGI E:

I have f or some t i me past been anxi ous t o expr ess t o you my
sense of your gener osi t y f or t he gr eat publ i c obj ect s whi ch
you have pr esent ed t o t hi s count r y, t he l and of your bi r t h.

Scar cel y l ess admi r abl e t han t he gi f t s t hemsel ves i s t he
gr eat car e and t hought you have t aken i n guar di ng agai nst
t hei r mi suse.

I amanxi ous t o t el l you how war ml y I r ecogni ze your most
gener ous benef act i ons and t he gr eat ser vi ces t hey ar e l i kel y
t o conf er upon t he count r y.

As a mar k of r ecogni t i on, I hope you wi l l accept t he
por t r ai t of mysel f whi ch I amsendi ng t o you.

Bel i eve me, dear Mr . Car negi e,

Si ncer el y your s

EDWARD R. & I .

Some of t he newspaper s i n Amer i ca wer e doubt f ul of t he mer i t s of t he
Her o Fund and t he f i r st annual r epor t was cr i t i ci zed, but al l t hi s has
passed away and t he act i on of t he f und i s now war ml y ext ol l ed. I t has
conquer ed, and l ong wi l l i t be bef or e t he t r ust i s al l owed t o per i sh!
The her oes of t he bar bar i an past wounded or ki l l ed t hei r f el l ows; t he
her oes of our ci vi l i zed day ser ve or save t hei r s. Such t he di f f er ence
bet ween physi cal and mor al cour age, bet ween bar bar i smand
ci vi l i zat i on. Those who bel ong t o t he f i r st cl ass ar e soon t o pass
away, f or we ar e f i nal l y t o r egar d men who sl ay each ot her as we now
do canni bal s who eat each ot her ; but t hose i n t he l at t er cl ass wi l l
not di e as l ong as man exi st s upon t he ear t h, f or such her oi smas t hey
di spl ay i s god- l i ke.

The Her o Fund wi l l pr ove chi ef l y a pensi on f und. Al r eady i t has many
pensi oner s, her oes or t he wi dows or chi l dr en of her oes. A st r ange
Page 156 of 222
mi sconcept i on ar ose at f i r st about i t . Many t hought t hat i t s pur pose
was t o st i mul at e her oi c act i on, t hat her oes wer e t o be i nduced t o pl ay
t hei r par t s f or t he sake of r ewar d. Thi s never ent er ed my mi nd. I t i s
absur d. Tr ue her oes t hi nk not of r ewar d. They ar e i nspi r ed and t hi nk
onl y of t hei r f el l ows endanger ed; never of t hemsel ves. The f und i s
i nt ended t o pensi on or pr ovi de i n t he most sui t abl e manner f or t he
her o shoul d he be di sabl ed, or f or t hose dependent upon hi mshoul d he
per i sh i n hi s at t empt t o save ot her s. I t has made a f i ne st ar t and
wi l l gr ow i n popul ar i t y year af t er year as i t s ai ms and ser vi ces ar e
bet t er under st ood. To- day we have i n Amer i ca 1430 her o pensi oner s or
t hei r f ami l i es on our l i st .

I f ound t he pr esi dent f or t he Her o Fund i n a Car negi e vet er an, one of
t he or i gi nal boys, Char l i e Tayl or . No sal ar y f or Char l i e- - not a cent
woul d he ever t ake. He l oves t he wor k so much t hat I bel i eve he woul d
pay hi ghl y f or per mi ssi on t o l i ve wi t h i t . He i s t he r i ght man i n t he
r i ght pl ace. He has char ge al so, wi t h Mr . Wi l mot ' s abl e assi st ance, of
t he pensi ons f or Car negi e wor kmen ( Car negi e Rel i ef Fund[ 47] ) ; al so t he
pensi ons f or r ai l way empl oyees of my ol d di vi si on. Thr ee r el i ef f unds
and al l of t hembenef i t i ng ot her s.

[ Foot not e 47: Thi s f und i s now managed separ at el y. ]

I got my r evenge one day upon Char l i e, who was al ways ur gi ng me t o do
f or ot her s. He i s a gr aduat e of Lehi gh Uni ver si t y and one of her most
l oyal sons. Lehi gh wi shed a bui l di ng and Char l i e was her chi ef
advocat e. I sai d not hi ng, but wr ot e Pr esi dent Dr i nker of f er i ng t he
f unds f or t he bui l di ng condi t i oned upon my nami ng i t . He agr eed, and I
cal l ed i t " Tayl or Hal l . " When Char l i e di scover ed t hi s, he came and
pr ot est ed t hat i t woul d make hi mr i di cul ous, t hat he had onl y been a
modest gr aduat e, and was not ent i t l ed t o have hi s name publ i cl y
honor ed, and so on. I enj oyed hi s pl i ght i mmensel y, wai t i ng unt i l he
had f i ni shed, and t hen sai d t hat i t woul d pr obabl y make hi msomewhat
r i di cul ous i f I i nsi st ed upon " Tayl or Hal l , " but he ought t o be
wi l l i ng t o sacr i f i ce hi msel f somewhat f or Lehi gh. I f he wasn' t
consumed wi t h vani t y he woul d not car e much how hi s name was used i f
i t hel ped hi s Al ma Mat er . Tayl or was not much of a name anyhow. I t was
hi s i nsuf f er abl e vani t y t hat made such a f uss. He shoul d conquer i t .
He coul d make hi s deci si on. He coul d sacr i f i ce t he name of Tayl or or
sacr i f i ce Lehi gh, j ust as he l i ked, but : " No Tayl or , no Hal l . " I had
hi m! Vi si t or s who may l ook upon t hat st r uct ur e i n af t er days and
wonder who Tayl or was may r est assur ed t hat he was a l oyal son of
Lehi gh, a wor ki ng, not mer el y a pr eachi ng, apost l e of t he gospel of
ser vi ce t o hi s f el l ow- men, and one of t he best men t hat ever l i ved.
Such i s our Lor d Hi gh Commi ssi oner of Pensi ons.




Page 157 of 222
CHAPTER XX

EDUCATIONAL AND PENSION FUNDS


The f i f t een- mi l l i on- dol l ar pensi on f und f or aged uni ver si t y pr of essor s
( The Car negi e Endowment f or t he Advancement of Lear ni ng) , t he f our t h
i mpor t ant gi f t , gi ven i n J une, 1905, r equi r ed t he sel ect i on of
t went y- f i ve t r ust ees f r omamong t he pr esi dent s of educat i onal
i nst i t ut i ons i n t he Uni t ed St at es. When t went y- f our of
t hese- - Pr esi dent Har per , of Chi cago Uni ver si t y, bei ng absent t hr ough
i l l ness- - honor ed me by meet i ng at our house f or or gani zat i on, I
obt ai ned an i mpor t ant accessi on of t hose who wer e t o become mor e
i nt i mat e f r i ends. Mr . Fr ank A. Vander l i p pr oved of gr eat ser vi ce at
t he st ar t - - hi s Washi ngt on exper i ence bei ng most val uabl e- - and i n our
pr esi dent , Dr . Henr y S. Pr i t chet t , we f ound t he i ndi spensabl e man.

Thi s f und i s ver y near and dear t o me- - knowi ng, as I do, many who ar e
soon t o become benef i ci ar i es, and convi nced as I amof t hei r wor t h and
t he val ue of t he ser vi ce al r eady r ender ed by t hem. Of al l pr of essi ons,
t hat of t eachi ng i s pr obabl y t he most unf ai r l y, yes, most meanl y pai d,
t hough i t shoul d r ank wi t h t he hi ghest . Educat ed men, devot i ng t hei r
l i ves t o t eachi ng t he young, r ecei ve mer e pi t t ances. When I f i r st t ook
my seat as a t r ust ee of Cor nel l Uni ver si t y, I was shocked t o f i nd how
smal l wer e t he sal ar i es of t he pr of essor s, as a r ul e r anki ng bel ow t he
sal ar i es of some of our cl er ks. To save f or ol d age wi t h t hese men i s
i mpossi bl e. Hence t he uni ver si t i es wi t hout pensi on f unds ar e compel l ed
t o r et ai n men who ar e no l onger abl e, shoul d no l onger be r equi r ed, t o
per f or mt hei r dut i es. Of t he usef ul ness of t he f und no doubt can be
ent er t ai ned. [ 48] The f i r st l i st of benef i ci ar i es publ i shed was
concl usi ve upon t hi s poi nt , cont ai ni ng as i t di d sever al names of
wor l d- wi de r eput at i on, so gr eat had been t hei r cont r i but i ons t o t he
st ock of human knowl edge. Many of t hese benef i ci ar i es and t hei r wi dows
have wr i t t en me most af f ect i ng l et t er s. These I can never dest r oy, f or
i f I ever have a f i t of mel anchol y, I know t he cur e l i es i n r e- r eadi ng
t hese l et t er s.

[ Foot not e 48: The t ot al amount of t hi s f und i n 1919 was $29, 250, 000. ]

My f r i end, Mr . Thomas Shaw ( now Lor d Shaw) , of Dunf er ml i ne had wr i t t en
an ar t i cl e f or one of t he Engl i sh r evi ews showi ng t hat many poor
peopl e i n Scot l and wer e unabl e t o pay t he f ees r equi r ed t o gi ve t hei r
chi l dr en a uni ver si t y educat i on, al t hough some had depr i ved t hemsel ves
of comf or t s i n or der t o do so. Af t er r eadi ng Mr . Shaw' s ar t i cl e t he
i dea came t o me t o gi ve t en mi l l i ons i n f i ve per cent bonds, one hal f
of t he 104, 000 year l y r evenue f r omi t t o be used t o pay t he f ees of
t he deser vi ng poor st udent s and t he ot her hal f t o i mpr ove t he
uni ver si t i es.

The f i r st meet i ng of t he t r ust ees of t hi s f und ( The Car negi e Tr ust f or
t he Uni ver si t i es of Scot l and) was hel d i n t he Edi nbur gh of f i ce of t he
Secr et ar y of St at e f or Scot l and i n 1902, Lor d Bal f our of Bur l ei gh
pr esi di ng. I t was a not abl e body of men- - Pr i me Mi ni st er Bal f our , Si r
Henr y Campbel l - Banner man ( af t er war ds Pr i me Mi ni st er ) , J ohn Mor l ey ( now
Vi scount Mor l ey) , J ames Br yce ( now Vi scount Br yce) , t he Ear l of El gi n,
Lor d Roseber y, Lor d Reay, Mr . Shaw ( now Lor d Shaw) , Dr . J ohn Ross of
Page 158 of 222
Dunf er ml i ne, " t he man- of - al l - wor k" t hat makes f or t he happi ness or
i nst r uct i on of hi s f el l ow- man, and ot her s. I expl ai ned t hat I had
asked t hemt o act because I coul d not ent r ust f unds t o t he f acul t i es
of t he Scot t i sh uni ver si t i es af t er r eadi ng t he r epor t of a r ecent
commi ssi on. Mr . Bal f our pr ompt l y excl ai med: " Not a penny, not a
penny! " The Ear l of El gi n, who had been a member of t he commi ssi on,
f ul l y concur r ed.

[ I l l ust r at i on: ANDREWCARNEGI E AND VI SCOUNT BRYCE]

The det ai l s of t he pr oposed f und bei ng r ead, t he Ear l of El gi n was not
sur e about accept i ng a t r ust whi ch was not st r i ct and speci f i c. He
wi shed t o know j ust what hi s dut i es wer e. I had gi ven a maj or i t y of
t he t r ust ees t he r i ght t o change t he obj ect s of benef i cence and modes
of appl yi ng f unds, shoul d t hey i n af t er days deci de t hat t he pur poses
and modes pr escr i bed f or educat i on i n Scot l and had become unsui t abl e
or unnecessar y f or t he advanced t i mes. Bal f our of Bur l ei gh agr eed wi t h
t he Ear l and so di d Pr i me Mi ni st er Bal f our , who sai d he had never
hear d of a t est at or bef or e who was wi l l i ng t o gi ve such power s. He
quest i oned t he pr opr i et y of doi ng so.

" Wel l , " I sai d, " Mr . Bal f our , I have never known of a body of men
capabl e of l egi sl at i ng f or t he gener at i on ahead, and i n some cases
t hose who at t empt t o l egi sl at e even f or t hei r own gener at i on ar e not
t hought t o be emi nent l y successf ul . "

Ther e was a r i ppl e of l aught er i n whi ch t he Pr i me Mi ni st er hi msel f
hear t i l y j oi ned, and he t hen sai d:

" You ar e r i ght , qui t e r i ght ; but you ar e, I t hi nk, t he f i r st gr eat
gi ver who has been wi se enough t o t ake t hi s vi ew. "

I had pr oposed t hat a maj or i t y shoul d have t he power , but Lor d Bal f our
suggest ed not l ess t han t wo t hi r ds. Thi s was accept ed by t he Ear l of
El gi n and appr oved by al l . I amver y sur e i t i s a wi se pr ovi si on, as
af t er days wi l l pr ove. I t i s i ncor por at ed i n al l my l ar ge gi f t s, and I
r est assur ed t hat t hi s f eat ur e wi l l i n f ut ur e t i mes pr ove val uabl e.
The Ear l of El gi n, of Dunf er ml i ne, di d not hesi t at e t o become
Chai r man of t hi s t r ust . When I t ol d Pr emi er Bal f our t hat I hoped El gi n
coul d be i nduced t o assume t hi s dut y, he sai d pr ompt l y, " You coul d not
get a bet t er man i n Gr eat Br i t ai n. "

We ar e al l ent i r el y sat i sf i ed now upon t hat poi nt . The quer y i s: wher e
coul d we get hi s equal ?

I t i s an odd coi nci dence t hat t her e ar e onl y f our l i vi ng men who have
been made Bur gesses and r ecei ved t he Fr eedomof Dunf er ml i ne, and al l
ar e connect ed wi t h t he t r ust f or t he Uni ver si t i es of Scot l and, Si r
Henr y Campbel l - Banner man, t he Ear l of El gi n, Dr . J ohn Ross, and
mysel f . But t her e i s a l ady i n t he ci r cl e t o- day, t he onl y one ever so
gr eat l y honor ed wi t h t he Fr eedomof Dunf er ml i ne, Mr s. Car negi e, whose
devot i on t o t he t own, l i ke my own, i s i nt ense.

My el ect i on t o t he Lor d Rect or shi p of St . Andr ews i n 1902 pr oved a
ver y i mpor t ant event i n my l i f e. I t admi t t ed me t o t he uni ver si t y
wor l d, t o whi ch I had been a st r anger . Few i nci dent s i n my l i f e have
so deepl y i mpr essed me as t he f i r st meet i ng of t he f acul t y, when I
Page 159 of 222
t ook my seat i n t he ol d chai r occupi ed successi vel y by so many
di st i ngui shed Lor d Rect or s dur i ng t he near l y f i ve hundr ed year s whi ch
have el apsed si nce St . Andr ews was f ounded. I r ead t he col l ect i on of
r ect or i al speeches as a pr epar at i on f or t he one I was soon t o make.
The most r emar kabl e par agr aph I met wi t h i n any of t hemwas Dean
St anl ey' s advi ce t o t he st udent s t o " go t o Bur ns f or your t heol ogy. "
That a hi gh di gni t ar y of t he Chur ch and a f avor i t e of Queen Vi ct or i a
shoul d vent ur e t o say t hi s t o t he st udent s of J ohn Knox' s Uni ver si t y
i s most suggest i ve as showi ng how even t heol ogy i mpr oves wi t h t he
year s. The best r ul es of conduct ar e i n Bur ns. Fi r st t her e i s: " Thi ne
own r epr oach al one do f ear . " I t ook i t as a mot t o ear l y i n l i f e. And
secondl y:

" The f ear o' hel l ' s a hangman' s whi p
To haud t he wr et ch i n or der ;
But wher e ye f eel your honor gr i p,
Let t hat aye be your bor der . "

J ohn St uar t Mi l l ' s r ect or i al addr ess t o t he St . Andr ews st udent s i s
r emar kabl e. He evi dent l y wi shed t o gi ve t hemof hi s best . The
pr omi nence he assi gns t o musi c as an ai d t o hi gh l i vi ng and pur e
r ef i ned enj oyment i s not abl e. Such i s my own exper i ence.

An i nvi t at i on gi ven t o t he pr i nci pal s of t he f our Scot ch uni ver si t i es
and t hei r wi ves or daught er s t o spend a week at Ski bo r esul t ed i n much
j oy t o Mr s. Car negi e and mysel f . The f i r st meet i ng was at t ended by t he
Ear l of El gi n, chai r man of t he Tr ust f or t he Uni ver si t i es of Scot l and,
and Lor d Bal f our of Bur l ei gh, Secr et ar y f or Scot l and, and Lady
Bal f our . Af t er t hat " Pr i nci pal s' Week" each year became an est abl i shed
cust om. They as wel l as we became f r i ends, and t her eby, t hey al l
agr ee, gr eat good r esul t s t o t he uni ver si t i es. A spi r i t of coper at i on
i s st i mul at ed. Taki ng my hand upon l eavi ng af t er t he f i r st year l y
vi si t , Pr i nci pal Lang sai d:

" I t has t aken t he pr i nci pal s of t he Scot ch uni ver si t i es f i ve hundr ed
year s t o l ear n how t o begi n our sessi ons. Spendi ng a week t oget her i s
t he sol ut i on. "

One of t he memor abl e r esul t s of t he gat her i ng at Ski bo i n 1906 was
t hat Mi ss Agnes I r wi n, Dean of Radcl i f f e Col l ege, and
gr eat - gr anddaught er of Benj ami n Fr ankl i n, spent t he pr i nci pal s' week
wi t h us and al l wer e char med wi t h her . Fr ankl i n r ecei ved hi s f i r st
doct or ' s degr ee f r omSt . Andr ews Uni ver si t y, near l y one hundr ed and
f i f t y year s ago. The second cent enar y of hi s bi r t h was f i nel y
cel ebr at ed i n Phi l adel phi a, and St . Andr ews, wi t h numer ous ot her
uni ver si t i es t hr oughout t he wor l d, sent addr esses. St . Andr ews al so
sent a degr ee t o t he gr eat - gr anddaught er . As Lor d Rect or , I was
deput ed t o conf er i t and pl ace t he mant l e upon her . Thi s was done t he
f i r st eveni ng bef or e a l ar ge audi ence, when mor e t han t wo hundr ed
addr esses wer e pr esent ed.

The audi ence was deepl y i mpr essed, as wel l i t mi ght be. St . Andr ews
Uni ver si t y, t he f i r st t o conf er t he degr ee upon t he gr eat - gr andf at her ,
conf er r ed t he same degr ee upon t he gr eat - gr andchi l d one hundr ed and
f or t y- seven year s l at er ( and t hi s upon her own mer i t s as Dean of
Radcl i f f e Col l ege) ; sent i t acr oss t he At l ant i c t o be best owed by t he
hands of i t s Lor d Rect or , t he f i r st who was not a Br i t i sh subj ect , but
Page 160 of 222
who was bor n one as Fr ankl i n was, and who became an Amer i can ci t i zen
as Fr ankl i n di d; t he cer emony per f or med i n Phi l adel phi a wher e Fr ankl i n
r est s, i n t he pr esence of a br i l l i ant assembl y met t o honor hi s
memor y. I t was al l ver y beaut i f ul , and I est eemed mysel f f avor ed,
i ndeed, t o be t he medi umof such a gr acef ul and appr opr i at e cer emony.
Pr i nci pal Donal dson of St . Andr ews was sur el y i nspi r ed when he t hought
of i t !

My unani mous r el ect i on by t he st udent s of St . Andr ews, wi t hout a
cont est f or a second t er m, was deepl y appr eci at ed. And I l i ked t he
Rect or ' s ni ght s, when t he st udent s cl ai mhi mf or t hemsel ves, no member
of t he f acul t y bei ng i nvi t ed. We al ways had a good t i me. Af t er t he
f i r st one, Pr i nci pal Donal dson gave me t he ver di ct of t he Secr et ar y as
r ender ed t o hi m: " Rect or So- and- So t al ked _t o_ us, Rect or Thus- and- So
t al ked _at _ us, bot h f r omt he pl at f or m; Mr . Car negi e sat down i n our
ci r cl e and t al ked _wi t h_ us. "

The quest i on of ai d t o our own hi gher educat i onal i nst i t ut i ons of t en
i nt r uded i t sel f upon me, but my bel i ef was t hat our chi ef
uni ver si t i es, such as Har var d and Col umbi a, wi t h f i ve t o t en t housand
st udent s, [ 49] wer e l ar ge enough; t hat f ur t her gr owt h was undesi r abl e;
t hat t he smal l er i nst i t ut i ons ( t he col l eges especi al l y) wer e i n
gr eat er need of hel p and t hat i t woul d be a bet t er use of sur pl us
weal t h t o ai d t hem. Accor di ngl y, I af t er war ds conf i ned mysel f t o t hese
and amsat i sf i ed t hat t hi s was wi se. At a l at er dat e we f ound Mr .
Rockef el l er ' s spl endi d educat i onal f und, The Gener al Educat i on Boar d,
and our sel ves wer e wor ki ng i n t hi s f r ui t f ul f i el d wi t hout
consul t at i on, wi t h somet i mes undesi r abl e r esul t s. Mr . Rockef el l er
wi shed me t o j oi n hi s boar d and t hi s I di d. Coper at i on was soon f ound
t o be much t o our mut ual advant age, and we now wor k i n uni son.

