Level of Education Subject Class/Semester Topic Sub-Topic Allocation of Time

: : : : : :

Junior High School Natural Science-Physics VIII/2 Vibration and Waves Vibration 2 X 40 minutes

A. BASIC COMPETENCE Students can plan and do the analysis of data in the experiment of vibration and waves. B. OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON Students can do the experiment to find the concepts of vibration, amplitude, and period until they find the connection between frequency and period. C. INDICATORS Students can  explain the concept of vibration by connecting relevant nature phenomenon.  measure the period of a vibration of something hung with a rope or spring.  investigate that the period of a vibration does not depend on its amplitude, but depends on the length of its rope.  use the concept and principle of vibration to calculate the frequency or period. (T = 1/f; f = 11T). D. LEARNING MODEL 1. Cooperative pair thinking and sharing. E. SOURCES OF LEARNING 1. Student's Book: Vibration and Waves. 2. SAW 6.1 (investigation Activity): Making a Sound with a Ruler. F. EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS 1. The requirements of each cooperative group: one set of equipment and materials of the experiment according to SAW 6.1 (see Student's Book). G. TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITY I. Introduction (10 minutes) 1. Remind the students about the kinds of motion (the straight and the - circle motion). 2. Motivate students by demonstrating the vibration of a ruler according to the Investigation Activity (see Student's Book), all at once to show that there is another motion besides the motions above. 3. Inform students of the indicators of learning. II. Core (60 minutes) 1. Ask the students to sit in an arrangement for cooperative learning and pair thinking and sharing, distribute the equipment and materials according to SAW 6.1 in Student's Book for every pairs, and ask them do the work according to the SAW. 2. Lead the students in planning and doing the activity of the experiment, and also taking the summary. The reference of the guidance can be seen in SAW Guide 6.1 3. Ask the students/pair to present their works in front of the class, and then ask others to respond to them. The teacher makes sure that all students have known the appropriate summary. 4. Present the meaning of vibration, and connecting it with Investigation Activity. 5. Ask the students to read Vibration in Student's Book, and ask the main idea of the reading. 6. Demonstrate the example of vibration, such as a -swing or spring from the ribbon band. 7. Ask the students to draw a swing and mark its equilibrium point, the measurement of the deviation and amplitude in their notebook. Ask one "volunteer" to draw his work on the writing board. 8. Explain the connection between the amplitude and energy of a vibration. 1

9. 10. 11. 12.

Present the meaning of period and frequency of vibration, started from the meaning of one vibration. Make a model in doing the example question in sub-chapter 6. 1. Ask the students to do question 1 in sub-chapter 6.1. Ask one of the students to show his work on the blackboard. The answers are in Supplement 01.

III. Closing (10 minutes) 1. Ask the students to do Essence of the Sub-Chapter (numbers 1-3), in Student's Book as Formative Test. 2. Ask the students to do the SAW 6.2 Lesson Guide as homework and to submit-it in the next meeting.

Supplement 01. The Answer of Using Mathematics, in Student's Book.' f = 1/T = 50 Hz. Supplement 02. The Answer to Review in Essence of Sub-Chapter, In Student's Book. 1. The string moves oscillating around its equilibrium point. The motion is called vibration. The examples of the vibration given by the students have variation, e.g. the motion of vocal cords when someone talks, the motion of the membrane of a bedug after being hit, the motion of a swinging pendulum, etc. 2. The amplitude of the vibration = 10 cm. The deviation at that time = 4 cm. 3. The period of a vibration is the time needed to do one vibration. Its frequency is the number of vibration in every second. The connection of them is f = 1/T. f = 11T = 1/0.1 = 10 Hz.

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LESSON PLAN 13.2 Level of Education Subject Class/Semester Topic Sub-Topic Allocation of Time : : : : : : Junior High School Natural Science-Physics VIII/2 Vibration and Waves Vibration 2 X 40 minutes

A. BASIC COMPETENCE Students can plan and do the analysis of data in the experiment of vibration and waves. B. OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON Students can do the experiment to find the concepts of vibration, amplitude, and period until they find the connection between frequency and period. C. INDICATORS Students can • apply the concept of vibration by connecting the relevant natural phenomena. • measure the period of a vibration of something hung by a rope or spring. • investigate that the period of a vibration does not depend on the amplitude, but depends on the length of the rope. • use the concept and the principle of a vibration to calculate the frequency or period. (T = 1 / f ; f = 1 / T). D. LEARNING MODEL 1. Cooperative pair thinking and sharing. E. SOURCES OF LEARNING 1. Student's Book Chapter 13: Vibration and Waves. 2. SAW 13.2: Vibration. 3. SAW Guide 13.2: Vibration. F. EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL 1. a swing G. TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITY I. Introduction (5 minutes) 1. Remind the students about the homework (SAW 13.2 Lesson Guide) by checking whether the students have done it. 2. Remind the students about the meaning of and the example of vibration by the demonstration of a swing. 3. Inform the students of the achievement of objective of the lesson indicator. II. Core (30 minutes) 1. Ask the students to sit in pairs in an arrangement for cooperative pair thinking and shafting to discuss the answer to SAW 13.2 by their pairs. If there are differences between them, the pair is asked to discuss to find the correct answer. 2. The teacher asks every pair to present their answers (one question for one pair), then they are responded to by the others. If all students get a problem by a certain question, the teacher presents his answer. The reference for the teacher is in SAW 13.2 III. Closing (5 minutes) 1. Give a feedback and stressing for the questions that are difficult to be learned by the students. 2. Ask the students to study the SAW 13.3.

