People in contact with live food-producing animals[edit] Cases of MRSA have increased in livestock animals.

CC398 is a new variant of MRSA that has emerged in animals and is found in intensively reared production animals (primarily pigs, but also cattle and poultry), where it can be transmitted to humans. Though dangerous to humans, CC398 is often asymptomatic in food-producing animals.[15] A 2011 study reported 47% of the meat and poultry sold in surveyed U.S. grocery stores was contaminated with S. aureus and, of those, 52%—or 24.4% of the total—were resistant to at least three classes of antibiotics. "Now we need to determine what this means in terms of risk to the consumer," said Dr. Keim, a co-author of the paper.[16] Some samples of commercially sold meat products in Japan were also found to harbor MRSA strains.[17] Athletes[edit] In the United States, there have been increasing numbers of reports of outbreaks of MRSA colonization and infection through skin contact in locker rooms and gyms, even among healthy populations.[citation needed] A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine linked MRSA to the abrasions caused by artificial turf.[18] Three studies by the Texas State Department of Health found that the infection rate among football players was 16 times the national average. In October 2006, a high school football player was temporarily paralyzed from MRSA-infected turf burns. His infection returned in January 2007 and required three surgeries to remove infected tissue, as well as three weeks of hospital stay.[19] In 2013, Lawrence Tynes, Carl Nicks, and Johnthan Banks, all of the Tampa Bay Buccaneers were diagnosed with MRSA. Tynes and Nicks are not believed to have contracted the infection from each other, but it is unknown if Banks contracted it from either individual.[20] Children[edit] MRSA is also becoming a problem in pediatric settings,[21] including hospital nurseries.[22] A 2007 study found that 4.6% of patients in U.S. health care facilities were infected or colonized with MRSA.[23] MRSA is becoming a major health concern in children because they are more likely to exhibit minor scrapes, cuts, bruises, and bug bites than adults. Children as well as adults are at higher risk of getting MRSA who come in contact with day care centers, playgrounds, locker rooms, camps, dormitories, classrooms and other school settings, and gyms and workout facilities. Parents should be especially cautious of children who participate in activities where there is shared sports equipment such as football helmets and uniforms.[24] Diagnosis[edit]

since any delay in treating this type of infection can have fatal consequences. These techniques include quantitative PCR and are increasingly being employed in clinical laboratories for the rapid detection and identification of MRSA strains. Therefore.Mueller Hinton agar showing MRSA resistant to oxacillin disk Diagnostic microbiology laboratories and reference laboratories are key for identifying outbreaks of MRSA. initial treatment is often based upon 'strong suspicion' by the treating physician. and cultured in the lab in sufficient quantities to perform these confirmatory tests first. the bacterium generally must be cultured via blood.[25][26] . sputum. urine. or other body fluid cultures. Consequently. New rapid techniques for the identification and characterization of MRSA have been developed. This notwithstanding. there is no quick and easy method to diagnose a MRSA infection.

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