[ Foot not e 49: Col umbi a Uni ver si t y i n 1920 number ed al l t ol d some
25, 000 st udent s i n t he var i ous depar t ment s. ]

I n gi vi ng t o col l eges qui t e a number of my f r i ends have been honor ed
as was my par t ner Char l i e Tayl or . Conway Hal l at Di cki nson Col l ege,
was named f or Moncur e D. Conway, whose Aut obi ogr aphy, r ecent l y
publ i shed, i s pr onounced " l i t er at ur e" by t he " At henum. " I t says:
" These t wo vol umes l i e on t he t abl e gl i st eni ng l i ke gems ' mi dst t he
pi l es of aut obi ogr aphi cal r ubbi sh by whi ch t hey ar e sur r ounded. " That
i s r at her suggest i ve f or one who i s addi ng t o t he pi l e.

The l ast chapt er i n Mr . Conway' s Aut obi ogr aphy ends wi t h t he f ol l owi ng
par agr aph:

I mpl or e Peace, O my r eader , f r omwhomI now par t . I mpl or e
peace not of dei f i ed t hunder cl ouds but of ever y man, woman,
chi l d t hou shal t meet . Do not mer el y of f er t he pr ayer , " Gi ve
peace i n our t i me, " but do t hy par t t o answer i t ! Then, at
l east , t hough t he wor l d be at st r i f e, t her e shal l be peace
i n t hee.

My f r i end has put hi s f i nger upon our deepest di sgr ace. I t sur el y must
soon be abol i shed bet ween ci vi l i zed nat i ons.

The St ant on Chai r of Economi cs at Kenyon Col l ege, Ohi o, was f ounded i n
memor y of Edwi n M. St ant on, who ki ndl y gr eet ed me as a boy i n
Page 161 of 222
Pi t t sbur gh when I del i ver ed t el egr ams t o hi m, and was ever cor di al t o
me i n Washi ngt on, when I was an assi st ant t o Secr et ar y Scot t . The
Hanna Chai r i n West er n Reser ve Uni ver si t y, Cl evel and; t he J ohn Hay
Li br ar y at Br own Uni ver si t y; t he second El i hu Root Fund f or Hami l t on,
t he Mr s. Cl evel and Li br ar y f or Wel l esl ey, gave me pl easur e t o chr i st en
af t er t hese f r i ends. I hope mor e ar e t o f ol l ow, commemor at i ng t hose I
have known, l i ked, and honor ed. I al so wi shed a Gener al Dodge Li br ar y
and a Gayl ey Li br ar y t o be er ect ed f r ommy gi f t s, but t hese f r i ends
had al r eady obt ai ned such honor f r omt hei r r espect i ve Al ma Mat er s.

My f i r st gi f t t o Hami l t on Col l ege was t o be named t he El i hu Root
Foundat i on, but t hat abl est of al l our Secr et ar i es of St at e, and i n
t he opi ni on of Pr esi dent Roosevel t , " t he wi sest man he ever knew, "
t ook car e, i t seems, not t o ment i on t he f act t o t he col l ege
aut hor i t i es. When I r epr oached hi mwi t h t hi s der el i ct i on, he
l aughi ngl y r epl i ed:

" Wel l , I pr omi se not t o cheat you t he next gi f t you gi ve us. "

And by a second gi f t t hi s l apse was r epai r ed af t er al l , but I t ook
car e not t o ent r ust t he mat t er di r ect l y t o hi m. The Root Fund of
Hami l t on[ 50] i s now est abl i shed beyond hi s power t o dest r oy. Root i s a
gr eat man, and, as t he gr eat est onl y ar e he i s, i n hi s si mpl i ci t y,
subl i me. Pr esi dent Roosevel t decl ar ed he woul d cr awl on hi s hands and
knees f r omt he Whi t e House t o t he Capi t ol i f t hi s woul d i nsur e Root ' s
nomi nat i on t o t he pr esi dency wi t h a pr ospect of success. He was
consi der ed vul ner abl e because he had been counsel f or cor por at i ons
and was t oo l i t t l e of t he spout er and t he demagogue, t oo much of t he
modest , r et i r i ng st at esman t o spl i t t he ear s of t he gr oundl i ngs. [ 51]
The par t y f ool i shl y deci ded not t o r i sk Root .

[ Foot not e 50: I t amount s t o $250, 000. ]

[ Foot not e 51: At t he Meet i ng i n Memor y of t he Li f e and Wor k of Andr ew
Car negi e hel d on Apr i l 25, 1920, i n t he Engi neer i ng Soci et i es Bui l di ng
i n New Yor k, Mr . Root made an addr ess i n t he cour se of whi ch, speaki ng
of Mr . Car negi e, he sai d:

" He bel onged t o t hat gr eat r ace of nat i on- bui l der s who have made t he
devel opment of Amer i ca t he wonder of t he wor l d. . . . He was t he
ki ndl i est man I ever knew. Weal t h had br ought t o hi mno har deni ng of
t he hear t , nor made hi mf or get t he dr eams of hi s yout h. Ki ndl y,
af f ect i onat e, char i t abl e i n hi s j udgment s, unr est r ai ned i n hi s
sympat hi es, nobl e i n hi s i mpul ses, I wi sh t hat al l t he peopl e who
t hi nk of hi mas a r i ch man gi vi ng away money he di d not need coul d
know of t he hundr eds of ki ndl y t hi ngs he di d unknown t o t he wor l d. " ]

My connect i on wi t h Hampt on and Tuskegee I nst i t ut es, whi ch pr omot e t he
el evat i on of t he col or ed r ace we f or mer l y kept i n sl aver y, has been a
sour ce of sat i sf act i on and pl easur e, and t o know Booker Washi ngt on i s
a r ar e pr i vi l ege. We shoul d al l t ake our hat s of f t o t he man who not
onl y r ai sed hi msel f f r omsl aver y, but hel ped r ai se mi l l i ons of hi s
r ace t o a hi gher st age of ci vi l i zat i on. Mr . Washi ngt on cal l ed upon me
a f ew days af t er my gi f t of si x hundr ed t housand dol l ar s was made t o
Tuskegee and asked i f he mi ght be al l owed t o make one suggest i on. I
sai d: " Cer t ai nl y. "

Page 162 of 222
" You have ki ndl y speci f i ed t hat a sumf r omt hat f und be set asi de f or
t he f ut ur e suppor t of mysel f and wi f e dur i ng our l i ves, and we ar e
ver y gr at ef ul , but , Mr . Car negi e, t he sumi s f ar beyond our needs and
wi l l seemt o my r ace a f or t une. Some mi ght f eel t hat I was no l onger a
poor man gi vi ng my ser vi ces wi t hout t hought of savi ng money. Woul d you
have any obj ect i on t o changi ng t hat cl ause, st r i ki ng out t he sum, and
subst i t ut i ng ' onl y sui t abl e pr ovi si on' ? I ' l l t r ust t he t r ust ees. Mr s.
Washi ngt on and mysel f need ver y l i t t l e. "

I di d so, and t he deed now st ands, but when Mr . Bal dwi n asked f or t he
or i gi nal l et t er t o exchange i t f or t he subst i t ut e, he t ol d me t hat t he
nobl e soul obj ect ed. That document addr essed t o hi mwas t o be
pr eser ved f or ever , and handed down; but he woul d put i t asi de and l et
t he subst i t ut e go on f i l e.

Thi s i s an i ndi cat i on of t he char act er of t he l eader of hi s r ace. No
t r uer , mor e sel f - sacr i f i ci ng her o ever l i ved: a man compounded of al l
t he vi r t ues. I t makes one bet t er j ust t o know such pur e and nobl e
soul s- - human nat ur e i n i t s hi ghest t ypes i s al r eady di vi ne her e on
ear t h. I f i t be asked whi ch man of our age, or even of t he past ages,
has r i sen f r omt he l owest t o t he hi ghest , t he answer must be Booker
Washi ngt on. He r ose f r omsl aver y t o t he l eader shi p of hi s peopl e- - a
moder n Moses and J oshua combi ned, l eadi ng hi s peopl e bot h onwar d and
upwar d.

I n connect i on wi t h t hese i nst i t ut i ons I came i n cont act wi t h t hei r
of f i cer s and t r ust ees- - men l i ke Pr i nci pal Hol l i s B. Fr i ssel l of
Hampt on, Rober t C. Ogden, Geor ge Fost er Peabody, V. Ever i t Macy,
Geor ge McAneny and Wi l l i amH. Bal dwi n- - r ecent l y l ost t o us, al as! - - men
who l abor f or ot her s. I t was a bl essi ng t o know t hemi nt i mat el y. The
Cooper Uni on, t he Mechani cs and Tr adesmen' s Soci et y, i ndeed ever y
i nst i t ut i on[ 52] i n whi ch I became i nt er est ed, r eveal ed many men and
women devot i ng t hei r t i me and t hought , not t o " mi ser abl e ai ms t hat end
wi t h sel f , " but t o hi gh i deal s whi ch mean t he r el i ef and upl i f t of
t hei r l ess f or t unat e br et hr en.

[ Foot not e 52: The uni ver si t i es, col l eges, and educat i onal i nst i t ut i ons
t o whi ch Mr . Car negi e gave ei t her endowment f unds or bui l di ngs number
f i ve hundr ed. Al l t ol d hi s gi f t s t o t hemamount ed t o $27, 000, 000. ]

My gi vi ng of or gans t o chur ches came ver y ear l y i n my car eer , I havi ng
pr esent ed t o l ess t han a hundr ed member s of t he Swedenbor gi an Chur ch
i n Al l egheny whi ch my f at her f avor ed, an or gan, af t er decl i ni ng t o
cont r i but e t o t he bui l di ng of a new chur ch f or so f ew. Appl i cat i ons
f r omot her chur ches soon began t o pour i n, f r omt he gr and Cat hol i c
Cat hedr al of Pi t t sbur gh down t o t he smal l chur ch i n t he count r y
vi l l age, and I was kept busy. Ever y chur ch seemed t o need a bet t er
or gan t han i t had, and as t he f ul l pr i ce f or t he new i nst r ument was
pai d, what t he ol d one br ought was cl ear pr of i t . Some or der ed or gans
f or ver y smal l chur ches whi ch woul d al most spl i t t he r af t er s, as was
t he case wi t h t he f i r st or gan gi ven t he Swedenbor gi ans; ot her s had
bought or gans bef or e appl yi ng but our check t o cover t he amount was
wel come. Fi nal l y, however , a r i gi d syst emof gi vi ng was devel oped. A
pr i nt ed schedul e r equi r i ng answer s t o many quest i ons has now t o be
f i l l ed and r et ur ned bef or e act i on i s t aken. The depar t ment i s now
per f ect l y syst emat i zed and wor ks admi r abl y because we gr aduat e t he
gi f t accor di ng t o t he si ze of t he chur ch.
Page 163 of 222

Char ges wer e made i n t he r i gi d Scot t i sh Hi ghl ands t hat I was
demor al i zi ng Chr i st i an wor shi p by gi vi ng or gans t o chur ches. The ver y
st r i ct Pr esbyt er i ans t her e st i l l denounce as wi cked an at t empt " t o
wor shi p God wi t h a ki st f u' o' whi st l es, " i nst ead of usi ng t he human
God- gi ven voi ce. Af t er t hat I deci ded t hat I shoul d r equi r e a par t ner
i n my si n, and t her ef or e asked each congr egat i on t o pay one hal f of
t he desi r ed new or gan. Upon t hi s basi s t he or gan depar t ment st i l l
oper at es and cont i nues t o do a t hr i vi ng busi ness, t he demand f or
i mpr oved or gans st i l l bei ng gr eat . Besi des, many new chur ches ar e
r equi r ed f or i ncr easi ng popul at i ons and f or t hese or gans ar e
essent i al .

I see no end t o i t . I n r equi r i ng t he congr egat i on t o pay one hal f t he
cost of bet t er i nst r ument s, t her e i s assur ance of needed and
r easonabl e expendi t ur e. Bel i evi ng f r ommy own exper i ence t hat i t i s
sal ut ar y f or t he congr egat i on t o hear sacr ed musi c at i nt er val s i n t he
ser vi ce and t hen sl owl y t o di sper se t o t he st r ai ns of t he
r ever ence- compel l i ng or gan af t er such ser mons as of t en show us l i t t l e
of a Heavenl y Fat her , I f eel t he money spent f or or gans i s wel l spent .
So we cont i nue t he or gan depar t ment . [ 53]

[ Foot not e 53: The " or gan depar t ment " up t o 1919 had gi ven 7689 or gans
t o as many di f f er ent chur ches at a cost of over si x mi l l i on dol l ar s. ]

Of al l my wor k of a phi l ant hr opi c char act er , my pr i vat e pensi on f und
gi ves me t he hi ghest and nobl est r et ur n. No sat i sf act i on equal s t hat
of f eel i ng you have been per mi t t ed t o pl ace i n comf or t abl e
ci r cumst ances, i n t hei r ol d age, peopl e whomyou have l ong known t o be
ki nd and good and i n ever y way deser vi ng, but who f r omno f aul t of
t hei r own, have not suf f i ci ent means t o l i ve r espect abl y, f r ee f r om
sol i ci t ude as t o t hei r mer e mai nt enance. Modest sums i nsur e t hi s
f r eedom. I t sur pr i sed me t o f i nd how numer ous wer e t hose who needed
some ai d t o make t he di f f er ence bet ween an ol d age of happi ness and
one of mi ser y. Some such cases had ar i sen bef or e my r et i r ement f r om
busi ness, and I had sweet sat i sf act i on f r omt hi s sour ce. Not one
per son have I ever pl aced upon t he pensi on l i st [ 54] t hat di d not f ul l y
deser ve assi st ance. I t i s a r eal r ol l of honor and mut ual af f ect i on.
Al l ar e wor t hy. Ther e i s no publ i ci t y about i t . No one knows who i s
embr aced. Not a wor d i s ever br eat hed t o ot her s.

[ Foot not e 54: Thi s amount ed t o over $250, 000 a year . ]

Thi s i s my f avor i t e and best answer t o t he quest i on whi ch wi l l never
down i n my t hought s: " What good amI doi ng i n t he wor l d t o deser ve
al l my mer ci es?" Wel l , t he dear f r i ends of t he pensi on l i st gi ve me a
sat i sf act or y r epl y, and t hi s al ways comes t o me i n need. I have had
f ar beyond my j ust shar e of l i f e' s bl essi ngs; t her ef or e I never ask
t he Unknown f or anyt hi ng. We ar e i n t he pr esence of uni ver sal l aw and
shoul d bow our heads i n si l ence and obey t he J udge wi t hi n, aski ng
not hi ng, f ear i ng not hi ng, j ust doi ng our dut y r i ght al ong, seeki ng no
r ewar d her e or her eaf t er .

I t i s, i ndeed, mor e bl essed t o gi ve t han t o r ecei ve. These dear good
f r i ends woul d do f or me and mi ne as I do f or t hemwer e posi t i ons
r ever sed. I amsur e of t hi s. Many pr eci ous acknowl edgment s have I
r ecei ved. Some vent ur e t o t el l me t hey r emember me ever y ni ght i n
Page 164 of 222
t hei r pr ayer s and ask f or me ever y bl essi ng. Of t en I cannot r ef r ai n
f r omgi vi ng expr essi on t o my r eal f eel i ngs i n r et ur n.

" Pr ay, don' t , " I say. " Don' t ask anyt hi ng mor e f or me. I ' ve got f ar
beyond my j ust shar e al r eady. Any f ai r commi t t ee si t t i ng upon my case
woul d t ake away mor e t han hal f t he bl essi ngs al r eady best owed. " These
ar e not mer e wor ds, I f eel t hei r t r ut h.

The Rai l r oad Pensi on Fund i s of a si mi l ar nat ur e. Many of t he ol d boys
of t he Pi t t sbur gh Di vi si on ( or t hei r wi dows) ar e t aken car e of by i t .
I t began year s ago and gr ew t o i t s pr esent pr opor t i ons. I t now
benef i t s t he wor t hy r ai l r oad men who ser ved under me when I was
super i nt endent on t he Pennsyl vani a, or t hei r wi dows, who need hel p. I
was onl y a boy when I f i r st went among t hese t r ai nmen and got t o know
t hemby name. They wer e ver y ki nd t o me. Most of t he men benef i ci ar i es
of t he f und I have known per sonal l y. They ar e dear f r i ends.

Al t hough t he f our - mi l l i on- dol l ar f und I gave f or wor kmen i n t he mi l l s
( St eel Wor ker s' Pensi ons) embr aces hundr eds t hat I never saw, t her e
ar e st i l l a suf f i ci ent number upon i t t hat I do r emember t o gi ve t hat
f und al so a st r ong hol d upon me.





Page 165 of 222
CHAPTER XXI

THE PEACE PALACE AND PITTENCRIEFF


Peace, at l east as bet ween Engl i sh- speaki ng peopl es, [ 55] must have
been ear l y i n my t hought s. I n 1869, when Br i t ai n l aunched t he monst er
Monar ch, t hen t he l ar gest war shi p known, t her e was, f or some
now- f or got t en r eason, t al k of how she coul d easi l y compel t r i but e f r om
our Amer i can ci t i es one af t er t he ot her . Not hi ng coul d r esi st her . I
cabl ed J ohn Br i ght , t hen i n t he Br i t i sh Cabi net ( t he cabl e had
r ecent l y been opened) :

" Fi r st and best ser vi ce possi bl e f or Monar ch, br i ngi ng home body
Peabody. " [ 56]

[ Foot not e 55: " Let men say what t hey wi l l , I say t hat as sur el y as t he
sun i n t he heavens once shone upon Br i t ai n and Amer i ca uni t ed, so
sur el y i t i s one mor ni ng t o r i se, shi ne upon, and gr eet agai n t he
Reuni t ed St at es- - t he Br i t i sh- Amer i can Uni on. " ( Quot ed i n Al der son' s
_Andr ew Car negi e, The Man and Hi s Wor k_, p. 108. New Yor k, 1909. ) ]

[ Foot not e 56: Geor ge Peabody, t he Amer i can mer chant and
phi l ant hr opi st , who di ed i n London i n 1869. ]

No si gnat ur e was gi ven. St r ange t o say, t hi s was done, and t hus t he
Monar ch became t he messenger of peace, not of dest r uct i on. Many year s
af t er war ds I met Mr . Br i ght at a smal l di nner par t y i n Bi r mi nghamand
t ol d hi mI was hi s young anonymous cor r espondent . He was sur pr i sed
t hat no si gnat ur e was at t ached and sai d hi s hear t was i n t he act . I am
sur e i t was. He i s ent i t l ed t o al l cr edi t .

He was t he f r i end of t he Republ i c when she needed f r i ends dur i ng t he
Ci vi l War . He had al ways been my f avor i t e l i vi ng her o i n publ i c l i f e
as he had been my f at her ' s. Denounced as a wi l d r adi cal at f i r st , he
kept st eadi l y on unt i l t he nat i on came t o hi s poi nt of vi ew. Al ways
f or peace he woul d have avoi ded t he Cr i mean War , i n whi ch Br i t ai n
backed t he wr ong hor se, as Lor d Sal i sbur y af t er war ds acknowl edged. I t
was a gr eat pr i vi l ege t hat t he Br i ght f ami l y accor ded me, as a f r i end,
t o pl ace a r epl i ca of t he Manchest er Br i ght st at ue i n Par l i ament , i n
t he st ead of a poor one r emoved.

