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1 Paul A.

Conant, 012667
Melissa A. Emmel, 023195
2 CONANT LAW FIRM, PLC
2398 East Camelback Road, Suite 925
3 Phoenix, Arizona 85016
Telephone: 602.508.9010
4 Facsimile: 602.508.9015
Email: docket@conantlawfiml.com
5
Blake H. Frye, Pro Hac Vice application to be filed
6 Julie Burke, Pro Hac Vice application to be filed
Jennifer Calvert, Pro Hac Vice application to be filed
7 HILL, KERTSCHER & WHARTON, LLP
3350 Riverwood Parkway, Suite 800
8 Atlanta, Georgia 30339
Telephone: 770.953.0995
9 Attomeys for plaintiff Pipeline Technologies, Inc., d/b/a Pipetech Intemational
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IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT
FOR THE DISTRICT OF ARIZONA
Pipeline Technologies, Inc., d/b/a Pipetech Case No.
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13 Intemationa1,
Plaintiff,
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vs.
15 Telog Instruments, Inc., and the Applied
Products Group, LLC,
16 : Defendants.
17 '
COMPLAINT
(Jury Trial Demanded)
COMPLAINT FOR PATENT INFRINGEMENT
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Plaintiff Pipeline Technologies, Inc. d/b/a Pipetech Intemationa1 ("Pipetech"), by and
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through its undersigned counsel, hereby files this Complaint for Patent Infringement, as
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follows:
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2 1.
THE PARTIES
Plaintiff Pipetech is an Arizona corporation with its principal place of business
3 in Carefree, Arizona. Pipetech manufactures and sells devices that measure pressure in
4 pipelines.
5 2. Defendant Telog Instruments, Inc. ("Te10g") is a New York corporation which
6 may be served pursuant to the Arizona long-arm statute, Ariz. R. Civ. P. 4.2(a), through its
7 Chief Executive Officer, Barry Ceci, at 830 Canning Parkway, Victor, New York 14564.
8 Among its business interests, Te10g manufactures and sells devices that measure pressure in
9 water pipelines. Telog is a direct competitor of Pipetech. Telog regularly sells its products
10 throughout the United States, including Arizona.
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3 . Defendant The Applied Products Group, LLC ("APG" and collectively with
Telog, "Defendants") is an Arizona limited liability company. APG may be served through
its registered agent, Ronald R. Clark, at 31550 N. 90
th
Street, Scottsdale, Arizona. APG is
Te1og's sales representative, selling Telog's products in Arizona, New Mexico and Southern
Nevada.
JURISDICTION AND VENUE
4. This is an action for patent infringement arising under the provisions of the
Patent Laws of the United States of America, Title 35, United States Code.
5. Subject-matter jurisdiction over Pipetech's claims is conferred upon this Court
by 28 U.S.C. 1331 (federal question jurisdiction) and 28 U.S.c. 1338(a) (patent
jurisdiction) .
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1 6. This Court has personal jurisdiction over Defendants because Defendants are
2 subject to general and specific jurisdiction in the State of Arizona. Defendants have had
3 substantial contacts with the forum that have been systematic and continuous such that
4 personal jurisdiction is appropriate. Defendant APG is authorized to do business in the
5 State of Arizona and regularly conducts such business. Defendant Telog, through its agent,
6 APG, sells andlor offers to sell products - namely pipeline pressure detection systems-
7 (including the infringing devices specified herein) -- that are and have been used, offered for
8 sale, sold andlor purchased in this judicial district. Defendants place their infringing devices
9 within the stream of commerce, which stream is directed at this State and this district.
10 Therefore, the exercise of personal jurisdiction over Defendants is reasonable and would not
11 offend traditional notions of fair play and substantial justice.
12 7. Venue is proper in this judicial district pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 1391(b) and
13 (c) and 1400(b).
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15 8.
COUNT I - INFRINGEMENT OF U.S. PATENT NO. 7,219,553
Pipetech reasserts and incorporates herein by reference the allegations of all
16 preceding paragraphs of this Complaint as if fully set forth herein.
17 9. On May 22, 2007, U.S. Patent No. 7,219,553 ("the '553 Patent"), a copy of
18 which is attached hereto as "Exhibit A," was duly and legally issued by the U. S. Patent and
19 Trademark Office ("USPTO"). Pipetech is the owner by assigmnent of all right, title and
20 interest in and to the '553 Patent, including all right to recover for any and all past
21 infringement thereof.
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1 10. Upon information and belief, Defendants Telog and APG have in the past and
2 continue to infringe, directly, indirectly, literally, under the doctrine of equivalents,
3 contributorily, andlor through the inducement of others, one or more of the claims of the
4 '553 Patent by making, using, importing, selling andlor offering to sell,in this judicial
5 district and elsewhere in the United States, devices which are covered by at least one claim
6 of the '553 Patent.
7 11. At a minimum, the Telog LPR-3li and the Telog HPR-3li, used, sold andlor
8 offered for sale by the Defendants, infringe one or more claims of the '553 Patent because
9 they include, among other things, a dynamic transient pressure sensor for installation in an
10 operating fluid chamber, a transmission system for transferring a signal indicating pressure
11 within the operating fluid chamber to a receiver, a clock or timer for recording
12 chronological time detection, a signal processor for receiving signals and recording data,
13 and a data management program for analyzing and displaying collected data, wherein the
14 signal processor records data samples showing dynamic transient pressures above a
15 threshold level to internal memory until pressure returns to a steady state or until the user
16 specifies.
17 12. As a consequence of Defendants' infringement of one or more claims of the
18 '553 Patent, Pipetech is entitled to recover past damages in the form of, at a minimum, a
19 reasonable royalty.
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13. As a consequence of Defendants' infringement of one or more claims of the
'553 Patent, Pipetech has sustained lost profits through lost andlor diminished sales of its
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1 own product(s). Specifically, Pipetech has sold and continues to sell the Pipetech TPI
2 Transient Pressure Monitoring System, which practices one or more claims of the '553
3 Patent that Defendants infringe. Pipetech properly marks its TP 1 Transient Pressure
4 Monitoring System with the '553 Patent in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 287. Pipetech has
5 sustained lost and/or diminished sales of the TPI Transient Pressure Monitoring System due
6 to Defendants' infringement. Therefore, Pipetech is entitled to recover past damages as
7 compensation for its lost profits.
8 14. Defendant Telog has continued to infringe one or more claims of the '553
9 Patent after Pipetech made Telog aware of the '553 Patent and Te10g had no reasonable
10 basis for reaching a good faith conclusion that its making, using or selling its devices
11 avoided infringing claims of the '553 Patent. Furthermore, upon infonnation and belief,
12 Te10g continued to infringe one or more claims of the '553 Patent despite an objectively
13 high likelihood that its actions constituted infringement of a valid patent. The objectively
14 high likelihood that its actions constituted infringement of a valid patent was either known
15 to Telog or was so obvious that it should have been known to Telog. Consequently, Telog's
16 infringement of one or more claims of the '553 Patent was willful and warrants an award of
17 increased damages pursuant to 35 U.S.C. 284.
18 15. Upon information and belief, Defendants will continue to infringe the '553
19 Patent unless enjoined by this Court.
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16. As a consequence of the infringement by Defendants complained of herein,
Pipetech has been irreparably damaged to an extent not yet determined and will continue to
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1 be irreparably damaged by such acts in the future unless Defendants are enjoined by this
2 Court from committing further acts of infringement. In the event the Court determines that
3 it will not enter injunctive relief, then it should require Defendants to continue to pay
4 royalties for their infringement of the '553 Patent on a going-forward basis.
5 COUNT II - INFRINGEMENT OF U.S. PATENT NO. 7,357,034
6 17. Pipetech reasserts and incorporates herein by reference the allegations of all
7 preceding paragraphs of this Complaint as if fully set forth herein.
8 18. On April 15, 2008, U.S. Patent No. 7,357,034 ("the '034 Patent"), a copy of
9 which is attached hereto as "Exhibit B," was duly and legally issued by the USPTO.
lO Pipetech is the owner by assigmnent of all right, title and interest in and to the '034 Patent,
11 including all right to recover for any and all past infringement thereof.
12 19. Upon information and belief, Defendant Telog has in the past and continues to
13 infringe, directly, indirectly, literally, under the doctrine of equivalents, contributorily,
14 and/or through the inducement of others, one or more of the claims of the '034 Patent.
15 20. With actual knowledge of the '034 Patent, Telog encouraged and/or instructed
16 its customers to perfonn a process with its devices including, at a minimum, the Telog LPR-
17 3li and the Telog HPR-3li, in a manner that it was aware directly infringed one or more
18 claims of the '034 Patent in this judicial district and elsewhere in the United States. Telog
19 encouraged and/or instructed its customers to perform a process with the Telog LPR-31i and
20 the Telog HPR-3li for detecting dynamic transient pressures in pipelines that included
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installing a dynamic pressure sensor in an operating fluid chamber, measuring fluid
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1 pressures in the operating fluid chamber, transmitting data sample infonnation from the
2 dynamic pressure sensor to a receiver and signal processor, recording data sample
3 infornlation at a predetermined interval, analyzing data samples with the signal processor,
4 identifying transient pressures in the operating fluid chamber, increasing data sampling rates
5 and/or data recording rates during transient detection until pressures reach steady state,
6. storing transient pressure data in internal memory, and analyzing and displaying collected
7 data alone or with other kinds of data from other sources, using a data management
8 program.
9 21. Telog knew or should have known that its acts would cause its customers to
10 infringe the '034 Patent, in tIns judicial district and elsewhere in the United States.
11 22. As a consequence of the infringement by Defendant Telog complained of
12 herein, Pipetech is entitled to recover past damages in the fonn of, at a mmllnum, a
13 reasonable royalty.
14 23. As a consequence of Defendant Telog's infringement of one or more claims of
15 the '034 Patent, Pipetech has sustained lost profits through lost and/or diminished sales of
16 its own products. Specifically, Pipetech has sold and continues to sell the Pipetech TP 1
17 Transient Pressure Monitoring System, which practices one or more claims of the '034
18 Patent that Defendant Telog infringes. Pipetech properly marks its TP 1 Transient Pressure
19 Monitoring System with the '034 Patent in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 287. Pipetech has
20 sustained lost and/or diminished sales of the TPI Transient Pressure Monitoring System due
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to Defendant's infringement. Therefore, Pipetech is entitled to recover past damages as
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1 compensation for its lost profits.
2 24. Defendant Telog has continued to infringe one or more claims of the '034
3 Patent after Pipetech made Telog aware of the '034 Patent and Telog had no reasonable
4 basis for reaching a good faith conclusion that its encouragement and/or instruction to its
5 customers regarding the performance of processes with its devices including, at a minimum,
6 the Telog LPR-3li and the Telog HPR-3li, avoided infringing claims of the '034 Patent.
7 Furthermore, upon information and belief, Telog continued to infringe one or more claims
8: of the '034 Patent despite an objectively high likelihood that its actions constituted
9 infringement of a valid patent. The objectively high likelihood that its actions constituted
10 infringement of a valid patent was either known to Telog or was so obvious that it should
11 have been known to Telog. Consequently, Telog's infringement of one or more claims of
12 the '034 Patent was willful and warrants an award of increased damages pursuant to 35
13 U.S.C. 284.
14 25. Upon infonnation and belief, Telog will continue to infringe the '034 Patent
15 unless enjoined by this Court.
16 26. As a consequence of Telog' s infringement complained of herein, Pipetech has
17 been irreparably damaged to an extent not yet determined and will continue to be irreparably
18 damaged by such acts in the future unless Telog is enjoined by this Court from committing
19 further acts of infringement. In the event the Court determines that it will not enter
20 injunctive relief, then it should require Telog to continue to pay royalties for its
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infringement on a going-forward basis.
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1
2 PRAYER FOR RELIEF
3 WHEREFORE, Pipetech prays for entry of judgment and an order that:
4 (1) Defendants have infringed one or more of the claims of the '553 Patent, either
5 literally andlor under the doctrine of equivalents;
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(2) Defendants account for and pay to Pipetech all damages, assessment of
interest, and costs of Pipetech caused by Defendants' infringement of one or more claims
of the '553 Patent;
(3) Pipetech be granted permanent injunctive relief pursuant to 35 U.S.C. 283
enJommg Defendants, their officers, agents, servants, employees, affiliates and those
persons in active concert of participation with them from further acts of patent infringement
of the '553 Patent;
(4) In the event the Court determines that it will not enter injunctive relief,
Defendants continue to pay royalties to Pipetech for its infringement of the '553 Patent on a
going-forward basis;
(5) Defendant Te10g has infringed one or more of the claims of the '034 Patent,
17 either literally, under the doctrine of equivalents and/or through the inducement of others;
18 (6) Defendant Telog account for and pay to Pipetech all damages, assessment of
19 interest, and costs of Pipetech caused by Defendant Telog's infringement of one or more
20 claims of the '034 Patent;
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(7) Pipetech be granted permanent injunctive relief pursuant to 35 U.S.c. 283
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1 enjoining Defendant Te1og, its officers, agents, servants, employees, affiliates and those
2 persons in active concert of participation with them from further acts of patent infringement
3 of the '034 Patent;
4 (8) Defendant Telog account for and pay for increased damages for willful
5 infringement under 35 U.S.C. 284;
6 (9) Costs and attorney's fees be awarded to Pipetech, as this is an exceptional case
7 under 35 U.S.C. 285; and,
8 (10) Pipetech be granted such further and additional relief as the Court may deem
9 just and proper under the circumstances.
10 DEMAND FOR JURY TRIAL
11 Pipetech demands trial by jury on all claims and issues so triable.
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RESPECTFULLY SUBMITTED this 15
th
day of October, 2013.
OF COUNSEL:
Blake H. Frye
Julie Burke
Jennifer Calvert
HILL, KERTSCHER & WHARTON,
LLP
3350 Riverwood Parkway, Suite 800
Atlanta, Georgia 30339
(770) 953-0995
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CONANT LAW FIRM, PLC
lsi Paul A. Conant
Paul A. Conant
Melissa Emmel
2398 East Camelback Road, Suite 925
Phoenix, Arizona 85016
(602) 508-9010
Attorneys for Plaintiff Pipetech
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CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE
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3 I hereby certify that on October 15, 2013, I electronically transmitted the attached
document to the Clerk's Office using the CM/ECF System for filing and electronic service.
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By: Kelly Naughton
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Exhibit A
(12) United States Patent
Worthington
(54) DYNAMIC TRANSIENT PRESSURE
DETECTION SYSTEM
(76) Inventor: Loren Worthington, 16246 N. 18th PI.,
Phoenix, AZ (US) 85022
( <1<) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the tenn of this
patent is extended or adjusted under 35
U.S.C. 154(b) by 6 days.
(21) Appl. No.: 10/927,120
(22) Filed: Aug. 27, 2004
Related U.S. Application Data
(60) Provisional application No. 60/501,846, filed on Sep.
11,2003.
(51) Int. CI.
GOIL 9/00 (2006.01)
(52) U.S. CI. ........................................................ 73/753
(58) Field of Classification Search .................. 73/753,
(56)
73/40.5 A, 40.5 R
See application file for complete search history.
References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
3,115,775 A "
3,851,52'1 A "
4,796,466 A
5,388,445 A "
5,506,791 A
5,708,195 A "
12/1963 Russell .................... 73/152.39
12/1974 Otten stein ................ 73/40.5 R
111989 Fmmer
2/1995 Walters et al. ........... 73/40.5 R
4/1996 Hungerford et aI.
1/1998 Kurisu et a!. ............ 73/40.5 R
Install Transient Pressure
Detection System 1
111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111I11
US007219553Bl
(10) Patent No.: US 7,219,553 Bl
May 22, 2007 (45) Date of Patent:
6,035,240 A .'
6,115,713 A .'
6,353,803 Bl
6,354,147 Bl
6,442,999 Bl <-
6,591,201 Bl
6,912,472 B2 '"
2004/0094227 AI"
2005/0007239 Al '"
2005/0179530 AI"
2005/0257598 AI"
2005/0265121 Al <I<
* cited by examiner
3/2000 Moorehead et aI. ... ........ 700/2
9/2000 Pascucci et al. .............. 707/10
3/2002 Degani
3/2002 Gysling et al.
9/2002 Baumoel ................. 73/40.5 A
7/2003 Hyde
612005 Mizushina et aI. .. ......... 702/51
5/2004 Few ............................ 141198
112005 Woodard el al. ........... 340/10.2
8/2005 Stewmt et aI ............... 340/447
11/2005 AlcoveITo et al. ........... 73/1.57
12/2005 Scott ........................... 367/20
Primary Examiner-Max Noori
(74) At/arney, Agent, or Firm-James Creighton Wray
(57) ABSTRACT
The present invention is a dynamic transient pressure detec-
tion system for detecting and recording variations in pres-
sure inside operating fluid chambers. One or more dynamic
pressure sensors are installed inside an operating fluid
chamber. Pressure is continuously measured and recorded
with a high degree of accuracy. Transients are detected and
data samples are stored and processed to locate the source of
the transients and to provide infonnation for preventing
transients during future operations. A clock or timer records
the chronological time of detection for each sample. The
clock or timer may be comlected to a Global Positiolling
System to assist in detennilling the source of transient
pressures.
21 Claims, 3 Drawing Sheets
U.S. Patent May 22, 2007 Sheet 1 of 3 US 7,219,553 Bl
Figure 1
1100
1000
900
800
700
-
's. 800
-
CI) 500
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4DO
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0- 300
200
100
....
.
I

I I
.
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0
I

..
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100
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Start of
ttansient
detected
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1
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:.:.:.:. .... , .. . ..

t
...
,
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Time (sec)
Actual pressure wave
Recorded pressure
End of
transient

.1 a:.
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..
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. .
.... . .. I
... .
.
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1 1.1 1.2
::::: Reconstructed pressure wave
u.s. Patent May 22, 2007 Sheet 2 of 3 US 7,219,553 B1
Figure 2
Establish Predetennined
Recording Interval and
Transient Pressure Parameters
j
~
Install Transient Pressure
j
Measure Fluid Pressure 3
Detection System 1
~ , l
Transmit Data to Receiver 5
~ ~
Recording Sample Data at
Predetermined Intervals 7
J ~
Identify Transient Pressures
I<
Analyze Data Samples 9
11
J ~
Increase Data Recording Rate
During Transient Detection
13
~ ~
Store Transient Data in
V
Internal Memory 15
J
,l
Analyze and Display Continue Measuring Pressure
Collected Data 17
:>
19
u.s. Patent May 22, 2007 Sheet 3 of 3 US 7,219,553 Bl
Figure 3
31 33 35 37 39
25 27 29 27 25
~ - ' ~ - ~ -
23 21 21 23
US 7,219,553 B1
1
DYNAMIC TRANSIENT PRESSURE
DETECTION SYSTEM
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pressure and pipelines are then designed on this assumption.
For example, transient pressures in water pipelines may be
assumed to be 40% above normal operating pressure.
Damage from transient pressures can be benign or cata- This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional
Application No. 60/501,846, filed Sep. 11,2003.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The measurement of pressure in pipelines and other
operating fluid chambers is very important to many indus-
trial applications, and in particular to gas, petroleum, sewage
and water utilities. Irregular pressures can cause catastrophic
effects to mechanical systems and result in large losses of
time and money.
5 strophic. Less serious effects include gradual spalling of the
inner surface of the pipe or damage to joint materials. In
concrete pressure pipe materials, the stress levels may result
in cracking of mortar on the exterior surface of the pipe,
leading to the eventual compromise of the protection of
10 prestressing. This damage, in tum, results in the introduction
of water and air to the steel and subsequent corrosion. The
corrosion, gradual fracture and deterioration can lead to
catastrophic rupture many years after the damaging events.
When rupture does occur, there will be no record of the
Generally, pressure pipelines are desigued with enough
structural strength to withstand both normal operating pres-
sures and transient pressures. Pressure transients occur
whenever there is a change in the flow rate in a pipeline and
can be significantly higher and/or lower than normal oper-
ating pressures. Causes of transient pressures include open-
ing or closing a valve, starting or stopping a pump, or
operation of an air relief valve.
15 source of the problem. Alternatively, the most severe tran-
sient events may cause movement of a pipe or an immediate
catastrophic rupture. Damage is most severe in thin-walled
pipes, lined pipes and concrete cylinder pipes.
Most of the country's infrastnlcture is aging and there are
20 limited funds for replacement. Unpredictable pressure tran-
sients can have a severe effect on these systems. The
resultant distress from transient pressures accumulates over
time, causing a rupture long after the damaging transient Under normal circumstances, transient pressures are pre-
dictable and readily accommodated by pipeline design. For
example, main line butterfly valves are desigued to close 25
over a period of minutes to minimize transient pressures.
Pmnp motors are desigued to start against a closed valve and
the valve gradually opens to minimize transient pressures.
The presence of air pockets has a number of potentially
adverse effects on the operation of a pipeline, including the 30
aggravation of transient pressures. Therefore, air valves are
included in pipeline design to discharge accumulated air
pockets to minimize this problem.
Other instances of transient pressures are more difficult to
predict accurately and, thus, they are not included in pipeline 35
design. For example, a sudden power outage in a pumped
pipeline system causes an abrupt cessation of flow in the
pipeline and a large transient pressure. This is a predictable
transient, although it is very difficult to analyze and design
a system to deal with this type of transient. In a worse case 40
scenario, a power loss causes cavitation in the water colunm
and an extremely high pressure over a short duration. The
presence of air pockets in the pipeline aggravates this
problem by increasing the chances of cavitation, water
colunm separation and damaging pressures. Water column 45
separation results with the appearance of negative pressures
in certain reaches of a water main. Pressures drop to water
vapor pressure, causing vapor pockets. When the inertia of
the water colunlll is overcome, the direction of flow
reverses, causing the vapor pockets to collapse and the 50
separated colunms to rejoin. Extremely high, destructive
pressures result.
Another example of problematic transients is the rupture
of a pipeline causing flow rates far in excess of design
velocities. Attempts to close butterfly or similar valves can 55
result in catastrophic structural failure of the valve. Pres-
sures of this magnitude are not anticipated by pipeline
design.
Hydraulic transient analysis procedures do exist, how-
ever, transient pressure prediction is a complex procedure 60
requiring digital modeling of specific pipeline configura-
tions, operating procedures and expected flow consider-
ations. Considerable judgment and experience is needed to
model a pipeline operation and accurately anticipate those
conditions that will result in the highest transient pressures. 65
Frequently, pipeline desigu simply predicts that transient
pressures will be a fixed percentage above nonna! operating
occurs.
Current systems for detection of transient pressures are
not adequate to measure and record severe transient pres-
sures. Current analog pressure measurement systems con-
tinuously record pressure at a constant rate. This rate is
established to present the data in the timeframe and format
required by the user, but the fixed rate does not have the
flexibility to present detailed data concerning sharp transient
pressures when these transient pressures are detected. Cur-
rent digital pressure measurement systems measure and
record pressure data at a predetennined, fixed interval. The
interval may be set permanently into the system, or it may
be user adjustable. For instance, the interval may be once per
day, once per hour, or even once per minute in the most
rigorous pressure measurement systems. However, some of
the most severe transients will have a duration of less than
one second, and will not be accurately measured by set-
interval data recording systems. Existing systems cannot, in
a practical way, measure and record the most severe, unpre-
dictable transients.
Needs exist for improved and practical methods for
detecting and accurately recording transient pressures in
pipelines and other operating fluid chambers.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention is a dynamic transient pressure
detection system for detecting variations of pressure inside
operating fluid chambers. Pressure is continuously measured
and recorded with a high degree of accuracy. Transients are
detected and data samples are stored and processed to locate
the source of the transients and to provide information for
preventing transients during future operations.
The dynamic transient pressure detection system of the
present invention includes a dynamic pressure sensor
installed in an operating fluid chmllber. The operating fluid
chamber can be a pipeline or any other equipment with
enclosed fluids. The dynamic pressure sensor continuously
measures the pressure and time of sampling without operator
interface. A transmission system transfers a signal from tlle
dynamic pressure sensor to a receiver. The sigual indicates
pressure within the operating fluid chamber. For each signal,
a clock or timer records chronological time of each mea-
surement signal detection. The clock or timer may be a
US 7,219,553 B1
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Global Positioning System receiver for obtaining and send-
ing geographic location of the instrument and time of
detection to a signal processor. Time is measured to the
required accuracy, and may be as high as approximately
microsecond accuracy. A signal processor receives signals,
converts signals if needed and records data. A data manage-
ment program then analyzes the collected data and displays
results.
4
identification system, unknown or illegal points of diversion
of fluid from the pipeline or chamber may be identified.
Data sampling rates can vary widely depending on the use
and are set by an operator using the principles of physics and
digital data processing; however, multiple samples per sec-
ond are nonnally taken by the system. The High Sample
Rate data may be, but is not limited to, thousands of samples
per second. Under steady pressure conditions, most of these
data samples are analyzed, erased and not permanently
During operation of the dynamic transient pressure detec-
tion system, the signal processor records single data samples
at a predetennined periodic interval. The signal processor
records any variation in pressure above a set threshold level
within internal memory until pressure measurements again
returns to a steady state.
10 recorded. lithe user desires, data samples in steady pressure
conditions may be recorded at rates including, but not
limited to, once per day.
Effectiveness of the present invention is improved with
the installation of more than one dynamic pressure sensors
The present invention is also a method for detecting
dynamic transient pressures. The first step in the process is
to install a dynamic pressure sensor in an operating fluid
chamber. The sensor then measures fluid pressures in the
operating fluid chamber and transmits data sample informa-
tion to a receiver. Data sample information is taken, though
not necessarily permanently recorded, at a predetermined
interval that is sufficient to adequately define the most severe
transient pressures. This sample rate will be referred to as the
High Sample Rate. Once the data sample information is at
15 in an operating fluid chamber. The use of multiple dynamic
pressure sensors allows for the identification of the source of
a pressure transient using two or more dynamic pressure
sensors. Data may be analyzed from one or multiple test
sites simultaneously. Each dynamic pressure sensor has the
20 ability to transmit data to a central signal processor. Back-
ground noise levels are determined from sensor data and
background infomlation may be removed from the pressure
data in a data management step or any other stage ofthe data
collection and analysis.
The source of transient pressures may be detennined from
the time of detection and other data characteristics. The
dynanuc transient pressure detection system differs from
existing systems in its ability to identify and accurately
record transient pressures based on user-defined parameters.
the receiver, a signal processor analyzes the information and 25
identifies transient pressures in the operating fluid chamber.
When a transient pressure is detected, data sampling rates
andlor data recording rates are increased up to the High
Sample Rate until pressures reach steady state. Transient
pressure data is stored in intemal memory. The collected
data is analyzed with a data management program, and the
results are displayed to the user.
30 During transient pressure detection, data sampling rates
remain constant, however, all of the data samples are
recorded, which has the effect of increasing the data record-
ing frequency. Measurements of pressure, taken at up to
thousands of times per second or more, are permanently
In order to accurately identify transient pressures, either
the user or the system must define transient pressure param-
eters. The definition of transient pressure paranleters may
include the definition of an absolute threshold of pressure
change for the operating fluid chamber. The definition of
transient pressure parameters may include a statistical depar-
ture from the steady state pressure. The background, steady 40
state pressure data is generally stored periodically at a
second, lower sampling rate. The operator can adjust the
data sample recording frequencies as needed for a particular
application. When the sensors record a pressure measure-
ment that, when compared to the steady state pressure, is 45
outside the set pressure threshold, the pressure data is
temporarily stored in a buffer at the High Sample Rate. The
data taken at the High Sample Rate are recorded in intemal
memory during a transient condition. High frequency data
recording continues until the pressure in the operating fluid 50
chamber retums to a steady state value or the user specifies
35 recorded to depict the pressure throughout the transient
condition.
a return to normal recording rates. When a measurement is
outside the pressure threshold, the data is permanently
stored in the buffer and the second sampling or recording
rate is increased to the High Sample Rate. The pressure data 55
is pennanently stored in the buffer at the High Sample Rate.
Times of detection andlorposition of the sensor are recorded
and sent with the temporarily and permanently stored and
recorded data. A time andlor position receiver may be
installed with the sensor for receiving and sending time and 60
position signals with the pressure signals. Potential infor-
mation may be transmitted from the sensor.
In a preferred embodiment, when a threshold of pressure
representing hazards to persons or structures is reached, an
alann is transmitted to alert a user when this threshold is 65
reached or exceeded. Additionally, the system may be used
to locate and identify the source of the transient. Using tlus
The remote signal processor located at each test site
receives data samples from one or more sensors and per-
forms the function of identifying the presence of transient
pressure conditions. Data received from the sensor is tem-
porarily stored, in a buffer or otherwise, for a predetermined
period. Background noise levels are established and the
statistical characteristics of the samples are continuously
updated. The signal processor analyzes the data and displays
output for the operator. The signal processor includes a data
management program for analyzing, storing and displaying
the data collected from one or more sensors. Using more
than one sensor allows the operator to detect the source of
a transient pressure in two or three-dimensions.
Results of testing by the invention may be transmitted and
displayed to the user in tabular form, grapluc fonn, elec-
tronic fonn, internet web site displays, or other format to
permit review and analysis by the user.
These and further and other objects and features of the
invention are apparent in the disclosure, which includes the
above and ongoing written specification, with the claims and
the drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 is a graph of pressure versus time showing the
dynanuc transient pressure detection method.
FIG. 2 is a flowchart of the stages of transient pressure
detection.
FIG. 3 is a diagram of a dynamic transient pressure
detection system.
US 7,219,553 B1
5
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF TIIE
PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
The present invention is a dynamic transient pressure
detection system for detecting and recording variations in
pressure inside operating fluid chambers. One or more
dynamic pressure sensors are installed inside an operating
fluid chamber. Pressure is continuously measured and
recorded with a high degree of accuracy. Transients are
detected and data samples are stored and processed to locate 10
the source of the transients and to provide information for
preventing transients during future operations. A clock or
timer records the chronological time of detection for each
sanlple. The clock or timer may be connected to a Global
Positioning System or other accurate chronometers to assist 15
in determining the source of transient pressures.
The dynamic transient pressure detection system of the
present invention includes a dynamic pressure sensor
installed in an operating fluid chamber. The operating fluid
chamber can be a pipeline or any other equipment with 20
enclosed fluids. The dynamic pressure sensor continuously
records the background pressure and time of sampling. Data
sampling rates can vary widely depending on the use and are
set by an operator. Background data samples are recorded at
rates from about once per second to about once per day, 25
depending on the user's needs. Data are recorded in a
temporary buffer for a predetennined amount of time or in
permanent internal memory.
The dynamic transient pressure detection system identi-
fies transient pressures based on user-defined parameters. 30
During transient pressure detection, data sampling rates
remain constant, however, the data are all recorded in
permanent storage. Measurements are taken and recorded at
up to thousands of times per second or more. TIle operator
can also set higher frequencies if needed for a particular 35
application. The data collected during these high sampling
rates are analyzed in order to find rapid pressure changes that
indicate transient pressures. When a transient pressure is
detected, the higher data sampling rate information is
recorded in pennanent, internal memory. High frequency 40
data detection and recordation continues until the pressure in
the operating fluid chamber returns to a steady state value or
as long as the operator desires.
6
all data in the buffer to be recorded in internal memory. The
recordation of data into the internal memory continues until
pressure has retlmled to a steady state or as long as the
operator wishes. At that time, normal data recordation
reSlUnes.
The signal processor analyzes the data and displays output
for the operator. The signal processor includes a data man-
agement program for processing, analyzing and displaying
the data, collected from one or more sensors. Using more
than one sensor allows the signal processor to detect the
source of a transient pressure in two or three-dimensions.
The determination of the point of origin of a transient in
one-dimension is based on the following formula:
where:
XI = V(TI- 72) +L
2
Xl is the distance from test site 1
V is the velocity of the energy wave in the fluid medium
T1 is the time of detection at test site 1
T2 is the time of detection at test site 2
L is the distance between the sensors
TIus formula ignores the velocity of the fluid. If desired,
the formula can be modified to take into account the fluid
velocity.
FIG. 1 shows a graph of pressure versus time for a
hypothetical measurement scenario. The pressure is at
steady state from time 0 sec to 0.3 sec. Sampling occurs
every 0.01 seconds, however, it is recorded every 0.1
seconds. In other words, 9 out of every 10 data samples are
not permanently recorded. The begimung of a transient is
detected at about 0.5 seconds and all samples are perma-
nently recorded until the end of the transient at about 1.0
second. At this time, tlle pressure has regained steady state
and the sample recording rate is lowered to levels equal to
tllOse before the transient detection.
FIG. 2 is a flowchart oftlle present method for detecting
and analyzing transient pressures. Initially, one or more
dynanuc pressure sensors are installed 1 in an operating fluid
chamber or pipeline. These sensors continuously measure 3
fluid pressures and transmit 5 data sample information to a
receiver. Recording 7 is performed at a predetermined
interval. Samples are then analyzed 9 to determine if tran-
sient pressures exist. If a transient pressure is detected 11,
the rate of data sampling and/or data recording rates are
increased 13. This continues until pressures reach a steady
state. Transient pressure data is stored in internal memory
15. TIus data is then analyzed and displayed 17 using a data
management program. Once normal pressures are resumed,
or if no transient pressures are detected, the dynamic tran-
sient pressure detection system of the present invention
Multiple dynamic pressure sensors can be installed on an
operating fluid chamber. With mUltiple sensors, it is possible 45
to accurately identifY the source of a transient pressure. Two
sensors can locate the source of a transient pressure in
one-dimension. Combining three or more sensors allows the
operator to pinpoint the source of a transient in two or
three-dimensions. Each dynamic pressure sensor has the 50
ability to transmit data to a central signal processor for
analysis. Each sensor transmits a calibrated signal indicating
pressure within an operating fluid chamber. Individual sen-
sors are synchronized using a precision timer or other
synchronization mechanism.
55 continues measuring pressure at a predetenllined rate.
Additionally, each dynamic pressure sensor has a clock or
timer to record the chronological time of detection for each
sample. The clock or timer may be a Global Positioning
System receiver that obtains the geographic location of the
instrument and time of detection. Time is measured to 60
millisecond accuracy, or greater.
The central signal processor receives data samples from
one or more sensors. Data received from the sensor is
temporarily stored in a buffer for a predetermined period.
Background noise levels are established and the statistical 65
characteristics of the samples are continuously updated. Any
variation in pressure above a user-set threshold level causes
FIG. 3 shows a dual sensor configuration for a dynamic
transient pressure detection system. The system starts with
one or more segments of pipeline 21 with pressure sensors
23 installed. Each sensor 23 has a means of transmitting
information 25. The transmission means 25 can be wire,
fiber, wireless, or other method; and the data format can be
digital, analog, or other. Data is transmitted in real time, or
as information batches, depending on the needs of the user.
The transmission 27 from the sensors 23 to a corresponding
receiver 29 on a receiving device 31 transfers data about the
conditions in the fluid chamber 21. The receiving device 31
includes a clock or tinIer 33 for recording chronological time
US 7,219,553 B1
7
detection. The receiving device 31 is then connected 35 to a
signal processor 37 that receives the signals and recorded
data. A data management system 39 within the signal
processor 37 analyzes and displays the collected data.
8
10. The detection system of claim 1, wherein the operat-
ing fluid chamber is a pipeline and wherein the transmission
system is wireless.
11. The detection system of claim 1, wherein the dynamic
pressure sensor contains a predetermined threshold of pres-
sure representing hazards to persons or structures.
While the invention has been described with reference to
specific embodiments, modifications and variations of the
invention may be constrncted without departing from the
scope of the invention, which is defined in the following
claims.
The invention claimed is:
12. The detection system of claim 1, wherein the trans-
mission receiver, clock or timer and signal processor are an
10 integrated unit.
1. A dynamic transient pressure detection system com-
prising:
a dynamic transient pressure sensor installed in an oper-
ating fluid chamber,
a transmission system for transferring a signal indicating 15
pressure within the operating fluid chamber to a
receiver,
a clock or timer for recording chronological time detec-
tion,
a signal processor for receiving signals and recording 20
data, and
a data management program for analyzing and displaying
collected data, wherein the signal processor records
data samples showing dynamic transient pressures
above a threshold level to internal memory until pres- 25
sure returus to a steady state or until the user specifies.
2. The detection system of claim 1, wherein the dynamic
transient pressure sensor operates continuously without
operator interface.
3. The detection system of claim 1, wherein the dynamic 30
transient pressure sensor records an analog signal.
13. The detection system of claim 1, wherein the clock or
timer is a Global Positioning System receiver for obtaining
and sending geographic location of the instrument and time
of detection to a signal processor.
14. The detection system of claim 1, wherein at steady
state the signal processor records single data samples in a
temporary buffer, wherein at steady state the signal proces-
sor discards unnecessary data and wherein at steady state the
signal processor records single data samples, or a periodic
average of data samples, in a permanent buffer at a prede-
termined periodic interval and wherein the predetermined
period interval is user or system defined.
15. The transient pressure detection system of claim 1
fbrther comprising means to enter and store transient pres-
sure parameters and transient pressure data.
16. The transient pressure detection system of claim 15
further comprising means to compare sample data to tran-
sient pressure parameters to identifY transient pressures.
17. The transient pressure detection system of claim 16
wherein the system increases the data sampling rates and the
data recording rates during transient detection. 4. The detection system of claim 3, wherein the signal
processor converts the analog signal to digital.
5. The detection system of claim 1, wherein the dynamic
transient pressure sensor records a digital signal.
6. The detection system of claim 1, further comprising
additional dynamic transient pressure sensors installed in the
operating fluid chamber.
18. The transient pressure detection system of claim 17
further comprising means to analyze and display collected
35 data, and returu data sampling rates and data recording rates
to predetennined rates when sample data returus to non-
transient pressure parameters.
7. The detection system of claim 6, wherein a source of a
dynamic transient pressure is detenllined from the additional 40
dynamic pressure sensors.
8. The detection system of claim 1, wherein data from the
dynamic transient pressure sensor identifies the source of a
transient pressure.
9. The detection system of claim 8, wherein the source of 45
a dynamic transient pressure is identified as a point of
diversion of fluid from the operating fluid chamber, and
wherein unknown or illegal diversions are identified.
19. The detection system of claim 11, wherein an alanll is
transmitted to a user when the threshold pressure is reached
or exceeded.
20. The detection system of c1aiml, wherein background
noise is removed from the signals at the signal processor.
21. The detection system of claim 1, wherein background
noise levels are determined from dynanlic pressure sensor
data.
* * * * *
Exhibit B
(12) United States Patent
Worthington
(54) DYNAMIC TRANSIENT PRESSURE
DETECTION SYSTEM
(76) Inventor: Loren Worthington, 16246 N. 18th PI.,
Phoenix, AZ (US) 85022
(") Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the te= of this
patent is extended or adjusted under 35
U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days.
(21) Appl. No.: 11/641,686
(22) Filed: Dec. 20, 2006
Related U.S. Application Data
(62) Division of application No. 101927,120, filed on Aug.
27, 2004, now Pat. No. 7,219,553.
(60) Provisional application No. 60/501,846, filed on Sep.
11,2003.
(51) Int. CI.
GOIL 9/00 (2006.01)
(52) U.S. CI. ........................................................ 73/753
(58) Field of Classification Search ................... 73/753
See application file for complete search history.
(56) References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
4,772,388 A * 9/1988 Allington ................. 210/198.2
11I111 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
US007357034Bl
(10) Patent No.: US 7,357,034 Bl
Apr. 15, 2008 (45) Date of Patent:
5,154,152 A .. 10/1992 Yamane et al .............. 123/492
5,337,750 A '" 8/1994 Walloch ..................... 600/493
6,567,709 Bl" 5/2003 Maim et aI ................... 700/21
6,865,472 B2" 3/2005 Nakamura .................. 7011108
7,219,553 Bl" 5/2007 Worthington ................ 73/753
* cited by examiner
Primary Examiner-Max Noori
(74) Attomey, Agent, or Firm-James Creighton Wray;
Clifford D. Hyra
(57) ABSTRACT
The present invention is a dynamic transient pressure detec-
tion system for detecting and recording variations in pres-
sure inside operating fluid chambers. One or more dynamic
pressure sensors are installed insi de an operating fluid
chamber. Pressure is continuously measured and recorded
with a high degree of accuracy. Transients are detected and
data samples are stored and processed to locate the source of
the transients and to provide info=ation for preventing
transients during future operations. A clock or timer records
the chronological time of detection for each sample. The
clock or timer may be connected to a Global Positioning
System to assist in dete=ining the source of transient
pressures.
18 Claims, 3 Drawing Sheets
1100 1-'-T-r-r-lTIllmmmrrrrnrmrnrmn1TIlTmrrrr-'-Tl
1000
900
800
700
1il 600
E:
0.
1 :
300
200
100 ............. .
o ~ { : ~ f ~ : ~
.. 100 ..... '.
Start or
transient
....... ~ ~
~ ~ t ~ ~ i t ~ ~ : : J
Entlor
trnoslenl
1/
6teG1ed
o 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
1.1 1.2
Time (sec)
Actual pnlssu,e wave
Recorded prenure
::::: Reconstructed pressure wave
u.s. Patent Apr. 15, 2008 Sheet 1 of 3 US 7,357,034 Bl
Figure 1

1000
900
800
700
600
S

= 400 Start of
! transient
Q. 300 detected
: ... " \ I
O
...............
. .. . .. [ .. -: 'r .... IIiI r .
:.:.:.: :.:.:.:- .:.:.: .. :.:.:. :.:.:.:
-100
o 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Time (sec)
Actual pnlssure wave
Recorded pressure
End or
transient
Ir
ea
..
1/
e.' rill .
. ... :.:.:.: :.:-
. . .. ... ..
'. III
" :. e"
. .. . .....
... , . . .. ..
1.1 1.2
::::: Reconstructed pressure wave
u.s. Patent Apr. 15, 2008 Sheet 2 of 3 US 7,357,034 Bl
Figure 2
Establish Predetermined
Recording Interval and
Transient Pressure Parameters
. J ~
Install Transient Pressure Measure Fluid Pressure 3
I
Detection System 1
.Jt
Transmit Data to Receiver 5
.Jt
Recording Sample Data at
Predetermined Intervals 7
Jt
Identify Transient Pressures
I
Analyze Data Samples 9
I
11
I
j
1-
Increase Data Recording Rate
During Transient Detection
13
~ ~
Store Transient Data in
V
Internal Memory 15
J . ~
Analyze and Display Continue Measuring Pressure
Collected Data 17 19
u.s. Patent Apr. 15, 2008 Sheet 3 of 3 US 7,357,034 BI
Figure 3
31 33 35 37 39
25 27 27 25
~ _ , ' - - - - - T - - - - - I ~ _
23 21 21 23
US 7,357,034 Bl
1
DYNAMIC TRANSIENT PRESSURE
DETECTION SYSTEM
2
that will result in the highest transient pressures. Frequently,
pipeline design simply predicts iliat transient pressures will
be a fixed percentage above normal operating pressure and
pipelines are then designed on this assumption. For example, 1bis application is a division of application Ser. No.
10/927,120 filed Aug. 27, 2004 now U.S. Pat. No. 7,219,
553.
5 transient pressures in water pipelines may be assumed to be
40% above normal operating pressure.
1bis application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional
Application No. 60/501,846, filed Sep. 11,2003.
Damage from transient pressures can be benign or cata-
strophic. Less serious effects include gradual spalling of the
imler surface of the pipe or damage to joint materials. In
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The measurement of pressure in pipelines and other
operating fluid chambers is very important to many indus-
trial applications, and in particular to gas, petroleum, sewage
and water utilities. Irregular pressures can cause catastrophic
effects to mechanical systems and result in large losses of
time and money.
10 concrete pressure pipe materials, the stress levels may result
in cracking of mortar on ilie exterior surface of ilie pipe,
leading to the eventual compromise of the protection of
prestressing. This damage, in tum, results in the introduction
of water and air to ilie steel and subsequent corrosion. The
Generally, pressure pipelines are designed with enough
structural strength to withstand both no=al operating pres-
sures and transient pressures. Pressure transients occur
whenever there is a change in the flow rate in a pipeline and
can be significantly higher andlor lower than no=al oper-
ating pressures. Causes of transient pressures include open-
ing or closing a valve, starting or stopping a pump, or
operation of an air relief valve.
15 corrosion, gradual fracture and deterioration can lead to
catastrophic rupture many years after the damaging events.
When rupture does occur, there will be no record of the
source of the problem. Alternatively, the most severe tran-
sient events may cause movement of a pipe or an il1ll1lediate
20 catastrophic rupture. Damage is most severe in thin-walled
pipes, lined pipes and concrete cylinder pipes.
Most of the cOlmtry's infrastructure is aging and there are
limited funds for replacement. Unpredictable pressure tran-
sients can have a severe effect on these systems. The
25 resultant distress from transient pressures accumulates over
time, causing a rupture long after the damaging transient Under normal circumstances, transient pressures are pre-
dictable and readily acco=odated by pipeline design. For
example, main line butterfly valves are designed to close
over a period of minutes to minimize transient pressures.
Pump motors are designed to start against a closed valve and 30
the valve gradually opens to minimize transient pressures.
TIle presence of air pockets has a number of potentially
adverse effects on the operation of a pipeline, including the
aggravation of transient pressures. Therefore, air valves are
included in pipeline design to discharge accumulated air 35
pockets to minimize this problem.
Oilier instances of transient pressures are more difficult to
predict accurately and, thus, they are not included in pipeline
design, for example, a sudden power outage in a pumped
pipeline system causes an abrupt cessation of flow in the 40
pipeline and a large transient pressure. This is a predictable
transient, although it is very difficult to analyze and design
a system to deal wiili tills type of transient. In a worse case
scenario, a power loss causes cavitation in the water colunm
and an extremely high pressure over a short duration. The 45
presence of air pockets in the pipeline aggravates this
problem by increasing the chances of cavitation, water
colunm separation and damaging pressures. Water colunm
separation results wiili the appearance of negative pressures
occurs.
Current systems for detection of transient pressures are
not adequate to measure and record severe transient pres-
sures. Current analog pressure measurement systems con-
tinuously record pressure at a constant rate. This rate is
established to present the data in the timeframe and fo=at
required by ilie user, but ilie fixed rate does not have the
flexibility to present detailed data concerning sharp transient
pressures when these transient pressures are detected. Cur-
rent digital pressure measurement systems measure and
record pressure data at a predetermined, fixed interval. The
interval may be set pe=anently into the system, or it may
be user adjustable. For instance, the interval may be once per
day, once per hour, or even once per minute in the most
rigorous pressure measurement systems. However, some of
ilie most severe transients will have a duration of less ilian
one second, and will not be accurately measured by set-
interval data recording systems. Existing systems camlOt, in
a practical way, measure and record the most severe, lmpre-
dictable transients.
Needs exist for improved and practical methods for
detecting and accurately recording transient pressures in
pipelines and oilier operating fluid chambers.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention is a dynamic transient pressure
detection system for detecting variations of pressure inside
in certain reaches of a water main Pressures drop to water 50
vapor pressure, causing vapor pockets. When the inertia of
the water colunm is overcome, the direction of flow
reverses, causing tlle vapor pockets to collapse and the
separated columns to rejoin. Extremely high, destructive
pressures result. 55 operating fluid chambers. Pressure is continuously measured
and recorded with a high degree of accuracy. Transients are
detected and data samples are stored and processed to locate
the source of the transients and to provide information for
Another example of problematic transients is the rupture
of a pipeline causing flow rates far in excess of design
velocities. Attempts to close butterfly or similar valves can
result in catastrophic structural failure of the valve. Pres-
sures of this magnitude are not anticipated by pipeline 60
design.
Hydraulic transient analysis procedure do exist, however,
transient pressure prediction is a complex procedure requir-
ing digital modeling of specific pipeline configurations,
operating procedures and expected flow considerations. 65
Considerable judgment and experience is needed to model a
pipeline operation and accurately anticipate those conditions
preventing transients during future operations.
The dynamic transient pressure detection system of the
present invention includes a dynamic pressure sensor
installed in an operating fluid chamber. The operating fluid
chamber can be a pipeline or any other equipment with
enclosed fluids. The dynamic pressure sensor continuously
measures the pressure and time of sampling without operator
interface. A transmission system transfers a signal from the
dynamic pressure sensor to a receiver. The signal indicates
US 7,357,034 Bl
3
pressure within the operating fluid chamber. For each signal,
a clock or timer records chronological time of each mea-
surement signal detection. The clock or timer may be a
Global Positioning System receiver for obtaining and send-
ing geographic location of the instmment and time of
detection to a signal processor. Time is measured to the
required accuracy, and may be as high as approximately
microsecond accuracy. A signal processor receives signals,
converts signals if needed and records data. A data manage-
ment program then analyzes the collected data and displays 10
results.
During operation of the dynamic transient pressure detec-
tion system, the signal processor records single data samples
at a predetermined periodic interval. The signal processor
records any variation in pressure above a set threshold level 15
within internal memory until pressure measurements again
returns to a steady state.
The present invention is also a method for detecting
dynamic transient pressures. The first step in the process is
4
reached or exceeded. Additionally, tile system may be used
to locate and identifY the source of the transient. Using this
identification system, unknown or illegal points of diversion
of fluid from the pipeline or chamber may be identified.
Data sampling rates can vary widely depending on the use
and are set by an operator using the principles of physics and
digital data processing; however, multiple samples per sec-
ond are normally taken by the system. The High Sample
Rate data may be, but is not limited to, thousands of samples
per second. Under steady pressure conditions, most of these
data samples are analyzed, erased and not permanently
recorded. If the user desires, data samples in steady pressure
conditions may be recorded at rates including, but not
limited to, once per day.
Effectiveness of the present invention is improved with
the installation of more than one dynamic pressure sensors
in an operating fluid chamber. The use of multiple dynamic
pressure sensors allows for the identification ofthe source of
a pressure transient using two or more dynamic pressure
sensors. Data may be analyzed from one or multiple test
sites simultaneously. Each dynamic pressure sensor has the
ability to transmit data to a central signal processor. Back-
ground noise levels are detennined from sensor data and
background infonnation may be removed from the pressure
data in a data management step or any other stage of the data
collection and analysis.
The source of transient pressures may be determined from
the time of detection and other data characteristics. The
dynamic transient pressure detection system differs from
existing systems in its ability to identify and accurately
record transient pressures based on user-defined parameters.
During transient pressure detection, data sampling rates
remain constant, however, all of the data samples are
recorded, which has the effect of increasing tile data record-
to install a dynamic pressure sensor in an operating fluid 20
chamber. The sensor then measures fluid pressures in the
operating fluid chamber and transmits data sample informa-
tion to a receiver. Data sample information is taken, though
not necessarily pennanently recorded, at a predetermined
interval that is sufficient to adequately define the most severe 25
transient pressures. This sample rate will be referred to as the
High Sample Rate. Once the data sample information is at
the receiver, a signal processor analyzes the information and
identifies transient pressures in the operating fluid chamber.
When a transient pressure is detected, data sampling rates 30
and/or data recording rates are increased up to the High
Sample Rate until pressures reach steady state. Transient
pressure data is stored in intemal memory. The collected
data is analyzed with a data management program, and the
results are displayed to the user.
In order to accurately identifY transient pressures, either
the user or the system must define transient pressure param-
eters. The definition of transient pressure parameters may
include the definition of an absolute threshold of pressure
change for the operating fluid chamber. The definition of 40
transient pressure parameters may include a statistical depar-
ture from the steady state pressure. The background, steady
state pressure data is generally stored periodically at a
second, lower sampling rate. The operator can adjust the
data sample recording frequencies as needed for a particular 45
application. When the sensors record a pressure measure-
ment that, when compared to the steady state pressure, is
outside the set pressure threshold, the pressure data is
temporarily stored in a buffer at the High Sample Rate. The
data taken at the High Sample Rate are recorded in internal 50
memory during a transient condition. High frequency data
recording continues until the pressure in the operating fluid
chamber retums to a steady state value or the user specifies
35 ing frequency. Measurements of pressure, taken at up to
thousands of times per second or more, are permanently
recorded to depict the pressure throughout the transient
condition.
a return to normal recording rates. When a measurement is
outside the pressure threshold, the data is pennanently
stored in the buffer and the second sampling or recording
rate is increased to the High Sample Rate. The pressure data
is pennanently stored in the buffer at the High Sample Rate.
Times of detection and/or position of the sensor are recorded
and sent with the temporarily and pernlanently stored and
recorded data. A time and/or position receiver may be
installed with the sensor for receiving and sending time and
position signals with tile pressure signals. Potential infor-
mation may be transmitted from the sensor.
The remote signal processor located at each test site
receives data samples from one or more sensors and per-
fonns the function of identifYing the presence of transient
pressure conditions. Data received from the sensor is tem-
porarily stored, in a buffer or otherwise, for a predetermined
period. Background noise levels are established and the
statistical characteristics of the samples are continuously
updated. The signal processor analyzes the data and displays
output for the operator. The signal processor includes a data
management program for analyzing, storing and displaying
the data collected from one or more sensors. Using more
than one sensor allows the operator to detect the source of
a transient pressure in two or three-dimensions.
Results of testing by the invention may be transmitted and
displayed to the user in tabular form, graphic fonn, elec-
tronic fonn, intemet web site displays, or other fonnat to
55 permit review and analysis by the user.
These and further and other objects and features of the
invention are apparent in the disclosure, which includes the
above and ongoing written specification, with the claims and
60 the drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
In a preferred embodiment, when a threshold of pressure 65
representing hazards to persons or stmctures is reached, an
alann is transmitted to alert a user when this threshold is
FIG. 1 is a graph of pressure versus time showing the
dynamic transient pressure detection method.
FIG. 2 is a flowchart of the stages of transient pressure
detection.
US 7,357,034 Bl
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FIG. 3 is a diagram of a dynamic transient pressure
detection system.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE
PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
The present invention is a dynamic transient pressure
detection system for detecting and recording variations in
pressure inside operating fluid chambers. One or more
dynamic pressure sensors are installed inside an operating 10
fluid chamber. Pressure is continuously measured and
recorded with a high degree of accuracy. Transients are
detected and data samples are stored and processed to locate
the source of the transients and to provide infonnation for
preventing transients during future operations. A clock or 15
timer records the chronological time of detection for each
sample. The clock or timer may be connected to a Global
Positioning System or other accurate chronometers to assist
in determining the source of transient pressures.
The dynamic transient pressure detection system of the 20
present invention includes a dynamic pressure sensor
installed in an operating fluid chamber. The operating fluid
chamber can be a pipeline or any other equipment with
enclosed fluids. The dynamic pressure sensor continuously
records the background pressure and time of sampling. Data 25
sampling rates can vary widely depending on the use and are
set by an operator. Background data samples are recorded at
rates from about once per second to about once per day,
depending on the user's needs. Data are recorded in a
temporary buffer for a predetennined amount of time or in 30
permanent internal memory.
The dynamic transient pressure detection system identi-
fies transient pressures based on user-defined parameters.
During transient pressure detection, data sampling rates
remain constant, however, the data are all recorded in 35
permanent storage. Measurements are taken and recorded at
up to thousands of times per second or more. The operator
can also set higher frequencies if needed for a particular
application. The data collected during these high sanlpling
rates are analyzed in order to find rapid pressure changes that 40
indicate transient pressures. When a transient pressure is
detected, the higher data sampling rate information is
recorded in pe=anent, internal memory. High frequency
data detection and recordation continues until the pressure in
the operating fluid chamber returns to a steady state value or 45
as long as the operator desires.
Multiple dynamic pressure sensors can be installed on an
operating fluid chamber. With multiple sensors, it is possible
to accurately identifY the source of a transient pressure. Two
sensors can locate the source of a transient pressure in 50
one-dimension. Combining three or more sensors allows the
operator to pinpoint the source of a transient in two or
three-dimensions. Each dynamic pressure sensor has the
ability to transmit data to a central signal processor for
analysis. Each sensor transmits a calibrated signal indicating 55
pressure within an operating fluid chamber. Individual sen-
sors are synchronized using a precision timer or other
synchronization mechanism.
Additionally, each dynamic pressure sensor has a clock or
timer to record the chronological time of detection for each 60
sample. The clock or timer may be a Global Positioning
System receiver that obtains the geographic location of the
instrument and time of detection. Time is measured to
millisecond accuracy, or greater.
6
Background noise levels are established and the statistical
characteristics of the samples are continuously updated. Any
variation in pressure above a user-set threshold level causes
all data in the buffer to be recorded in internal memory. The
recordation of data into the internal memory continues until
pressure has returned to a steady state or as long as the
operator wishes. At that time, normal data recordation
resumes.
The signal processor analyzes the data and displays output
for the operator. The signal processor includes a data man-
agement program for processing, analyzing and displaying
the data collected from one or more sensors. Using more
than one sensor allows the signal processor to detect the
source of a transient pressure in two or three-dimensions.
The detennination of the point of origin of a transient in
one-dimension is based on the following fo=ula:
V(TI-T2)+L
Xl = 2
where:
Xl is the distance from test site 1
V is the velocity of the energy wave in the fluid medium
Tl is the time of detection at test site 1
T2 is the time of detection at test site 2
L is the distance between the sensors
This formula ignores the velocity of the fluid. If desired,
the formula can be modified to take into account the fluid
velocity.
FIG. 1 shows a graph of pressure versus time for a
hypothetical measurement scenario. The pressure is at
steady state from time 0 sec to 0.3 sec. Sampling occurs
every 0.01 seconds, however, it is recorded every 0.1
seconds. In other words, 9 out of every 10 data samples are
not permanently recorded. The beginning of a transient is
detected at about 0.5 seconds and all samples are pernla-
nently recorded until the end of the transient at about 1.0
second. At this time, the pressure has regained steady state
and the sample recording rate is lowered to levels equal to
those before the transient detection.
FIG. 2 is a flowchart oft11e present method for detecting
and analyzing transient pressures. Initially, one or more
dynamic pressure sensors are installed 1 in an operating fluid
chamber or pipeline. These sensors continuously measure 3
fluid pressures and transmit 5 data sample info=ation to a
receiver. Recording 7 is perfo=ed at a predetermined
interval. Samples are tllen analyzed 9 to determine if tran-
sient pressures exist. If a transient pressure is detected 11,
tlle rate of data sampling andlor data recording rates are
increased 13. This continues until pressures reach a steady
state. Transient pressure data is stored in internal memory
15. This data is then analyzed and displayed 17 using a data
management program. Once normal pressures are resmned,
or if no transient pressures are detected, tile dynamic tran-
sient pressure detection system of the present invention
continues measuring pressure at a predetennined rate.
FIG. 3 shows a dual sensor configuration for a dynamic
transient pressure detection system. The system starts with
one or more segments of pipeline 21 with pressure sensors
23 installed. Each sensor 23 has a means of transmitting
information 25. The transmission means 25 can be wire,
fiber, wireless, or other method; and tlle data format can be
The central signal processor receives data samples from
one or more sensors. Data received from the sensor is
temporarily stored in a buffer for a predeternlined period.
65 digital, analog, or other. Data is transmitted in real time, or
as information batches, depending on the needs of the user.
The transmission 27 from the sensors 23 to a corresponding
US 7,357,034 Bl
7
receiver 29 on a receiving device 31 transfers data about the
conditions in the fluid chamber 21. The receiving device 31
includes a clock or timer 33 for recording chronological time
detection. The receiving device 31 is then connected 35 to a
signal processor 37 that receives the signals and recorded
data. A data management system 39 within the signal
processor 37 analyzes and displays the collected data.
8
upon receiving the pressure data at values outside of the
threshold:
permanently recording the pressure data in the buffer,
increasing the second rate to match the first rate,
permanently storing the pressure data at the first, higher
rate, and
analyzing the pressure data recorded at the first, higher
rate.
10. The method of claim 9, further comprising recording
times of transmission with the temporarily and permanently
stored and recorded pressure data.
While the invention has been described with reference to
specific embodiments, modifications and variations of the
invention may be constmcted without departing from the 10
scope of the invention, which is defined in the following
claims.
11. The method of claim 10, further comprising providing
a time receiver at the sensor, receiving time signals at the
15 sensor, and transmitting time indications with the pressure
data transmission.
The invention claimed is:
1. A method for detecting dynamic transient pressures
comprising:
installing a dynamic pressure sensor in an operating fluid
chamber,
measuring fluid pressures in the operating fluid chamber,
transmitting data sample information from the dynamic
pressure sensor to a receiver and signal processor,
recording data sample information at a predetermined
interval,
analyzing data sanlples with the signal processor,
identifYing transient pressures in the operating fluid
chamber,
increasing data sampling rates and/or data recording rates
during transient detection until pressures reach steady
state,
storing transient pressure data in internal memory, and
analyzing and displaying collected data alone or with
other kinds of data from other sources, using a data
management program.
2. The method of claim 1, further comprising defining
transient pressure parameters.
12. The method of claim 11, further comprising transmit-
ting potential information from the sensor.
13. The method of claim 11, further comprising receiving
20 position signals and generalizing position infonnation at the
sensor and transmitting the position information with the
time indications and the pressure data.
14. The method of clainl 9, further comprising determin-
ing background level noise and removing background noise
25 from the pressure data.
15. The method of claim 9, wherein the fluid chamber is
a pipeline and wherein the at least one sensor comprises
multiple sensors, further comprising time and position signal
receivers connected to the sensors for receiving time and
30 position signals and further comprising transmitting time
and position indications with the pressure data.
16. The method of claim 9, further comprising identifYing
a predetennined threshold pressure and alerting a user when
the predetermined threshold is reached or exceeded.
3. The method of clainl 1, further comprising installing 35
multiple dynamic pressure sensors in an operating fluid
chamber.
17. The method of claim 9 , further comprising identifYing
an unknown or illegal point of diversion of fluid from the
chamber as a source of a transient pressure.
4. The method of claim 3, further comprising identifying
a source of a transient pressure using two or more dynamic
pressure sensors.
5. The method of claim 3, further comprising analyzing
data from one or mUltiple test sites simultaneously.
6. The method of claim 3, further comprising identifying
an unknown or illegal diversion of pressure.
40
7. The method of claim 1, further comprising recording 45
time of transient detections using a clock or timer, and
determining a source of transient pressure from the time of
detection and other data characteristics.
8. The method of claim 7, wherein the clock or timer is a
Global Positioning System receiver.
9. A method of detecting pressure transients in operating
fluid chambers comprising:
defining pressure threshold in a chamber,
installing at least one pressure sellsor in the chamber,
sensing pressure in the chamber with the sensor,
transmitting pressure data from the sensor to a receiver,
temporarily storing the pressure data in a buffer at a first,
higher sampling rate,
periodically permanently storing the pressure data at a
second, lower rate,
comparing the pressure data with the defined pressure
threshold,
50
55
60
18. A method of monitoring pressure comprising:
installing transient pressure sensors within an operating
fluid chamber,
establishing predetennined data sampling rates,
establishing predetermined sample data recording rates,
establishing transient pressure parameters,
measuring fluid pressures,
transmitting fluid pressure sample data to a receiver and
signal processor,
recording sample data at the predetermined recording
rates,
analyzing sample data,
comparing sample data to the transient pressure param-
eters for identifYing transient pressures,
increasing data sampling rates and data recording rates
during transient detection,
storing transient data in internal memory,
analyzing and displaying collected data, and
returning data sampling rates and data recording rates to
predetermines rates when sample data returns to non-
transient pressure parameters.
* * * * *