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Terdiri atas 2 Kelas : Magnoliopsida (Dycotiledoneae) Liliopsida (Monocotyledoneae)

MONOCOTS Embryo with single cotyledon Pollen with single furrow or pore Flower parts in multiples of three Major leaf veins parallel Stem vacular bundles scattered Roots are adventitious Secondary growth absent DICOTS Embryo with two cotyledons Pollen with three furrows or pores Flower parts in multiples of four or five Major leaf veins reticulated Stem vascular bundles in a ring Roots develop from radicle Secondary y growth g often present

Now let's have a test!

Is the Day Flower (Commelina communis) shown a monocot or a dicot?

This is sort of tricky, but nature is full of tricky blossoms. The leaves appear to have parallel veins, so there's a vote for "monocot." However, this flower seems to have only two petals, and that doesn't fit either monocot or dicot. If you could examine the stamens you'd see that there are three with anthers and three that are "sterile," or without anthers, so there's another vote for "monocot." Well, fact is, it is a monocot. The main proof is that actually there is a third petal, a much reduced, translucent one at the flower's bottom, so there are also three petals. Therefore: Monocot.

The two large blue petal limbs and their claws attaching them to the floral axis are visible; the smaller lower white petal is mostly obscured; the three yellow staminodes with central maroon spots are above, the central fertile stamen with maroon connective is below them, and the two brown lateral fertile stamens and the curving style between them are lowest; notice the contrasting veins on the spathe surrounding the flower two relatively large blue petals and one very reduced white petal. spathe, spathe , a modified leaf. The 2 upper petals are blue to indigo in colour colour, while the much smaller lower petal is white. There are three anticous (i.e. on the lower part of the , and three posticous (i.e. on flower) fertile stamens stamens, the upper part of the flower) infertile stamens termed staminodes. staminodes . The fertile stamens are dimorphic dimorphic: : the lateral pair have maroon to indigo anthers that measure about 2 mm (0.8 in) long and are elliptic with arrowhead-shaped) base. Their a sagittate (i.e. arrowhead 1012 mm (0.39 (0.39 0.47 in) long. filaments are about 10 The central fertile stamen has a yellow, yellow elliptic anther with a maroon connective and a hastate (i.e. spearheadspearhead -shaped, but with lobes at right angles) base. The anther measures about 2.5 mm (0.1 in) long while its filament is about 5 56 mm (0.2 (0.2 0.24 in) long [4] The three staminodes are all alike with long.[4] long. yellow, cruciform (i.e. crosscross-shaped) antherodes that are about 2 mm (0.08 in) long on filaments about 3 mm (0.12 in) long.[3] long.[3][4] [4] Sometimes the antherodes will have a central maroon spot.[3] spot.[3] Each antherode has two abortive lateral pollen sacks sacks. The ovary is ellipsoid, about 2 mm (0.08 in) long and has a style that is about 1.3 cm (0.51 in) long

3 steril stamen

3 fertil stamen : dimorfik 1 pistil i til

K l Magnoliopsida Kelas M li id memiliki iliki 6 anak k kelas k l :

1 M 1.Magnoliidae liid 2 Hamamelidae 2.Hamamelidae 3.Caryophyllidae y p y 4.Dilleniidae 5.Rosidae 6.Asteridae

Terdiri atas 6 anak kelas

4 2 3 1

Dugaan hubungan evolusi anak-anak kelas Magnoliopsida

Anak kelas Magnoliidae

1. Bangsa g MAGNOLIALES (10 ( suku) )


Pilihan suku didasarkan atas besarnya jumlah jenis, kepentingan ekonominya dan adanya sifat-sifat yang istimewa

Pohon, perdu Daun tunggal, tersebar ada stipula Perbungaan : umumnya tunggal Bunga : Bisex jarang unisex aktinomorf Perigonium 6 18, 18 dalam spiral atau lingkaran Stamen ~, pistilum ~, tersusun spiral pada kepanjangan dasar bunga (torus). Ovarium superus, satu ruang/karpel

Magnolia grandiflora

Buah : folikulus (bumbung), baka (buni), samara kadang

agregat berupa kerucut mengkayu

Kepentingan p g ekonomi suku ini : beberapa p jenisnya j y merupakan p 1. tanaman hias dengan bunga yang harum 2. ada yang merupakan penghasil kayu

Manglieta figo cempaka ambon

M. glauca manglit, kayu

T l m candolii Talauma d lii cempaka mp k gondok d k

Michelia champaca cempaka kuning

Kulit kayu : tonikum, penurun demam, pengharum anti kanker pengharum, Daun, akar : peluruh cacing, urus-urus Bunga : kosmetik Kandungan kimia : minyak atsiri, atsiri alkaloid, fenol, asam benzoat