I became i nt er est ed i n t he Peace Soci et y of Gr eat Br i t ai n upon one of
my ear l y vi si t s and at t ended many of i t s meet i ngs, and i n l at er days I
was especi al l y dr awn t o t he Par l i ament ar y Uni on est abl i shed by Mr .
Cr emer , t he f amous wor ki ng- man' s r epr esent at i ve i n Par l i ament . Few men
l i vi ng can be compar ed t o Mr . Cr emer . When he r ecei ved t he Nobel Pr i ze
of 8000 as t he one who had done t he most t hat year f or peace, he
pr ompt l y gave al l but 1000, needed f or pr essi ng want s, t o t he
Ar bi t r at i on Commi t t ee. I t was a nobl e sacr i f i ce. What i s money but
dr oss t o t he t r ue her o! Mr . Cr emer i s pai d a f ew dol l ar s a week by hi s
t r ade t o enabl e hi mt o exi st i n London as t hei r member of Par l i ament ,
and her e was f or t une t hr own i n hi s l ap onl y t o be devot ed by hi mt o
t he cause of peace. Thi s i s t he her oi c i n i t s f i nest f or m.

I had t he gr eat pl easur e of pr esent i ng t he Commi t t ee t o Pr esi dent
Page 166 of 222
Cl evel and at Washi ngt on i n 1887, who r ecei ved t he member s cor di al l y
and assur ed t hemof hi s hear t y coper at i on. Fr omt hat day t he
abol i t i on of war gr ew i n i mpor t ance wi t h me unt i l i t f i nal l y
over shadowed al l ot her i ssues. The sur pr i si ng act i on of t he f i r st
Hague Conf er ence gave me i nt ense j oy. Cal l ed pr i mar i l y t o consi der
di sar mament ( whi ch pr oved a dr eam) , i t cr eat ed t he commandi ng r eal i t y
of a per manent t r i bunal t o set t l e i nt er nat i onal di sput es. I saw i n
t hi s t he gr eat est st ep t owar d peace t hat humani t y had ever t aken, and
t aken as i f by i nspi r at i on, wi t hout much pr evi ous di scussi on. No
wonder t he subl i me i dea capt i vat ed t he conf er ence.

I f Mr . Hol l s, whose deat h I so deepl y depl or ed, wer e al i ve t o- day and
a del egat e t o t he f or t hcomi ng second Conf er ence wi t h hi s chi ef , Andr ew
D. Whi t e, I f eel t hat t hese t wo mi ght possi bl y br i ng about t he
cr eat i on of t he needed I nt er nat i onal Cour t f or t he abol i t i on of war .
He i t was who st ar t ed f r omThe Hague at ni ght f or Ger many, upon
r equest of hi s chi ef , and saw t he Ger man Mi ni st er of For ei gn Af f ai r s,
and t he Emper or and f i nal l y pr evai l ed upon t hemt o appr ove of t he Hi gh
Cour t , and not t o wi t hdr aw t hei r del egat es as t hr eat ened- - a ser vi ce
f or whi ch Mr . Hol l s deser ves t o be enr ol l ed among t he gr eat est
ser vant s of manki nd. Al as, deat h came t o hi mwhi l e st i l l i n hi s pr i me.

The day t hat I nt er nat i onal Cour t i s est abl i shed wi l l become one of t he
most memor abl e days i n t he wor l d' s hi st or y. [ 57] I t wi l l r i ng t he knel l
of man ki l l i ng man- - t he deepest and bl ackest of cr i mes. I t shoul d be
cel ebr at ed i n ever y l and as I bel i eve i t wi l l be some day, and t hat
t i me, per chance, not so r emot e as expect ed. I n t hat er a not a f ew of
t hose hi t her t o ext ol l ed as her oes wi l l have f ound obl i vi on because
t hey f ai l ed t o pr omot e peace and good- wi l l i nst ead of war .

[ Foot not e 57: " I submi t t hat t he onl y measur e r equi r ed t o- day f or t he
mai nt enance of wor l d peace i s an agr eement bet ween t hr ee or f our of
t he l eadi ng Ci vi l i zed Power s ( and as many mor e as desi r e t o j oi n- - t he
mor e t he bet t er ) pl edged t o coper at e agai nst di st ur ber s of wor l d
peace, shoul d such ar i se. " ( Andr ew Car negi e, i n addr ess at unvei l i ng
of a bust of Wi l l i amRandal l Cr emer at t he Peace Pal ace of The Hague,
August 29, 1913. ) ]

When Andr ew D. Whi t e and Mr . Hol l s, upon t hei r r et ur n f r omThe Hague,
suggest ed t hat I of f er t he f unds needed f or a Templ e of Peace at The
Hague, I i nf or med t hemt hat I never coul d be so pr esumpt uous; t hat i f
t he Gover nment of t he Net her l ands i nf or med me of i t s desi r e t o have
such a t empl e and hoped I woul d f ur ni sh t he means, t he r equest woul d
be f avor abl y consi der ed. They demur r ed, sayi ng t hi s coul d har dl y be
expect ed f r omany Gover nment . Then I sai d I coul d never act i n t he
mat t er .

Fi nal l y t he Dut ch Gover nment di d make appl i cat i on, t hr ough i t s
Mi ni st er , Bar on Gever s i n Washi ngt on, and I r ej oi ced. St i l l , i n
wr i t i ng hi m, I was car ef ul t o say t hat t he dr af t s of hi s Gover nment
woul d be dul y honor ed. I di d not send t he money. The Gover nment dr ew
upon me f or i t , and t he dr af t f or a mi l l i on and a hal f i s kept as a
mement o. I t seems t o me al most t oo much t hat any i ndi vi dual shoul d be
per mi t t ed t o per f or mso nobl e a dut y as t hat of pr ovi di ng means f or
t hi s Templ e of Peace- - t he most hol y bui l di ng i n t he wor l d because i t
has t he hol i est end i n vi ew. I do not even except St . Pet er ' s, or any
bui l di ng er ect ed t o t he gl or y of God, whom, as Lut her says, " we cannot
Page 167 of 222
ser ve or ai d; He needs no hel p f r omus. " Thi s t empl e i s t o br i ng
peace, whi ch i s so gr eat l y needed among Hi s er r i ng cr eat ur es. " The
hi ghest wor shi p of God i s ser vi ce t o man. " At l east , I f eel so wi t h
Lut her and Fr ankl i n.

When i n 1907 f r i ends came and asked me t o accept t he pr esi dency of t he
Peace Soci et y of New Yor k, whi ch t hey had det er mi ned t o or gani ze, I
decl i ned, al l egi ng t hat I was kept ver y busy wi t h many af f ai r s, whi ch
was t r ue; but my consci ence t r oubl ed me af t er war ds f or decl i ni ng. I f I
wer e not wi l l i ng t o sacr i f i ce mysel f f or t he cause of peace what
shoul d I sacr i f i ce f or ? What was I good f or ? For t unat el y, i n a f ew
days, t he Rever end Lyman Abbot t , t he Rever end Mr . Lynch, and some
ot her not abl e l abor er s f or good causes cal l ed t o ur ge my
r econsi der at i on. I di vi ned t hei r er r and and f r ankl y t ol d t hemt hey
need not speak. My consci ence had been t or ment i ng me f or decl i ni ng and
I woul d accept t he pr esi dency and do my dut y. Af t er t hat came t he
gr eat nat i onal gat her i ng ( t he f ol l owi ng Apr i l ) when f or t he f i r st t i me
i n t he hi st or y of Peace Soci et y meet i ngs, t her e at t ended del egat es
f r omt hi r t y- f i ve of t he st at es of t he Uni on, besi des many f or ei gner s
of di st i nct i on. [ 58]

[ Foot not e 58: Mr . Car negi e does not ment i on t he f act t hat i n December ,
1910, he gave t o a boar d of t r ust ees $10, 000, 000, t he r evenue of whi ch
was t o be admi ni st er ed f or " t he abol i t i on of i nt er nat i onal war , t he
f oul est bl ot upon our ci vi l i zat i on. " Thi s i s known as t he Car negi e
Endowment f or I nt er nat i onal Peace. The Honor abl e El i hu Root i s
pr esi dent of t he boar d of t r ust ees. ]

My f i r st decor at i on t hen came unexpect edl y. The Fr ench Gover nment had
made me Kni ght Commander of t he Legi on of Honor , and at t he Peace
Banquet i n New Yor k, over whi ch I pr esi ded, Bar on d' Est our nel l es de
Const ant appear ed upon t he st age and i n a compel l i ng speech i nvest ed
me wi t h t he r egal i a ami d t he cheer s of t he company. I t was a gr eat
honor , i ndeed, and appr eci at ed by me because gi ven f or my ser vi ces t o
t he cause of I nt er nat i onal Peace. Such honor s humbl e, t hey do not
exal t ; so l et t hemcome. [ 59] They ser ve al so t o r emi nd me t hat I must
st r i ve har der t han ever , and wat ch ever y act and wor d mor e cl osel y,
t hat I may r each j ust a l i t t l e near er t he st andar d t he gi ver s- - del uded
soul s- - mi st akenl y assume i n t hei r speeches, t hat I have al r eady
at t ai ned.

[ Foot not e 59: Mr . Car negi e r ecei ved al so t he Gr and Cr oss Or der of
Or ange- Nassau f r omHol l and, t he Gr and Cr oss Or der of Danebr og f r om
Denmar k, a gol d medal f r omt went y- one Amer i can Republ i cs and had
doct or s' degr ees f r omi nnumer abl e uni ver si t i es and col l eges. He was
al so a member of many i nst i t ut es, l ear ned soci et i es and cl ubs- - over
190 i n number . ]

* * * * *

No gi f t I have made or can ever make can possi bl y appr oach t hat of
Pi t t encr i ef f Gl en, Dunf er ml i ne. I t i s sat ur at ed wi t h chi l di sh
sent i ment - - al l of t he pur est and sweet est . I must t el l t hat st or y:

Among my ear l i est r ecol l ect i ons ar e t he st r uggl es of Dunf er ml i ne t o
obt ai n t he r i ght s of t he t own t o par t of t he Abbey gr ounds and t he
Pal ace r ui ns. My Gr andf at her Mor r i son began t he campai gn, or , at
Page 168 of 222
l east , was one of t hose who di d. The st r uggl e was cont i nued by my
Uncl es Lauder and Mor r i son, t he l at t er honor ed by bei ng char ged wi t h
havi ng i nci t ed and l ed a band of men t o t ear down a cer t ai n wal l . The
ci t i zens won a vi ct or y i n t he hi ghest cour t and t he t hen Lai r d or der ed
t hat t her eaf t er " no Mor r i son be admi t t ed t o t he Gl en. " I , bei ng a
Mor r i son l i ke my br ot her - cousi n, Dod, was debar r ed. The Lai r ds of
Pi t t encr i ef f f or gener at i ons had been at var i ance wi t h t he
i nhabi t ant s.

The Gl en i s uni que, as f ar as I know. I t adj oi ns t he Abbey and Pal ace
gr ounds, and on t he west and nor t h i t l i es al ong t wo of t he mai n
st r eet s of t he t own. I t s ar ea ( bet ween si xt y and sevent y acr es) i s
f i nel y shel t er ed, i t s hi gh hi l l s gr andl y wooded. I t al ways meant
par adi se t o t he chi l d of Dunf er ml i ne. I t cer t ai nl y di d t o me. When I
hear d of par adi se, I t r ansl at ed t he wor d i nt o Pi t t encr i ef f Gl en,
bel i evi ng i t t o be as near t o par adi se as anyt hi ng I coul d t hi nk of .
Happy wer e we i f t hr ough an open l odge gat e, or over t he wal l or under
t he i r on gr i l l over t he bur n, now and t hen we caught a gl i mpse i nsi de.

Al most ever y Sunday Uncl e Lauder t ook " Dod" and " Nai g" f or a wal k
ar ound t he Abbey t o a par t t hat over l ooked t he Gl en- - t he busy cr ows
f l ut t er i ng ar ound i n t he bi g t r ees bel ow. I t s Lai r d was t o us chi l dr en
t he embodi ment of r ank and weal t h. The Queen, we knew, l i ved i n
Wi ndsor Cast l e, but she di dn' t own Pi t t encr i ef f , not she! Hunt of
Pi t t encr i ef f woul dn' t exchange wi t h her or wi t h any one. Of t hi s we
wer e sur e, because cer t ai nl y nei t her of us woul d. I n al l my
chi l dhood' s- - yes and i n my ear l y manhood' s- - ai r - cast l e bui l di ng ( whi ch
was not smal l ) , not hi ng compar abl e i n gr andeur appr oached
Pi t t encr i ef f . My Uncl e Lauder pr edi ct ed many t hi ngs f or me when I
became a man, but had he f or et ol d t hat some day I shoul d be r i ch
enough, and so supr emel y f or t unat e as t o become Lai r d of Pi t t encr i ef f ,
he mi ght have t ur ned my head. And t hen t o be abl e t o hand i t over t o
Dunf er ml i ne as a publ i c par k- - my par adi se of chi l dhood! Not f or a
cr own woul d I bar t er t hat pr i vi l ege.

When Dr . Ross whi sper ed t o me t hat Col onel Hunt mi ght be i nduced t o
sel l , my ear s cocked t hemsel ves i nst ant l y. He wi shed an ext or t i onat e
pr i ce, t he doct or t hought , and I hear d not hi ng f ur t her f or some t i me.
When i ndi sposed i n London i n t he aut umn of 1902, my mi nd r an upon t he
subj ect , and I i nt ended t o wi r e Dr . Ross t o come up and see me. One
mor ni ng, Mr s. Car negi e came i nt o my r oomand asked me t o guess who had
ar r i ved and I guessed Dr . Ross. Sur e enough, t her e he was. We t al ked
over Pi t t encr i ef f . I suggest ed t hat i f our mut ual f r i end and
f el l ow- t ownsman, Mr . Shaw i n Edi nbur gh ( Lor d Shaw of Dunf er ml i ne) ever
met Col onel Hunt ' s agent s he coul d i nt i mat e t hat t hei r cl i ent mi ght
some day r egr et not cl osi ng wi t h me as anot her pur chaser equal l y
anxi ous t o buy mi ght not be met wi t h, and I mi ght change my mi nd or
pass away. Mr . Shaw t ol d t he doct or when he ment i oned t hi s t hat he had
an appoi nt ment t o meet wi t h Hunt ' s l awyer on ot her busi ness t he next
mor ni ng and woul d cer t ai nl y say so.

I sai l ed shor t l y af t er f or New Yor k and r ecei ved t her e one day a cabl e
f r omMr . Shaw st at i ng t hat t he Lai r d woul d accept f or t y- f i ve t housand
pounds. Shoul d he cl ose? I wi r ed: " Yes, pr ovi ded i t i s under Ross' s
condi t i ons" ; and on Chr i st mas Eve, I r ecei ved Shaw' s r epl y: " Hai l ,
Lai r d of Pi t t encr i ef f ! " So I was t he happy possessor of t he gr andest
t i t l e on ear t h i n my est i mat i on. The Ki ng- - wel l , he was onl y t he Ki ng.
Page 169 of 222
He di dn' t own Ki ng Mal col m' s t ower nor St . Mar gar et ' s shr i ne, nor
Pi t t encr i ef f Gl en. Not he, poor man. I di d, and I shal l be gl ad t o
condescendi ngl y show t he Ki ng t hose t r easur es shoul d he ever vi si t
Dunf er ml i ne.

As t he possessor of t he Par k and t he Gl en I had a chance t o f i nd out
what , i f anyt hi ng, money coul d do f or t he good of t he masses of a
communi t y, i f pl aced i n t he hands of a body of publ i c- spi r i t ed
ci t i zens. Dr . Ross was t aken i nt o my conf i dence so f ar as Pi t t encr i ef f
Par k was concer ned, and wi t h hi s advi ce cer t ai n men i nt ended f or a
body of t r ust ees wer e agr eed upon and i nvi t ed t o Ski bo t o or gani ze.
They i magi ned i t was i n r egar d t o t r ansf er r i ng t he Par k t o t he t own;
not even t o Dr . Ross was any ot her subj ect ment i oned. When t hey hear d
t hat hal f a mi l l i on st er l i ng i n bonds, bear i ng f i ve per cent i nt er est ,
was al so t o go t o t hemf or t he benef i t of Dunf er ml i ne, t hey wer e
sur pr i sed. [ 60]

[ Foot not e 60: Addi t i onal gi f t s, made l at er , br ought t hi s gi f t up t o
$3, 750, 000. ]

I t i s t wel ve year s si nce t he Gl en was handed over t o t he t r ust ees and
cer t ai nl y no publ i c par k was ever dear er t o a peopl e. The chi l dr en' s
year l y gal a day, t he f l ower shows and t he dai l y use of t he Par k by t he
peopl e ar e sur pr i si ng. The Gl en now at t r act s peopl e f r omnei ghbor i ng
t owns. I n numer ous ways t he t r ust ees have succeeded f i nel y i n t he
di r ect i on i ndi cat ed i n t he t r ust deed, namel y:

To br i ng i nt o t he monot onous l i ves of t he t oi l i ng masses of
Dunf er ml i ne, mor e " of sweet ness and l i ght , " t o gi ve t o
t hem- - especi al l y t he young- - some char m, some happi ness, some
el evat i ng condi t i ons of l i f e whi ch r esi dence el sewher e woul d
have deni ed, t hat t he chi l d of my nat i ve t own, l ooki ng back
i n af t er year s, however f ar f r omhome i t may have r oamed,
wi l l f eel t hat si mpl y by vi r t ue of bei ng such, l i f e has been
made happi er and bet t er . I f t hi s be t he f r ui t of your
l abor s, you wi l l have succeeded; i f not , you wi l l have
f ai l ed.

To t hi s par agr aph I owe t he f r i endshi p of Ear l Gr ey, f or mer l y
Gover nor - Gener al of Canada. He wr ot e Dr . Ross:

" I must know t he man who wr ot e t hat document i n t he ' Ti mes' t hi s
mor ni ng. "

We met i n London and became i nst ant l y sympat het i c. He i s a gr eat soul
who passes i nst ant l y i nt o t he hear t and st ays t her e. Lor d Gr ey i s al so
t o- day a member ( t r ust ee) of t he t en- mi l l i on- dol l ar f und f or t he
Uni t ed Ki ngdom. [ 61]

[ Foot not e 61: Mr . Car negi e r ef er s t o t he gi f t of t en mi l l i on dol l ar s
t o t he Car negi e Uni t ed Ki ngdomTr ust mer el y i n connect i on wi t h Ear l
Gr ey. Hi s r ef er ences t o hi s gi f t s ar e casual , i n t hat he r ef er s onl y
t o t he ones i n whi ch he happens f or t he moment t o be i nt er est ed. Those
he ment i ons ar e mer el y a par t of t he whol e. He gave t o t he Chur ch
Peace Uni on over $2, 000, 000, t o t he Uni t ed Engi neer i ng Soci et y
$1, 500, 000, t o t he I nt er nat i onal Bur eau of Amer i can Republ i cs
$850, 000, and t o a scor e or mor e of r esear ch, hospi t al , and
Page 170 of 222
educat i onal boar ds sums r angi ng f r om$100, 000 t o $500, 000. He gave t o
var i ous t owns and ci t i es over t went y- ei ght hundr ed l i br ar y bui l di ngs
at a cost of over $60, 000, 000. The l ar gest of hi s gi f t s he does not
ment i on at al l . Thi s was made i n 1911 t o t he Car negi e Cor por at i on of
New Yor k and was $125, 000, 000. The Cor por at i on i s t he r esi duar y
l egat ee under Mr . Car negi e' s wi l l and i t i s not yet known what f ur t her
summay come t o i t t hr ough t hat i nst r ument . The obj ect of t he
Cor por at i on, as def i ned by Mr . Car negi e hi msel f i n a l et t er t o t he
t r ust ees, i s:

" To pr omot e t he advancement and di f f usi on of knowl edge and
under st andi ng among t he peopl e of t he Uni t ed St at es by ai di ng
t echni cal school s, i nst i t ut i ons of hi gher l ear ni ng, l i br ar i es,
sci ent i f i c r esear ch, her o f unds, usef ul publ i cat i ons and by such ot her
agenci es and means as shal l f r omt i me t o t i me be f ound appr opr i at e
t her ef or . "

The Car negi e benef act i ons, al l t ol d, amount t o somet hi ng over
$350, 000, 000- - sur el y a huge sumt o have been br ought t oget her and t hen
di st r i but ed by one man. ]

Thus, Pi t t encr i ef f Gl en i s t he most soul - sat i sf yi ng publ i c gi f t I ever
made, or ever can make. I t i s poet i c j ust i ce t hat t he gr andson of
Thomas Mor r i son, r adi cal l eader i n hi s day, nephew of Bai l i e Mor r i son,
hi s son and successor , and above al l son of my sai nt ed f at her and my
most her oi c mot her , shoul d ar i se and di spossess t he l ai r ds, shoul d
become t he agent f or conveyi ng t he Gl en and Par k t o t he peopl e of
Dunf er ml i ne f or ever . I t i s a t r ue r omance, whi ch no ai r - cast l e can
qui t e equal or f i ct i on concei ve. The hand of dest i ny seems t o hover
over i t , and I hear somet hi ng whi sper i ng: " Not al t oget her i n vai n have
you l i ved- - not al t oget her i n vai n. " Thi s i s t he cr owni ng mer cy of my
car eer ! I set i t apar t f r omal l my ot her publ i c gi f t s. Tr ul y t he
whi r l i gi g of t i me br i ngs i n some st r ange r evenges.

