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RADI 3200U / PHY 4100 U Medical Imaging

Instructor: Eleodor Nichita Room ERC 4085 Phone (905)721-8668 ext. 5527 e-mail: Blackboard course e-mail for course-related issues for non-course-related issues Margarita Tzivaki e-mail: Blackboard course e-mail for course-related issues for non-course-related issues Prof.: Mondays, 1 pm 3 pm TA: Thursdays, 10:30 am- 12:00 pm


office hours:

Study materials: Course notes Textbook [available as an electronic resource from the UOIT library (follow link)]: Introduction to Biomedical Imaging Andrew Webb Wiley-Interscience, 2003 ISBN: 0-471-23766-3

Reading Assignments: At the end of each class, a reading assignment will be given out and the understanding of the read material will be tested during the following class by way of an in-class assignment. Problem-Solving Homework Assignments: Problem-solving homework assignments will be handed out periodically throughout the semester. Students are expected to solve problems but are not required to turn in solutions. During the semester there will be two closed-book quizzes consisting exclusively of previously-assigned homework problems. NOTE: Collaboration on solving assignments is permitted and encouraged. However, there is no collaboration permitted during the quizzes. Class Assignments: During the last hour of most classes, there will be an open-book/notes class assignment consisting of problems and questions based on the material presented during the class and on the reading assigned the previous week. Class assignments will be worked on in groups. All group members will receive the same mark.

Evaluation: Grading scale: Class assignments: Quizzes: CT/MRI clinic visit Midterm exam: Final exam: 0-100% 10% 10% 5% 25% 50%

Obtaining a 50% or higher weighted average for the final exam, midterm and quizzes is a necessary condition for passing the course. For any missed quiz, class assignment or midterm, the weight of the missed evaluation will be shifted to the final exam. The same holds true for the CT/MRI clinic visit.

Tentative Exam Dates:

Midterm: October 28 Final: December 6-18, TBA

Learning objectives To provide students with an understanding of basic concepts and quantities related to medical imaging To train students to use critical, independent thinking. To train students in problem solving and in applying studied concepts to completely new problems and situations. To provide students with primary knowledge on the following topics: Planar X-ray Imaging Techniques Computed Tomography General Image Characteristics Magnetic Resonance Imaging Ultrasound Imaging Techniques Nuclear Medicine (SPECT and PET) Imaging Techniques

Learning outcomes After taking the course, students should be able to: Understand the principles of the major imaging techniques (ultrasound, X-ray, CT, PET, SPECT, MRI). Understand the general image characteristics and how they compare between different techniques. Decide which technique is best for visualizing different clinical conditions. Understand wave propagation, reflection, refraction and diffraction. Describe different types of ultrasound transducers and their uses. Describe the pulse-processing electronics in an ultrasound flaw detector. Describe the processing electronics in a medical ultrasound machine. Understand how X-rays are generated. Describe how X-ray images are formed. Describe the main parts of an industrial X-ray machine. Describe the components of a medical X-ray machine. Understand the mathematical processing involved in computed tomography. Describe the component parts of and X-ray CT machine. Name the main nuclear medicine isotopes and how they are produced. Describe how PET and SPECT work. Understand the principles of magnetic resonance imaging. Understand the mathematical processing involved in MRI. Describe the component parts of an MRI machine.

Course Outline 1. Introduction: Medical Physics and Medical Imaging 2. X-Ray Imaging 2.1. General Principles 2.2. X-ray Production 2.3. Linear and Mass Attenuation Coefficients 2.4. Instrumentation for Planar X-ray Imaging 2.5. X-ray Image Characteristics 2.6. Clinical Applications of X-ray Imaging 3. General Image Characteristics and Processing 3.1. Fourier Transform (Temporal and Spatial) 3.2. Spatial Resolution 3.3. Signal-to-Noise Ratio 3.4. Contrast-to-Noise Ratio 3.5. Image Filtering 3.6. Windowing and contrast manipulation 3.7. Receiver Operating Curve 3.8. ImageJ Software 4. Computed Tomography 4.1. General Principles 4.2. Image Processing 4.3. Spiral/Helical CT 4.4. Multi-Slice CT

4.5. Clinical Applications of Computed Tomography 5. Nuclear Medicine 5.1. General Principles 5.2. Radioactivity 5.3. Production of Radionuclides 5.4. The Biodistribution of Technetium-Based Agents in the Body 5.5. The Gamma Camera 5.6. Image Characteristics 5.7. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography 5.8. Positron Emission Tomography 5.9. Clinical Applications of Nuclear Medicine 6. Ultrasonic Imaging 6.1. General Principles 6.2. Wave physics 6.3. Transducers 6.4. Nondestructive Testing Using Ultrasound 6.5. Medical Ultrasound Machines 6.6. Doppler Ultrasound 6.7. Clinical Applications of Ultrasound Imaging 7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging 7.1. General Principles 7.2. Nuclear Magnetism 7.3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging 7.4. Instrumentation

7.5. Imaging Sequences 7.6. Image Characteristics 7.7. MRI Contrast Agents 7.8. MRI Angiography 7.9. Functional MRI 7.10.In-Vivo Localized Spectroscopy 7.11.Clinical Applications of MRI