M. alba cempaka putih, kantil

Daun, bunga : penurun demam Daun demam, aromatikum, astringen, anti kanker. Kandungan g kimia sama dengan g

M. champaca

Suku ANNONACEAE (Kenanga-kenangaan)

Pohon, perdu, liana Daun tunggal, tersebar, tanpa stipula Bunga : tunggal/infloresens simosa Bisex Bi j jarang unisex i aktinimorf kti i f Periantium 3 + 3 + 3, (3 lingkaran @ 3) Satu S t atau t 2 lingkaran li k l luar sepaloid Stamen ~, pistilum bbrp - ~, Ovarium superus Buah : baka (Annona agregat) Pohon buah, tanaman hias, penghasil kayu


Cananga odorata (kenanga)

The flower is greenish yellow (rarely pink), pink) curly like a starfish, starfish and yields a highly fragrant essential oil. The main aromatic component of ylang-ylang is methyl anthranilate The essential oil of ylang-ylang is used in aromatherapy. It is believed to relieve high blood pressure, normalize l sebum secretion for f skin k problems, l and d is considered d d to be an aphrodisiac h d

Annona muricata (sirsak)

Daun : emetikum D tik Daun & bunga : meredakan kejang Daun muda : jerawat Buah masak : sariawan sariawan, penghalus kulit

Biji/buah muda : astringen Kandungan kimia : protein, kalsium, fosfor, vitamin A & C

processed into ice creams, and drinks, but fiber-free varieties are often eaten raw

Custard AppleAnnona reticulata (buah nona, nona anon)

Almost exclusively eaten fresh Custard apple's have an advantage over other Annona's in that they tend to ripen slightly later in the year than their relatives, so during certain times of the year, only custard apple's are available

A. squamosa (sarikaya) Sugarapple fruit

Daun : bisul bisul, eksim Kulit kayu : diare, disentri, cacing Biji : diare, disentri Kandungan kimia : tannin alkaloid

Daun : scabies scabies, bisul Buah & biji muda : anti helmintik, insektisida, diare, disentri, astringen Akar : pencahar Kandungan Kimia : resin, asam amino,anonain ,

Stelechocarpus burahol (burahol) :

Very rare and endangered tree from Southeast Asia. Fruit is borne on the lower trunk and is said to have a spicy, mango-like flavor. Ancient Indonesians believed that eating the fruit would cause body secretions nafas, keringat, urine to take on a perfume scent.

Suku MYRISTICACEAE (Pala(Pala-palaan)

Pohon, jarang perdu, aromatis, Unisex Daun tunggal, gg , tersebar tanpa p
fenolik yang psikotrofik)

Mengandung myristicin y (komponen

stipula Bunga : rasemus/cymosa ,. Periantium sepaloid, Unisex, Bunga : stamen 2 - ~. monadelfus Bunga : carpel 1, stigma sesil, ovul 1 Buah B h : buni, b i memecah h Biji berarilus, endosperm berminyak

Horsfieldia glabra, glabra pengusir nyamuk nyamuk, obat bisul Myristica fatua (pala laki-

laki), l ki) k kayu b bahan h b bangunan, kulit kayu aprodisiak Native to the Moluccas islands. slands. Smaller than nutmeg, and not as fragrant, the brazilian or false nutmeg is sometimes used much like its well ll known k cousin. i

Myristica fragrans nutmeg

The dried nuts are arils are used as spices. There are a variety of medicinal uses.

2. Bangsa LAURALES
Suku LAURACEAE (Medang-medangan) Pohon, perdu (kecuali Cassytha, Pohon Cassytha herba), aromatis (minyak, kayu) Daun tunggal, tersebar tanpa p stipula i l (Cassytha C h : tereduksi) d k i) Bunga : P b Perbungaan panikula, p ik l rasemus, m spika, umbela Ada hypanthium (floral tube formed by y the fusion of the basal portions of sepals, petals and stamens and from which rest of floral parts emanate) * (aktinomorf), bisex (kadang unisex), perigonium sepaloid dalam 2 O (3 + 3)
minyak atsiri dari kulit kayu, untuk ramuan makanan dan jamu

Cinnamomum burmanni (kayu manis),

Stamen 4 O, 3 O melekat pada tabung kaliks, 1 O dalam staminodia ( (sterile stamen does not p produce pollen, p variable in structures, petallike), antera membuka dengan klep (2 4) Ovarium superus, 1 karpel, 1 ruang, 1 ovul Buah : baka/drupa Biji tanpa endosperm Terdiri T di i > 30 marga, 2000 2500 jenis, j i tropis/subtropics kebanyakan di Asia Tenggara