I t i s now t hi r t een year s si nce I ceased t o accumul at e weal t h and began
t o di st r i but e i t . I coul d never have succeeded i n ei t her had I st opped
wi t h havi ng enough t o r et i r e upon, but not hi ng t o r et i r e t o. But t her e
was t he habi t and t he l ove of r eadi ng, wr i t i ng and speaki ng upon
occasi on, and al so t he acquai nt ance and f r i endshi p of educat ed men
whi ch I had made bef or e I gave up busi ness. For some year s af t er
r et i r i ng I coul d not f or ce mysel f t o vi si t t he wor ks. Thi s, al as,
woul d r ecal l so many who had gone bef or e. Scar cel y one of my ear l y
f r i ends woul d r emai n t o gi ve me t he hand- cl asp of t he days of ol d.
Onl y one or t wo of t hese ol d men woul d cal l me " Andy. "

Do not l et i t be t hought , however , t hat my younger par t ner s wer e
f or got t en, or t hat t hey have not pl ayed a ver y i mpor t ant par t i n
sust ai ni ng me i n t he ef f or t of r econci l i ng mysel f t o t he new
condi t i ons. Far ot her wi se! The most soot hi ng i nf l uence of al l was
t hei r pr ompt or gani zat i on of t he Car negi e Vet er an Associ at i on, t o
expi r e onl y when t he l ast member di es. Our year l y di nner t oget her , i n
our own home i n New Yor k, i s a sour ce of t he gr eat est pl easur e, - - so
gr eat t hat i t l ast s f r omone year t o t he ot her . Some of t he Vet er ans
t r avel f ar t o be pr esent , and what occur s bet ween us const i t ut es one
of t he dear est j oys of my l i f e. I car r y wi t h me t he af f ect i on of " my
boys. " I amcer t ai n I do. Ther e i s no possi bl e mi st ake about t hat
because my hear t goes out t o t hem. Thi s I number among my many
Page 171 of 222
bl essi ngs and i n many a br oodi ng hour t hi s f act comes t o me, and I say
t o mysel f : " Rat her t hi s, mi nus f or t une, t han mul t i - mi l l i onai r edom
wi t hout i t - - yes, a t housand t i mes, yes. "

Many f r i ends, gr eat and good men and women, Mr s. Car negi e and I ar e
f avor ed t o know, but not one whi t shal l t hese ever change our j oi nt
l ove f or t he " boys. " For t o my i nf i ni t e del i ght her hear t goes out t o
t hemas does mi ne. She i t was who chr i st ened our new New Yor k home
wi t h t he f i r st Vet er an di nner . " The par t ner s f i r st " was her wor d. I t
was no mer e i dl e f or mwhen t hey el ect ed Mr s. Car negi e t he f i r st
honor ar y member , and our daught er t he second. Thei r pl ace i n our
hear t s i s secur e. Al t hough I was t he seni or , st i l l we wer e " boys
t oget her . " Per f ect t r ust and common ai ms, not f or sel f onl y, but f or
each ot her , and deep af f ect i on, moul ded us i nt o a br ot her hood. We wer e
f r i ends f i r st and par t ner s af t er war ds. For t y- t hr ee out of f or t y- f i ve
par t ner s ar e t hus bound t oget her f or l i f e.

Anot her year l y event t hat br i ngs f or t h many choi ce spi r i t s i s our
Li t er ar y Di nner , at home, our dear f r i end Mr . Ri char d Wat son Gi l der ,
edi t or of t he " Cent ur y, " bei ng t he manager . [ 62] Hi s devi ces and
quot at i ons f r omt he wr i t i ngs of t he guest of t he year , pl aced upon
t he car ds of t he guest s, ar e so appr opr i at e, as t o cause much
hi l ar i t y. Then t he speeches of t he novi t i at es gi ve zest t o t he
occasi on. J ohn Mor l ey was t he guest of honor when wi t h us i n 1895 and
a quot at i on f r omhi s wor ks was upon t he car d at each pl at e.

[ Foot not e 62: " Yest er day we had a busy day i n Tor ont o. The gr and event
was a di nner at si x o' cl ock wher e we al l spoke, A. C. maki ng a
r emar kabl e addr ess. . . . I can' t t el l you how I amenj oyi ng t hi s. Not
onl y seei ng new pl aces, but t he t al ks wi t h our own par t y. I t i s,
i ndeed, a l i ber al educat i on. A. C. i s t r ul y a ' gr eat ' man; t hat i s, a
man of enor mous f acul t y and a gr eat i magi nat i on. I don' t r emember any
f r i end who has such a r ange of poet i cal quot at i on, unl ess i t i s
St edman. ( Not so much _r ange_ as numer ous quot at i ons f r omShakespear e,
Bur ns, Byr on, et c. ) Hi s vi ews ar e t r ul y l ar ge and pr ophet i c. And,
unl ess I ammi st aken, he has a genui ne et hi cal char act er . He i s not
per f ect , but he i s most i nt er est i ng and r emar kabl e; a t r ue democr at ;
hi s benevol ent act i ons havi ng a r oot i n pr i nci pl e and char act er . He i s
not acci dent al l y t he i nt i mat e f r i end of such hi gh nat ur es as Ar nol d
and Mor l ey. " ( _Let t er s of Ri char d Wat son Gi l der _, edi t ed by hi s
daught er Rosamond Gi l der , p. 374. New Yor k, 1916. ) ]

One year Gi l der appear ed ear l y i n t he eveni ng of t he di nner as he
wi shed t o seat t he guest s. Thi s had been done, but he came t o me
sayi ng i t was wel l he had l ooked t hemover . He had f ound J ohn
Bur r oughs and Er nest Thompson Set on wer e si de by si de, and as t hey
wer e t hen engaged i n a heat ed cont r over sy upon t he habi t s of beast s
and bi r ds, i n whi ch bot h had gone t oo f ar i n t hei r cr i t i ci sms, t hey
wer e at dagger ' s poi nt s. Gi l der sai d i t woul d never do t o seat t hem
t oget her . He had separ at ed t hem. I sai d not hi ng, but sl i pped i nt o t he
di ni ng- r oomunobser ved and r epl aced t he car ds as bef or e. Gi l der ' s
sur pr i se was gr eat when he saw t he men next each ot her , but t he r esul t
was j ust as I had expect ed. A r econci l i at i on t ook pl ace and t hey
par t ed good f r i ends. Mor al : I f you wi sh t o pl ay peace- maker , seat
adver sar i es next each ot her wher e t hey must begi n by bei ng ci vi l .

Bur r oughs and Set on bot h enj oyed t he t r ap I set f or t hem. Tr ue i t i s,
Page 172 of 222
we onl y hat e t hose whomwe do not know. I t cer t ai nl y i s of t en t he way
t o peace t o i nvi t e your adver sar y t o di nner and even beseech hi mt o
come, t aki ng no r ef usal . Most quar r el s become acut e f r omt he par t i es
not seei ng and communi cat i ng wi t h each ot her and hear i ng t oo much of
t hei r di sagr eement f r omot her s. They do not f ul l y under st and t he
ot her ' s poi nt of vi ew and al l t hat can be sai d f or i t . Wi se i s he who
of f er s t he hand of r econci l i at i on shoul d a di f f er ence wi t h a f r i end
ar i se. Unhappy he t o t he end of hi s days who r ef uses i t . No possi bl e
gai n at ones f or t he l oss of one who has been a f r i end even i f t hat
f r i end has become somewhat l ess dear t o you t han bef or e. He i s st i l l
one wi t h whomyou have been i nt i mat e, and as age comes on f r i ends pass
r api dl y away and l eave you.

He i s t he happy man who f eel s t her e i s not a human bei ng t o whomhe
does not wi sh happi ness, l ong l i f e, and deser ved success, not one i n
whose pat h he woul d cast an obst acl e nor t o whomhe woul d not do a
ser vi ce i f i n hi s power . Al l t hi s he can f eel wi t hout bei ng cal l ed
upon t o r et ai n as a f r i end one who has pr oved unwor t hy beyond quest i on
by di shonor abl e conduct . For such t her e shoul d be not hi ng f el t but
pi t y, i nf i ni t e pi t y. And pi t y f or your own l oss al so, f or t r ue
f r i endshi p can onl y f eed and gr ow upon t he vi r t ues.

" When l ove begi ns t o si cken and decay
I t uset h an enf or ced cer emony. "

The f or mer geni al i t y may be gone f or ever , but each can wi sh t he ot her
not hi ng but happi ness.

None of my f r i ends hai l ed my r et i r ement f r ombusi ness mor e war ml y t han
Mar k Twai n. I r ecei ved f r omhi mt he f ol l owi ng not e, at a t i me when t he
newspaper s wer e t al ki ng much about my weal t h.

DEAR SI R AND FRI END:

You seemt o be pr osper ous t hese days. Coul d you l end an
admi r er a dol l ar and a hal f t o buy a hymn- book wi t h? God
wi l l bl ess you i f you do; I f eel i t , I know i t . So wi l l I .
I f t her e shoul d be ot her appl i cat i ons t hi s one not t o count .

Your s

MARK

P. S. Don' t send t he hymn- book, send t he money. I want t o
make t he sel ect i on mysel f .

M.

When he was l yi ng i l l i n New Yor k I went t o see hi mf r equent l y, and we
had gr eat t i mes t oget her , f or even l yi ng i n bed he was as br i ght as
ever . One cal l was t o say good- bye, bef or e my sai l i ng f or Scot l and.
The Pensi on Fund f or Uni ver si t y Pr of essor s was announced i n New Yor k
soon af t er I sai l ed. A l et t er about i t f r omMar k, addr essed t o " Sai nt
Andr ew, " r eached me i n Scot l and, f r omwhi ch I quot e t he f ol l owi ng:

You can t ake my hal o. I f you had t ol d me what you had done
when at my bedsi de you woul d have got i t t her e and t hen. I t
Page 173 of 222
i s pur e t i n and pai d " t he dut y" when i t came down.

Those i nt i mat e wi t h Mr . Cl emens ( Mar k Twai n) wi l l cer t i f y t hat he was
one of t he char mer s. J oe J ef f er son i s t he onl y man who can be conceded
hi s t wi n br ot her i n manner and speech, t hei r char mbei ng of t he same
ki nd. " Uncl e Remus" ( J oel Chandl er Har r i s) i s anot her who has char m,
and so has Geor ge W. Cabl e; yes, and J osh Bi l l i ngs al so had i t . Such
peopl e br i ght en t he l i ves of t hei r f r i ends, r egar dl ess of t hemsel ves.
They make sunshi ne wher ever t hey go. I n Ri p Van Wi nkl e' s wor ds: " Al l
pr et t y much al i ke, demf el l er s. " Ever y one of t hemi s unsel f i sh and
war mof hear t .

The publ i c onl y knows one si de of Mr . Cl emens- - t he amusi ng par t .
Li t t l e does i t suspect t hat he was a man of st r ong convi ct i ons upon
pol i t i cal and soci al quest i ons and a mor al i st of no mean or der . For
i nst ance, upon t he capt ur e of Agui nal do by decept i on, hi s pen was t he
most t r enchant of al l . J uni us was weak i n compar i son.

The gat her i ng t o cel ebr at e hi s sevent i et h bi r t hday was uni que. The
l i t er ar y el ement was t her e i n f or ce, but Mar k had not f or got t en t o ask
t o have pl aced near hi mt he mul t i - mi l l i onai r e, Mr . H. H. Roger s, one
who had been hi s f r i end i n need. J ust l i ke Mar k. Wi t hout except i on,
t he l eadi ng l i t er ar y men dwel t i n t hei r speeches excl usi vel y upon t he
guest ' s l i t er ar y wor k. When my t ur n came, I r ef er r ed t o t hi s and asked
t hemt o not e t hat what our f r i end had done as a man woul d l i ve as l ong
as what he had wr i t t en. Si r Wal t er Scot t and he wer e l i nked
i ndi ssol ubl y t oget her . Our f r i end, l i ke Scot t , was r ui ned by t he
mi st akes of par t ner s, who had become hopel essl y bankr upt . Two cour ses
l ay bef or e hi m. One t he smoot h, easy, and shor t way- - t he l egal pat h.
Sur r ender al l your pr oper t y, go t hr ough bankr upt cy, and st ar t af r esh.
Thi s was al l he owed t o cr edi t or s. The ot her pat h, l ong, t hor ny, and
dr ear y, a l i f e st r uggl e, wi t h ever yt hi ng sacr i f i ced. Ther e l ay t he t wo
pat hs and t hi s was hi s deci si on:

" Not what I owe t o my cr edi t or s, but what I owe t o mysel f i s t he
i ssue. "

Ther e ar e t i mes i n most men' s l i ves t hat t est whet her t hey be dr oss or
pur e gol d. I t i s t he deci si on made i n t he cr i si s whi ch pr oves t he man.
Our f r i end ent er ed t he f i er y f ur nace a man and emer ged a her o. He pai d
hi s debt s t o t he ut most f ar t hi ng by l ect ur i ng ar ound t he wor l d. " An
amusi ng cuss, Mar k Twai n, " i s al l ver y wel l as a popul ar ver di ct , but
what of Mr . Cl emens t he man and t he her o, f or he i s bot h and i n t he
f r ont r ank, t oo, wi t h Si r Wal t er .

He had a her oi ne i n hi s wi f e. She i t was who sust ai ned hi mand
t r avel ed t he wor l d r ound wi t h hi mas hi s guar di an angel , and enabl ed
hi mt o conquer as Si r Wal t er di d. Thi s he never f ai l ed t o t el l t o hi s
i nt i mat es. Never i n my l i f e di d t hr ee wor ds l eave so keen a pang as
t hose ut t er ed upon my f i r st cal l af t er Mr s. Cl emens passed away. I
f or t unat el y f ound hi mal one and whi l e my hand was st i l l i n hi s, and
bef or e one wor d had been spoken by ei t her , t her e came f r omhi m, wi t h a
st r onger pr essur e of my hand, t hese wor ds: " A r ui ned home, a r ui ned
home. " The si l ence was unbr oken. I wr i t e t hi s year s af t er , but st i l l I
hear t he wor ds agai n and my hear t r esponds.

One mer cy, deni ed t o our f or ef at her s, comes t o us of t o- day. I f t he
Page 174 of 222
J udge wi t hi n gi ve us a ver di ct of acqui t t al as havi ng l i ved t hi s l i f e
wel l , we have no ot her J udge t o f ear .

" To t hi ne own sel f be t r ue,
And i t must f ol l ow, as t he ni ght t he day,
Thou canst not t hen be f al se t o any man. "

Et er nal puni shment , because of a f ew year s' shor t comi ngs her e on
ear t h, woul d be t he r ever se of Godl i ke. Sat an hi msel f woul d r ecoi l
f r omi t .




Page 175 of 222
CHAPTER XXII

MATHEW ARNOLD AND OTHERS


The most char mi ng man, J ohn Mor l ey and I agr ee, t hat we ever knew was
Mat t hew Ar nol d. He had, i ndeed, " a char m" - - t hat i s t he onl y wor d whi ch
expr esses t he ef f ect of hi s pr esence and hi s conver sat i on. Even hi s
l ook and gr ave si l ences char med.

[ I l l ust r at i on: _Phot ogr aph f r omUnder wood & Under wood, N. Y. _

MATTHEWARNOLD]

He coached wi t h us i n 1880, I t hi nk, t hr ough Sout her n Engl and- - Wi l l i am
Bl ack and Edwi n A. Abbey bei ng of t he par t y. Appr oachi ng a pr et t y
vi l l age he asked me i f t he coach mi ght st op t her e a f ew mi nut es. He
expl ai ned t hat t hi s was t he r est i ng- pl ace of hi s godf at her , Bi shop
Kebl e, and he shoul d l i ke t o vi si t hi s gr ave. He cont i nued:

" Ah, dear , dear Kebl e! I caused hi mmuch sor r ow by my vi ews upon
t heol ogi cal subj ect s, whi ch caused me sor r ow al so, but not wi t hst andi ng
he was deepl y gr i eved, dear f r i end as he was, he t r avel ed t o Oxf or d
and vot ed f or me f or Pr of essor of Engl i sh Poet r y. "

We wal ked t o t he qui et chur chyar d t oget her . Mat t hew Ar nol d i n si l ent
t hought at t he gr ave of Kebl e made upon me a l ast i ng i mpr essi on. Lat er
t he subj ect of hi s t heol ogi cal vi ews was r ef er r ed t o. He sai d t hey had
caused sor r ow t o hi s best f r i ends.

" Mr . Gl adst one once gave expr essi on t o hi s deep di sappoi nt ment , or t o
somet hi ng l i ke di spl easur e, sayi ng I ought t o have been a bi shop. No
doubt my wr i t i ngs pr event ed my pr omot i on, as wel l as gr i eved my
f r i ends, but I coul d not hel p i t . I had t o expr ess my vi ews. "

I r emember wel l t he sadness of t one wi t h whi ch t hese l ast wor ds
wer e spoken, and how ver y sl owl y. They came as f r omt he deep. He had
hi s message t o del i ver . St eadi l y has t he age advanced t o r ecei ve i t .
Hi s t eachi ngs pass al most uncensur ed t o- day. I f ever t her e was a
ser i ousl y r el i gi ous man i t was Mat t hew Ar nol d. No i r r ever ent wor d ever
escaped hi s l i ps. I n t hi s he and Gl adst one wer e equal l y above
r epr oach, and yet he had i n one shor t sent ence sl ai n t he super nat ur al .
" The case agai nst mi r acl es i s cl osed. They do not happen. "

He and hi s daught er , now Mr s. Whi t r i dge, wer e our guest s when i n New
Yor k i n 1883, and al so at our mount ai n home i n t he Al l eghani es, so
t hat I saw a gr eat deal , but not enough, of hi m. My mot her and mysel f
dr ove hi mt o t he hal l upon hi s f i r st publ i c appear ance i n New Yor k.
Never was t her e a f i ner audi ence gat her ed. The l ect ur e was not a
success, owi ng sol el y t o hi s i nabi l i t y t o speak wel l i n publ i c. He was
not hear d. When we r et ur ned home hi s f i r st wor ds wer e:

" Wel l , what have you al l t o say? Tel l me! Wi l l I do as a l ect ur er ?"

I was so keenl y i nt er est ed i n hi s success t hat I di d not hesi t at e t o
t el l hi mi t woul d never do f or hi mt o go on unl ess he f i t t ed hi msel f
Page 176 of 222
f or publ i c speaki ng. He must get an el ocut i oni st t o gi ve hi ml essons
upon t wo or t hr ee poi nt s. I ur ged t hi s so st r ongl y t hat he consent ed
t o do so. Af t er we al l had our say, he t ur ned t o my mot her , sayi ng:

" Now, dear Mr s. Car negi e, t hey have al l gi ven me t hei r opi ni ons, but I
wi sh t o know what you have t o say about my f i r st ni ght as a l ect ur er
i n Amer i ca. "

" Too mi ni st er i al , Mr . Ar nol d, t oo mi ni st er i al , " was t he r epl y sl owl y
and sof t l y del i ver ed. And t o t he l ast Mr . Ar nol d woul d occasi onal l y
r ef er t o t hat , sayi ng he f el t i t hi t t he nai l on t he head. When he
r et ur ned t o New Yor k f r omhi s West er n t our , he had so much i mpr oved
t hat hi s voi ce compl et el y f i l l ed t he Br ookl yn Academy of Musi c. He had
t aken a f ew l essons f r oma pr of essor of el ocut i on i n Bost on, as
advi sed, and al l went wel l t her eaf t er .

He expr essed a desi r e t o hear t he not ed pr eacher , Mr . Beecher ; and we
st ar t ed f or Br ookl yn one Sunday mor ni ng. Mr . Beecher had been appr i zed
of our comi ng so t hat af t er t he ser vi ces he mi ght r emai n t o meet Mr .
Ar nol d. When I pr esent ed Mr . Ar nol d he was gr eet ed war ml y. Mr . Beecher
expr essed hi s del i ght at meet i ng one i n t he f l esh whomhe had l ong
known so wel l i n t he spi r i t , and, gr aspi ng hi s hand, he sai d:

" Ther e i s not hi ng you have wr i t t en, Mr . Ar nol d, whi ch I have not
car ef ul l y r ead at l east once and a gr eat deal many t i mes, and al ways
wi t h pr of i t , al ways wi t h pr of i t ! "

" Ah, t hen, I f ear , Mr . Beecher , " r epl i ed Ar nol d, " you may have f ound
some r ef er ences t o your sel f whi ch woul d bet t er have been omi t t ed. "

" Oh, no, no, t hose di d me t he most good of al l , " sai d t he smi l i ng
Beecher , and t hey bot h l aughed.

Mr . Beecher was never at a l oss. Af t er pr esent i ng Mat t hew Ar nol d t o
hi m, I had t he pl easur e of pr esent i ng t he daught er of Col onel
I nger sol l , sayi ng, as I di d so:

" Mr . Beecher , t hi s i s t he f i r st t i me Mi ss I nger sol l has ever been i n a
Chr i st i an chur ch. "

He hel d out bot h hands and gr asped her s, and l ooki ng st r ai ght at her
and speaki ng sl owl y, sai d:

" Wel l , wel l , you ar e t he most beaut i f ul heat hen I ever saw. " Those who
r emember Mi ss I nger sol l i n her yout h wi l l not di f f er gr eat l y wi t h Mr .
Beecher . Then: " How' s your f at her , Mi ss I nger sol l ? I hope he' s wel l .
Many a t i me he and I have st ood t oget her on t he pl at f or m, and wasn' t
i t l ucky f or me we wer e on t he same si de! "

Beecher was, i ndeed, a gr eat , br oad, gener ous man, who absor bed what
was good wher ever f ound. Spencer ' s phi l osophy, Ar nol d' s i nsi ght
t emper ed wi t h sound sense, I nger sol l ' s st aunch suppor t of hi gh
pol i t i cal ends wer e power s f or good i n t he Republ i c. Mr . Beecher was
gr eat enough t o appr eci at e and hai l as hel pf ul f r i ends al l of t hese
men.

Ar nol d vi si t ed us i n Scot l and i n 1887, and t al ki ng one day of spor t he
Page 177 of 222
sai d he di d not shoot , he coul d not ki l l anyt hi ng t hat had wi ngs and
coul d soar i n t he cl ear bl ue sky; but , he added, he coul d not gi ve up
f i shi ng- - " t he accessor i es ar e so del i ght f ul . " He t ol d of hi s happi ness
when a cer t ai n duke gave hi ma day' s f i shi ng t wi ce or t hr ee t i mes a
year . I f or get who t he ki nd duke was, but t her e was somet hi ng unsavor y
about hi mand ment i on was made of t hi s. He was asked how he came t o be
upon i nt i mat e t er ms wi t h such a man.

" Ah! " he sai d, " a duke i s al ways a per sonage wi t h us, al ways a
per sonage, i ndependent of br ai ns or conduct . We ar e al l snobs.
Hundr eds of year s have made us so, al l snobs. We can' t hel p i t . I t i s
i n t he bl ood. "

Thi s was smi l i ngl y sai d, and I t ake i t he made some ment al
r eser vat i ons. He was no snob hi msel f , but one who nat ur al l y " smi l ed at
t he cl ai ms of l ong descent , " f or gener al l y t he " descent " cannot be
quest i oned.

He was i nt er est ed, however , i n men of r ank and weal t h, and I r emember
when i n New Yor k he wi shed par t i cul ar l y t o meet Mr . Vander bi l t . I
vent ur ed t o say he woul d not f i nd hi mdi f f er ent f r omot her men.

" No, but i t i s somet hi ng t o know t he r i chest man i n t he wor l d, " he
r epl i ed. " Cer t ai nl y t he man who makes hi s own weal t h ecl i pses t hose
who i nher i t r ank f r omot her s. "

I asked hi mone day why he had never wr i t t en cr i t i cal l y upon
Shakespear e and assi gned hi mhi s pl ace upon t he t hr one among t he
poet s. He sai d t hat t hought s of doi ng so had ar i sen, but r ef l ect i on
al ways sat i sf i ed hi mt hat he was i ncompet ent t o wr i t e upon, much l ess
t o cr i t i ci ze, Shakespear e. He bel i eved i t coul d not be successf ul l y
done. Shakespear e was above al l , coul d be measur ed by no r ul es of
cr i t i ci sm; and much as he shoul d have l i ked t o dwel l upon hi s
t r anscendent geni us, he had al ways r ecoi l ed f r omt ouchi ng t he subj ect .
I sai d t hat I was pr epar ed f or t hi s, af t er hi s t r i but e whi ch st ands
t o- day unequal ed, and I r ecal l ed hi s own l i nes f r omhi s sonnet :

SHAKESPEARE

Ot her s abi de our quest i on. Thou ar t f r ee.
We ask and ask- - Thou smi l est and ar t st i l l ,
Out - t oppi ng knowl edge. For t he l of t i est hi l l
Who t o t he st ar s uncr owns hi s maj est y,

Pl ant i ng hi s st eadf ast f oot st eps i n t he sea,
Maki ng t he heaven of heavens hi s dwel l i ng- pl ace,
Spar es but t he cl oudy bor der of hi s base
To t he f oi l ' d sear chi ng of mor t al i t y;

And t hou, who di dst t he st ar s and sunbeams know,
Sel f - school ' d, sel f - scann' d, sel f - honour ' d, sel f - secur e,
Di dst st and on ear t h unguess' d at - - Bet t er so!

Al l pai ns t he i mmor t al spi r i t must endur e,
Al l weakness whi ch i mpai r s, al l gr i ef s whi ch bow,
Fi nd t hei r sol e voi ce i n t hat vi ct or i ous br ow.

Page 178 of 222
I knew Mr . Shaw ( J osh Bi l l i ngs) and wi shed Mr . Ar nol d, t he apost l e of
sweet ness and l i ght , t o meet t hat r ough di amond- - r ough, but st i l l a
di amond. For t unat el y one mor ni ng J osh came t o see me i n t he Wi ndsor
Hot el , wher e we wer e t hen l i vi ng, and r ef er r ed t o our guest ,
expr essi ng hi s admi r at i on f or hi m. I r epl i ed:

" You ar e goi ng t o di ne wi t h hi mt o- ni ght . The l adi es ar e goi ng out and
Ar nol d and mysel f ar e t o di ne al one; you compl et e t he t r i ni t y. "

To t hi s he demur r ed, bei ng a modest man, but I was i nexor abl e. No
excuse woul d be t aken; he must come t o obl i ge me. He di d. I sat
bet ween t hemat di nner and enj oyed t hi s meet i ng of ext r emes. Mr .
Ar nol d became deepl y i nt er est ed i n Mr . Shaw' s way of put t i ng t hi ngs
and l i ked hi s West er n anecdot es, l aughi ng mor e hear t i l y t han I had
ever seen hi mdo bef or e. One i nci dent af t er anot her was t ol d f r omt he
exper i ence of t he l ect ur er , f or Mr . Shaw had l ect ur ed f or f i f t een
year s i n ever y pl ace of t en t housand i nhabi t ant s or mor e i n t he Uni t ed
St at es.

Mr . Ar nol d was desi r ous of hear i ng how t he l ect ur er hel d hi s
audi ences.

" Wel l , " he sai d, " you must n' t keep t heml aughi ng t oo l ong, or t hey
wi l l t hi nk you ar e l aughi ng at t hem. Af t er gi vi ng t he audi ence
amusement you must become ear nest and pl ay t he ser i ous r l e. For
i nst ance, ' Ther e ar e t wo t hi ngs i n t hi s l i f e f or whi ch no man i s ever
pr epar ed. Who wi l l t el l me what t hese ar e?' Fi nal l y some one cr i es out
' Deat h. ' ' Wel l , who gi ves me t he ot her ?' Many r espond- - weal t h,
happi ness, st r engt h, mar r i age, t axes. At l ast J osh begi ns, sol emnl y:
' None of you has gi ven t he second. Ther e ar e t wo t hi ngs on ear t h f or
whi ch no man i s ever pr epar ed, and t hem' s t wi ns, ' and t he house
shakes. " Mr . Ar nol d di d al so.

" Do you keep on i nvent i ng new st or i es?" was asked.

" Yes, al ways. You can' t l ect ur e year af t er year unl ess you f i nd new
st or i es, and somet i mes t hese f ai l t o cr ack. I had one nut whi ch I f el t
sur e woul d cr ack and br i ng down t he house, but t r y as I woul d i t never
di d i t sel f j ust i ce, al l because I coul d not f i nd t he i ndi spensabl e
wor d, j ust one wor d. I was si t t i ng bef or e a r oar i ng wood f i r e one
ni ght up i n Mi chi gan when t he wor d came t o me whi ch I knew woul d cr ack
l i ke a whi p. I t r i ed i t on t he boys and i t di d. I t l ast ed l onger t han
any one wor d I used. I began: ' Thi s i s a hi ghl y cr i t i cal age. Peopl e
won' t bel i eve unt i l t hey f ul l y under st and. Now t her e' s J onah and t he
whal e. They want t o know al l about i t , and i t ' s my opi ni on t hat
nei t her J onah nor t he whal e f ul l y under st ood i t . And t hen t hey ask
what J onah was doi ng i n t he whal e' s- - t he whal e' s soci et y. ' "

Mr . Shaw was wal ki ng down Br oadway one day when accost ed by a r eal
West er ner , who sai d:

" I t hi nk you ar e J osh Bi l l i ngs. "

" Wel l , somet i mes I amcal l ed t hat . "

" I have f i ve t housand dol l ar s f or you r i ght her e i n my pocket - book. "

Page 179 of 222
" Her e' s Del moni co' s, come i n and t el l me al l about i t . "

Af t er seat i ng t hemsel ves, t he st r anger sai d he was par t owner i n a
gol d mi ne i n Cal i f or ni a, and expl ai ned t hat t her e had been a di sput e
about i t s owner shi p and t hat t he conf er ence of par t ner s br oke up i n
quar r el i ng. The st r anger sai d he had l ef t , t hr eat eni ng he woul d t ake
t he bul l by t he hor ns and begi n l egal pr oceedi ngs. " The next mor ni ng I
went t o t he meet i ng and t ol d t hemI had t ur ned over J osh Bi l l i ngs' s
al manac t hat mor ni ng and t he l esson f or t he day was: ' When you t ake
t he bul l by t he hor ns, t ake hi mby t he t ai l ; you can get a bet t er hol d
and l et go when you' r e a mi nd t o. ' We l aughed and l aughed and f el t
t hat was good sense. We t ook your advi ce, set t l ed, and par t ed good
f r i ends. Some one moved t hat f i ve t housand dol l ar s be gi ven J osh, and
as I was comi ng East t hey appoi nt ed me t r easur er and I pr omi sed t o
hand i t over . Ther e i t i s. "

The eveni ng ended by Mr . Ar nol d sayi ng:

" Wel l , Mr . Shaw, i f ever you come t o l ect ur e i n Engl and, I shal l be
gl ad t o wel come and i nt r oduce you t o your f i r st audi ence. Any f ool i sh
man cal l ed a l or d coul d do you mor e good t han I by i nt r oduci ng you,
but I shoul d so much l i ke t o do i t . "

I magi ne Mat t hew Ar nol d, t he apost l e of sweet ness and l i ght ,
i nt r oduci ng J osh Bi l l i ngs, t he f or emost of j est er s, t o a sel ect London
audi ence.

I n af t er year s he never f ai l ed t o ask af t er " our l eoni ne f r i end, Mr .
Shaw. "

Meet i ng J osh at t he Wi ndsor one mor ni ng af t er t he not abl e di nner I sat
down wi t h hi mi n t he r ot unda and he pul l ed out a smal l memor andum
book, sayi ng as he di d so:

" Wher e' s Ar nol d? I wonder what he woul d say t o t hi s. The ' Cent ur y'
gi ves me $100 a week, I agr eei ng t o send t hemany t r i f l e t hat occur s
t o me. I t r y t o gi ve i t somet hi ng. Her e' s t hi s f r omUncl e Zeki el , my
weekl y budget : ' Of cour se t he cr i t i c i s a gr eat er man t han t he aut hor .
Any f el l ow who can poi nt out t he mi st akes anot her f el l ow has made i s a
dar ned si ght smar t er f el l ow t han t he f el l ow who made t hem. ' "

I t ol d Mr . Ar nol d a Chi cago st or y, or r at her a st or y about Chi cago. A
soci et y l ady of Bost on vi si t i ng her school mat e f r i end i n Chi cago, who
was about t o be mar r i ed, was over whel med wi t h at t ent i on. Asked by a
not ed ci t i zen one eveni ng what had char med her most i n Chi cago, she
gr aci ousl y r epl i ed:

" What sur pr i ses me most i sn' t t he bust l e of busi ness, or your
r emar kabl e devel opment mat er i al l y, or your gr and r esi dences; i t i s t he
degr ee of cul t ur e and r ef i nement I f i nd her e. " The r esponse pr ompt l y
came:

" Oh, we ar e j ust di zzy on cul t out her e, you bet . "

Mr . Ar nol d was not pr epar ed t o enj oy Chi cago, whi ch had i mpr essed hi m
as t he headquar t er s of Phi l i st i ni sm. He was, however , sur pr i sed and
gr at i f i ed at meet i ng wi t h so much " cul t ur e and r ef i nement . " Bef or e he
Page 180 of 222
st ar t ed he was cur i ous t o know what he shoul d f i nd most i nt er est i ng. I
l aughi ngl y sai d t hat he woul d pr obabl y f i r st be t aken t o see t he most
wonder f ul si ght t her e, whi ch was sai d t o be t he sl aught er houses, wi t h
new machi nes so per f ect ed t hat t he hog dr i ven i n at one end came out
hams at t he ot her bef or e i t s squeal was out of one' s ear s. Then af t er
a pause he asked r ef l ect i vel y:

" But why shoul d one go t o sl aught er houses, why shoul d one hear hogs
squeal ?" I coul d gi ve no r eason, so t he mat t er r est ed.

Mr . Ar nol d' s Ol d Test ament f avor i t e was cer t ai nl y I sai ah: at l east hi s
f r equent quot at i ons f r omt hat gr eat poet , as he cal l ed hi m, l ed one t o
t hi s concl usi on. I f ound i n my t our ar ound t he wor l d t hat t he sacr ed
books of ot her r el i gi ons had been st r i pped of t he dr oss t hat had
necessar i l y accumul at ed ar ound t hei r l egends. I r emember ed Mr . Ar nol d
sayi ng t hat t he Scr i pt ur es shoul d be so deal t wi t h. The gems f r om
Conf uci us and ot her s whi ch del i ght t he wor l d have been sel ect ed wi t h
much car e and appear as " col l ect s. " The di sci pl e has not t he
obj ect i onabl e accr et i ons of t he i gnor ant past pr esent ed t o hi m.

The mor e one t hi nks over t he mat t er , t he st r onger one' s opi ni on
becomes t hat t he Chr i st i an wi l l have t o f ol l ow t he East er n exampl e and
wi nnow t he wheat f r omt he chaf f - - wor se t han chaf f , somet i mes t he
posi t i vel y per ni ci ous and even poi sonous r ef use. Bur ns, i n t he
" Cot t er ' s Sat ur day Ni ght , " pi ct ur es t he good man t aki ng down t he bi g
Bi bl e f or t he eveni ng ser vi ce:

" He wal es a por t i on wi t h j udi ci ous car e. "

We shoul d have t hose por t i ons sel ect ed and use t he sel ect i ons onl y. I n
t hi s, and much besi des, t he man whomI amso t hankf ul f or havi ng known
and amso f avor ed as t o cal l f r i end, has pr oved t he t r ue t eacher i n
advance of hi s age, t he gr eat est poet i c t eacher i n t he domai n of " t he
f ut ur e and i t s vi ewl ess t hi ngs. "

I t ook Ar nol d down f r omour summer home at Cr esson i n t he Al l eghani es
t o see bl ack, smoky Pi t t sbur gh. I n t he pat h f r omt he Edgar Thomson
St eel Wor ks t o t he r ai l way st at i on t her e ar e t wo f l i ght s of st eps t o
t he br i dge acr oss t he r ai l way, t he second r at her st eep. When we had
ascended about t hr ee quar t er s of i t he suddenl y st opped t o gai n
br eat h. Leani ng upon t he r ai l and put t i ng hi s hand upon hi s hear t , he
sai d t o me:

" Ah, t hi s wi l l some day do f or me, as i t di d f or my f at her . "

I di d not know t hen of t he weakness of hi s hear t , but I never f or got
t hi s i nci dent , and when not l ong af t er t he sad news came of hi s sudden
deat h, af t er exer t i on i n Engl and endeavor i ng t o evade an obst acl e, i t
came back t o me wi t h a gr eat pang t hat our f r i end had f or et ol d hi s
f at e. Our l oss was gr eat . To no man I have known coul d Bur ns' s epi t aph
upon TamSamson be mor e appr opr i at el y appl i ed:

" TamSamson' s weel - wor n cl ay her e l i es:
Ye cant i ng zeal ot s, spar e hi m!
I f honest wor t h i n heaven r i se,
Ye' l l mend or ye wi n near hi m. "

Page 181 of 222
The name of a dear man comes t o me j ust her e, Dr . Ol i ver Wendel l
Hol mes, of Bost on, ever ybody' s doct or , whose onl y ai l ment t owar d t he
end was bei ng ei ght y year s of age. He was a boy t o t he l ast . When
Mat t hew Ar nol d di ed a f ew f r i ends coul d not r esi st t aki ng st eps t owar d
a sui t abl e memor i al t o hi s memor y. These f r i ends qui et l y pr ovi ded t he
necessar y sum, as no publ i c appeal coul d be t hought of . No one coul d
be per mi t t ed t o cont r i but e t o such a f und except such as had a r i ght
t o t he pr i vi l ege, f or pr i vi l ege i t was f el t t o be. Doubl e, t r i pl e t he
sumcoul d r eadi l y have been obt ai ned. I had t he gr eat sat i sf act i on of
bei ng per mi t t ed t o j oi n t he sel ect f ew and t o gi ve t he mat t er a l i t t l e
at t ent i on upon our si de of t he At l ant i c. Of cour se I never t hought of
ment i oni ng t he mat t er t o dear Dr . Hol mes- - not t hat he was not one of
t he el ect , but t hat no aut hor or pr of essi onal man shoul d be asked t o
cont r i but e money t o f unds whi ch, wi t h r ar e except i ons, ar e best
empl oyed when used f or t hemsel ves. One mor ni ng, however , I r ecei ved a
not e f r omt he doct or , sayi ng t hat i t had been whi sper ed t o hi mt hat
t her e was such a movement on f oot , and t hat I had been ment i oned i n
connect i on wi t h i t , and i f he wer e j udged wor t hy t o have hi s name upon
t he r ol l of honor , he woul d be gr at i f i ed. Si nce he had hear d of i t he
coul d not r est wi t hout wr i t i ng t o me, and he shoul d l i ke t o hear i n
r epl y. That he was t hought wor t hy goes wi t hout sayi ng.

Thi s i s t he ki nd of memor i al any man mi ght wi sh. I vent ur e t o say t hat
t her e was not one who cont r i but ed t o i t who was not gr at ef ul t o t he
ki nd f at es f or gi vi ng hi mt he oppor t uni t y.




Page 182 of 222
CHAPTER XXIII

BRITISH POLITICAL LEADERS


I n London, Lor d Roseber y, t hen i n Gl adst one' s Cabi net and a r i si ng
st at esman, was good enough t o i nvi t e me t o di ne wi t h hi mt o meet Mr .
Gl adst one, and I ami ndebt ed t o hi mf or meet i ng t he wor l d' s f i r st
ci t i zen. Thi s was, I t hi nk, i n 1885, f or my " Tr i umphant Democr acy" [ 63]
appear ed i n 1886, and I r emember gi vi ng Mr . Gl adst one, upon t hat
occasi on, some st ar t l i ng f i gur es whi ch I had pr epar ed f or i t .

[ Foot not e 63: _Tr i umphant Democr acy, or Fi f t y Year s' Mar ch of t he
Republ i c. _ London and New Yor k, 1886. ]

I never di d what I t hought r i ght i n a soci al mat t er wi t h gr eat er
sel f - deni al , t han when l at er t he f i r st i nvi t at i on came f r omMr .
Gl adst one t o di ne wi t h hi m. I was engaged t o di ne el sewher e and sor el y
t empt ed t o pl ead t hat an i nvi t at i on f r omt he r eal r ul er of Gr eat
Br i t ai n shoul d be consi der ed as much of a command as t hat of t he
or nament al di gni t ar y. But I kept my engagement and mi ssed t he man I
most wi shed t o meet . The pr i vi l ege came l at er , f or t unat el y, when
subsequent vi si t s t o hi mat Hawar den wer e made.

Lor d Roseber y opened t he f i r st l i br ar y I ever gave, t hat of
Dunf er ml i ne, and he has r ecent l y ( 1905) opened t he l at est gi ven by
me- - one away over i n St or noway. When he l ast vi si t ed New Yor k I dr ove
hi mal ong t he Ri ver si de Dr i ve, and he decl ar ed t hat no ci t y i n t he
wor l d possessed such an at t r act i on. He was a man of br i l l i ant par t s,
but hi s r esol ut i ons wer e

" Si ckl i ed o' er wi t h t he pal e cast of t hought . "

Had he been bor n t o l abor and ent er ed t he House of Commons i n yout h,
i nst ead of bei ng dr opped wi t hout ef f or t i nt o t he gi l ded upper chamber ,
he mi ght have acqui r ed i n t he r ough- and- t umbl e of l i f e t he t ougher
ski n, f or he was hi ghl y sensi t i ve and l acked t enaci t y of pur pose
essent i al t o command i n pol i t i cal l i f e. He was a char mi ng speaker - - a
eul ogi st wi t h t he l i ght est t ouch and t he most gr acef ul st yl e upon
cer t ai n t hemes of any speaker of hi s day. [ Si nce t hese l i nes wer e
wr i t t en he has become, per haps, t he f or emost eul ogi st of our r ace. He
has achi eved a hi gh pl ace. Al l honor t o hi m! ]

One mor ni ng I cal l ed by appoi nt ment upon hi m. Af t er gr eet i ngs he t ook
up an envel ope whi ch I saw as I ent er ed had been car ef ul l y l ai d on hi s
desk, and handed i t t o me, sayi ng:

" I wi sh you t o di smi ss your secr et ar y. "

" That i s a bi g or der , Your Lor dshi p. He i s i ndi spensabl e, and a
Scot sman, " I r epl i ed. " What i s t he mat t er wi t h hi m?"

" Thi s i sn' t your handwr i t i ng; i t i s hi s. What do you t hi nk of a man
who spel l s Roseber y wi t h t wo _r ' s_?"

I sai d i f I wer e sensi t i ve on t hat poi nt l i f e woul d not be endur abl e
Page 183 of 222
f or me. " I r ecei ve many l et t er s dai l y when at home and I amsur e t hat
t went y t o t hi r t y per cent of t hemmi s- spel l my name, r angi ng f r om
' Kar naghi e' t o ' Car nagay. ' "

But he was i n ear nest . J ust such l i t t l e mat t er s gave hi mgr eat
annoyance. Men of act i on shoul d l ear n t o l augh at and enj oy t hese
smal l t hi ngs, or t hey t hemsel ves may become " smal l . " A char mi ng
per sonal i t y wi t hal , but shy, sensi t i ve, capr i ci ous, and r eser ved,
qual i t i es whi ch a f ew year s i n t he Commons woul d pr obabl y have
modi f i ed.

When he was, as a Li ber al , sur pr i si ng t he House of Lor ds and cr eat i ng
some st i r , I vent ur ed t o l et of f a l i t t l e of my own democr acy upon
hi m.

" St and f or Par l i ament bol dl y. Thr ow of f your her edi t ar y r ank,
decl ar i ng you scor n t o accept a pr i vi l ege whi ch i s not t he r i ght of
ever y ci t i zen. Thus make your sel f t he r eal l eader of t he peopl e, whi ch
you never can be whi l e a peer . You ar e young, br i l l i ant , capt i vat i ng,
wi t h t he gi f t of char mi ng speech. No quest i on of your bei ng Pr i me
Mi ni st er i f you t ake t he pl unge. "

To my sur pr i se, al t hough appar ent l y i nt er est ed, he sai d ver y qui et l y:

" But t he House of Commons coul dn' t admi t me as a peer . "

" That ' s what I shoul d hope. I f I wer e i n your pl ace, and r ej ect ed, I
woul d st and agai n f or t he next vacancy and f or ce t he i ssue. I nsi st
t hat one havi ng r enounced hi s her edi t ar y pr i vi l eges becomes el evat ed
t o ci t i zenshi p and i s el i gi bl e f or any posi t i on t o whi ch he i s
el ect ed. Vi ct or y i s cer t ai n. That ' s pl ayi ng t he par t of a Cr omwel l .
Democr acy wor shi ps a pr ecedent - br eaker or a pr ecedent - maker . "

We dr opped t he subj ect . Tel l i ng Mor l ey of t hi s af t er war d, I shal l
never f or get hi s comment :

" My f r i end, Cr omwel l doesn' t r esi de at Number 38 Ber kel ey Squar e. "
Sl owl y, sol emnl y spoken, but concl usi ve.

Fi ne f el l ow, Roseber y, onl y he was handi capped by bei ng bor n a peer .
On t he ot her hand, Mor l ey, r i si ng f r omt he r anks, hi s f at her a sur geon
har d- pr essed t o keep hi s son at col l ege, i s st i l l " Honest J ohn, "
unaf f ect ed i n t he sl i ght est degr ee by t he so- cal l ed el evat i on t o t he
peer age and t he Legi on of Honor , bot h gi ven f or mer i t . The same wi t h
" Bob" Rei d, M. P. , who became Ear l Lor ebur n and Lor d Hi gh Chancel l or ,
Lor d Hal dane, hi s successor as Chancel l or ; Asqui t h, Pr i me Mi ni st er ,
Ll oyd Geor ge, and ot her s. Not even t he r ul er s of our Republ i c t o- day
ar e mor e democr at i c or mor e t hor ough men of t he peopl e.

When t he wor l d' s f or emost ci t i zen passed away, t he quest i on was, Who
i s t o succeed Gl adst one; who can succeed hi m? The younger member s of
t he Cabi net agr eed t o l eave t he deci si on t o Mor l ey. Har cour t or
Campbel l - Banner man? Ther e was onl y one i mpedi ment i n t he pat h of t he
f or mer , but t hat was f at al - - i nabi l i t y t o cont r ol hi s t emper . The i ssue
had unf or t unat el y ar oused hi mt o such out bur st s as r eal l y unf i t t ed hi m
f or l eader shi p, and so t he man of cal m, sober , uncl ouded j udgment was
consi der ed i ndi spensabl e.
Page 184 of 222

I was war ml y at t ached t o Har cour t , who i n t ur n was a devot ed admi r er
of our Republ i c, as became t he husband of Mot l ey' s daught er . Our
census and our pr i nt ed r epor t s, whi ch I t ook car e t hat he shoul d
r ecei ve, i nt er est ed hi mdeepl y. Of cour se, t he el evat i on
of t he r epr esent at i ve of my nat i ve t own of Dunf er ml i ne
( Campbel l - Banner man) [ 64] gave me unal l oyed pl easur e, t he mor e so si nce
i n r et ur ni ng t hanks f r omt he Town House t o t he peopl e assembl ed he
used t hese wor ds:

" I owe my el ect i on t o my Chai r man, Bai l i e Mor r i son. "

[ Foot not e 64: Campbel l - Banner man was chosen l eader of t he Li ber al
Par t y i n December , 1898. ]

The Bai l i e, Dunf er ml i ne' s l eadi ng r adi cal , was my uncl e. We wer e
r adi cal f ami l i es i n t hose days and ar e so st i l l , bot h Car negi es and
Mor r i sons, and i nt ense admi r er s of t he Gr eat Republ i c, l i ke t hat one
who ext ol l ed Washi ngt on and hi s col l eagues as " men who knew and dar ed
pr ocl ai mt he r oyal t y of man" - - a pr ocl amat i on wor t h whi l e. Ther e i s
not hi ng mor e cer t ai n t han t hat t he Engl i sh- speaki ng r ace i n or der l y,
l awf ul devel opment wi l l soon est abl i sh t he gol den r ul e of ci t i zenshi p
t hr ough evol ut i on, never r evol ut i on:

" The r ank i s but t he gui nea' s st amp,
The man' s t he gowd f or a' t hat . "

Thi s f eel i ng al r eady pr evai l s i n al l t he Br i t i sh col oni es. The dear
ol d Mot her l and hen has ducks f or chi ckens whi ch gi ve her much anxi et y
br east i ng t he waves, whi l e she, al ar med, scr eams wi l dl y f r omt he
shor e; but she wi l l l ear n t o swi mal so by and by.

I n t he aut umn of 1905 Mr s. Car negi e and I at t ended t he cer emony of
gi vi ng t he Fr eedomof Dunf er ml i ne t o our f r i end, Dr . J ohn Ross,
chai r man of t he Car negi e Dunf er ml i ne Tr ust , f or emost and most zeal ous
wor ker f or t he good of t he t own. Pr ovost Macbet h i n hi s speech
i nf or med t he audi ence t hat t he honor was sel domconf er r ed, t hat t her e
wer e onl y t hr ee l i vi ng bur gesses- - one t hei r member of Par l i ament , H.
Campbel l - Banner man, t hen Pr i me Mi ni st er ; t he Ear l of El gi n of
Dunf er ml i ne, ex- Vi cer oy of I ndi a, t hen Col oni al Secr et ar y; and t he
t hi r d mysel f . Thi s seemed gr eat company f or me, so ent i r el y out of t he
r unni ng was I as r egar ds of f i ci al st at i on.

The Ear l of El gi n i s t he descendant of The Br uce. Thei r f ami l y vaul t
i s i n Dunf er ml i ne Abbey, wher e hi s gr eat ancest or l i es under t he Abbey
bel l . I t has been not ed how Secr et ar y St ant on sel ect ed Gener al Gr ant
as t he one man i n t he par t y who coul d not possi bl y be t he commander .
One woul d be ver y apt t o make a si mi l ar mi st ake about t he Ear l . When
t he Scot t i sh Uni ver si t i es wer e t o be r ef or med t he Ear l was second on
t he commi t t ee. When t he Conser vat i ve Gover nment f or med i t s Commi t t ee
upon t he Boer War , t he Ear l , a Li ber al , was appoi nt ed chai r man. When
t he deci si on of t he House of Lor ds br ought di r e conf usi on upon t he
Uni t ed Fr ee Chur ch of Scot l and, Lor d El gi n was cal l ed upon as t he
Chai r man of Commi t t ee t o set t l e t he mat t er . Par l i ament embodi ed hi s
r epor t i n a bi l l , and agai n he was pl aced at t he head t o appl y i t .
When t r ust ees f or t he Uni ver si t i es of Scot l and Fund wer e t o be
sel ect ed, I t ol d Pr i me Mi ni st er Bal f our I t hought t he Ear l of El gi n as
Page 185 of 222
a Dunf er ml i ne magnat e coul d be i nduced t o t ake t he chai r manshi p. He
sai d I coul d not get a bet t er man i n Gr eat Br i t ai n. So i t has pr oved.
J ohn Mor l ey sai d t o me one day af t er war ds, but bef or e he had, as a
member of t he Dunf er ml i ne Tr ust , exper i ence of t he chai r man:

" I used t o t hi nk El gi n about t he most pr obl emat i cal publ i c man i n hi gh
posi t i on I had ever met , but I now know hi mone of t he abl est . Deeds,
not wor ds; j udgment , not t al k. "

Such t he descendant of The Br uce t o- day, t he embodi ment of modest
wor t h and wi sdomcombi ned.

Once st ar t ed upon a Fr eedom- get t i ng car eer , t her e seemed no end t o
t hese honor s. [ 65] Wi t h headquar t er s i n London i n 1906, I r ecei ved si x
Fr eedoms i n si x consecut i ve days, and t wo t he week f ol l owi ng, goi ng
out by mor ni ng t r ai n and r et ur ni ng i n t he eveni ng. I t mi ght be t hought
t hat t he cer emony woul d become monot onous, but t hi s was not so, t he
condi t i ons bei ng di f f er ent i n each case. I met r emar kabl e men i n t he
mayor s and pr ovost s and t he l eadi ng ci t i zens connect ed wi t h muni ci pal
af f ai r s, and each communi t y had i t s own i ndi vi dual st amp and i t s
pr obl ems, successes, and f ai l ur es. Ther e was gener al l y one gr eat l y
desi r ed i mpr ovement over shadowi ng al l ot her quest i ons engr ossi ng t he
at t ent i on of t he peopl e. Each was a l i t t l e wor l d i n i t sel f . The Ci t y
Counci l i s a Cabi net i n mi ni at ur e and t he Mayor t he Pr i me Mi ni st er .
Domest i c pol i t i cs keep t he peopl e agog. For ei gn r el at i ons ar e not
want i ng. Ther e ar e i nt er - ci t y quest i ons wi t h nei ghbor i ng communi t i es,
j oi nt wat er or gas or el ect r i cal under t aki ngs of mi ght y i mpor t ,
conf er ences deci di ng f or or agai nst al l i ances or separ at i ons.

[ Foot not e 65: Mr . Car negi e had r ecei ved no l ess t han f i f t y- f our
Fr eedoms of ci t i es i n Gr eat Br i t ai n and I r el and. Thi s was a
r ecor d- - Mr . Gl adst one comi ng second wi t h sevent een. ]

I n no depar t ment i s t he cont r ast gr eat er bet ween t he ol d wor l d and t he
new t han i n muni ci pal gover nment . I n t he f or mer t he f ami l i es r esi de
f or gener at i ons i n t he pl ace of bi r t h wi t h i ncr easi ng devot i on t o t he
t own and al l i t s sur r oundi ngs. A f at her achi evi ng t he mayor shi p
st i mul at es t he son t o aspi r e t o i t . That i nval uabl e asset , ci t y pr i de,
i s cr eat ed, cul mi nat i ng i n r omant i c at t achment t o nat i ve pl aces.
Counci l or shi ps ar e sought t hat each i n hi s day and gener at i on may be
of some ser vi ce t o t he t own. To t he best ci t i zens t hi s i s a cr edi t abl e
obj ect of ambi t i on. Few, i ndeed, l ook beyond i t - - member shi p i n
Par l i ament bei ng pr act i cal l y r eser ved f or men of f or t une, i nvol vi ng as
i t does r esi dence i n London wi t hout compensat i on. Thi s l at t er ,
however , i s soon t o be changed and Br i t ai n f ol l ow t he uni ver sal
pr act i ce of payi ng l egi sl at or s f or ser vi ce r ender ed. [ I n 1908; si nce
r eal i zed; f our hundr ed pounds i s now pai d. ]

Af t er t hi s she wi l l pr obabl y f ol l ow t he r est of t he wor l d by havi ng
Par l i ament meet i n t he dayt i me, i t s member s f r esh and r eady f or t he
day' s wor k, i nst ead of gi vi ng al l day t o pr of essi onal wor k and t hen
wi t h exhaust ed br ai ns under t aki ng t he wor k of gover ni ng t he count r y
af t er di nner . Cavendi sh, t he aut hor i t y on whi st , bei ng asked i f a man
coul d possi bl y f i nesse a knave, second r ound, t hi r d pl ayer , r epl i ed,
af t er r ef l ect i ng, " Yes, he mi ght _af t er di nner _. "

The best peopl e ar e on t he counci l s of Br i t i sh t owns, i ncor r upt i bl e,
Page 186 of 222
publ i c- spi r i t ed men, pr oud of and devot ed t o t hei r homes. I n t he
Uni t ed St at es pr ogr ess i s bei ng made i n t hi s di r ect i on, but we ar e
her e st i l l f ar behi nd Br i t ai n. Never t hel ess, peopl e t end t o set t l e
per manent l y i n pl aces as t he count r y becomes t hi ckl y popul at ed. We
shal l devel op t he l ocal pat r i ot who i s anxi ous t o l eave t he pl ace of
hi s bi r t h a l i t t l e bet t er t han he f ound i t . I t i s onl y one gener at i on
si nce t he pr ovost shi p of Scot ch t owns was gener al l y r eser ved f or one
of t he l ocal l andl or ds bel ongi ng t o t he upper cl asses. That " t he
Br i t on dear l y l oves a l or d" i s st i l l t r ue, but t he l ove i s r api dl y
di sappear i ng.

I n East bour ne, Ki ngs- Lynn, Sal i sbur y, I l kest on, and many ot her anci ent
t owns, I f ound t he mayor had r i sen f r omt he r anks, and had gener al l y
wor ked wi t h hi s hands. The maj or i t y of t he counci l wer e al so of t hi s
t ype. Al l gave t hei r t i me gr at ui t ousl y. I t was a sour ce of much
pl easur e t o me t o know t he pr ovost s and l eader s i n counci l of so many
t owns i n Scot l and and Engl and, not f or get t i ng I r el and wher e my Fr eedom
t our was equal l y at t r act i ve. Not hi ng coul d excel t he r ecept i on
accor ded me i n Cor k, Wat er f or d, and Li mer i ck. I t was sur pr i si ng t o see
t he wel come on f l ags expr essed i n t he same Gael i c wor ds, _Cead mi l l e
f ai l t he_ ( meani ng " a hundr ed t housand wel comes" ) as used by t he
t enant s of Ski bo.

Not hi ng coul d have gi ven me such i nsi ght i nt o l ocal publ i c l i f e and
pat r i ot i smi n Br i t ai n as Fr eedom- t aki ng, whi ch ot her wi se mi ght have
become i r ksome. I f el t mysel f so much at home among t he ci t y chi ef s
t hat t he embar r assment of f l ags and cr owds and peopl e at t he wi ndows
al ong our r out e was easi l y met as par t of t he dut y of t he day, and
even t he addr ess of t he chi ef magi st r at e usual l y f ur ni shed new phases
of l i f e upon whi ch I coul d dwel l . The l ady mayor esses wer e del i ght f ul
i n al l t hei r pr i de and gl or y.

My concl usi on i s t hat t he Uni t ed Ki ngdomi s bet t er ser ved by t he
l eadi ng ci t i zens of her muni ci pal i t i es, el ect ed by popul ar vot e, t han
any ot her count r y f ar and away can possi bl y be; and t hat al l i s sound
t o t he cor e i n t hat i mpor t ant br anch of gover nment . Par l i ament i t sel f
coul d r eadi l y be const i t ut ed of a del egat i on of member s f r omt he t own
counci l s wi t hout i mpai r i ng i t s ef f i ci ency. Per haps when t he suf f i ci ent
payment of member s i s est abl i shed, many of t hese wi l l be f ound at
West mi nst er and t hat t o t he advant age of t he Ki ngdom.