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LESSON PLAN 13.3 Level of Education Subject Class/Semester Topic Sub-Topic Allocation of Time : : : : : : Junior High School Natural Science-Physics VIII/2 Vibration and Waves Vibration 1 X 45 minutes

A. BASIC COMPETENCE Students can plan and do the analysis of data in the experiment of vibration and waves. B. OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON Students can do the experiment to find the concepts of vibration, amplitude, and period until they find the connection between frequency and period. C. INDICATORS Students can: • apply the concept of vibration by connecting the relevant natural phenomena. • measure the period of a vibration of something being hung by a rope or a spring. • investigate that the period of a vibration does not depends on the amplitude, but depends on the length of the rope. • use the concept and principle of vibration to calculate the frequency or the period. (T = 1/f, f = 1/T). D. LEARNING MODEL 1. Cooperative pair thinking and sharing. E. SOURCE OF LEARNING 1. Chapter 13 in Student's Book: Vibration and Waves. 2. SAW 13.3 (The Period and Frequency of a Swing). 3. SAW Guide 13.3 (Special for Teacher). F. EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS 1. The need of every cooperative group: one set of equipment and materials for the experiment according to SAW 13.3 (see Student's Book) G. TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITY I. Introduction (10 minutes) 1. Remind the students of the meaning and the example of vibration, and the manner to calculate the number of vibration. 2. Motivate the students to present problems according to the Activity 13.1 Student's Book (SAW 13.3) and demonstrate them. 3. Inform students of the learning indicators. II. Core (60 minutes) 1. Lead the students in formulating a hypothesis to answer the second question in the Activity 13.1 (SAW 13.3), what quantities are changed and made constant (the manipulating variable and controlling variable) 2. Ask the students to sit in an arrangement for cooperative learning, distribute the equipment and material according to SAW 13.3, ask the students to do it. 3. Lead the students in planning and doing the experiment activity, and drawing a conclusion. The reference of the guidance can be seen in the SAW Guide 13.3. 4. Ask certain students/groups to present their work in front of the other groups, and then they are responded to by the others. Make sure that all students have known the appropriate conclusion.

4

III. Closing (10 minutes) 1. Still in cooperative arrangement, the students are asked to read Antique Clock in Student's Book. 2. Do the questions 4 and 5 in Essence of The Sub-Chapter as a formative test. The answer is in Supplement 03. Supplement 03. The Answer to Essence of Sub-Chapter, in Student's Book. 4. No, the frequency is constant, because its period is constant although- its amplitude decreases. 5. To give energy to the swing, in order that the swing continuously vibrates and the hand of clock continuously rotates.

Approval, Head Master

Bandung, 10 Augusts 2006 Science teacher’s,

Dra. Nina Rochana NIP. 130 810 607

Aries Triwidajati S.SPd NIP. 132 085 254

5

LESSON PLAN 13.4 Level of Education Subject Class/Semester Topic Sub-Topic Allocation of Time : : : : : : Junior High School Natural Science-Physics VIII/2 Vibration and Waves Vibration 1 X 45 minutes

