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Decolonization[edit] Care should be taken when trying to drain boils, as disruption of surrounding tissue can lead to larger infections,

or even infection of the blood stream (often with fatal consequences).[84] Any drainage should be disposed of very carefully. After the drainage of boils or other treatment for MRSA, patients can shower at home using chlorhexidine (Hibiclens) or hexachlorophene (Phisohex) antiseptic soap (available over-the-counter at many pharmacies) from head to toe. Alternatively, a dilute bleach bath can be taken at a concentration of 2.5 L/mL dilution of bleach (about 1/2 cup bleach per 1/4-full bathtub of water).[85] Care should be taken to use a clean towel, and to ensure that nasal discharge doesn't infect the towel (see below). All infectious lesions should be kept covered with a dressing.[84] Mupirocin (Bactroban) 2% ointment can be effective at reducing the size of lesions. A secondary covering of clothing is preferred.[86] As shown in an animal study with diabetic mice, the topical application of a mixture of sugar (70%) and 3% povidoneiodine paste is an effective agent for the treatment of diabetic ulcers with MRSA infection.[87] The nose is a common refuge for MRSA, and a test swab can be taken of the nose to indicate whether MRSA is present.[88] If MRSA is detected via nasal culture, Mupirocin (Bactroban) 2% ointment can be applied inside each nostril twice daily for 7 days, using a cotton-tipped swab. However, care should be taken so that the swab doesn't penetrate into the sinus. Household members are recommended to follow the same decolonization protocol. After treatment, the nose should be swabbed again to ensure that the treatment was effective. If not, the process should be repeated. Toilet seats are a common vector for infection, and wiping seats clean before and/or after use can help to prevent the spread of MRSA. Door handles, faucets, light switches (with care!), etc. can be disinfected regularly with disinfectant wipes.[86] Spray disinfectants can be used on upholstery. Carpets can be washed with disinfectant, and hardwood floors can be scrubbed with diluted tea tree oil (e.g. Melaleuca). Laundry soap containing tea tree oil may be effective at decontaminating clothing and bedding, especially if hot water and heavy soil cycles are used, however tea tree oil may cause a rash which MRSA can re-colonize. Alcohol-based sanitizers can be placed near bedsides, near sitting areas, in vehicles etc. to encourage their use. Doctors may also prescribe antibiotics such as clindamycin, doxycycline or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Community settings[edit] The CDC offers suggestions for preventing the contraction and spread MRSA infection which are applicable to those in community settings, including incarcerated populations, childcare center employees, and athletes. To prevent MRSA infection, individuals should regularly wash hands using soap and water or an alcohol-based sanitizer, keep wounds clean and covered, avoid contact with other people's wounds, avoid sharing personal items such as razors or towels, shower after exercising at athletic facilities (including gyms, weight rooms, and school facilities), shower before using swimming pools or whirlpools, and maintain a clean environment.[89] It may be difficult for people to maintain the necessary cleanliness if they do not have access to facilities such as public toilets with handwashing facilities. In the United Kingdom, the Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 requires businesses to provide toilets for their employees, along with

washing facilities including soap or other suitable means of cleaning. Guidance on how many toilets to provide and what sort of washing facilities should be provided alongside them is given in the Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Approved Code of Practice and Guidance L24, available from Health and Safety Executive Books. But there is no legal obligation on local authorities in the United Kingdom to provide public toilets, and although in 2008 the House of Commons Communities and Local Government Committee called for a duty on local authorities to develop a public toilet strategy [1] this was rejected by the Government [2]. Treatment[edit] Both CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA are resistant to traditional anti-staphylococcal beta-lactam antibiotics, such as cephalexin. CA-MRSA has a greater spectrum of antimicrobial susceptibility, including to sulfa drugs (like co-trimoxazole/trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole), tetracyclines (like doxycycline and minocycline) and clindamycin (for osteomyelitis), but the drug of choice for treating CA-MRSA is now believed to be vancomycin, according to a Henry Ford Hospital Study. HA-MRSA is resistant even to these antibiotics and often is susceptible only to vancomycin. Newer drugs, such as linezolid (belonging to the newer oxazolidinones class) and daptomycin, are effective against both CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA. Linezolid is now felt to be the best drug for treating patients with MRSA pneumonia.[90][dubious discuss] Ceftaroline and ceftabiparole, new fifth generation cephalosporins, are the first beta-lactam antibiotics approved in the US to treat MRSA infections (skin and soft tissue only).[citation needed] Vancomycin and teicoplanin are glycopeptide antibiotics used to treat MRSA infections.[91] Teicoplanin is a structural congener of vancomycin that has a similar activity spectrum but a longerhalf-life.[92] Because the oral absorption of vancomycin and teicoplanin is very low, these agents must be administered intravenously to control systemic infections.[93] Treatment of MRSA infection with vancomycin can be complicated, due to its inconvenient route of administration. Moreover, many clinicians believe that the efficacy of vancomycin against MRSA is inferior to that of anti-staphylococcal beta-lactam antibiotics against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA).[94][95] Several newly discovered strains of MRSA show antibiotic resistance even to vancomycin and teicoplanin. These new evolutions of the MRSA bacterium have been dubbed Vancomycin intermediate-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VISA).[96] [97] Linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, daptomycin, ceftaroline, and tigecycline are used to treat more severe infections that do not respond to glycopeptides such as vancomycin.[98] Current guidelines recommend daptomycin for VISA bloodstream infections and endocarditis.[99] There have been claims that bacteriophage can be used to cure MRSA.[100][101] The psychedelic mushroom Psilocybe semilanceata has been shown to strongly inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus.[102] The cannabinoids CBD and CBG powerfully inhibit MRSA,[103] in addition to the terpenoid pinene which occurs in cannabis.[104]