Page 187 of 222
CHAPTER XXIV

GLADSTONE AND MORLEY


Mr . Gl adst one pai d my " Amer i can Four - i n- Hand i n Br i t ai n" qui t e a
compl i ment when Mr s. Car negi e and I wer e hi s guest s at Hawar den i n
Apr i l , 1892. He suggest ed one day t hat I shoul d spend t he mor ni ng wi t h
hi mi n hi s new l i br ar y, whi l e he ar r anged hi s books ( whi ch no one
except hi msel f was ever al l owed t o t ouch) , and we coul d conver se. I n
pr owl i ng about t he shel ves I f ound a uni que vol ume and cal l ed out t o
my host , t hen on t op of a l i br ar y l adder f ar f r omme handl i ng heavy
vol umes:

" Mr . Gl adst one, I f i nd her e a book ' Dunf er ml i ne Wor t hi es, ' by a f r i end
of my f at her ' s. I knew some of t he wor t hi es when a chi l d. "

" Yes, " he r epl i ed, " and i f you wi l l pass your hand t hr ee or f our books
t o t he l ef t I t hi nk you wi l l f i nd anot her book by a Dunf er ml i ne man. "

I di d so and saw my book " An Amer i can Four - i n- Hand i n Br i t ai n. " Er e I
had done so, however , I hear d t hat or gan voi ce or at i ng i n f ul l swi ng
f r omt he t op of t he l adder :

" What Mecca i s t o t he Mohammedan, Benar es t o t he Hi ndoo, J er usal emt o
t he Chr i st i an, al l t hat Dunf er ml i ne i s t o me. "

My ear s hear d t he voi ce some moment s bef or e my br ai n r eal i zed t hat
t hese wer e my own wor ds cal l ed f or t h by t he f i r st gl i mpse caught of
Dunf er ml i ne as we appr oached i t f r omt he sout h. [ 66]

[ Foot not e 66: The whol e par agr aph i s as f ol l ows: " How beaut i f ul i s
Dunf er ml i ne seen f r omt he Fer r y Hi l l s, i t s gr and ol d Abbey t ower i ng
over al l , seemi ng t o hal l ow t he ci t y, and t o l end a char mand di gni t y
t o t he l owl i est t enement ! Nor i s t her e i n al l br oad Scot l and, nor i n
many pl aces el sewher e t hat I know of , a mor e var i ed and del i ght f ul
vi ew t han t hat obt ai ned f r omt he Par k upon a f i ne day. What Benar es i s
t o t he Hi ndoo, Mecca t o t he Mohammedan, J er usal emt o t he Chr i st i an,
al l t hat Dunf er ml i ne i s t o me. " ( _An Amer i can Four - i n- Hand i n
Br i t ai n_, p. 282. ) ]

" How on ear t h di d you come t o get t hi s book?" I asked. " I had not t he
honor of knowi ng you when i t was wr i t t en and coul d not have sent you a
copy. "

" No! " he r epl i ed, " I had not t hen t he pl easur e of your acquai nt ance,
but some one, I t hi nk Roseber y, t ol d me of t he book and I sent f or i t
and r ead i t wi t h del i ght . That t r i but e t o Dunf er ml i ne st r uck me as so
ext r aor di nar y i t l i nger ed wi t h me. I coul d never f or get i t . "

Thi s i nci dent occur r ed ei ght year s af t er t he " Amer i can Four - i n- Hand"
was wr i t t en, and adds anot her t o t he many pr oof s of Mr . Gl adst one' s
wonder f ul memor y. Per haps as a vai n aut hor I may be par doned f or
conf essi ng my gr at ef ul appr eci at i on of hi s no l ess wonder f ul j udgment .

[ I l l ust r at i on: _Phot ogr aph f r omUnder wood & Under wood, N. Y. _
Page 188 of 222

WI LLI AM E. GLADSTONE]

The pol i t i ci an who f i gur es publ i cl y as " r eader of t he l esson" on
Sundays, i s apt t o be r egar ded suspi ci ousl y. I conf ess t hat unt i l I
had known Mr . Gl adst one wel l , I had f ound t he t hought ar i si ng now and
t hen t hat t he war y ol d gent l eman mi ght f eel at l east t hat t hese
appear ances cost hi mno vot es. But al l t hi s vani shed as I l ear ned hi s
t r ue char act er . He was devout and si ncer e i f ever man was. Yes, even
when he r ecor ds i n hi s di ar y ( r ef er r ed t o by Mor l ey i n hi s " Li f e of
Gl adst one" ) t hat , whi l e addr essi ng t he House of Commons on t he budget
f or sever al hour s wi t h gr eat accept ance, he was " consci ous of bei ng
sust ai ned by t he Di vi ne Power above. " Tr y as one may, who can deny
t hat t o one of such aboundi ng f ai t h t hi s bel i ef i n t he suppor t of t he
Unknown Power must r eal l y have pr oved a sust ai ni ng i nf l uence,
al t hough i t may shock ot her s t o t hi nk t hat any mor t al bei ng coul d be
so bol d as t o i magi ne t hat t he Cr eat or of t he Uni ver se woul d concer n
hi msel f about Mr . Gl adst one' s budget , pr epar ed f or a l i t t l e speck of
t hi s l i t t l e speck of ear t h? I t seems al most sacr i l egi ous, yet t o Mr .
Gl adst one we know i t was t he r ever se- - a r el i gi ous bel i ef such as has
no doubt of t en enabl ed men t o accompl i sh wonder s as di r ect agent s of
God and doi ng Hi s wor k.

On t he ni ght of t he Queen' s J ubi l ee i n J une, 1887, Mr . Bl ai ne and I
wer e t o di ne at Lor d Wol ver t on' s i n Pi ccadi l l y, t o meet Mr . and Mr s.
Gl adst one- - Mr . Bl ai ne' s f i r st i nt r oduct i on t o hi m. We st ar t ed i n a cab
f r omt he Met r opol e Hot el i n good t i me, but t he cr owds wer e so dense
t hat t he cab had t o be abandoned i n t he mi ddl e of St . J ames' s St r eet .
Reachi ng t he pavement , Mr . Bl ai ne f ol l owi ng, I f ound a pol i ceman and
expl ai ned t o hi mwho my compani on was, wher e we wer e goi ng, and asked
hi mi f he coul d not under t ake t o get us t her e. He di d so, pushi ng hi s
way t hr ough t he masses wi t h al l t he aut hor i t y of hi s of f i ce and we
f ol l owed. But i t was ni ne o' cl ock bef or e we r eached Lor d Wol ver t on' s.
We separ at ed af t er el even.

Mr . Gl adst one expl ai ned t hat he and Mr s. Gl adst one had been abl e t o
r each t he house by comi ng t hr ough Hyde Par k and ar ound t he back way.
They expect ed t o get back t o t hei r r esi dence, t hen i n Car l t on Ter r ace,
i n t he same way. Mr . Bl ai ne and I t hought we shoul d enj oy t he st r eet s
and t ake our chances of get t i ng back t o t he hot el by pushi ng t hr ough
t he cr owds. We wer e doi ng t hi s successf ul l y and wer e movi ng sl owl y
wi t h t he cur r ent past t he Ref or mCl ub when I hear d a wor d or t wo
spoken by a voi ce cl ose t o t he bui l di ng on my r i ght . I sai d t o Mr .
Bl ai ne:

" That i s Mr . Gl adst one' s voi ce. "

He sai d: " I t i s i mpossi bl e. We have j ust l ef t hi mr et ur ni ng t o hi s
r esi dence. "

" I don' t car e; I r ecogni ze voi ces bet t er t han f aces, and I amsur e
t hat i s Gl adst one' s. "

Fi nal l y I pr evai l ed upon hi mt o r et ur n a f ew st eps. We got cl ose t o
t he si de of t he house and moved back. I came t o a muf f l ed f i gur e and
whi sper ed:

Page 189 of 222
" What does ' Gr avi t y' out of i t s bed at mi dni ght ?"

Mr . Gl adst one was di scover ed. I t ol d hi mI r ecogni zed hi s voi ce
whi sper i ng t o hi s compani on.

" And so, " I sai d, " t he r eal r ul er comes out t o see t he i l l umi nat i ons
pr epar ed f or t he nomi nal r ul er ! "

He r epl i ed: " Young man, I t hi nk i t i s t i me you wer e i n bed. "

We r emai ned a f ew mi nut es wi t h hi m, he bei ng car ef ul not t o r emove
f r omhi s head and f ace t he cl oak t hat cover ed t hem. I t was t hen past
mi dni ght and he was ei ght y, but , boyl i ke, af t er he got Mr s. Gl adst one
saf el y home he had det er mi ned t o see t he show.

The conver sat i on at t he di nner bet ween Mr . Gl adst one and Mr . Bl ai ne
t ur ned upon t he di f f er ences i n Par l i ament ar y pr ocedur e bet ween Br i t ai n
and Amer i ca. Dur i ng t he eveni ng Mr . Gl adst one cr oss- exami ned Mr .
Bl ai ne ver y t hor oughl y upon t he mode of pr ocedur e of t he House of
Repr esent at i ves of whi ch Mr . Bl ai ne had been t he Speaker . I saw t he
" pr evi ous quest i on, " and summar y r ul es wi t h us f or r est r i ct i ng
needl ess debat e made a deep i mpr essi on upon Mr . Gl adst one. At
i nt er val s t he conver sat i on t ook a wi der r ange.

Mr . Gl adst one was i nt er est ed i n mor e subj ect s t han per haps any ot her
man i n Br i t ai n. When I was l ast wi t h hi mi n Scot l and, at Mr .
Ar mi st ead' s, hi s mi nd was as cl ear and vi gor ous as ever , hi s i nt er est
i n af f ai r s equal l y st r ong. The t opi c whi ch t hen i nt er est ed hi mmost ,
and about whi ch he pl i ed me wi t h quest i ons, was t he t al l st eel
bui l di ngs i n our count r y, of whi ch he had been r eadi ng. What puzzl ed
hi mwas how i t coul d be t hat t he masonr y of a f i f t h f l oor or si xt h
st or y was of t en f i ni shed bef or e t he t hi r d or f our t h. Thi s I expl ai ned,
much t o hi s sat i sf act i on. I n get t i ng t o t he bot t omof t hi ngs he was
i ndef at i gabl e.

Mr . Mor l ey ( al t hough a l or d he st i l l r emai ns as an aut hor pl ai n J ohn
Mor l ey) became one of our Br i t i sh f r i ends qui t e ear l y as edi t or of t he
" For t ni ght l y Revi ew, " whi ch publ i shed my f i r st cont r i but i on t o a
Br i t i sh per i odi cal . [ 67] The f r i endshi p has wi dened and deepened i n our
ol d age unt i l we mut ual l y conf ess we ar e ver y cl ose f r i ends t o each
ot her . [ 68] We usual l y exchange shor t not es ( somet i mes l ong ones) on
Sunday af t er noons as t he spi r i t moves us. We ar e not al i ke; f ar f r om
i t . We ar e dr awn t oget her because opposi t es ar e mut ual l y benef i ci al t o
each ot her . I amopt i mi st i c; al l my ducks bei ng swans. He i s
pessi mi st i c, l ooki ng out sober l y, even dar kl y, upon t he r eal danger s
ahead, and somet i mes i magi ni ng vai n t hi ngs. He i s i ncl i ned t o see
" an of f i cer i n ever y bush. " The wor l d seems br i ght t o me, and ear t h
i s of t en a r eal heaven- - so happy I amand so t hankf ul t o t he ki nd
f at es. Mor l ey i s sel domi f ever wi l d about anyt hi ng; hi s j udgment i s
al ways del i ber at e and hi s eyes ar e ever seei ng t he spot s on t he sun.

[ Foot not e 67: _An Amer i can Four - i n- Hand i n Br i t ai n. _]

[ Foot not e 68: " Mr . Car negi e had pr oved hi s or i gi nal i t y, f ul l ness of
mi nd, and bol d st r engt h of char act er , as much or mor e i n t he
di st r i but i on of weal t h as he had shown ski l l and f or esi ght i n i t s
acqui si t i on. We had become known t o one anot her mor e t han t went y year s
Page 190 of 222
bef or e t hr ough Mat t hew Ar nol d. Hi s ext r aor di nar y f r eshness of spi r i t
easi l y car r i ed Ar nol d, Her ber t Spencer , mysel f , and af t er war ds many
ot her s, hi gh over an occasi onal cr udi t y or hast e i n j udgment such as
bef al l s t he best of us i n ar dent hour s. Peopl e wi t h a geni us f or
pi cki ng up pi ns made as much as t hey l i ked of t hi s: i t was wi ser t o do
j ust i ce t o hi s spaci ous f eel f or t he gr eat obj ect s of t he wor l d- - f or
knowl edge and i t s spr ead, i nvent i on, l i ght , i mpr ovement of soci al
r el at i ons, equal chances t o t he t al ent s, t he passi on f or peace. These
ar e gl or i ous t hi ngs; a t ouch of exagger at i on i n expr essi on i s easy t o
set r i ght . . . . A man of hi gh and wi de and wel l - ear ned mar k i n hi s
gener at i on. " ( J ohn, Vi scount Mor l ey, i n _Recol l ect i ons_, vol . I I , pp.
110, 112. New Yor k, 1919. ) ]

[ I l l ust r at i on: _Phot ogr aph f r omUnder wood & Under wood, N. Y. _

VI SCOUNT MORLEY OF BLACKBURN]

I t ol d hi mt he st or y of t he pessi mi st whomnot hi ng ever pl eased, and
t he opt i mi st whomnot hi ng ever di spl eased, bei ng congr at ul at ed by t he
angel s upon t hei r havi ng obt ai ned ent r ance t o heaven. The pessi mi st
r epl i ed:

" Yes, ver y good pl ace, but somehow or ot her t hi s hal o don' t f i t my
head exact l y. "

The opt i mi st r et or t ed by t el l i ng t he st or y of a man bei ng car r i ed down
t o pur gat or y and t he Devi l l ayi ng hi s vi ct i mup agai nst a bank whi l e
he got a dr i nk at a spr i ng- - t emper at ur e ver y hi gh. An ol d f r i end
accost ed hi m:

" Wel l , J i m, how' s t hi s? No r emedy possi bl e; you' r e a gone coon sur e. "

The r epl y came: " Hush, i t mi ght be wor se. "

" How' s t hat , when you ar e bei ng car r i ed down t o t he bot t oml ess pi t ?"

" Hush" - - poi nt i ng t o hi s Sat ani c Maj est y- - " he mi ght t ake a not i on t o
make me car r y hi m. "

Mor l ey, l i ke mysel f , was ver y f ond of musi c and r evel ed i n t he mor ni ng
hour dur i ng whi ch t he or gan was bei ng pl ayed at Ski bo. He was
at t r act ed by t he or at or i os as al so Ar t hur Bal f our . I r emember t hey got
t i cket s t oget her f or an or at or i o at t he Cr yst al Pal ace. Bot h ar e sane
but phi l osophi c, and not ver y f ar apar t as phi l osopher s, I under st and;
but some r ecent pr oduct i ons of Bal f our send hi mf ar af i el d
specul at i vel y- - a f i el d whi ch Mor l ey never at t empt s. He keeps hi s f oot
on t he f i r mgr ound and onl y t r eads wher e t he way i s cl ear ed. No
danger of hi s bei ng " l ost i n t he woods" whi l e sear chi ng f or t he pat h.

Mor l ey' s most ast oni shi ng announcement of r ecent days was i n hi s
addr ess t o t he edi t or s of t he wor l d, assembl ed i n London. He i nf or med
t hemi n ef f ect t hat a f ew l i nes f r omBur ns had done mor e t o f or mand
mai nt ai n t he pr esent i mpr oved pol i t i cal and soci al condi t i ons of t he
peopl e t han al l t he mi l l i ons of edi t or i al s ever wr i t t en. Thi s f ol l owed
a r emar k t hat t her e wer e now and t hen a f ew wr i t t en or spoken wor ds
whi ch wer e i n t hemsel ves event s; t hey accompl i shed what t hey
descr i bed. TomPai ne' s " Ri ght s of Man" was ment i oned as such.
Page 191 of 222

Upon hi s ar r i val at Ski bo af t er t hi s addr ess we t al ked i t over . I
r ef er r ed t o hi s t r i but e t o Bur ns and hi s si x l i nes, and he r epl i ed
t hat he di dn' t need t o t el l me what l i nes t hese wer e.

" No, " I sai d, " I know t hemby hear t . "

I n a subsequent addr ess, unvei l i ng a st at ue of Bur ns i n t he par k at
Mont r ose, I r epeat ed t he l i nes I supposed he r ef er r ed t o, and he
appr oved t hem. He and I , st r ange t o say, had r ecei ved t he Fr eedomof
Mont r ose t oget her year s bef or e, so we ar e f el l ow- f r eemen.

At l ast I i nduced Mor l ey t o vi si t us i n Amer i ca, and he made a t our
t hr ough a gr eat par t of our count r y i n 1904. We t r i ed t o have hi mmeet
di st i ngui shed men l i ke hi msel f . One day Senat or El i hu Root cal l ed at
my r equest and Mor l ey had a l ong i nt er vi ew wi t h hi m. Af t er t he Senat or
l ef t Mor l ey r emar ked t o me t hat he had enj oyed hi s compani on gr eat l y,
as bei ng t he most sat i sf act or y Amer i can st at esman he had yet met . He
was not mi st aken. For sound j udgment and wi de knowl edge of our publ i c
af f ai r s El i hu Root has no super i or .

Mor l ey l ef t us t o pay a vi si t t o Pr esi dent Roosevel t at t he Whi t e
House, and spent sever al f r ui t f ul days i n company wi t h t hat
ext r aor di nar y man. Lat er , Mor l ey' s r emar k was:

" Wel l , I ' ve seen t wo wonder s i n Amer i ca, Roosevel t and Ni agar a. "

That was cl ever and t r ue t o l i f e- - a gr eat pai r of r oar i ng, t umbl i ng,
dashi ng and spl ashi ng wonder s, knowi ng no r est , but bot h doi ng t hei r
appoi nt ed wor k, such as i t i s.

Mor l ey was t he best per son t o have t he Act on l i br ar y and my gi f t of i t
t o hi mcame about i n t hi s way. When Mr . Gl adst one t ol d me t he posi t i on
Lor d Act on was i n, I agr eed, at hi s suggest i on, t o buy Act on' s l i br ar y
and al l ow i t t o r emai n f or hi s use dur i ng l i f e. Unf or t unat el y, he di d
not l i ve l ong t o enj oy i t - - onl y a f ew year s- - and t hen I had t he
l i br ar y upon my hands. I deci ded t hat Mor l ey coul d make t he best use
of i t f or hi msel f and woul d cer t ai nl y l eave i t event ual l y t o t he
pr oper i nst i t ut i on. I began t o t el l hi mt hat I owned i t when he
i nt er r upt ed me, sayi ng:

" Wel l , I must t el l you I have known t hi s f r omt he day you bought i t .
Mr . Gl adst one coul dn' t keep t he secr et , bei ng so over j oyed t hat Lor d
Act on had i t secur e f or l i f e. "

Her e wer e he and I i n cl ose i nt i macy, and yet never had one ment i oned
t he si t uat i on t o t he ot her ; but i t was a sur pr i se t o me t hat Mor l ey
was not sur pr i sed. Thi s i nci dent pr oved t he cl oseness of t he bond
bet ween Gl adst one and Mor l ey- - t he onl y man he coul d not r esi st shar i ng
hi s happi ness wi t h r egar di ng ear t hl y af f ai r s. Yet on t heol ogi cal
subj ect s t hey wer e f ar apar t wher e Act on and Gl adst one wer e aki n.

The year af t er I gave t he f und f or t he Scot t i sh uni ver si t i es Mor l ey
went t o Bal mor al as mi ni st er i n at t endance upon Hi s Maj est y, and wi r ed
t hat he must see me bef or e we sai l ed. We met and he i nf or med me Hi s
Maj est y was deepl y i mpr essed wi t h t he gi f t t o t he uni ver si t i es and t he
ot her s I had made t o my nat i ve l and, and wi shed hi mt o ascer t ai n
Page 192 of 222
whet her t her e was anyt hi ng i n hi s power t o best ow whi ch I woul d
appr eci at e.

I asked: " What di d you say?"

Mor l ey r epl i ed: " I do not t hi nk so. "

I sai d: " You ar e qui t e r i ght , except t hat i f Hi s Maj est y woul d wr i t e
me a not e expr essi ng hi s sat i sf act i on wi t h what I had done, as he has
t o you, t hi s woul d be deepl y appr eci at ed and handed down t o my
descendant s as somet hi ng t hey woul d al l be pr oud of . "

Thi s was done. The Ki ng' s aut ogr aph not e I have al r eady t r anscr i bed
el sewher e i n t hese pages.

That Ski bo has pr oved t he best of al l heal t h r esor t s f or Mor l ey i s
i ndeed f or t unat e, f or he comes t o us sever al t i mes each summer and i s
one of t he f ami l y, Lady Mor l ey accompanyi ng hi m. He i s as f ond of t he
yacht as I ammysel f , and, f or t unat el y agai n, i t i s t he best medi ci ne
f or bot h of us. Mor l ey i s, and must al ways r emai n, " Honest J ohn. " No
pr evar i cat i on wi t h hi m, no nonsense, f i r mas a r ock upon al l quest i ons
and i n al l emer genci es; yet al ways l ooki ng ar ound, f or e and af t , r i ght
and l ef t , wi t h a bi g hear t not of t en r eveal ed i n al l i t s t ender ness,
but at r ar e i nt er val s and upon f i t occasi on l eavi ng no doubt of i t s
pr esence and power . And af t er t hat si l ence.

[ I l l ust r at i on: MR. CARNEGI E WI TH VI SCOUNT MORLEY]

[ I l l ust r at i on: THE CARNEGI E FAMI LY AT SKI BO]

Chamber l ai n and Mor l ey wer e f ast f r i ends as advanced r adi cal s, and I
of t en met and conf er r ed wi t h t hemwhen i n Br i t ai n. When t he Home Rul e
i ssue was r ai sed, much i nt er est was ar oused i n Br i t ai n over our
Amer i can Feder al syst em. I was appeal ed t o f r eel y and del i ver ed
publ i c addr esses i n sever al ci t i es, expl ai ni ng and ext ol l i ng our
uni on, many i n one, t he f r eest gover nment of t he par t s pr oduci ng t he
st r ongest gover nment of t he whol e. I sent Mr . Chamber l ai n Mi ss Anna L.
Dawes' s " How We Ar e Gover ned, " at hi s r equest f or i nf or mat i on, and had
conver sat i ons wi t h Mor l ey, Gl adst one, and many ot her s upon t he
subj ect .