A. BASIC COMPETENCE Students can plan and do the analysis of data in the experiment of vibration and waves. B. OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON Students can determine the characteristics of mechanical and electromagnetic waves. C. INDICATORS Students can • compare the characteristics of mechanical and electromagnetic waves. • compare the characteristics of longitudinal and transversal waves. • investigate the wavelength on a rope for transversal wave and slinky for longitudinal wave. • Do a simple quantitative analysis to find the spread velocity of wave : v = λ.f or v =λ/T. D. LEARNING MODEL 1. Cooperative E. SOURCE OF LEARNING 1. Chapter 13 in Student's Book: Vibration and Waves. 2. SAW 13.4: Making a Wave. 3. SAW Guide 3.4 (Special for Teacher). F. EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS 1. The need of every cooperative group: one set of equipment and materials for the experiment according to SAW 13.4. G. TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITY I. Introduction (5 minutes) 1. Motivate the students by asking them whether they ever seen a wave or whether they can make waves on a rope. Demonstrate the making of wave according to SAW 13.4 by being helped by a student. 2. Inform the learning indicators. II. Core (30 minutes) 1. Explain that a certain wave, called mechanical wave, needs place to spread, called medium. If the wave spreads on a rope, its medium is the rope and all things on it, including the raffia fiber tied on the rope. 2. Ask the students to sit in cooperative arrangement, distribute the equipment and materials according to SAW 13.4, and then ask every group to do the work according to SAW 13.4. 3. Lead every group in doing the activity according to SAW 13.4. and using their cooperative skills. 4. Ask one or two students to present their works on the writing board and they are responded to by the other groups. The teacher make sure that all students have known the correct answer. The reference can be seen in SAW Guide 13.4. III. Closing (5 minutes) 1. Give a feedback and stress for the meaning of wave, examples of wave, and the motion of medium when the wave passes. 6

2.

Ask the students to read Student's Book: "Waves" at home. LESSON PLAN 13.5 Level of Education Subject Class/Semester Topic Sub-Topic Allocation of Time : : : : : : Junior High School Natural Science-Physics VIII/2 Vibration and Waves Vibration 2 X 45 minutes

A. BASIC COMPETENCE Students can plan and do the analysis of data in the experiment of vibration and waves. B. OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON Students can determine the characteristics of mechanical and electromagnetic waves. Students can analyze the connection between the spread velocity, frequency, and period of wave. C. INDICATORS Students can compare the characteristics of mechanical and electromagnetic waves. compare the characteristics of longitudinal and transversal waves. investigate the wavelength on a rope for transversal wave and slinky for longitudinal wave. do a simple quantitative analysis to find the spread velocity of wave : v =λ . f or v = λ / T. D. LEARNING MODEL 1. Cooperative 2. Direct E. SOURCE OF LEARNING 1. Chapter 13 in Student's Book: Vibration and Waves. 2. SAW 13.8: Mini-Lab 3.1. 3. Guide of SAW 13.8 (Special for Teacher). F. EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS 1. The need of every cooperative group: one set of equipment and materials of experiment according to SAW 13.8. G. TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITY I. Introduction (10 minutes) 1. Remind the students of the concept of wave, medium and the motion of medium. Motivate them by demonstrating the motion of wave on a rope, by the variation of fast and slow, great and small energies of motion of hands to show there are many certain characteristics of wave. 2. Inform the learning indicators. II. Core (65 minutes) 1. Explain the meaning and examples of wave, what wave carries by connecting with the activity that has been done by the students in the last meeting. 2. Explain the meaning and examples of mechanical and electromagnetic waves. 3. Ask the students to read Kinds of Wave, in Student's Book. 4. Draw the transversal wave, mark its peak and valley, and how to measure its amplitude and wavelength. 5. Ask the students to read Wave Frequency and Spread Velocity of Wave, in Student's Book. 6. Explain the connection between wave speed with frequency and wavelength. 7. Make a model for the solution of the example questions in Using Mathematics page 83 in Student's Book. 8. Ask the students to do the questions in Using Mathematics, in Student's Book.

7

9. Ask one or two students to present their answers on writing board and then they are responded to by the others. The answers of these questions are in Supplement 04. 10. Ask the students to sit in the cooperative arrangement, and to do it according to SAW 13.8 (Mini-Lab 13.1). 11. Lead every groups in doing and using their cooperative skills. 12. Ask one or two students to present the works of their group on the writing board and then they are responded to by the others. The reference for the teacher is in SAW Guide 13.8. III. Closing (5 minutes) 1. Lead the students in summarizing many important concepts in this lesson. 2. Ask the students to do SAW 13.5 Mathematics of a Wave at home as their home works.

Approval, Head Master

Bandung, 10 Augusts 2006 Science teacher’s,

Dra. Nina Rochana NIP. 130 810 607

Aries Triwidajati S.SPd NIP. 132 085 254

8

LESSON PLAN 13.6 Level of Education Subject Class/Semester Topic Sub-Topic Allocation of Time : : : : : : Junior High School Natural Science-Physics VIII/2 Vibration and Waves Vibration 1 X 45 minutes