ContohContoh -contoh : C. culilawan ( (lawang) g) Barks has a

mucilaginous, aromatic taste, and a mixed odor of cinnamon, sassafras, and cloves. Eusideroxylon zwageri (kayu besi) Actinodaphne spp. Beilschmeidia spp. Cryptocarya spp. C Phoebe spp.
Cinnamomum cassia (chinese cinnamon)

C. Zeylanicum flower

This cinnamon is used the same as the commercial C. zeylanicum spice, having the smell and nearly the same flavor. It is an attractive shrubby 35' tree with shiny ovate leaves. Aside from its use as a spice this specie is also known for various medicinal uses derived from its bark.

Litsea cubeba (lemo, May Chang) :

pepper shaped fruits which resemble peppers. Th scent The t of f May M Chang Ch has h been b compared d to t lemongrass and lemon verbena. Having Therapeutic properties, properties Integumentary system, Respiratory system, Circulatory system, Nervous system http://www cherylsherbs com/Essential oil profile_litsea_cubeba.htm

Litsea cubeba oil obtained from the small

Persea americana (alpokat)

Unripe avocados are said to be toxic. Two resins derived from the skin of the fruit are toxic Dopamine has been found in the leaves. Consists of many varieties, not all varieties are equally toxic. Craigmill et al. at Davis, California, have confirmed deleterious effects on lactating goats which were allowed ll to graze on leaves l of 'Anaheim' avocado an hour each day for 2 days. Milk was curdled and not milkable, the animals ground their teeth, necks were swollen and they coughed, Avocado seed extracts injected into guinea pigs have caused only a few days of hyperexcitability and anorexia. At Davis, mice given 10 to 14 g of f half-and-half h lf d h lf normal l ration and d either h fresh f h or dried d d avocado seed died in 2 or 3 days, though one mouse given 4 times the dose of the others survived for 2 weeks. The h seed d and d the h roots contain an antibiotic b which h h prevents bacterial b l spoilage l of f food. f d It is the subject of two United States patents. The bark contains 3.5% of an essential oil which has an anise odor and is made up largely of methyl chavicol with a little anethole.

Cinnamomum camphora p (kamper) ( p )

native to China and Japan where it has been commercially used for its timber and essential oils for hundreds of years Camphor tree leaves are distinctively fragrant when crushed and ripe berries that are consumed by y some bird species. p Camphor in large doses is toxic to humans. It stimulates the central nervous system and may affect respiration or cause convulsions. In Chinese medicine, camphor is forbidden for pregnant women and those with a deficiency of vital energy or yin. Camphor does not have serious predators or diseases outside its native range. Seedlings and root sprouts are abundant near mature trees, but individual trees pop up far from seed sources. The Plant Conservation Alliance lists this species as an Alien Invader and it is listed as a Category I invasive exotic species by the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, which means that it is known to be "invading and disrupting native plant communities in Florida." Become weed in USA, Australia

Eusideroxylon zwageri (kayu besi)

Cassytha Cassytha (called love-vine in the Bahamas) bears an uncanny resemblance to dodder (the genus Cuscuta) but is not related to it at all! C Cassytha th is i in i L Lauraceae, the th same family f il as Sassafras S f , avocado, d and d

cinnamon whereas dodder is in Convolvulaceae and is related to morningglory vines. If one looks closely at the flowers, love-vine is quite clearly a member of Lauraceae. Lauraceae

Ipomoea purpurea morning glory

Cuscuta is commonly used in long term tonic programs. It is a gentle tonic for the Kidney Yin and Yang, and also helps nourish Chi. It helps the Kidney to consolidate the Chi. It is widely used to improve vision, nourish the sperm and d marrow, strengthen t th bones b and d sinews i and d to t strengthen t th sexual l functions.


Suku HERNANDIACEAE (Kampis-kampisan)

Hernandia peltata, jack jack in the

box Kayu bahan bangunan, minyak untuk lampu

Uses: is sometimes planted by seed to make a windbreak. Its hard wood is used for firewood, as building material, on canoes as parts for holding the sail, to make handles for fans, and sometimes to make the frame of a food grinder. grinder The fruit ("nut") is also occasionally used to make handicrafts.

The leaves are used for medicinal baths for children and adults, and parts of the plant are sometimes used in a preparation p p p to treat headaches. Have been used as a traditional medicine for boils, cough, diarrhea, abdominal pains, anticonvulsive treatment, eye problems, and a number of other indications that appear to include anticancer, antiviral, and antiparasite.