I had t o wr i t e Mr . Mor l ey t hat I di d not appr ove of t he f i r st Home
Rul e Bi l l f or r easons whi ch I gave. When I met Mr . Gl adst one he
expr essed hi s r egr et at t hi s and a f ul l t al k ensued. I obj ect ed t o t he
excl usi on of t he I r i sh member s f r omPar l i ament as bei ng a pr act i cal
separ at i on. I sai d we shoul d never have al l owed t he Sout her n St at es t o
cease sendi ng r epr esent at i ves t o Washi ngt on.

" What woul d you have done i f t hey r ef used?" he asked.

" Empl oyed al l t he r esour ces of ci vi l i zat i on- - f i r st , st opped t he
mai l s, " I r epl i ed.

He paused and r epeat ed:

" St op t he mai l s. " He f el t t he par al ysi s t hi s i nvol ved and was si l ent ,
and changed t he subj ect .
Page 193 of 222

I n answer t o quest i ons as t o what I shoul d do, I al ways poi nt ed out
t hat Amer i ca had many l egi sl at ur es, but onl y one Congr ess. Br i t ai n
shoul d f ol l ow her exampl e, one Par l i ament and l ocal l egi sl at ur es ( not
par l i ament s) f or I r el and, Scot l and, and Wal es. These shoul d be made
st at es l i ke New Yor k and Vi r gi ni a. But as Br i t ai n has no Supr eme
Cour t , as we have, t o deci de upon l aws passed, not onl y by st at e
l egi sl at ur es but by Congr ess, t he j udi ci al bei ng t he f i nal aut hor i t y
and not t he pol i t i cal , Br i t ai n shoul d have Par l i ament as t he one
nat i onal f i nal aut hor i t y over I r i sh measur es. Ther ef or e, t he act s of
t he l ocal l egi sl at ur e of I r el and shoul d l i e f or t hr ee mont hs'
cont i nuous sessi on upon t he t abl e of t he House of Commons, subj ect t o
adver se act i on of t he House, but becomi ng oper at i ve unl ess
di sappr oved. The pr ovi si on woul d be a dead l et t er unl ess i mpr oper
l egi sl at i on wer e enact ed, but i f t her e wer e i mpr oper l egi sl at i on, t hen
i t woul d be sal ut ar y. The cl ause, I sai d, was needed t o assur e t i mi d
peopl e t hat no secessi on coul d ar i se.

Ur gi ng t hi s vi ew upon Mr . Mor l ey af t er war ds, he t ol d me t hi s had been
pr oposed t o Par nel l , but r ej ect ed. Mr . Gl adst one mi ght t hen have sai d:
" Ver y wel l , t hi s pr ovi si on i s not needed f or mysel f and ot her s who
t hi nk wi t h me, but i t i s needed t o enabl e us t o car r y Br i t ai n wi t h us.
I amnow unabl e t o t ake up t he quest i on. The r esponsi bi l i t y i s your s. "

One mor ni ng at Hawar den Mr s. Gl adst one sai d:

" Wi l l i amt el l s me he has such ext r aor di nar y conver sat i ons wi t h you. "

These he had, no doubt . He had not of t en, i f ever , hear d t he br eezy
t al k of a genui ne r epubl i can and di d not under st and my i nabi l i t y t o
concei ve of di f f er ent her edi t ar y r anks. I t seemed st r ange t o me t hat
men shoul d del i ber at el y abandon t he name gi ven t hemby t hei r par ent s,
and t hat name t he par ent s' name. Especi al l y amusi ng wer e t he new
t i t l es whi ch r equi r ed t he ol d her edi t ar y nobl es much ef f or t t o r ef r ai n
f r omsmi l i ng at as t hey gr eet ed t he newl y made peer who had per haps
bought hi s t i t l e f or t en t housand pounds, mor e or l ess, gi ven t o t he
par t y f und.

Mr . Bl ai ne was wi t h us i n London and I t ol d Mr . Gl adst one he had
expr essed t o me hi s wonder and pai n at seei ng hi mi n hi s ol d age hat
i n hand, col d day as i t was, at a gar den par t y doi ng homage t o t i t l ed
nobodi es. Uni on of Chur ch and St at e was t ouched upon, and al so my
" Look Ahead, " whi ch f or et el l s t he r euni on of our r ace owi ng t o t he
i nabi l i t y of t he Br i t i sh I sl ands t o expand. I had hel d t hat t he
di sest abl i shment of t he Engl i sh Chur ch was i nevi t abl e, because among
ot her r easons i t was an anomal y. No ot her par t of t he r ace had i t . Al l
r el i gi ons wer e f ost er ed, none f avor ed, i n ever y ot her Engl i sh- speaki ng
st at e. Mr . Gl adst one asked:

" How l ong do you gi ve our Est abl i shed Chur ch t o l i ve?"

My r epl y was I coul d not f i x a dat e; he had had mor e exper i ence t han I
i n di sest abl i shi ng chur ches. He nodded and smi l ed.

When I had enl ar ged upon a cer t ai n r el at i ve decr ease of popul at i on i n
Br i t ai n t hat must come as compar ed wi t h ot her count r i es of l ar ger
ar ea, he asked:
Page 194 of 222

" What f ut ur e do you f or ecast f or her ?"

I r ef er r ed t o Gr eece among anci ent nat i ons and sai d t hat i t was,
per haps, not acci dent t hat Chaucer , Shakespear e, Spenser , Mi l t on,
Bur ns, Scot t , St evenson, Bacon, Cr omwel l , Wal l ace, Br uce, Hume, Wat t ,
Spencer , Dar wi n, and ot her cel ebr i t i es had ar i sen her e. Geni us di d not
depend upon mat er i al r esour ces. Long af t er Br i t ai n coul d not f i gur e
pr omi nent l y as an i ndust r i al nat i on, not by her decl i ne, but t hr ough
t he gr eat er gr owt h of ot her s, she mi ght i n my opi ni on become t he
moder n Gr eece and achi eve among nat i ons mor al ascendancy.

He caught at t he wor ds, r epeat i ng t hemmusi ngl y:

" Mor al ascendancy, mor al ascendancy, I l i ke t hat , I l i ke t hat . "

I had never bef or e so t hor oughl y enj oyed a conf er ence wi t h a man. I
vi si t ed hi magai n at Hawar den, but my l ast vi si t t o hi mwas at Lor d
Randal l ' s at Cannes t he wi nt er of 1897 when he was suf f er i ng keenl y.
He had st i l l t he ol d char mand was especi al l y at t ent i ve t o my
si st er - i n- l aw, Lucy, who saw hi mt hen f or t he f i r st t i me and was
deepl y i mpr essed. As we dr ove of f , she mur mur ed, " A si ck eagl e! A si ck
eagl e! " Not hi ng coul d bet t er descr i be t hi s wan and wor n l eader of men
as he appear ed t o me t hat day. He was not onl y a gr eat , but a t r ul y
good man, st i r r ed by t he pur est i mpul ses, a hi gh, i mper i ous soul
al ways l ooki ng upwar d. He had, i ndeed, ear ned t he t i t l e: " For emost
Ci t i zen of t he Wor l d. "

I n Br i t ai n, i n 1881, I had ent er ed i nt o busi ness r el at i ons wi t h Samuel
St or ey, M. P. , a ver y abl e man, a st er n r adi cal , and a genui ne
r epubl i can. We pur chased sever al Br i t i sh newspaper s and began a
campai gn of pol i t i cal pr ogr ess upon r adi cal l i nes. Passmor e Edwar ds
and some ot her s j oi ned us, but t he r esul t was not encour agi ng. Har mony
di d not pr evai l among my Br i t i sh f r i ends and f i nal l y I deci ded t o
wi t hdr aw, whi ch I was f or t unat el y abl e t o do wi t hout l oss. [ 69]

[ Foot not e 69: Mr . Car negi e acqui r ed no l ess t han ei ght een Br i t i sh
newspaper s wi t h t he i dea of pr omot i ng r adi cal vi ews. The pol i t i cal
r esul t s wer e di sappoi nt i ng, but wi t h hi s geni us f or maki ng money t he
pecuni ar y r esul t s wer e mor e t han sat i sf act or y. ]

My t hi r d l i t er ar y vent ur e, " Tr i umphant Democr acy, " [ 70] had i t s or i gi n
i n r eal i zi ng how l i t t l e t he best - i nf or med f or ei gner , or even Br i t on,
knew of Amer i ca, and how di st or t ed t hat l i t t l e was. I t was pr odi gi ous
what t hese emi nent Engl i shmen di d not t hen know about t he Republ i c. My
f i r st t al k wi t h Mr . Gl adst one i n 1882 can never be f or got t en. When I
had occasi on t o say t hat t he maj or i t y of t he Engl i sh- speaki ng r ace was
now r epubl i can and i t was a mi nor i t y of monar chi st s who wer e upon t he
def ensi ve, he sai d:

" Why, how i s t hat ?"

" Wel l , Mr . Gl adst one, " I sai d, " t he Republ i c hol ds sway over a l ar ger
number of Engl i sh- speaki ng peopl e t han t he popul at i on of Gr eat Br i t ai n
and al l her col oni es even i f t he Engl i sh- speaki ng col oni es wer e
number ed t wi ce over . "

Page 195 of 222
" Ah! how i s t hat ? What i s your popul at i on?"

" Si xt y- si x mi l l i ons, and your s i s not much mor e t han hal f . "

" Ah, yes, sur pr i si ng! "

[ Foot not e 70: _Tr i umphant Democr acy, or Fi f t y Year s' Mar ch of t he
Republ i c. _ London, 1886; New Yor k, 1888. ]

Wi t h r egar d t o t he weal t h of t he nat i ons, i t was equal l y sur pr i si ng
f or hi mt o l ear n t hat t he census of 1880 pr oved t he hundr ed- year - ol d
Republ i c coul d pur chase Gr eat Br i t ai n and I r el and and al l t hei r
r eal i zed capi t al and i nvest ment s and t hen pay of f Br i t ai n' s debt , and
yet not exhaust her f or t une. But t he most st ar t l i ng st at ement of al l
was t hat whi ch I was abl e t o make when t he quest i on of Fr ee Tr ade was
t ouched upon. I poi nt ed out t hat Amer i ca was now t he gr eat est
manuf act ur i ng nat i on i n t he wor l d. [ At a l at er dat e I r emember Lor d
Chancel l or Hal dane f el l i nt o t he same er r or , cal l i ng Br i t ai n t he
gr eat est manuf act ur i ng count r y i n t he wor l d, and t hanked me f or
put t i ng hi mr i ght . ] I quot ed Mul hal l ' s f i gur es: Br i t i sh manuf act ur es
i n 1880, ei ght hundr ed and si xt een mi l l i ons st er l i ng; Amer i can
manuf act ur es el even hundr ed and t went y- si x mi l l i ons st er l i ng. [ 71] Hi s
one wor d was:

" I ncr edi bl e! "

[ Foot not e 71: The est i mat ed val ue of manuf act ur es i n Gr eat Br i t ai n i n
1900 was f i ve bi l l i ons of dol l ar s as compar ed t o t hi r t een bi l l i ons f or
t he Uni t ed St at es. I n 1914 t he Uni t ed St at es had gone t o over
t went y- f our bi l l i ons. ]

Ot her st ar t l i ng st at ement s f ol l owed and he asked:

" Why does not some wr i t er t ake up t hi s subj ect and pr esent t he f act s
i n a si mpl e and di r ect f or mt o t he wor l d?"

I was t hen, as a mat t er of f act , gat her i ng mat er i al f or " Tr i umphant
Democr acy, " i n whi ch I i nt ended t o per f or mt he ver y ser vi ce whi ch he
i ndi cat ed, as I i nf or med hi m.

" Round t he Wor l d" and t he " Amer i can Four - i n- Hand" gave me not t he
sl i ght est ef f or t but t he pr epar at i on of " Tr i umphant Democr acy, " whi ch
I began i n 1882, was al t oget her anot her mat t er . I t r equi r ed st eady,
l abor i ous wor k. Fi gur es had t o be exami ned and ar r anged, but as I went
f or war d t he st udy became f asci nat i ng. For some mont hs I seemed t o have
my head f i l l ed wi t h st at i st i cs. The hour s passed away unheeded. I t was
eveni ng when I supposed i t was mi dday. The second ser i ous i l l ness of
my l i f e dat es f r omt he st r ai n br ought upon me by t hi s wor k, f or I had
t o at t end t o busi ness as wel l . I shal l t hi nk t wi ce bef or e I t r ust
mysel f agai n wi t h anyt hi ng so f asci nat i ng as f i gur es.




Page 196 of 222
CHAPTER XXV

HERBERT SPENCER AND HIS DISCIPLE


Her ber t Spencer , wi t h hi s f r i end Mr . Lot t and mysel f , wer e f el l ow
t r avel er s on t he Ser vi a f r omLi ver pool t o New Yor k i n 1882. I bor e a
not e of i nt r oduct i on t o hi mf r omMr . Mor l ey, but I had met t he
phi l osopher i n London bef or e t hat . I was one of hi s di sci pl es. As an
ol der t r avel er , I t ook Mr . Lot t and hi mi n char ge. We sat at t he same
t abl e dur i ng t he voyage.

One day t he conver sat i on f el l upon t he i mpr essi on made upon us by
gr eat men at f i r st meet i ng. Di d t hey, or di d t hey not , pr ove t o be as
we had i magi ned t hem? Each gave hi s exper i ence. Mi ne was t hat not hi ng
coul d be mor e di f f er ent t han t he bei ng i magi ned and t hat bei ng behel d
i n t he f l esh.

" Oh! " sai d Mr . Spencer , " i n my case, f or i nst ance, was t hi s so?"

" Yes, " I r epl i ed, " you mor e t han any. I had i magi ned my t eacher , t he
gr eat cal mphi l osopher br oodi ng, Buddha- l i ke, over al l t hi ngs,
unmoved; never di d I dr eamof seei ng hi mexci t ed over t he quest i on of
Cheshi r e or Cheddar cheese. " The day bef or e he had peevi shl y pushed
away t he f or mer when pr esent ed by t he st ewar d, excl ai mi ng " Cheddar ,
Cheddar , not Cheshi r e; I sai d _Cheddar _. " Ther e was a r oar i n whi ch
none j oi ned mor e hear t i l y t han t he sage hi msel f . He r ef er s t o t hi s
i nci dent of t he voyage i n hi s Aut obi ogr aphy. [ 72]

[ Foot not e 72: _An Aut obi ogr aphy_, by Her ber t Spencer , vol . I , p. 424.
New Yor k, 1904. ]

Spencer l i ked st or i es and was a good l augher . Amer i can st or i es seemed
t o pl ease hi mmor e t han ot her s, and of t hose I was abl e t o t el l hi m
not a f ew, whi ch wer e usual l y f ol l owed by expl osi ve l aught er . He was
anxi ous t o l ear n about our West er n Ter r i t or i es, whi ch wer e t hen
at t r act i ng at t ent i on i n Eur ope, and a st or y I t ol d hi mabout Texas
st r uck hi mas amusi ng. When a r et ur ni ng di sappoi nt ed emi gr ant f r om
t hat St at e was asked about t he t hen bar r en count r y, he sai d:

" St r anger , al l t hat I have t o say about Texas i s t hat i f I owned Texas
and h- - l , I woul d sel l Texas. "

What a change f r omt hose ear l y days! Texas has now over f our mi l l i ons
of popul at i on and i s sai d t o have t he soi l t o pr oduce mor e cot t on t han
t he whol e wor l d di d i n 1882.

The wal k up t o t he house, when I had t he phi l osopher out at
Pi t t sbur gh, r emi nded me of anot her Amer i can st or y of t he vi si t or who
st ar t ed t o come up t he gar den wal k. When he opened t he gat e a bi g dog
f r omt he house r ushed down upon hi m. He r et r eat ed and cl osed t he
gar den gat e j ust i n t i me, t he host cal l i ng out :

" He won' t t ouch you, you know bar ki ng dogs never bi t e. "

" Yes, " excl ai med t he vi si t or , t r embl i ngl y, " I know t hat and you know
Page 197 of 222
i t , but does t he dog know i t ?"

One day my el dest nephew was seen t o open t he door qui et l y and peep i n
wher e we wer e seat ed. Hi s mot her af t er war ds asked hi mwhy he had done
so and t he boy of el even r epl i ed:

" Mamma, I want ed t o see t he man who wr ot e i n a book t hat t her e was no
use st udyi ng gr ammar . "

Spencer was gr eat l y pl eased when he hear d t he st or y and of t en r ef er r ed
t o i t . He had f ai t h i n t hat nephew.

[ I l l ust r at i on: HERBERT SPENCER AT SEVENTY- EI GHT]

Speaki ng t o hi mone day about hi s havi ng si gned a r emonst r ance agai nst
a t unnel bet ween Cal ai s and Dover as havi ng sur pr i sed me, he expl ai ned
t hat f or hi msel f he was as anxi ous t o have t he t unnel as any one
and t hat he di d not bel i eve i n any of t he obj ect i ons r ai sed agai nst
i t , but si gned t he r emonst r ance because he knew hi s count r ymen wer e
such f ool s t hat t he mi l i t ar y and naval el ement i n Br i t ai n coul d
st ampede t he masses, f r i ght en t hem, and st i mul at e mi l i t ar i sm. An
i ncr eased ar my and navy woul d t hen be demanded. He r ef er r ed t o a scar e
whi ch had once ar i sen and i nvol ved t he out l ay of many mi l l i ons i n
f or t i f i cat i ons whi ch had pr oved usel ess.

One day we wer e si t t i ng i n our r ooms i n t he Gr and Hot el l ooki ng out
over Tr af al gar Squar e. The Li f e Guar ds passed and t he f ol l owi ng t ook
pl ace:

" Mr . Spencer , I never see men dr essed up l i ke Mer r y Andr ews wi t hout
bei ng saddened and i ndi gnant t hat i n t he ni net eent h cent ur y t he most
ci vi l i zed r ace, as we consi der our sel ves, st i l l f i nds men wi l l i ng t o
adopt as a pr of essi on- - unt i l l at el y t he onl y pr of essi on f or
gent l emen- - t he st udy of t he sur est means of ki l l i ng ot her men. "

Mr . Spencer sai d: " I f eel j ust so mysel f , but I wi l l t el l you how I
cur b my i ndi gnat i on. Whenever I f eel i t r i si ng I amcal med by t hi s
st or y of Emer son' s: He had been hoot ed and hust l ed f r omt he pl at f or m
i n Faneui l Hal l f or dar i ng t o speak agai nst sl aver y. He descr i bes
hi msel f wal ki ng home i n vi ol ent anger , unt i l openi ng hi s gar den gat e
and l ooki ng up t hr ough t he br anches of t he t al l el ms t hat gr ew bet ween
t he gat e and hi s modest home, he saw t he st ar s shi ni ng t hr ough. They
sai d t o hi m: ' What , so hot , my l i t t l e si r ?' " I l aughed and he l aughed,
and I t hanked hi mf or t hat st or y. Not sel domI have t o r epeat t o
mysel f , " What , so hot , my l i t t l e si r ?" and i t suf f i ces.

Mr . Spencer ' s vi si t t o Amer i ca had i t s cl i max i n t he banquet gi ven
f or hi mat Del moni co' s. I dr ove hi mt o i t and saw t he gr eat man t her e
i n a f unk. He coul d t hi nk of not hi ng but t he addr ess he was t o
del i ver . [ 73] I bel i eve he had r ar el y bef or e spoken i n publ i c. Hi s
gr eat f ear was t hat he shoul d be unabl e t o say anyt hi ng t hat woul d be
of advant age t o t he Amer i can peopl e, who had been t he f i r st t o
appr eci at e hi s wor ks. He may have at t ended many banquet s, but never
one compr i sed of mor e di st i ngui shed peopl e t han t hi s one. I t was a
r emar kabl e gat her i ng. The t r i but es pai d Spencer by t he abl est men wer e
uni que. The cl i max was r eached when Henr y War d Beecher , concl udi ng hi s
addr ess, t ur ned r ound and addr essed Mr . Spencer i n t hese wor ds:
Page 198 of 222

" To my f at her and my mot her I owe my physi cal bei ng; t