A. BASIC COMPETENCE Students can plan and do the analysis of data in the experiment of vibration and waves. B. OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON Students can analysis the connection between the spread velocity, frequency and period of wave. C. INDICATORS Students can do the simple quantitative analysis to find the spread velocity of wave: v = λ . f or v = λ/T D. LEARNING MODEL 1. Cooperative (Pair Thinking and Sharing). E. SOURCE OF LEARNING 1. Chapter 13 of Student's Book: Vibration and Waves. 2. SAW 13.5: Mathematics of a Wave. 3. SAW Guide 13.5 (Special for the Teacher). F. EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS G. TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITY I. Introduction (10 minutes) 1. Remind the students of their homework (SAW 13.5 Mathematics of a Wave) and check whether they have done it. 2. Remind them of the concepts of wavelength, wave frequency, and wave speed. 3. inform the learning indicator. II. Core (30 minutes) 1. Ask the students to sit in pairs in the arrangement of cooperative pair thinking and sharing to discuss the answer to SAW 13.5 with their pairs. If there are differences in a pair, they are asked to discuss to find the correct answer. 2. The teacher asks every pair to present their answers, (one question for one pair), and then they are responded to by the others. If all students feel difficult in certain questions, the teacher presents his answer. The reference for the teacher is in the SAW Guide 13.5. III. Closing (5 minutes) 1. Give feedback and stress for the questions that are difficult to be learned by the students. 2. Ask them to do the Essence of The Sub-Chapter at home as their homework. Approval, Head Master Bandung, 10 Augusts 2006 Science teacher’s,

Dra. Nina Rochana

Aries Triwidajati S.SPd 9

NIP. 130 810 607

NIP. 132 085 254 LESSON PLAN 13.7

Level of Education Subject Class/Semester Topic Sub-Topic Allocation of Time

: : : : : :

Junior High School Natural Science-Physics VIII/2 Vibration and Waves Vibration 1 X 45 minutes

A. BASIC COMPETENCE Students can plan and do the analysis of data in the experiment of vibration and waves. B. OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON Students can do the experiment that waves can be reflected if they touched an obstacle wall. C. INDICATORS Student can • investigate the characteristics of waves reflected on the rope with the bound and free end. D. LEARNING MODEL 1. Cooperative. 2. Direct. E. SOURCE OF LEARNING 1. Chapter 13 in Student's Book: Vibration and Waves. 2. SAW 13.6: Reflection of Waves on a Rope. 3. SAW 13.6 Guide (Special for the Teacher). F. EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS 1. The need of equipment and materials for every pair is according to SAW 13.6. G. TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITY I. Introduction (10-minutes) 1. Ask the students to submit their homework that have been done at home (The Essence of The Sub-Chapter). 2. Remind them of the concept of waves. Ask them what happens if a wave touches a permanent obstacle. Motivate them by demonstrating the reflection of waves on a rope according to SAW 13.6. 3. Inform the indicator of learning. II. Core (65 minute) 1. Explain what must be done by the students according to the steps in SAW 13.6. 2. Ask the students to sit in cooperative arrangement, and then ask them to do work according to SAW 13.6. Remind them to apply the cooperative skills. 3. Lead each group in doing according to SAW 13.6, especially in doing the analysis. 4. Ask one or two students to present their works on the writing board and then they are responded to by the others. The reference for the teacher is in SAW Guide 13.6. The teacher makes sure all students have known the correct answers. 5. Interview the students about the concept in waves. 6. Still in cooperative arrangement, the students are asked to discuss the answers to the Essence of The Sub-Chapter. 7. Lead every pairs in discussing the answers to the Essence of The Sub-Chapter. 8. Ask every group to take turns in presenting the answer of their group, and then they are responded to by the others. 9. Give a praise for the group having good works.

10

III. Closing (5 minutes) 1. Lead the students in summarizing the important concepts in this lesson.

Approval, Head Master

Bandung, 10 Augusts 2006 Science teacher’s,

Dra. Nina Rochana NIP. 130 810 607

Aries Triwidajati S.SPd NIP. 132 085 254

11

LESSON PLAN 14.1 Level of Education Subject Class/Semester Topic Sub-Topic Allocation of Time I. : : : : : : Junior High School Natural Science-Physics VIII/2 Sounds The nature of sounds 2 X 45 minutes

STANDARD OF COMPETENCE To describe basics of vibration, wave, and optics and their application in everyday-life technological products. BASIC COMPETENCY To apply the concept of sound in everyday life.

II.

III. INDICATORS • To differentiate between infrasonic, ultrasonic, and audiosonic. • To explain characteristics of sound wave. IV. V. TEACHING MODEL The teaching model is inquiry LEARNING RESOURCE 1. Students' Textbook 2. SWS 14.1 Recognizing sound. 3. SWS 14.2 The cannon of sound 4. SWS Guide 14.1 5. SWS Guide 14.2 APPARATUS AND MATERIALS 1. Circular brass 2. Spoon 3. Sugar 4. Balloon 5. Rubberband 6. Baking pan 7. Carton tube or tin can 8. Candle VI. TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITY A. Introduction (10 minutes) 1 . Give motivation by doing the following activity. The teacher begins to ask a question; if a tube (similar to a drum) is hit, can a candle flame turn off? After the teacher received various student's answers, students are asked to observe teacher's demonstration of, hitting a drum that is directed to the candle flame. Then, students are invited to observe and their observation is presented in front of their classmates. Students are invited to find out explanations of various phenomena of sound by doing activities in SWS 14.1 and SWS 14.2. 2. The teacher states a basic competency and its indicators in this learning activities. B. Main activity (2 x 30 minutes) 1 . The teacher arranges students into groups of four or five for the experiment. 2. A set of SWS 14.1 and 14.2 is delivered to each group. Students are guided to some things that must be considered when they turn on a candle.

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3. Students are asked to do the activity collectively and write down their results on SWS. The teacher guides and assesses students' activities. 4. The teacher asks students to prepare tables for recording data in their' SWS. Periodically, students change their position as observer, data recorder, apparatus setter, and leader of group discussion. 5. The teacher guides students in discussing the results of their observation and gives directions to students to find out conclusions and answers of questions in SWS 14.1 and 14.2. Guidance of the conclusions and the answers is provided in SWS Guide 14.1 and 14.2. C. Closing remark (20 minutes) 1. Still in a group setting, the teacher gives emphasis on the concept that sound is a traveled energy. 2. To discuss again the motivating activities in the introduction so that students can find the explanations of the phenomena in the -activities. Furthermore, students are asked to apply their understanding by doing Think about It and Do It in the students' textbook.

Approval, Head Master

Bandung, 10 Augusts 2006 Science teacher’s,

Dra. Nina Rochana NIP. 130 810 607

Aries Triwidajati S.SPd NIP. 132 085 254

13

LESSON PLAN 14.2 Level of Education Subject Class/Semester Topic Sub-Topic Allocation of Time I. : : : : : : Junior High School Natural Science-Physics VIII/2 Sound Medium and reflection of sound 2 X 45 minutes

STANDARD OF COMPETENCE To describe basics of vibration, wave, and optics and their application iv everyday-life technological products. BASIC COMPETENCY To apply the concept of sound in everyday life.

II.

III. INDICATORS • To describe the medium of sound wave. • To give examples the usage and effect of sound reflection in everyday life. IV. V. TEACHING MODEL The teaching model is inquiry LEARNING RESOURCE 1. Students' Textbook 2. SWS 14.3 Medium of sound. 3. SWS 14.4 Sound reflection 4. SWS Guide 14.3 5. SWS Guide 14.4

VII. APPARATUS AND MATERIALS 1. Spoon 2. Wire 3. Rope 4. Metal bodies 5. Alarm clock 6. Carton/plastic tubes 7. Zinc reflector VII. TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITY A. Introduction (10 minutes) 1 . Give motivation by doing the following activity. The teacher begins to ask a question; can sound travel in a string? After the teacher received various student's answers, students are asked to demonstrate "a telephone call" using 2 plastics can connected by a cotton string. Then, the student who receives a message is asked to tell the message to his/her classmate. Students are invited to find out explanations of sound medium and reflection by doing activities in SWS 14.3 and SWS 14.4. 2. The teacher states a basic competency and its indicators in this learning activities. B. Main activity (2 x 30 minutes) 1 . The teacher arranges students into groups of four or five for the experiment. 2. A set of SWS 14.3 and 14.4 is delivered to each group. Students are guided to some things that must be considered when they use sharp metal bodies. 3. Students are asked to do the activity collectively and write down their results on SWS. The teacher guides and assesses students' activities. 14

4. The teacher asks students to prepare tables for recording data in their SWS. Periodically, students change their position as observer, data recorder, apparatus setter, and leader of group discussion. 5. The teacher guides students in discussing the results of their observation and gives directions to students to find out conclusions and answers of questions in SWS 14.3 and 14.4. Guidance of the conclusions and the answers is provided in SWS Guide 14.3 and 14.4. C. Closing remark (20 minutes) 1 . Still in a group setting, the teacher gives emphasis on the importance of propagation medium for sound. Furthermore, sound travels in different speed when its medium is different. 2. To discuss again principals of sound reflection and the usage of sound reflection in everyday life. Furthermore, students are asked to apply their understanding by doing Think about It and Do It in the students' textbook.

Approval, Head Master

Bandung, 10 Augusts 2006 Science teacher’s,

Dra. Nina Rochana NIP. 130 810 607

Aries Triwidajati S.SPd NIP. 132 085 254

15

LESSON PLAN 14.3 Level of Education Subject Class/Semester Topic Sub-Topic Allocation of Time I. : : : : : : Junior High School Natural Science-Physics VIII/2 Sound Resonance 2 X 45 minutes

STANDARD OF COMPETENCE To describe basics of vibration, wave, and optics and their application iv everyday-life technological products. BASIC COMPETENCY To apply the concept of sound in everyday life.

II.

III. INDICATORS • To show resonance in everyday life. • To show the usage of sound wave in everyday life. IV. V. TEACHING MODEL The teaching model is inquiry LEARNING RESOURCE 1. Students' Textbook 2. SWS 14.5 Resonance. 3. SWS Guide 14.5

VII. APPARATUS AND MATERIALS 1. Rubber band 2. Ruler 3. Plastics or bamboo tube that has two open ends VIII. TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITY A. Introduction (10 minutes) 1 . Give motivation by doing the following activity. The teacher begins to ask a question; why does a acoustic guitar has an air column? After the teacher received various student's answers, students are asked to observe teacher's demonstration of hitting a rubber sheet without tube and a rubber sheet covers one end of a tube (a drum). Then, students are asked to compare the loudness of the two instruments and their observation is presented in front of their classmates. Students are invited to find out explanations of resonance phenomena by doing activity in SWS 14.5. 2. The teacher states a basic competency and its indicators in this learning activities. B. Main activity (2 x 30 minutes) 1 . The teacher arranges students into groups of four or five for the experiment. 2. A set of SWS 14.5 is delivered to each group. Students are guided to some things that must be considered when they stretch a rubber band. 3. Students are asked to do the activity collectively and write down their results on SWS. The teacher guides and assesses students' activities. 4. The teacher asks students to prepare tables for recording data in their SWS. Periodically, students change their position as observer, data recorder, apparatus setter, and leader of group discussion. 5. The teacher guides students in discussing the results of their observation and gives directions to students to find out conclusions and answers of questions in SWS 14.5. Guidance of the conclusions and the answers is provided in SWS Guide 14.5.

16

C. Closing remark (20 minutes) 1. Still in a group setting, the teacher gives emphasis on the concept resonance. 2. To discuss again the motivating activities in the introduction so that students can find the explanations of the phenomena in the activities. Furthermore, students are asked to apply their understanding by doing Think about It and Do It in the students' textbook.

Approval, Head Master

Bandung, 10 Augusts 2006 Science teacher’s,

Dra. Nina Rochana NIP. 130 810 607

Aries Triwidajati S.SPd NIP. 132 085 254

17

LESSON PLAN 15.1 Level of Education Subject Class/Semester Main Topic Allocation of Time A. B. : : : : : Junior High School Natural Science-Physics VIII/2 Light travels in a straight and Reflection of Light 2 X 45 minutes

BASIC COMPETENCY To describe the characteristics of light and its relation with mirrors and lenses INDICATORS A student is able to • recognize that light is an electromagnetic wave and know its wave length and frequency range. • define a ray and give an example of evidence that light travels in a straight line • explain the work of a pinhole camera state the law of reflection • distinguish between diffuse and regular reflection MODEL OF LEARNING : Cooperative learning SOURCES: Student Book : 15. 1; worksheets: 15.1 a, and 15.1 b APPARATUS AND MATERIALS : candle, carton, box with lid, black paper, plane mirror, white paper, ray box, protractor, ruler, worksheet. TEACHING - LEARNING PROCESS Introduction: (5 minutes) • Ask students to tell what light is and how light travels? Main activity: (55 minutes) • Remind the students of essential concepts of light as electromagnetic wave. • Ask the student to read and find the key words or important ideas the subject of the phenomena of light. • Ask the students to take a seat and distributes Student's Worksheet 15.1: The pinhole camera • Ask every group to take their apparatus and materials for Activity 1: How does light travel? and worksheet 15.1: The pinhole camera • Guide the groups in doing their activities and observe them in order to gain the performance evaluation. • Evaluate the students' achievements by asking one or two groups to present their work. • Give them reward and feedback. Closing: 20 minutes • Give examples of doing some exercise and solving some problems • Summarize the concept • Give some homework

C. D. E. F.

Approval, Head Master

Bandung, 10 Augusts 2006 Science teacher’s,

Dra. Nina Rochana

Aries Triwidajati S.SPd

18

NIP. 130 810 607

NIP. 132 085 254 LESSON PLAN 15.2 : : : : : Junior High School Natural Science-Physics VIII/2 Refraction 2 X 45 minutes

Level of Education Subject Class/Semester Main Topic Allocation of Time A. B.

BASIC COMPETENCY To describe the characteristics of light and its relation with mirrors and lenses INDICATORS A student is able to • Define refraction and predict whether a ray will bend toward or away from the normal when light moves from one medium into another. • Relate the index of refraction of a medium to the speed of light in that medium. • Solve problems related to these two quantities ( index of refraction of a medium and speed of light) • Explain the total internal reflection and the critical angle. MODEL OF LEARNING : Inquiry SOURCES : Student Book 15.2 APPARATUS AND MATERIALS : ripple tank, a cup of water TEACHING - LEARNING PROCESS Introduction (5 minutes) • Demonstrating a phenomenon of refraction • Asking students to try explaining this phenomenon Main activity (30 Minutes) • Using a model concerning the speed of car if it moves on different surfaces to explain the phenomenon of refraction. • Discussing total internal reflection Closing, (5 minutes) • Summarizing the concept

C. D. E. F.

Approval, Head Master

Bandung, 10 Augusts 2006 Science teacher’s,

Dra. Nina Rochana NIP. 130 810 607

Aries Triwidajati S.SPd NIP. 132 085 254

19

LESSON PLAN 15.3 Level of Education Subject Class/Semester Main Topic Allocation of Time A. B. : : : : : Junior High School Natural Science-Physics VIII/2 Mirror 2 X 45 minutes

BASIC COMPETENCY To describe the characteristics of light and its relation with mirrors and lenses INDICATORS A student is able to • Recognize the characteristics of an image formed by a plane mirror • Distinguish between real and virtual images formed by a mirror • Locate the image by using a ray diagram • Design and implent activities to measure the focal length of a concave mirror • Find out the position of the image formed by a mirror using a formula relating on object and image distance. MODEL OF LEARNING : cooperative learning SOURCES : Student Books 15.2 and Student Worksheet: 15.3 APPARATUS AND MATERIALS : plane mirror, concave mirror, convex mirror, screen, luminous object TEACHING - LEARNING PROCESS : Introduction: (10 minutes) • Remind the students about the law of reflection. • Demonstrate a real image formed by a concave mirror • Ask the students to classify many kinds of mirrors which are available Main Activity. (50 minutes) • Asked the students to read and find the key words or the important ideas related to the subject about mirrors. • Group the students • Ask the students to take a seat in groups and distribute worksheet 15.2 about Focal Length. • Ask the students to discuss the characteristics of the image formed by a plane mirror and to do an activity with the worksheet about " Focal Length". • Guide the groups in their activity. • Evaluate the students' achievement by asking one or two groups to present their work. • Give them rewards and feedback. Closing: (20 minutes) • Give students examples of doing some exercises and solving some problems Summarize the concepts Give some homework Approval, Head Master Bandung, 10 Augusts 2006 Science teacher’s,

C. D. E. F.

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Dra. Nina Rochana NIP. 130 810 607

Aries Triwidajati S.SPd NIP. 132 085 254 LESSON PLAN 15.4 : : : : : Junior High School Natural Science-Physics VIII/2 Lens 2 X 45 minutes

Level of Education Subject Class/Semester Main Topic Allocation of Time A. B.

BASIC COMPETENCY To describe the characteristics of light and its relation with mirrors and lenses INDICATORS: A student is able to • Recognize the characteristics of an image formed by a lens • Distinguish between real and virtual images formed by a lens • Locate the image by using a ray diagram • Design and implent an activity to investigate the relation between image distance and object distance in a lens • Find out the position of the image formed by a lens using the formula relating object and image distance. MODEL OF LEARNING : cooperative learning SOURCES : Student Book: 15.3 Lenses and Student Worksheet: 15.4: Lens's Equation APPARATUS AND MATERIALS : Concave lens, convex lens, screen, luminous screen, ruler TEACHING - LEARNING PROCESS: Introduction: (10 minutes) • Remind the students about the phenomenon of refraction. • Demonstrate a real image formed by a convex lens. • Ask the students to classify many kinds of lens which are available Main Activity: (55 minutes) • Asked the students to read and find the key words or the important ideas related to the subject about lens. • Grouping the students • Ask the students to take a seat in groups and distribute Worksheet 15.3 about The relation between image and object distance. • Ask the student to discuss the characteristics of the image formed by a lens and to do an activity with the worksheet about " The relation between image and object distance". • Guide the groups in their activity. • Evaluate the students' achievement by asking one or two groups to present their work. • Give them rewards and feed back. Closing: (15 minutes) • Give students examples of doing some exercises and solving some problems • Summarize the concept • Give some homework Approval, Head Master Bandung, 10 Augusts 2006 Science teacher’s,

C. D. E. F.

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Dra. Nina Rochana NIP. 130 810 607

Aries Triwidajati S.SPd NIP. 132 085 254 LESSON PLAN 16.1

Level of Education Subject Class/Semester Main Topic Sub-Topic Allocation of Time I.

: : : : : :

Junior High School Natural Science-Physics VIII/2 Optical Instruments The Eye and the Camera 2 X 45 minutes

BASIC COMPETENCY The students are able to plan experiments and describe characteristics light in relation to optical instruments, especially the eyes and the camera. LEARNING OBJECTIVE The students are expected to understand optical instruments which use simple principles.

II.

III. INDICATORS The students can : • explain the function of eyes as optical instruments • describe the formation of image on the retina • explain several eye defects and the use of glasses • observe the characteristics of the camera as an optical instrument • explain the similarities and differences between the eyes and camera IV. LEARNING MODELS 1. Cooperative learning 2. Presentation and discussion LEARNING RESOURCES 1. Chapters 16.1 and 16.2 in Student's Book 2. Student's Worksheet 16.1: Making a pinhole camera.

V.

VI. MATERIALS 1. Visual aid about the eyeball 2. Visual aid about the camera 3. The materials to make a pinhole camera (see Student's Worksheet 16.1) VII. LEARNING PROCESSES A. Introduction (10 minutes) 1. To motivate the students, show the visual aids about the eyeball and the camera, and inform them that today they will make a pinhole camera. 2. Explain to the students the learning indicator. B. Core (70 minutes) 1. Remind the students of the essential concepts of the convex lens, concave lens, focal point, and focal length. 2. Present and discuss the parts and the work of the eye and the camera. 3. Ask the students to read and find the key words or important ideas from the two learning subjects (the eye and the camera)'. Give them the opportunity to closely see the eyeball and camera models in turn. 4. Ask the students to take a seat and distribute Student's Worksheet 16.1. 5. Ask every group to take the materials they have prepared for Activity 16.1 outside. 22

6. Guide the groups to do Student's Worksheet 16.1, starting from procedure 1 until procedure 4, and also discussion 1 and 2. To evaluate student achievement, ask one or two groups to present their work. Give them rewards and feedback. C. Closing (10 minutes) Give an opportunity to several students to see the candle on the screen of the pinhole camera.

Approval, Head Master

Bandung, 10 Augusts 2006 Science teacher’s,

Dra. Nina Rochana NIP. 130 810 607

Aries Triwidajati S.SPd NIP. 132 085 254

23

LESSON PLAN 16.2 Level of Education Subject Class/Semester Main Topic Sub-Topic Allocation of Time I. : : : : : Junior High School Natural Science-Physics VIII/2 Optical Instruments The Magnifying Glass, Microscope, telescope and Binocular : 2 X 45 minutes

BASIC COMPETENCY The students are able to plan experiments and describe the characteristics of light in relation to optical instruments, especially the magnifying glass, microscope, telescope and binocular. LEARNING OBJECTIVE The students are expected to understand optical instruments which use simple principles.

II.

III. INDICATORS The students can : • explain the functions of microscopes, telescopes, and binoculars as optical instruments • describe the formation of the image in microscopes, telescopes, and binoculars. • explain the similarities and the differences among the microscopes, telescopes and binoculars. • Observe the characteristics of microscopes, telescopes, and binoculars as optic instruments, IV. LEARNING MODELS 1. Cooperative learning 2. Presentation and discussion LEARNING RESOURCES 1. Chapters 16.3, 16.4, 16.5 and 16.6 in Student's Book 2. Student's Worksheet 16.2: Making a simple microscope 3. Student's Worksheet 16.3: Making a simple telescope 4. Student's Worksheet 16.4: Making a simple binocular

V.

VI. MATERIALS 1. Visual aid about a microscope 2. Visual aid about a telescope 3. Visual aid about a binocular 4. Materials for making a simple microscope, telescope, and binocular (see the Student's Worksheet 16.2, 16.3 and 16.4) VII. LEARNING PROCESSES A. Introduction (10 minutes) 1. To motivate the students, show the visual aids showing the microscope, telescope and binocular and inform them that today they will make models of the three optical instruments. 2. Explain to the students what the learning indicator is. B. Core (70 minutes) 1. Present and discuss the parts and the work of the magnifying glass, microscope, telescope, and binocular as optical instruments by using visual aids 2. In a cooperative learning arrangement, ask the students to take a seat and distribute Student’s Worksheet of 16.2, 16.3 and 16.4 to each group. 3. Guide the first group to doing procedure 1 until procedure 4, and also discussion 1 and 2 in Student’s Worksheet of 16.2. To evaluate the learning success, ask one or two groups to present their work. Give them rewards and feedback.

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4. Guide the first group to doing procedure 1 until procedure 4, and also discussion 1 and 2 Student’s Worksheet of 16.3. To evaluate the learning success, ask one or two groups present their work. Give them rewards and feedback. 5. Guide the first group to doing procedure 1 until procedure 4, and also discussion 1 and 2 Student’s Worksheet of 16.4. To evaluate the learning success, ask one or two groups present their work. Give them rewards and feedback.

in to in to

C. Closing (10 minutes) Give an opportunity to other students to see the simple microscope, telescope, and binocular they have made.

Approval, Head Master

Bandung, 10 Augusts 2006 Science teacher’s,

Dra. Nina Rochana NIP. 130 810 607

Aries Triwidajati S.SPd NIP. 132 085 254

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