Hernandia nymphaeifolia



Suku PIPERACEAE (sirih-sirihan) (sirih sirihan) Herba, perdu, pohon kecil, liana, aromatis (minyak atsiri di parenkim), alkaloid amina atau aporfin atau dari kelompok piridin Ikatan p pembuluh dalam > 10 atau tersebar, tapi ada kambium intrafasikuler Daun tunggal, tersebar, urat daun pinnatus/palmatus i t / l t , ada d stipula ti l Bunga : Spika / rasemus * bi- atau unisexual, *, l tanpa periantium Stamen 1 10, ovarium sup us 2 4 carpel, superus, p l 1 ruang, u n 1 biji Buah : drupa Terdiri atas + 10 marga, 1400 2000 jenis, tropis

Piper nigrum (lada) piperin

tanaman hias

Peperomia sandersii,

tanaman hias

P. pellucida (seuseureuhan),

P. betle (sirih)

Piper nigrum (lada) piperin

Sakit mata mata, Eksim Eksim, bau mulut, mulut kulit gatal, gatal menghilangkan jerawat; pendarahan gusi, mimisan, bronkhitis, batuk, sariawan, luka; keputihan, sakit jantung sifilis jantung, sifilis, alergi/biduren alergi/biduren, diare diare, Sakit gigi; It is often chewed in combination with the betel nut (Areca catechu), as a stimulatory. Some evidence suggests that betel leaves have immune boosting properties as well as anti-cancer properties

P retrofractum P. t f t ( b jawa, (cabe j cabe b panjang) j ) : untuk t k bandrek b d k

In P. retrofractum (long pepper), piperine, piperlonguminine, sylvatine, guineensine piperlongumine guineensine, piperlongumine, filfiline, filfiline sitosterol, sitosterol methyl piperate and a series of piperine-analog retrofractamides are reported. (Phytochemistry, 24, 279, 1985) Buah : kejang perut, perut kembung, diare, sakit kepala, sakit gigi, batuk, demam, tekanan darah rendah.

P. Aduncum

(gedebong, kiseureuh)
Provides food and cover for wildlife, can be used for revegetating disturbed areas, and contributes to the biomass of forests (Francis, 2003). In Papua New Guinea stakes are used to create terraces for agriculture and to prevent erosion (Bourke, 1997). Wood can be used for basic construction, fuel, stakes and fences. Has ornamental value and the fruit is used to season food.

Essential oils from this species have antibacterial properties and may also be used as an insecticide and a molluscicide. Tea made from the leaves and roots is used to treat diarrhea, diarrhea dysentery, dysentery vomiting, ulcers, and can also be used for the control of bleeding (Francis, 2003).

P. methysticum (kawa), akar mengandung narkotik metistidin


Perdu atau pohon kecil yang aromatis Terdiri dari 1 marga dengan + 40 jenis

Illicium verum (star anise)

Bangsa RANUNCULALES (8 suku) Suku MENISPERMACEAE (Sirawan-sirawanan) (Sirawan sirawanan)

Umumnya liana atau herba Bi Biasanya mengandung d sesquiterpenoid dan diterpenoid yang sangat pahit dan beracun B b i Berberin Beberapa jenis dipakai seagai bahan ramuan obat
Cyclaea barbata (cincau rambat)
daun bahan cincau

Tinospora crispa

Arcangelisia flava (sirawan) bayang, biji untuk obat

mengandung berberin berberin, menispermin

Bangsa PAPAVERALES (2 suku)

Suku PAPAVERACEAE (Derujuderujuan)

Herba, jarang Herba jaran perdu, perdu den dengan an getah etah seperti susu atau berwarna Mengandung berbagai alkaloida Banyak jenis yang merupakan tanaman hias, Y Yang terpenting i adalah d l h Papaver P somniferum, if sumber b opium i ( (yang disadap dari buah yang belum matang) narkotik

Papaver somniferum

Argemone mexicana (deruju) Mexican

Poppy, Mexican Prickly Poppy or Poppy Cardosanto Useful Parts: Roots, leaves, seeds and yellow juice.

the plant is diuretic. purgative and destroys worms. It cures lepsory, skin-diseases, inflammations and bilious fevers. Roots are anthelmintic anthelmintic. Juice is used to cure ophthalmia and opacity of cornea cornea. Seeds are purgative and sedative. Seeds resemble mustard seeds and in India it is used to adulterate mustard seed Seed yield non edible toxic oil and causes lethal dropsy when used with seed. mustard oil for cooking. Other uses: The plant is found suitable for the reclamation of alkaline soils. soils Dried and powdered plants are recommended as green manure as it contain sufficient amount of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium