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KULTURNE INDUSTRIJE I KULTURNA RAZNOLIKOST PREPORUKE CULTURAL INDUSTRIES AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY RECOMMENDATIONS

Ovo izdanje objavljeno je uz finansijsku podrku: UNESCO Meunarodnog fonda za kulturnu raznolikost

a kroz projekat Dositheus - Profesionalni razvoj za preduzetnitvo u kulturnim industrijama (Professional Development for Cultural Entrepreneurship). Stavovi i miljenja izneseni u ovom dokumentu ne mogu biti smatrani stavovima donatora.

SADRAJ / CONTENTS

Preporuke za razvoj kreativnog sektora/kulturnih industrija...................................................................5 A Kulturna raznolikost i koncept kulturnih i kreativnih industrija.......................................................6 B Dravna kulturna politika i kulturne industrije...........................................................................................10 C Razvoj poslovnog ambijenta za kulturne i kreativne industrije........................................................13 D Autorsko pravo i intelektualna svojina.............................................................................................................18 E Neprofitni sektor u kulturnim i kreativnim industrijama......................................................................21 F Ruralni razvoj i ouvanje sela.................................................................................................................................23 Recommendations for Development of Creative Sector/Cultural Industries..............................25 A Cultural diversity and the concept of Cultural and Creative Industries.....................................26 B State Cultural Policy and Cultural Industries...............................................................................................31 C Development of Business Environment for Cultural and Creative Industries.......................34 D Copyright, intellectual property and IT sector..........................................................................................39 E Non-profit sector in Cultural and Creative Industries............................................................................42 F Rural development and village preservation................................................................................................44

PREPORUKE ZA RAZVOJ KREATIVNOG SEKTORA/ KULTURNIH INDUSTRIJA

Ove preporuke nastale su kao rezultat razgovora tokom panela i debata organizovanih od maja 2012. godine do januara 2013. godine, na osnovu stavova autora lanaka objavljenih na portalu MadMarx.rs i u razmeni miljenja sa strunjacima i preduzetnicima koji su bili ukljueni u projekat Dositheus Profesionalni razvoj za preduzetnitvo u kulturnim/ kreativnim industrijama. Ove preporuke ne plediraju da daju konaan sud o fenomenima i procesima o kojima govore, ve su ovde navedene sa eljom da pomognu javnoj upravi i zainteresovanim stranama da ove preporuke koriste kao predloke za otvorene diskusije, kako bi se unapredio sektor kulturnog naslea, raspravile kontroverze o odnosu kulture, kulturnih i kreativnih industrija u kulturnim i ekonomskim politikama Srbije i postavio strategijski pravac njihovog daljeg odrivog razvoja.

Preporuke, dakle, nisu konane, smatramo ih inventarom sadanjeg vremena, jer zbog dinaminih promena u kreativnom sektoru i nacionalnoj kulturi i ekonomiji Srbije ve za nekoliko godina mogu biti anahrone. To, naravno, ne znai da sa promenama treba ekati, jer ako je ita stalno to su promene. Zato smo pokuali da razumemo ovaj period vremena u kojem smo sada i da ono o emu smo razmiljali ovde i stavimo, crno na belo. Preporuke su namenjene svima koji se u njima prepoznaju da ih se tiu. Namenjene su i onima koji se ine da ih se ove teme ne tiu dravnoj upravi i preduzetnikom sektoru Srbije.

Academica Akademska grupa Centar za istraivanje kreativne ekonomije Mart 2013.

Kulturna raznolikost i koncept kulturnih i kreativnih industrija

1. Kultura je bila i trebalo bi da i ubudue ostane polje slobode i stvaralatva koje nema cenu. Kultura, kao i obrazovanje i nauka, pripada domenu neotuivih prava oveka i graanina. Nijedna vlada nema pravo da tu slobodu zanemaruje, ograniava i da je ureuje saobrazno bilo veinskom bilo pojedinanom politikom, ideolokom ili bilo kojem drugom u osnovi partikularnom interesu. Ako bi se drutvu kao zajednici kulturnih stvaralaca i kulturne publike nametao privatni, politiki ili korporativni interes, to bi bilo zadiranje u javni domen drutvene slobode stvaranja i uivanja u vrednostima civilizacije. Kulturna raznolikost je istovremeno i sredstvo i cilj stvaranja i ouvanja tog javnog domena. Kulturne aktivnosti, dobra i usluge imaju istovremeno ekonomsku i kulturnu prirodu, zato jer govore o identitetima, vrednostima i znaenjima, i ne smeju se, dakle, tretirati samo kao da imaju komercijalnu vrednost. (Iz UNESCO Konvencije o zatiti i unapreenju raznolikosti kulturnih izraza) 2. Koncept kulturnih industrija u Srbiji trebalo bi definisati u okvirima kulturne i ekonomske politike, ali tako da se one ne sueljavaju, ve da se postavljaju komplementarno, tj. jedna prema drugoj. Kulturne industrije su preteno i dalje u kulturnoj politici, a kreativne industrije preteno u ekonomskoj. Jednaka teta je neprihvatanje kulturnih i kreativnih industrija zbog promenjene paradigme kulture u poslednje dve decenije, kao i njihovo nekritiko i pomodno prihvatanje bez sutinskog razumevanja i kritikog promiljanja. 3. Ekonomski modeli kulturnih industrija zanemaruju drutvenu vrednost kulturnog identiteta i kulturne raznolikosti, jer kulturu posmatraju kao robu, a kreativni sektor kao sektor zapoljavanja, stvaranja dohotka i profita. Otuda, kulturnom politikom u oblasti kulturnog naslea, kulturne batine i kulturnog stvaralatva ne bi trebalo da prevashodno upravljaju ekonomisti niti da njenu drutvenu vrednost i znaaj procenjuju ekonomski analitiari, bilo vladini, bilo civilni. 4. Kulturne industrije su, zapravo, kulturne delatnosti ili kulturno stvaralatvo ili kulturna produkcija ukoliko stvaraju ekonomski lanac vrednosti, privredni rast i zapoljavaju. Ukoliko nisu serijska proizvodnja i industrija zasnovana

na autorskom pravu i pravu industrijske svojine, ne treba ih ni smatrati industrijama, ve kulturnom produkcijom i kulturnim stvaralatvom kojim se ostvaruje pravo na kulturu, uva i promovie kulturno naslee i gradi kulturni identitet, te ih nazivati kulturom u uem smislu. 5. Kulturne industrije su kulturne delatnosti neindustrijskog tipa: vizuelne umetnosti, izvoake umetnosti, kulturno naslee/batina i stari zanati. Neindustrijski tip kulturnih industrija bi trebalo da obuhvata sledee ifre glavnih privrednih delatnosti: 9001 Izvoake umetnosti 9002 Druge umetnike delatnosti u okviru izvoakih umetnosti 9003 Umetniko stvaralatvo 9102 Delatnost muzeja, galerija i zbirki. Sledee delatnosti su parcijalne i uslune delatnosti kulture / kulturnih industrija neindustrijskog tipa, budui da ne stvaraju novu vrednost: 9004 Rad umetnikih ustanova 9101 Delatnost biblioteka i arhiva 9103 Zatita i odravanje nepokretnih kulturnih dobara, kulturno-istorijskih lokacija, zgrada i slinih turistikih spomenika. Ove glavne, parcijalne i uslune privredne delatnosti kulture bi trebalo da budu mapirane, statistiki obraene i evidentirane i potom, na osnovu nacionalne strategije kulturnog razvoja i gradskih razvojnih planova, praene i podsticane u njihovom razvoju samo ukoliko su deo ingerencija dravne uprave i lokalne samouprave. Ove delatnosti ne bi trebalo da budu smatrane privredom u uem smislu, niti posmatrane i ocenjivane kroz ekonomsku politiku drave. Ove delatnosti bi trebalo da budu predmet posebne i sistemske brige i zatite od strane dravne uprave. 6. Kulturne industrije su i kulturne delatnosti industrijskog tipa i ine ih diskografija i muzika industrija, kinematografija i filmska produkcija, modna industrija i industrija tekstila i obue, radio i TV produkcija i difuzija, izdavatvo, grafike delatnosti, grafiki dizajn i tamparstvo. Ove glavne privredne delatnosti oznaene su sledeim iframa privrednih delatnosti:

1419 Proizvodnja ostalih odevnih predmeta i pribora 1811 tampanje novina 1812 Ostalo tampanje 1820 Umnoavanje snimljenih zapisa 3109 Proizvodnja ostalog nametaja 3240 Proizvodnja igara i igraaka 5811 Izdavanje knjiga 5813 Izdavanje novina 5814 Izdavanje asopisa i periodinih izdanja 5819 Ostala izdavaka delatnost 5911 Proizvodnja kinematografskih dela, audio-vizuelnih proizvoda i televizijskog programa 5920 Snimanje i izdavanje zvunih zapisa i muzike 6010 Emitovanje radio programa 6020 Proizvodnja i emitovanje televizijskog programa 7420 Fotografske usluge. Sledee delatnosti u okviru kulturnih industrija industrijskog tipa su ili meuzavisne ili parcijalne ili uslune, jer ne stvaraju direktno novu kulturnu vrednost, ve ine ili kanale distribucije i kariku u lancu vrednosti ili medij za oblikovanje kulturnog proizvoda u smislu robe: 1413 Proizvodnja ostale odee 1414 Proizvodnja rublja 1512 Proizvodnja putnih i runih torbi i sl, sarakih proizvoda i kaieva 1520 Proizvodnja obue 1629 Proizvodnja ostalih proizvoda od drveta, plute, slame i prua 1813 Usluge pripreme za tampu 1814 Knjigovezake i srodne usluge 2341 Proizvodnja keramikih predmeta za doma-

instvo i ukrasnih predmeta 3212 Proizvodnja nakita i srodnih predmeta 3213 Proizvodnja imitacije nakita i srodnih proizvoda 5812 Izdavanje imenika i adresara 5912 Delatnosti koje slede nakon faze snimanja u proizvodnji kinematografskih dela i televizijskog programa 5913 Distribucija kinematografskih dela, audio-vizuelnih dela i televizijskog programa 5914 Delatnost prikazivanja kinematografskih dela 8552 Obrazovanje i poduavanje u kulturi. Ove glavne privredne delatnosti bi trebalo da budu mapirane, statistiki obraene i evidentirane i potom, na osnovu nacionalne strategije kulturnog razvoja i gradskih razvojnih planova, praene i podsticane u njihovom razvoju samo ukoliko su deo ingerencija dravne uprave i lokalne samouprave. Ove delatnosti, ukoliko su deo sistema dravne uprave ne bi trebalo da budu smatrane privredom u uem smislu, niti iskljuivo posmatrane i ocenjivane kroz ekonomsku politiku drave, ve prevashodno kroz kulturnu, obrazovnu i socijalnu politiku. Ove delatnosti bi, meutim, trebalo da budu predmet posebne i sistemske zatite i nadzora od strane dravne uprave bilo da su u sistemu dravne uprave ili u privatnom profitnom i neprofitnom sektoru, jer su deo kulture u irem smislu, inioci kulturnog identiteta i kreatori sistema drutvenih vrednosti, otuda nuno pod obaveznim regulativama propisanim i sprovoenim od strane dravne uprave, koje se tiu kulturne politike drave. 7. Privredne delatnosti u kojima je kreativnost, time i kulturni izraz vaan input u proizvodnji roba i usluga, ine kreativne industrije. Kreativne industrije podrazumevaju serijsku proizvodnju, lanac vrednosti, iskljuivo autorsko pravo, stvaranje profita i/ili dohotka, progresivno zapoljavanje, stvaranje dobara industrijske svojine i patenata, ekonomije zasnovane na znanju i novim tehnologijama, stvaranje intelektualnog i kreativnog kapitala. Ove glavne privredne delatnosti oznaene su sledeim iframa privrednih delatnosti:

5821 Izdavanje raunarskih igara 5829 Izdavanje ostalih softvera 6201 Raunarsko programiranje 6311 Obrada podataka, hosting i sl. 6312 Veb portali 6392 Informacione delatnosti na drugom mestu nepomenute 7021 Delatnost komunikacija i odnosa sa javnou 7111 Arhitektonska delatnost 7311 Delatnost reklamnih agencija 7312 Medijsko predstavljanje 7320 Istraivanje trita i ispitivanje javnog mnenja 7410 Specijalizovane dizajnerske delatnosti 9104 Delatnost botanikih i zoolokih vrtova i zatita prirodnih vrednosti 9321 Delatnost zabavnih i tematskih parkova 9329 Ostale zabavne i rekreativne delatnosti. Sledee delatnosti u okviru kreativnih industrija su ili meuzavisne ili parcijalne ili uslune jer su kanali distribucije ili pomone delatnosti: 6120 Delatnost beine komunikacije 6130 Delatnost satelitske komunikacije 6202 Konsultantske delatnosti u oblasti informacione tehnologije 6203 Upravljanje raunarskom opremom 6209 Ostale usluge informacione tehnologije. Ove privredne delatnosti bi trebalo da budu ekonomski ureene, statistiki praene i obraene i evidentirane u ekonomskim dokumentima drave ali kao iskljuivi domen privatnog ekonomskog interesa, bez potrebe da budu i sfera dravnih svojinskih ili upravljakih prava. Kreativne industrije u uem smislu nisu kultura i ne bi trebalo da budu tretirane kao predmet nadlenosti organa zaduenih za kreiranje i sprovoenje kulturne politike drave i lokalne samouprave. Istovremeno, trebalo bi da budu smatra-

ne da su predmet brige kroz implicitnu konzistentnu ekonomsku politiku drave. 8. Kreativni sektor ine: kultura i kulturne delatnosti, kulturne industrije neindustrijskog tipa, kulturne industrije industrijskog tipa i kreativne industrije. Srbija bi trebalo da definie strategiju razvoja kulturnih industrija kroz nacionalnu strategiju kulturnog razvoja. Srbija bi trebalo da definie strategiju podsticaja kreativnih industrija kroz nacionalne ekonomske razvojne planove, politiku obrazovanja kadrova za trite rada i kroz fiskalnu politiku. 9. Paradigma kulture se u poslednjih trideset godina promenila, kako u pojmu kulture, modelima kulturne produkcije i difuzije, tako i u meuodnosu kulturnih navika i potreba, kulturnih praksi i kulturne participacije. Glavni razlozi su ekspanzija i dinamiki rast digitalne globalne medijske kulture i dominacija korporativne kulture potronje u svakodnevnom ivotu. Ovi trendovi su neumitni i ne treba ih ignorisati. Imajui u vidu trendove komercijalizacije kulture, Srbija bi trebalo da definie svoje nacionalne dravne interese u kulturi i zatiti i promovie materijalnu i nematerijalnu kulturu i to kao kulturu tla, a ne kao kulturu nacije i vere. 10. Nacionalna tela zaduena za definisanje kulturne politike trebalo bi da definiu ta je to odrivi razvoj u kulturi. U tu definiciju treba ugraditi, osim mera ouvanja i promocije kulturnog izraza jo i javnu memoriju, odgovornost i moralno znanje. 11. Definiciju kulture u Srbiji trebalo bi odrediti vrednostima uivanja u njoj, ne eksploatacije i komodifikacije. Istovremeno, trebalo bi napustiti svaki model u kojem je kultura sama sebi svrha, budui da je glavna svrha kulture integracija drutva. Kulturna i kreativna dobra su dinamiki javna dobra, a ne statika drutvena vrednost, jer su u dinamikoj interakciji sa celom nacionalnom ekonomijom. 12. Javna memorija kao batina nikad ne bi trebalo da postane roba, profitna delatnost ili delatnost preteno smetena u privatni sektor. Privatni sektor javne memorije mora uvek biti i ureen i pod nadzorom dravne uprave.

Dravna kulturna politika i kulturne industrije

1. Kultura i kulturne industrije stvaraju blagostanje nacije i u smislu kojim to definiu ekonomske teorije blagostanja. Ekonomski model razvoja kulture i kulturnih industrija je uvek politiki i takav bi trebalo da ostane. Kultura i kulturne industrije, iako su, ekonomski gledano, troak, jer imaju i uvek e imati nisku stopu produktivnosti, jer imaju i uvek e imati kroz ekonomiju obima potrebu da vie ekonomskih resursa troe nego to proizvode, ipak bi trebalo da budu smatrane produktivnim, jer stvaraju drutveni, kulturni i intelektualni kapital koji se ne moe u potpunosti ekonomski meriti i vrednovati. Nakon to uspostave ovaj politiki model, dravne politike bi tek potom trebalo da primene ekonomske principe i vrednuju rad i doprinos svakog pojedinanog subjekta kroz interne indikatore za procenu ekonominosti, rentabilnosti i konkurentnosti u takvom sistemu kao kulturno-ekonomskom sistemu. 2. Kreativne industrije su paralela kulturnim industrijama iako imaju vie zajednikih taaka. Kao sektoru u kojem se dinamino stvaraju trine nie, poveava resurs inovacija i baza znanja, te i time kreira nacionalna ekonomija, drava bi ovoj kreativnoj ekonomiji trebalo da prilazi kao saveznik - da ureuje i pospeuje njihov razvoj, istovremeno pospeujui ukupan ekonomski razvoj drutva. 3. Ne postoji nikakav ekonomski interes da drava bude vlasnik kapitala u kreativnim industrijama. Otuda, drava bi trebalo da odmah izae iz preostalih oblika svojine i upravljanja u medijima, diskografskoj industriji i izdavatvu i otvori polje u kojem su trite i privatna inicijativa glavni regulator stvaranja i protoka (kreativnog) kapitala. Ostankom u ovim industrijama drava je pretnja tritu, jer ini nelojalnu konkurenciju privatnom kapitalu. 4. Nacionalna televizija i radio bi trebalo da budu smatrani pre svega nacionalnim servisom javnog informisanja i medijem za kulturu i kulturne industrije neindustrijskog tipa, ne i privrednim drutvom koje zauzima trite radio i televizijske produkcije i difuzije, oglaavanja i kreativnih industrija, kojima je cilj dohodak. 5. Nacionalna kulturna politika bi trebalo da kulturni sistem posmatra i uredi kao autonomni drutveni sistem, jednako kao to je sada sistem visokog obrazovanja. Kulturne ustanove

bi trebalo da imaju autonomiju kao univerziteti. Kulturnim ustanovama trebalo bi da upravlja kulturna struka, pod pokroviteljskim mandatom vlade i lokalne izvrne vlasti. 6. Potrebno je odmah napustiti politiki partijski sistem kontrole, upravljanja, imenovanja i zapoljavanja u ustanovama kulture i takvu praksu smatrati protivnu elementarnim interesima kulture i drutva. 7. U najkraem roku potrebno je doneti i predloiti Nacionalnu strategiju razvoja kulture, u kojoj e biti integrisana i strategija ouvanja, promocije i razvoja kulturnih industrija industrijskog i neindustrijskog tipa. Nakon iroke javne rasprave o ovom dokumentu, usvojiti ga i pristupiti njegovoj doslednoj akcionoj implementaciji. 8. U Srbiji ne bi trebalo definisati nacionalnu kulturu kao kulturu srpskog naroda. Sve kulture u Srbiji su kulture Srbije i trebalo bi da budu jednako tretirane, vrednovane i uvane. Veinska kultura srpskog naroda bie tiena samim tim to je veinska, jer u njenoj kulturnoj participaciji uestvuje najvei broj graana. Trebalo bi strogo sankcionisati ali i prevenirati svaki oblik kulturne diskriminacije, negacije manjinskih kultura i njihovo zanemarivanje i unitavanje. 9. Klerikalizacija kulture je izuzetno opasan trend i za samu kulturu i odrivi razvoj kulture i drutva. Anahrono je da u savremenom drutvu verske zajednice na bilo koji nain budu promovisane kao batinici i uvari nacionalnih i etnikih kultura. Posebno je opasno poistoveivati duhovnost i religioznost. 10. Istorijski verski spomenici su spomenici kulture a ne verski objekti, otuda konzervaciju i promociju tih objekata bi trebalo da sprovodi drava a ne verske zajednice, jer su ti objekti od veeg znaaja za drutvo kao celinu nego za pojedinanu versku zajednicu. 11. Preispitati model nacionalnih penzija u kulturi, model statusa samostalnih umetnika i bilo koji drugi model u kulturi koji socijalnu politiku stavlja iznad kulturne politike. Ne postoji socijalno ugroena i socijalno zasluna kategorija kulturnog i umetnikog stvaraoca koja bi bila opravdan osnov za donoenje posebnih instrumenata u kulturnoj politici. Kulturni i umetniki

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rad je lini izbor a ne obavezna sluba, penzija i radno osiguranje trebalo bi da proistiu iz linog rada, ne kao oblik poasti i priznanja. 12. Preispitati model ustanova kulture od nacionalnog znaaja i do sada formirane liste nacionalnih ustanova. Nije razloan osnov da lokalna ustanova ili privredno drutvo sa privatnim kapitalom, a ponajmanje udruenje graana budu ustanova od nacionalnog znaaja. Lokalne ustanove od nacionalnog znaaja trebalo bi nacionalizovati, a privatne ustanove zadrati u sferi privatne svojine, privatnog interesa i privatne misije, pomoi im za konkretan rad, ne zbog privilegovanog statusa. 13. Delatnost istraivanja i razvoja u kulturi, kulturnim i kreativnim industrijama (drutvenim i humanistikim naukama) ne bi trebalo da bude pod dravnom kontrolom i upravljanjem, jer je ta delatnost trino zastupljena, pa bi dravna uprava u toj delatnosti bila svojevrsna nelojalna konkurencija. Drava ve ostvaruje javni interes u ovoj delatnosti kroz mreu dravnih fakulteta i kroz interne razvijene instrumente merenja, nadzora i vrednovanja kulturnog sistema u dravnoj upravi. S obzirom da je istraivanje i razvoj u kulturnim i kreativnim industrijama, kao trina privredna delatnost, od znaaja za razvoj kulturnih i kreativnih industrija, drava moe da razmotri koje druge ekonomske mere i instrumente moe kreirati da bi podstakla njihov razvoj. 14. Neophodno je pokrenuti proces hitne, radikalne i dugorono odrive reforme javnog sektora u kulturi, jer je ovaj sektor u stanju unutranjeg uruavanja i nestajanja. Reforma bi moralo da obuhvati na prvom mestu definisanje mree lokalnih, pokrajinskih i nacionalnih ustanova, uslove za njihovo osnivanje i rad, obaveze finansiranja i druge instrumente neophodne za savremenu i odrivu dravnu upravu u njima, ukljuujui i politiku zapoljavanja i reavanja pitanja prekobrojno zaposlenih. Neke ustanove bi morale biti zatvorene kao suvine zbog udvojene misije, a neke formirane zbog potrebe zatite dravnog interesa na celoj teritoriji ili delu teritorije. U sluaju nemogunosti sprovoenje reforme neke ustanove, potrebno ju je zatvoriti i potom formirati novu sa istom misijom, istorijskim i programskim kontinuitetom, ali kadrovskim i menaderskim diskontinuitetom.

15. Misija privrednih i neprivrednih subjekata u kulturi i kulturnim industrijama je i da podstiu proces drutvenih promena i razvoj kritike svesti. Prepoznavanje ovog aspekta misije u dravnim ustanovama kulture treba da bude deo procesa njihovog reformisanja. Civilne inicijative aktivistika i kritika kultura trebalo bi da budu afirmisane kroz programe podrke i iz javnih fondova. Danas vie nego ikad Srbiji treba kritika svest i otvoren javni dijalog svih sa svima. 16. Adekvatna kulturna politika mora da zadovolji i vrednosni, ali i demokratski princip, odnosno, mora da nae kombinaciju izmeu ta dva kljuna naela javnih politika u kulturi i kulturnim industrijama.

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Razvoj poslovnog ambijenta za kulturne i kreativne industrije

1. Kultura i kulturne industrije su ista celina koja se posmatra iz razliitih uglova. Kultura se posmatra kao sfera prava oveka i graanina na uivanje civilizacijskih tekovina i dostignua. Otuda, kultura je legitimni deo nacionalne i dravne potronje. Budet za kulturu ne sme se redukovati u odnosu na standarde civilizovanog dela sveta i smatrati suvinim trokom, tim pre to stvara drutvenu koheziju i ini neodvojiv deo etnikih, graanskih i nacionalnih identiteta. S druge strane, kulturne industrije posmatraju kulturno stvaralatvo i produkciju kulturnih dobara i usluga kroz dohodovni model jer kultura zapoljava, stvara ekonomske proizvode sa kulturnim inputima i kulturnim/ ekonomskim autputima i generie nove ekonomske vrednosti koji su od znaaja za rast konkurentnosti drave i gradova. Oba pogleda na kulturu su jednako vana i potrebna. 2. Kulturni ambijent je ujedno i poslovni i privredni ambijent. Ne postoji uspena privreda u kulturno devastiranoj dravi i kulturno osiromaenom drutvu. Otuda, i zbog ovoga, ulaganje u kulturu je ulaganje u privredu. 3. Za razvoj privredno podsticajnog ambijenta neophodno je da drutveni ambijent odie tolerancijom, otvorenim i demokratskim interkulturalnim dijalogom i opremljen savremenom tehnologijom stvaranja dobara i usluga i protokom informacija. Vlada je duna da stvori uslove tolerancije, demokratskog i civilizovanog dijaloga meu svojim graanima. 4. Dravna uprava je duna i odgovorna da omogui pravo na kulturu svakom graaninu Srbije. Kroz kulturni dijalog stvaraju se pretpostavke za kulturnu proizvodnju i razmenu kulturnih dobara i usluga. Preporuka dravnoj upravi i lokalnoj samoupravi je da za sva pitanja kulturnog razvoja organizuje stalne forme javnog dijaloga, javnih diskusija i javnih rasprava, kako bi bila sigurna da u zakone i podzakonska akta ugrauje demokratsko miljenje i demokratske vrednosti. 5. Osiromaeni graanin nije u mogunosti da uiva u kulturnim dobrima, da uestvuje u kulturnoj razmeni, niti da bude podstaknut da kulturu neguje i stvara. Podizanjem standarda graana otvaraju se mogunosti za veu kulturnu participaciju, kulturnu produkciju i razmenu, jer siromaan graanin ne kupuje kulturne proizvode.

6. Kulturni sistem je infrastrukturni sistem jednog drutva i jedne drave. Ukoliko ne postoji kulturna infrastruktura, ne postoji ni poslovni ambijent, pa je svako ulaganje u poslovne inicijative u kulturi i kulturnim industrijama dugorono osueno na propast. 7. Kulturne kao i kreativne industrije imaju vei ljudski kapital nego neke druge industrije, naroito one u realnom sektoru. Zbog razvoja ljudskih resursa, kulturne i kreativne industrije su pokretai ekonomskog razvoja na znaajnom nivou, kao sektori sa visokom produktivnou ili izvoznim potencijalom. 8. Drava e moi zaustaviti odliv ljudskog i kreativnog kapitala tek ako mu omogui da se u Srbiji nesmetano i interesno razvija. Ukidanjem dravnih i privatnih monopola i oligopola, diktature politikih partija i politikog voluntarizma dravnih slubenika, u kulturi i kreativnim industrijama, ostvaruju se osnovne, ne i jedine pretpostavke za demokratski kreativan razvoj graanina i razliitih drutvenih grupa. 9. Kulturne industrije Srbije imaju ekonomski znaaj i zbog nacionalne kulturne diplomatije Srbije i izvoza kulturnih proizvoda, koji nije zanemarljiv. 10. Javno-privatna partnerstva u kulturnim industrijama i kulturnoj produkciji nisu odriva i nee biti sve dok se ne ukinu dravni monopoli, a ulaganje u kulturu, kulturne i kreativne industrije ne postane isplativo za privatnog investitora. Nije dovoljno, dakle, ukinuti monopole, ve i omoguiti ekonomski rast u sektorima kulturnih i kreativnih industrija, da bi se investicije mogle isplatiti. 11. Potrebno je omoguiti da svaka kvalitetna privatna neprofitna inicijativa stekne i ostvari pravo da se pod jednakim uslovima nadmee sa dravnim sektorom za korienje javnih fondova, naroito ako su te privatne inicijative okrenute podsticanju kulturne participacije i razvoju kritike svesti. 12. Generalno, drava ne bi trebalo da podstie i promovie komercijalne programe kulturnih i kreativnih industrija, ve da svoj zadatak ogranii na to da im omogui nesmetanu trinu utakmicu i fiskalnim instrumentima potpomogne ulaganje privatnih investitora u ove industrije.

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13. Sve kulturne ustanove koje se izdravaju iz budeta drave ne bi trebalo da imaju trinu cenu za svoje proizvode. Na prvom mestu, uivanje u kulturnoj batini odnosno kulturnom nasleu trebalo bi da bude bez ikakve naplate. Drava bi trebalo da obezbedi minimum prava na uivanje u kulturi i kulturnoj batini. 14. Svaki graanin bi trebalo da ima diskreciono pravo da deo svoje poreske obaveze (1-2 odsto od ukupnog godinjeg poreza) opredeli za ulaganje u kulturu i neprofitne kulturne industrije. Takav instrument se pokazao dobrim u mnogim zemljama u kojima je na snazi. 15. Poreskim olakicama drava bi trebalo da podstie zadubinarstvo i osnivanje privatnih i korporativnih fondacija u kulturi i kulturnim industrijama. 16. Nedopustivo je da dravni budet dotira komercijalne festivalske produkcije, industriju zabave i potroaku kulturu; ove dotacije bi trebalo zabraniti i smatrati ih nedopustivim rasipanjem javnih resursa, kanjivim po zakonu. 17. Dravni budet za kulturu trebalo bi da bude veim delom namenjen za zatitu i promociju kulturne batine, neprofitnu kulturnu produkciju dravnog i civilnog sektora, reformu dravne uprave u kulturi, profesionalni razvoj zaposlenih u kulturi i kulturnim industrijama, podsticanje internog preduzetnitva u javnom kulturnom sektoru, potom za meunarodnu kulturnu saradnju i za fond za podsticanje preduzetnitva i socijalnog preduzetnitva u kulturi i kulturnim industrijama u devastiranim, slabo razvijenim i nerazvijenim podrujima drave i u seoskim zajednicama. 18. Trebalo bi analizirati mogunosti i potrebe da se ustanovi zajedniki fond ministarstava kulture, ekonomije, nauke i prosvete za podsticaj izvoza kulturnih proizvoda i usluga i razvoj inovacija u sektoru kulture i kulturnih industrija. Strategijom kulturnog razvoja trebalo bi odrediti koje su delatnosti od strategijskog znaaja za nacionalni razvoj i spoljnotrgovinsku razmenu. 19. Dravna svojina i dravna uprava trebalo bi da u potpunosti izae iz turistike delatnosti i turistike industrije. Misija drave u ovoj oblasti je da omogui, razvojem putne i druge infrastruk-

ture, razvoj turistike privrede. S druge strane, ustanove batine bi trebalo da svoje poslovanje i programe stave u funkciju razvoja privatne turistike industrije. Turistika delatnost u sistemu javnih ustanova i preduzea u dravnom vlasnitvu trebalo bi da bude ureena kao delatnost podrke, ne i kao glavna delatnost, jer je u tom sluaju nelojalna i monopolska konkurencija privatnim inicijativama u toj industriji. 20. Drava bi trebalo da podstie preduzetnitvo u kulturnim i kreativnim industrijama u devastiranim i nerazvijenim zajednicama/optinama kreiranjem posebnih lokalnih i regionalnih fondova za razvoj poslovnih inicijativa i/ili podsticanjem drugih da takve fondove formiraju. Ne postoji interes drave da ulae u kulturne i kreativne industrije u ekonomski razvijenim gradovima i optinama, ali im mora omoguiti jednak, ravnopravan i fer poloaj za trinu utakmicu. 21. Izborom upravljakog kadra na konkursu drava bi trebalo da omogui da u dravne kulturne ustanove dolaze preduzetni menaderi koji e kulturu preduzetnitva i radinosti uneti u ceo kolektiv. Vremenom bi se stekli uslovi da se kulturni i kreativni sektor u dravnom vlasnitvu razvija autonomno i svrsishodno, na iskljuivom principu uvaavanja struke i javnog interesa. Javni kulturni sektor u Srbiji je doveden do propasti najvie zbog negativne kadrovske selekcije koju vode politike partije koje su derogirale i zloupotrebile dravnu upravu. 22. Drava nije duna da ijednom kulturnom i umetnikom zanimanju obezbedi radno mesto, ali je duna da preispita trinu potrebu za zanimanja za koje se graani koluju u ovim oblastima, kao i da stvori ambijent da mladi strunjaci mogu nai posao u oblastima kulture za koje su se kolovali. 23. Na nivou nacionalnih politika u Srbiji i regionu Zapadnog Balkana je neophodno donoenje konzistentnih programa razvoja i povezivanja regionalnog trita kreativnih dobara i usluga, radi izgradnje samoodrivih nacionalnih ekonomija kreativnosti. Zbog komplementarnosti trita, istih i slinih kulturnih obrazaca i modela, zajednike kulturne istorije neophodno je to povezivanje intenzivirati izmeu Srbije i Bosne i Hercegovine, i posebno izmeu Srbije

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i Republike Srpske. Preporuka za javne vlasti ovih drava odnosno dravnih entiteta je da otvore dijalog za reavanje pitanje zajednikog kulturnog i ekonomskog napretka kroz uspostavljanje trita kreativnosti bez carinskih i trgovinskih barijera. Pojedinano, oba trita su za sebe mala da bi nacionalni drutveni proizvod u kulturnom i kreativnom sektoru bio od veeg znaaja. 24. Oblici kulturne i ekonomske saradnje drava Zapadnog Balkana, naroito u diseminaciji informacija i uspostavljanju partnerske interesne saradnje i kroz politiku usvajanja i uvoenja zajednikih mera i instrumenata kulturne i ekonomske politike odozgo-nadole mogui su kroz osnivanje saradnikih platformi sva tri sektora, nacionalno i regionalno, ali i ka lokalnom nivou. Lokalni kreativni razvoj je osnova ukupnog nacionalnog i regionalnog razvoja. 25. Izmeu relevantnih dravnih organa i vlasti Srbije i Bosne i Hercegovine, odnosno Republike Srpske potrebno je uspostaviti stabilnu informativnu mreu za razmenu informacija, znanja i iskustava, mogue i kroz osnivanje zajednikog portala i forme zajednikog nastupa prema programu EU Kreativna Evropa (20142020), ali i prema drugim fondovima za razvoj i saradnju, kako u Evropi, tako i regionalno. Dugoroni cilj bi trebalo da bude ire regionalno povezivanje kreativnih subjekata u regionu Balkana i, kroz ekonomsku saradnju, ostvarivanje drugih razvojnih ciljeva regiona do sada postavljenih i novoprepoznatih. 26. Ekonomska statistika u kulturnim delatnostima morala bi da obuhvati i sve forme zapoljavanja i angaovanja radne snage i naroito izvozno orijentisan radni angaman na daljinu (ICT sektor, grafiki, veb i produkt dizajn, konsalting, istraivanje i razvoj). 27. Ekonomska statistika drave bi trebalo da ujednai i standardizuje privredne delatnosti u oblasti kulture, kulturnih i kreativnih industrija, kao i da ujednai i osavremeni nomenklaturu zanimanja u ovim oblastima, tj. u jedinstvenom kreativnom sektoru. 28. Preporuka privrednim drutvima, preduzetnicima i neprofitnim organizacijama koje doprinose razvoju lokalnih i nacionalnih kulturnih i kreativnih industrija je da se interesno udruuju koristei zakonske mogunosti osnivanja ne-

zavisnih privrednih komora kreativnog sektora, na nivou privrednog sektora tzv. kreativnih industrija, ili granski za svaku kreativnu industriju pojedinano. Time e afirmisati sektorski, osim teritorijalnog razloga za udruivanje. Verujemo da e ovim modelom bolje doprinositi ekonomskom i kreativnom razvoju drave i njenih teritorijalnih jedinica. Osim ove forme udruivanja, preporuujemo subjektima kreativnog sektora Srbije, ali i BiH i Republike Srpske da pristupaju i drugim formama poslovnog udruivanja. Unutar civilnog sektora koji se bavi kulturnom produkcijom i proizvodnjom kreativnih dobara i usluga preporuujemo slino udruivanje u podorganizacione forme ovakvih poslovnih asocijacija da bi organizacije civilnog drutva, odnosno udruenja, odnosno neprofitne organizacije (ukljuujui i univerzitete i institute, organizacije za istraivanje razvoj) bolje osvetlile svoju ulogu i mapirale sve aktere nezavisne kulturne i kreativne produkcije koje statistiki i ekonomski doprinose u nacionalnoj ekonomiji. Ovakve meovite saradnike platforme mogu vremenom generisati razvoj novih kreativnih klastera. 29. U Nacionalnu strategiju za razvoj kulture Srbije (Bosne i Hercegovine, Republike Srpske) potrebno je ugraditi nacionalnu orijentaciju za razvoj kulturnih i kreativnih industrija, kao i predvienu ulogu civilnog i neprofitnog sektora da bi se taj razvoj konzistentno planirao i implementirao. Neophodno je statistiki diversifikovati one organizacije civilnog drutva i udruenja koja doprinose ekonomskom, kulturnom i kreativnom razvoju, od drugih strukovnih, hobi i slinih udruenja, kao i aktivistikih udruenja koje graanima osiguravaju pravo na kulturu. 30. Kreativni razvoj u smislu ekonomskog razvoja najoevidniji je na lokalnom nivou, u gradskim i optinskim politikama. Dravnom politikom i gradskim politikama, sinhronizovano, mogue je pokrenuti kreativni razvoj gradova. Preporuka gradskim vlastima i lokalnim samoupravama u Srbiji je da pokrenu proces integracije kreativnih resursa u lokalni ekonomski razvoj svojih zajednica mapiranjem i istraivanjem kapaciteta, ispitivanjem potreba i stavova, i potom, usklaivanjem lokalnih razvojnih planova sa ovim nalazima i potrebama, da bi se kreirale lokalne ekonomije zasnovane na razvoju kulturnih arita, kreativnih vorova, kreativnih etvrti, kreativnih inkubatora i generisanjem razvoja kreativnih klastera.

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31. Izvozno orijentisane privredne delatnosti kulturnih i kreativnih industrija sa velikim potencijalom su grafiki i veb dizajn, produkt dizajn, IT sektor - proizvodnja sofvera i kompjuterske usluge, filmska industrija, industrija starih zanata i suvenira; ove industrije trebalo bi da budu predmet posebne analize, istraivanja i kreiranja ekonomske strategije drave. 32. Da bi se investicije u filmskoj industriji privukle i isplatile kroz kreiranje domaih industrija podrke snimanju filmova, zapoljavanje ljudi i lanac vrednosti u lokalnoj turistikoj i ugostiteljskoj privredi, potrebno je da se planirane mere poreskih olakica i poreskog povraaja za inostrane producentske kue, predviene i Zakonom o kinematografiji, to pre sprovedu u delo. 33. Pretpostavke za nastavak razvoja kreativnih industrija ili kreativnih ekonomija Srbije, ali i regiona Zapadnog Balkana, jesu: efikasna zatita autorskog prava i intelektualne svojine, funkcionisanje javne administracije i sudstva i podstiui i jednostavan poreski sistem. 34. U saradnji sa korporativnim sektorom, meunarodnim fondovima i uz posredovanje organizacija civilnog drutva fondovi podrke za razvoj kulturnog preduzetnitva na nacionalnom nivou, kao i napori usmereni na obnavljanje regionalnog trita mogu biti isplativa investicija, koja e u periodu 3 do 5 godina doneti rast zapoljavanja i bolju ekonomsku razmenu u regionu Zapadnog Balkana. 35. U dravne ustanove kulture neophodno je uvesti princip celoivotnog obrazovanja i profesionalnog usavravanja, jednako kao to je to npr. u sektoru prosvete i zdravstva. 36. U procesu reforme sistema osnovnog i srednjeg obrazovanja u Srbiji neophodno je ugraditi programe obrazovanja za preduzetnitvo i izgradnju preduzetnike linosti. 37. Neophodno je da drava sprovede proces akreditacije prualaca usluga obrazovanja odraslih i strukovnog obrazovanja za kulturni i kreativni sektor, odnosno kulturne industrije, kao i da vrednuje programe na tritu i najboljim programima omogui dalji razvoj kroz mere podsticaja i sufinansiranja.

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Autorsko pravo i intelektualna svojina

1. Kljuni faktor koji odreuje dostignuti nivo konkurentnosti ekonomije neke zemlje je stanje industrija koje su bazirane na visokim tehnologijama, time i autorskom, industrijskom pravu i pravu intelektualne svojine. 2. Autorsko delo je privatna svojina i trebalo bi da podlee svim propisima o zatiti privatne svojine. Ideja da autorsko pravo (kao i pravo intelektualne svojine u celini) treba ukinuti zato to je nepotrebno ili tetno, je ekstremna i nerealna. Iako je popularna, ona gubi iz vida ta predstavlja javni interes u ovoj stvari, i pod uticajem je mita o tzv. novim poslovnim modelima na internetu, kao svemoguoj zameni za autorsko pravo. Drava bi trebalo da sankcionie svako krenje autorskog prava, ali i da se sama uzdri da ograniava autorsko pravo kroz ukidanje ili smanjenje autorske naknade za odreene privredne i socijalne grupe a na tetu samih autora. 3. Autorsko pravo u osnovi bi trebalo da titi pravo pojedinca pravo autora. autorsko pravo ima naglaenu dimenziju regulatora trita autorskih dela - zatita interesa autora je sredstvo za tu svrhu, a nikako svrha za sebe. Autori u kulturnim i kreativnim industrijama u Srbiji bi trebalo da kroz organizacije za kolektivno ostvarenje zatite autorskog prava visinu naknada prilagode ekonomskim mogunostima privrede, kao i da deo te naknade uloe u kreiranje ambijenta za razvoj kulturnih i kreativnih industrija u kojima deluju. 4. Sistem intelektualne svojine je zamiljen da bi stimulisao stvaralatvo, istraivanje i razvoj. Ekonomski najmonije zemlje savremenog sveta su upravo one koje imaju i najjai sistem intelektualne svojine. Ne postoji nijedna razvijena zemlja koja nema razvijen sistem zatite intelektualne svojine. Industrija autorskog prava ima sve vei doprinos u stvaranju bruto drutvenog proizvoda. U proseku, industrije zasnovane na autorskom pravu doprinose sa 4 do 6.5 odsto bruto drutvenog proizvoda, dok je u tehnoloki i ekonomski najrazvijenijim zemljama taj procenat vei. 5. Intelektualno vlasnitvo u kulturnom sistemu mora biti to blie kontroli pojedinca autora i to manje roba, budui da izvire iz kulturne raznolikosti i u nju uvire, pa se inspirie i na-

menjuje neemu to je javno dobro i tekovina civilizacije. 6. Iznenama Zakona o autorskom i srodnom pravu, emiteri radio i televizijskog programa duni su da vode elektronsku evidenciju emitovanja i reemitovanja autorskih dela, i obaveza drave u narednom periodu je da taj sistem evidentiranja uredi i uvede red, najpre u oblasti muzike industrije. 7. Sistem naplate autorske naknade snizio je kvalitet programa u mnogim medijima, koji su se okrenuli masovnom, bezlinom i bezvrednom kiu jer je najjeftiniji. titei vlastiti profit, kreativne industrije sklone su da ki promoviu kao stvarne kulturne proizvode, neprestano odgajajui ukus za bezvrednu produkciju. Takav poslovni pristup, iako stabilan izvor profita korporacijama koje, potiskujui male vlasnike, akumuliraju monopolistiki poloaj - ini stvarni kulturni proizvod preskupim sve veem broju ljudi. Strateke drutvene odluke dravne uprave, javne kulturne institucije i civilni sektor trebalo bi da korporacijama suprotstave svoja reenja i smanje njihovu svemo tamo gde korporativni interesi zadiru u interese ouvanja i odrive eksploatacije kulturne batine i raznolikosti kulturnih izraza. Finansiranjem potroake kulture i neukusa drava direktno radi protiv nacionalnih kulturnih interesa. 8. vra i organizovana saradnja izmeu razliitih dravnih organa s jedne i privatnog sektora s druge strane, u zajednikoj borbi protiv piraterije, ini se da je kljuna za uspeh. To pokazuju brojna svetska iskustva. Nigde u svetu, pa ni kod nas, borba protiv piraterije nije nadlenost samo jedne institucije. Ona uvek podrazumeva koordinirano delovanje razliitih dravnih struktura i nosilaca prava, a iskustva drugih zemalja nam govore da je jedino takav pristup plodotvoran i da donosi rezultate. 9. Vrlo izvesna vizija budue reforme autorskog prava u svetu digitalnih komunikacija, koja bi mogla imati izgleda na uspeh, podrazumeva: (a) postepeno smanjivanje iskljuivih imovinskih ovlaenja nosioca prava, (b) postepeno proirivanje ogranienja autorskog prava i (c) jaanje relativne, odn. obligacionopravne komponente istog. Drugim reima, slabie autorsko pravo kao osnov za zabranu drugima da

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pristupe delu na internetu, a jaae autorsko pravo kao osnov za potraivanje naknade koja e se, verovatno, naplaivati paualno. Dravna uprava i autori bi trebalo da idu u susret ovoj promeni i da je ve sada anticipiraju u svojoj praksi. 10. Krenje autorskog i srodnog prava treba efikasno sankcionisati i goniti i u tom smislu preporuka izvrnoj vlasti je da specijalizuje nekoliko sudova u dravi za procesuiranje sluajeva naruavanja autorskog i srodnog prava i intelektualne svojine. 11. Pravo na informisanje i slobodu govora, kao i druge line i graanske slobode biva narueno navodnim preim pravima zatite autorskog dela i industrijske svojine, i tu neprikosnovenost autorskog prava upravo istiu neki meunarodni sporazumi, kao to je ACTA. Iza ovakvih sporazuma zapravo se kriju lukrativni poslovi krupnog kapitala i pokuaji kontrole graanskih pokreta i samoorganizovanja graana putem socijalnih mrea, emu najee pribegavaju vlade. Preporuka graanima i civilnom sektoru je da prate budue najave promena u ovoj oblasti, jer e se pritisak pojaati, te da se odupru pokuajima kontrole i ogranienja slobode govora i informisanja na internetu. 12. IT sektor proizvodnja softvera i kompjuterske usluge, jedan je od sektora unutar kreativne ekonomije sa najveom ekspanzijom rasta u poslednjih pet godina. Projekcije rasta upuuju na zakljuak da se u tom sektoru moe u ovoj dekadi u Srbiji zaposliti vie od 200.000 strunjaka, na prvom mestu mladih. 13. Pruaoci usluga u oblasti kompjuterskih delatnosti, pojedinci, nisu detektovani u domaem privrednom sistemu jer ostvaruju prihod direktnim davanjem usluga na daljinu kupcima u inostranstvu. Umesto da pribegne restriktivnim merama prevoenja ovih delatnosti linih usluga u legalnu ekonomiju, dravna uprava bi trebala da pronae adekvatne podsticaje da se ovi prihodi evidentiraju i da se na njih plaa minimalan porez na dohodak graana. Na taj nain frilenseri pojedinci mogli bi da se tretiraju kao privremeno zaposleni u inostranstvu i da plaaju neki oblik poreza koji bi bio na nivou jednakom trokovima koje imaju da naplate svoje zarade, sa poreskom stopom ne veom od 10 odsto.

14. Startap poslovne inicijative u IT sektoru ne bi trebalo da finansira drava, ve da omogui ulaz venture inostranog kapitala kome e se garantovati jednostavna procedura ulaganja i iznoenja profita, kao i prodaja vlasnikih udela veim subjektima na meunarodnom tritu. Dravna uprava bi trebalo da samo omogui poslovni ambijent za slobodan protok kapitala u ovom sektoru odnosno da omogui fer trinu utakmicu. Preporuka dravnoj upravi je da kreira fondove za aktivnosti podrke finansiranja profesionalnog razvoja strunjaka u IT sektoru, pokrivanja trokova nastupa na inostranom tritu i promocije proizvoda, softvera, kao i da razvije i finansijski pokrije trokove angaovane mree pravnih strunjaka za autorsko pravo i intelektualnu svojinu i patente, koji bi bili na usluzi domaim privrednim drutvima koja planiraju da izvoze softver i kompjuterske usluge. 15. Dravna uprava bi trebalo da za oblast autorskog prava pojednostavi poresku politiku i ukine dvostruko oporezivanje sa svim relevantnim dravama za spoljnu trgovinu Srbije. 16. U obrazovnom sistemu za IT sektor drava bi trebalo da maksimalno pojednostavi proces sertifikacije i akreditacije relevantnih domaih privatnih i meunarodnih obrazovnih institucija. 17. Slobodne forme zapoljavanja u IT sektoru (frilenserski rad, lizing radne snage, rad kroz ugovor sa stranim poslodavcem) drava bi trebalo da verifikuje, jer su ti oblici zapoljavanja upravo specifini u IT sektoru.

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Neprofitni sektor u kulturnim i kreativnim industrijama

1. Kljuni trendovi razvoja neprofitnog sektora u narednoj dekadi su: rast i diversifikacija, okretanje ka pruanju drutvenih usluga i usluga prema dravi, komercijalizacija, profesionalizam i formalizam novih etikih standarda rada, globalizacija i premo paradigme otvorenog drutva nad paradigmom drave. Od konvencionalnog, neprofitni sektor ide ka razvoju kompleksnog i kombinovanog modela, koji podrazumeva istovremeno ouvanje neprofitne misije i otvaranja servisa profesionalnih i komercijalnih usluga. Profesionalizacija civilnog i neprofitnog sektora, kao sektora i privrednih subjekata koji su pruaoci usluga i generatori zapoljavanja i ukupnog ekonomskog razvoja, ostaje stalni cilj. Ovaj sektor treba dravna uprava trebalo bi da odvoji od parapolitikih i paraprofitnih udruenja, politikih pokreta i inicijativa. 2. Civilni i neprofitni sektor u kulturi i kreativnim industrijama je u praksi dokazan kao solidna forma podsticaja linog i profesionalnog razvoja i svojevrsni inkubator i kreativno arite na lokalnom nivou. Sektor razvija i razliite oblike radnog angamana, strukovnog osposobljavanja i uenja, privredne aktivnosti, naroito za mlade i marginalizovane drutvene grupe. Socijalno preduzetnitvo kao posebna forma preduzetnitva, stvaranja novih radnih mesta i dohotka u kreativnom sektoru trebalo bi da bude od posebnog drutvenog interesa i brige drave. 3. Preporuuje se posebna saradnja civilnog sektora Bosne i Hercegovine i Srbije u ovoj oblasti, na prvom mestu u afirmisanju vane uloge kreativnosti u izgradnji civilnog drutva, ali je potrebno prepoznati i osvetliti sve specifine uloge civilnog sektora, naroito u vezi promocija kulturne raznolikosti - profesionalizacija civilnog drutva - ekonomski razvoj dveju drava i regiona. 4. Civilni sektor ima posebnu ulogu u osvetljavanju fenomena kulturnih i kreativnih industrija i njihovih praksi. Kroz istraivake, razvojne i projekte/programe monitoringa javnih kulturnih, ekonomskih i socijalnih politika civilni sektor moe doprineti procesu uravnoteenog i kritikog preispitivanja uloge kulturnih i kreativnih industrija u ekonomskom i razvoju drutva. Posebna obaveza civilnog sektora koji se bavi kulturnom politikom i afirmie participativnost u

kulturi i kulturnu animaciju je da otvori dijalog o svim relevantnim temama zatite i promocije kulturne raznolikosti kao pravu na kulturu oveka i graanina. Preporuujemo asocijaciji Nezavisna kulturna scena Srbije da temu prava na kulturu stavi u svoju buduu agendu rada i delovanja. 5. Kulturna statistika je vana za praenje ekonomskog razvoja i rasta nacionalnih ekonomija. S obzirom da civilni sektor zapoljava, uestvuje u bruto drutvenom proizvodu, donosi novac iz stranih fondova, bavi se kulturnom politikom, kulturnom produkcijom, diseminacijom i animacijom u kulturi i pospeuje participativnost u kulturi i kreativnosti neophodno je usvojiti proireni statistiki broj za organizacije civilnog drutva/udruenja koja se bave ovim delatnostima, kako bi postali deo nacionalnih statistika i kako bi se detektovali, mapirali i merili njihovi uinci u oblasti kulturnih i kreativnih industrija.

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Ruralni razvoj i ouvanje sela

1. Koncept razvoja sela u Srbiji je zastareo a selo danas nije konzistentno obuhvaeno niti kulturnim niti ekonomskim politikama. Statistiki, selo u Srbiji ne postoji, jer se u drutvenim evidencijama vodi u sintagmi ostala naselja. Zato je najpre potrebno da se iz ostalih, selo statistiki prevede i ubudue evidentira kao seosko naselje. Osim seoskih naselja, trebalo bi u tipologiju naselja u Srbiji uvesti i meovita naselja (ni gradska ni seoska). 2. Selo je nosilac tradicije i seoske zajednice su nezaobilazan uvar nematerijalnog i materijalnog kulturnog naslea. Otuda je propast sela propadanje ive tradicije i kulture i taj proces drava mora hitno zaustaviti. 3. Razvoj sela mora biti u svemu integrisani socijalni razvoj, od infrastrukture do obrazovne politike. Javne slube moraju biti razvijane po modelu sela za selo, a ne samo po modelu grada. U nedostatku stalnih, lokalne samouprave mogu organizovati mobilne slube za seoska naselja. 4. Kulturni ivot na selu, u nedostatku domova kulture, moe biti organizovan unutar seoskih kola. Domove kulture, ali i naputene seoske kole lokalne samouprave mogu revitalizovati za stacionarne, povremene (rezidencijalne) programe ustanova kulture i civilnog sektora / neprofitnog sektora u kulturi. 5. Osim programa okrenutih nasleu i tradiciji, dravna uprava bi trebalo da za selo afirmie programe savremene umetnike produkcije i novih medija u kojima je kulturna raznolikost osnov. 6. Drava bi posebnim merama trebalo da potpomogne socijalno udruivanje i graanske inicijative za selo. Organizacije civilnog drutva mogu u seoskim sredinama obezbeivati mnoge usluge od vitalnog znaaja za socijalni i kulturni razvoj i za unapreenje kvaliteta ivota itelja. Potrebno je zakonskim merama podrati i olakati osnivanje ovih organizacija u seoskim naseljima i omoguiti u okviru civilnog sektora organizovanje usluga i aktivnosti vanih za poboljanje uslova ivota, naroito kulturnog ivota, jer kultura moe doprineti depopulaciji seoskih zajednica u Srbiji. 7. Neophodno je uvesti savremene modele seoskog i etno turizma, u skladu sa proverenim

iskustvom i znanjem steenim iz pozitivnih primera u svetu. 8. Pojava osnivanja ekolokih komuna na obodima seoskih naselja je pozitivan primer socijalne integracije urbanog stanovnitva koje naputa gradove i naseljava se u seoskim zajednicama radi pokretanja proizvodnje organske hrane ili drugih razloga. Dravna uprava bi mogla da finansira nove projekte za ispitivanje ovog fenomena i na osnovu toga kreira strategije za razvoj i revitalizaciju sela kroz integraciju urbanog stanovnitva u njima. 9. Drava bi trebalo da posebnim fondom podstie kulturno stvaralatvo na selu i za selo, kao i zatitu i promociju nematerijalnog kulturnog naslea. S obzirom da je akulturacija sela uzela maha i da obiaji vezani za ivot u nekadanjim seoskim zadrugama netragom nestaju, hitnim merama trebalo bi uiniti da se sadanje nematerijalno kulturno naslee (obiaji, jezik, lokalni govori, usmena knjievnost, javna memorija sela) pohrani u video i fono zapise. 10. Kroz ekonomsku i agrarnu politiku, ali i druge politike, ukljuujui i socijalnu, drava mora da uini sve da ivot na selu postane ekonomski odriv i prijemiv za mlade i za ene.

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RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CREATIVE SECTOR/ CULTURAL INDUSTRIES

These recommendations are based on the results of discussions held during the panels and debates organized from May 2012 until January 2013, on the views of the authors of articles published on the website MadMarx.rs and based on exchange of opinions with experts and entrepreneurs who were involved in the project Dositheus Professional Development for Entrepreneurship in Cultural/Creative Industries. These recommendations do not plead for a final judgment on the phenomena and processes of what they speak, on contrary, they are outlined here with desire to help public administration and interested parties to use these recommendations as templates for open discussions, in order to enhance the cultural heritage sector, discuss the controversy concerning relations between culture, cultural and creative industries in the context of cultural and economic policies in Serbia and to set strategic direction for their future sustainable development.

Therefore, recommendations are not final, they are considered as an inventory of the present time, because of the dynamic changes in the creative sector and the national culture and economy of Serbia, in a few years, they could be considered anachronistic. This, of course, does not mean that we should wait and delay changes, because change is the only constant. So we have tried to understand this period of time we are living in and to put down all our thoughts in black and white. The recommendations are intended for those who recognize that they concern them. They are intended for those who seem not to be related to this issue the public administration and the entrepreneurial sector of Serbia.

Academica Group Centre for Creative Economy Research March, 2013

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Cultural diversity and the concept of Cultural and Creative Industries

1. Culture has been and it should be a field of freedom and creativity that has no price. Culture, like education and science, belongs to the domain of inalienable rights of man and citizen. No government has the right to disregard this freedom, to restrict and regulate it in accordance with any group or individual political, ideological or any other, basically, particular interest. If the society as a community of cultural creators and cultural audiences is imposed by private, political or corporate interests, it would be an encroachment on the public domain as a social freedom to create and enjoy the values of civilization. Cultural diversity is, at the same time, an instrument and an objective of creating and preserving this public domain. Cultural activities, goods and services have both an economic and a cultural nature, because they convey identities, values and meanings, and must therefore not be treated as solely having commercial value (The UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions) 2. The concept of cultural industries in Serbia should be defined in terms of cultural and economic policy, in a way that they dont confront each other but to complement each other. Cultural industries mostly remain in the field of cultural policy whereas creative industries remain in the field of economics. It is equally harmful not to accept cultural and creative industries because of the change of the cultural paradigm in the last two decades, as well as to uncritically accept them as fashionable ideas without essential understanding and critical consideration. 3. Economic models of cultural industries tend to ignore the social aspect of cultural identity and cultural diversity, because they treat culture as commodity and creative sector as a sector of employing, generating income and profit. Thus, cultural policy in the field of cultural heritage and cultural creativity shouldnt be managed by economists or its social value and importance shouldnt be estimated by economic analysts, either governmental or non-governmental. 4. Cultural industries are, in fact, cultural activities or cultural creativity or cultural produc-

tion if they generate economic value chain, economic growth and employment. If they are not mass production and industry based on copyright and industrial property rights they shouldnt be considered as industries but as cultural production which enable us to ensure a right to culture, preserve and promote cultural heritage and create cultural identity, and therefore they should be called culture in the narrow sense. 5. Cultural industries are non-industrial cultural activities: visual arts, performing arts, cultural heritage and traditional crafts. Non-industrial type of cultural industries should include the following classification codes of main economic activities: 9001 Performing arts 9002 Other artistic activities within performing arts 9003 Arts 9102 Activities within museums, galleries, collections. The following activities are partial and service activities in the culture/cultural industries of non-industrial type, because they dont generate a new value: 9004 Activities within art institutions 9101 Activities within libraries and archives 9103 The protection and maintenance of immovable cultural property, cultural and historic sites, buildings and similar tourist monuments. These main, partial and service economic activities within culture should be mapped, recorded and statistically processed and then, based on the National strategy for cultural development and urban development plans, they should be monitored and encouraged in their development only if they are in jurisdiction of state and local governments. These activities shouldnt be considered as an economy in the strict sense, nor observed and evaluated within state economic policy. These activities should be object of specific and systematic care and protection in charge of state administration. 6. The cultural industries also includes industrial cultural activities and they are: discography

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and music industry, film industry and film production, fashion industry and textile and footwear industry, radio and TV production and broadcasting, publishing, graphic activities, graphic design and printing. These main economic activities are marked by following economic activities codes: 1419 Manufacture of other wearing apparel and accessorize 1811 Printing of newspapers 1812 Other printing 1820 Reproduction of recorded material 3109 Manufacture of other furniture 3240 Manufacture of games and toys 5811 Book publishing 5813 Publishing of newspapers 5814 Publishing of journals and periodicals 5819 Other publishing activities 5911 Production of cinematographic works, audiovisual products and television programs 5920 Sound recording and music publishing 6010 Radio broadcasting 6020 Production and broadcasting of television program 7420 Photographic services The following activities among cultural industries are industrial, interdependent, partial or service activities, because they dont directly generate new cultural value but they represent distribution channels and links in the value chain or media for designing cultural product in terms of goods: 1413 Manufacture of other clothes 1414 Manufacture of underwear 1512 Manufacture of travel bags, handbags etc. and leather products and belts 1520 Manufacture of footwear

1629 Manufacture of other products from wood, cork, straw and wicker 1813 Pre-press services 1814 Bookbinding and related services 2341 Manufacture of ceramic products and home decorative items 3212 Manufacture of jewelry and related item 3213 Manufacture of imitation jewelry and related articles 5812 Publishing directories and address books 5912 Activities that follow the recording phase in the production of cinematographic works and television programs 5913 Distribution of cinematographic, audio-visual works and television programs 5914 Broadcasting and screening of cinematographic works 8552 Education and coaching in the culture These main economic activities should be mapped, recorded and statistically processed and then, based on the National strategy for cultural development and urban development plans, they should be monitored and encouraged in their development only if they are in jurisdiction of state and local governments. If they are a part of public administration system, these activities shouldnt be considered as an economy in the strict sense, nor primarily observed and evaluated within state economic policy, but rather through cultural, educational and social policy. These activities, however, should be object of specific and systematic protection and control, in charge of state government, whether they are in the system of public administration or in a private, for-profit or non-profit sector, because they are a part of the culture in a broad sense, they are the factors influencing cultural identity and creators of the system of social values, hence necessarily mandatory under regulations prescribed and enforced by the state administration, concerning the cultural policy. 7. Economic activities, in which the creativity and thus the cultural expression is an important input in the production of goods and

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services, represent creative industries. Creative industries include mass production, the value chain, exclusive copyright, making a profit and/or income, progressive employment, creation of intellectual property assets and patents, knowledge-based economy and economy based on new technologies, generating intellectual and creative capital. These main economic activities are marked by following economic activities codes: 5821 Issuance of computer games 5829 Issuing other software 6201 Computer programming 6311 Data processing, hosting etc. 6312 Web portals 6392 Information activities not mentioned elsewhere 7021 Communications and public relations 7111 Architectural activity 7311 Activity of Advertising agencies 7312 Media presentation 7320 Market research and research on public opinion 7410 Specialized design activities 9104 Activity of botanical gardens and zoos and the protection of natural resources 9321 Activities of amusement parks and theme parks 9329 Other amusement and recreation activities. The following activities within the creative industries are interdependent, partial or service activities because they are related to distribution channels or ancillary activities: 6120 Activities in wireless communication 6130 Satellite communication activities 6202 Consulting activities in the field of Information Technology

6203 Management of computer equipment 6209 Other Information Technology services. These economic activities should be economically regulated, monitored and statistically processed and registered in the state documents but as the exclusive domain of private economic interests, without having to be an object of state ownership and management rights. Creative industries in the strict sense are not culture and they shouldnt be treated as object of jurisdiction of those authorities responsible for creating and implementing cultural policy at the state and local level. At the same time, they should be the concern of implicit, consistent, economic policy. 8. Creative sector comprises: culture and cultural activities, non-industrial cultural industries, industrial cultural industries and creative industries. Serbia should define a strategy for the development of cultural industries as part of national strategy for cultural development. Serbia should define a strategy of incentives for creative industries through national economic development plans, education and labor market policy and fiscal policy. 9. In the last thirty years, the paradigm of culture has changed, in terms of concept of culture, models of cultural production and diffusion and in terms of interrelation of cultural habits and needs, cultural practices and cultural participation. The main reasons are an expansion and dynamic growth of digital global media culture and the dominance of the corporate culture and culture of consumption in everyday life. These trends are inevitable and they shouldnt be ignored. Considering these trends of commercialization of culture, Serbia should define its national interests in the field of culture and protect and promote the tangible and intangible culture as culture of the soil, not as culture of the nation and the religion. 10. The national bodies responsible for defining cultural policy should determine what a sustainable development in culture is. This definition should include, apart from the instruments for preservation and promotion of cultural expressions, public memory, responsibility and moral knowledge. 11. Definition of culture in Serbia should be determined by values of enjoying it, not by exploita-

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tion and commodification. At the same time, we should abandon any model in which culture can be a purpose in itself, since the main purpose of culture is in integration of society. Cultural and creative goods are dynamic public goods not static social values, because they are in a dynamic interaction with the entire national economy. 12. Public memory, like heritage, should never become a commodity, for-profit business or activity based predominantly in the private sector. Public sector of public memory should always be regulated and supervised by the state government.

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State Cultural Policy and Cultural Industries

1. Culture and cultural industries generate national prosperity in terms defined by theories of welfare economics. Economic model of developing culture and cultural industries is always political and thats how it should remain. Even though culture and cultural industries can be perceived as an expense, from economic point of view, because they have and always will have a low rate of productivity, they have and always will have need to spend more economic resources than they produce, due to economy of scale, they should be, however, considered as productive because they create social, cultural and intellectual capital which cannot be fully measured and evaluated economically. After establishing this political model, public policy should, only then, apply economic principles and evaluate the work and contribution of each individual agent using internal indicators to assess the efficiency, profitability and competitiveness in such system, defined as a cultural and economic system. 2. Creative industries are parallel with cultural industries even though they have a lot in common. As a sector which dynamically creates niche markets, increase innovation resources and knowledge base, and thus create a national economy, the state should approach this creative economy as an ally that regulates and promotes their development while enhancing the overall economic development of society. 3. There isnt any economic interest why state should be an owner of capital in creative industries. Hence, the government should immediately deprive itself from the remaining forms of ownership and management in the media, recording industry and publishing industry and open the field where market and private initiatives can be the main regulator of creation and the flow of (creative) capital. By staying ahead in these industries, the state is a threat to a market, because this results in disloyal competition for private capital. 4. National television and radio station should be considered, primarily, as national service for public informing and as media for culture and non-industrial cultural industries, not as a business which occupies the market of radio and television production and broadcasting, advertising and creative industries, because their objective is an income.

5. The national cultural policy should perceive and regulate the cultural system as autonomous social system, just like in the case of the higher education system. Cultural institutions should have autonomy as universities. Cultural institutions should be managed by professionals within cultural vocation and under the patronage mandate of government and local executive authorities. 6. It is necessary to abandon immediately the political party system of control, management, appointment and employment in the cultural institutions and to consider this practice as contrary to basic interests of culture and society. 7. Within the shortest period of time, it is necessary to propose and adopt National Strategy for cultural development, which will integrate strategy for preservation, promotion and development of industrial and non-industrial cultural industries. After the extensive public discussion about this document, it should be adopted and consistently implemented. 8. National culture in Serbia shouldnt be defined as the culture of Serbian people. All cultures in Serbia are Serbian culture and they should be treated, valued and protected equally. Serbian majority culture would be protected by virtue of being majority, because its cultural participation involves the largest number of citizens. Any form of cultural discrimination, denial of minority cultures and their neglecting and destruction should be severely punished and prevented. 9. Culture clericalism is an extremely dangerous trend for the culture itself as well as for the sustainable development of culture and society. It is anachronistic that in contemporary society religious communities are, in any way, promoted as heirs and guardians of national and ethnic cultures. It is especially dangerous to regard spirituality and religiosity as identical. 10. Historical monuments are cultural monuments not religious sites, hence the conservation and promotion of this objects should be implemented by state and not by religious community, because these monuments are of huge importance for society as a whole rather than for a specific religious community.

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11. Model of national pensions in culture, model of independent artists status and any other model in culture that puts politics above the welfare of cultural policy should be reviewed. There isnt socially vulnerable and socially earned category of cultural and artistic creator that should on reasonable grounds cause the adoption of specific instruments in cultural policy. Cultural and artistic activity is personal choice and not a mandatory service, thus pension and job security should stem from personal work, not from honors and awards. 12. The model of cultural institutions of national importance and so far established lists of national institutions should be reviewed. It is not on reasonable grounds that local institutions or enterprise with private capital, especially associations of citizens are institutions of national importance. Local institutions of national importance should be nationalized, and private institutions should be kept in the field of private property, private interests and private mission, they should be helped regarding their work but not because of their privileged status. 13. Research and development activity in culture, cultural and creative industries (social sciences and humanities) should not be under the control and direction of state, because this activity is market oriented so the public administration in this field would be disloyal competition. The state already generates public interest in these industries through the network of public universities and using internally developed instruments of measuring, monitoring and evaluating of cultural system in government administration. Since the research and development of cultural and creative industries, as market economic activity, is important for the development of cultural and creative industries, the state may consider other economic measures and instruments in order to promote their development. 14. It is necessary to carry out the urgent, radical and long-term sustainable reforms of public sector within culture, because this sector is in a state of internal collapse and disappearance. The reform would first have to include the definition of network of local, regional and national institutions, definition of conditions for their establishment and operation, financing commitments and other instruments necessary for a modern and sustainable governance

in them, including employment policy and resolving the problem of redundant employees. Some institutions would have to be closed as redundant due to duplication of their mission, and some should be established because of the need to protect national interest on entire territory or on some part. In cases where the implementation of institutions reform isnt possible, it is necessary to shut it down and then create a new one with the same mission, historic and program continuity, but with staff and management discontinuity. 15. The mission of economic and non-economic entities in culture and the cultural industries is to encourage the process of social change and development of critical consciousness. Recognition of this aspect of the public cultural institutions mission should be the part of the process of their reform. Civic initiatives activist and critical culture should be affirmed through programs of support, from public funds as well. Today, more than ever, Serbia needs critical awareness and open, public dialogue with everyone. 16. Adequate cultural policy must satisfy the valuable, and democratic principle, i.e. it has to find a combination between these two key principles of public policies within culture and cultural industries.

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Development of Business Environment for Cultural and Creative Industries

1. Culture and cultural industries are the same entity observed from different angles. Culture is perceived as the sphere of human and citizen right to enjoy cultural heritage and civilization achievements. Therefore, culture is legitimate part of national and state spending. The budget for culture shouldnt be reduced in relation to the standards of civilized part of the world and to be considered as extra expense, especially if it generates social cohesion and it is inseparable part of the ethnic, civic and national identity. On the other hand, cultural industries perceive cultural creation and cultural production of goods and services through the income model because culture employs, creates economic products with cultural inputs and cultural/economic outputs and generate new economic values that are relevant to the competitiveness growth of countries and cities. Both views on culture are equally important and necessary. 2. Cultural environment is, at the same time, business and economic environment. There isnt a successful economy in the country culturally devastated and culturally impoverished society. Therefore, and because of this, investment in culture is an investment in the economy. 3. For development of economically stimulating environment it is essential that social environment is full of tolerance, open and democratic intercultural dialogue and equipped with modern technology for creating goods and services and with flow of information. The government is obliged to create conditions of tolerance, democratic and civilized dialogue between its citizens. 4. Public administration is obligated and responsible to ensure the right of every Serbian citizen to culture. Through cultural dialogue, conditions for cultural production and exchange of cultural goods and services are created. Recommendation for state and local governments is that for all issues of cultural development, regular forms of public dialogues, public discussions and public polemics should be organized, in order to be sure that democratic mindset and democratic values are being installed in laws and sublegal acts. 5. Impoverished citizen doesnt have the opportunity to enjoy the cultural heritage, to par-

ticipate in cultural exchange, or to be encouraged to cultivate and create culture. Raising the living standards, opportunities for greater cultural participation, cultural production and exchange are being created, because poor citizen doesnt buy cultural products. 6. Cultural system is an infrastructure system of a society and a state. If theres no cultural infrastructure, there isnt a business environment, and therefore, any investment in business initiatives in culture and cultural industries is doomed to failure. 7. Cultural, as well as creative industries have more human capital than any other industries, particularly those in the real sector. Due to development of human resources, cultural and creative industries are engines of economic development, at a significant level, as sectors with high productivity and export potential. 8. The government will be able to stop the braindrain, i.e. the outflow of human and creative capital, only if it allows it to freely develop, with interests, in Serbia. Suppression of state and private monopolies and oligopolies, dictatorship of political parties and political voluntarism of public administrators, in the culture and creative industries, will provide basic, but not the only prerequisites for democratic, creative development of citizens and various social groups. 9. Cultural industries in Serbia have en economic significance, due to national and cultural diplomacy and export of cultural products, which isnt negligible. 10. Public-private partnerships in the cultural industries and cultural production are not sustainable and they wouldnt be until state monopolies are abolished, and investments in culture, cultural and creative industries become profitable for private investors. It is not enough, therefore, to abolish monopolies, but to enable economic growth in the sectors of cultural and creative industries, in order to investments pay off. 11. It is necessary to ensure that each quality private, non-profit initiative acquire and obtain rights to compete, on equal terms, with the public sector for the public funds, especially if these private initiatives are oriented toward

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promotion of cultural participation and development of critical consciousness. 12. In general, the state shouldnt encourage and promote the commercial programs of cultural and creative industries, but limit its task on providing unrestricted competition in market and facilitate the investment of private investors in these industries with fiscal instruments. 13. All cultural institutions supported from public budget shouldnt have a market price for their products. In the first place, enjoyment of cultural heritage shouldnt be charged. Government should provide a minimum right to enjoy culture and cultural heritage. 14. Every citizen should have the discretion right to choose to invest the share of tax liability (1-2 percent of the total annual income) in culture and non-profit cultural industries. Such an instrument has proved well in many countries where its implemented. 15. Through tax incentives, government should encourage the establishment of private endowments and private and corporate foundations in culture and cultural industries. 16. It is unacceptable that government budget subsidized commercial festival production, entertainment industry and consumer culture; these subsidies should be forbidden and they should be considered as unacceptable waste of public resources, which should be punishable by law. 17. State cultural budget should be in major part dedicated to protection and promotion of cultural heritage, non-profit cultural production of public and civil sector, reform of government cultural management, professional development of those employed in culture and cultural industries, encouragement of internal enterprises in public cultural sector, for international cultural cooperation and funds for development of entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship in culture and cultural industries in devastated, poorly developed and undeveloped regions of the country and in rural communities. 18. There should be an analysis of possibilities and the need to form a mutual fund by ministries of culture, economics, science and education

to incite export of cultural products and services and development of innovation in culture and cultural industries. Strategy of cultural development should recommend which activities have strategic importance for national development and international trade. 19. State ownership and management should completely leave tourism and tourism industry. The mission of the state in this area is to enable, by developing road and other infrastructure, the development of tourism and tourist commerce. On the other hand, heritage establishments should put their programs and commerce in the function of private tourism industries. Tourism in a system of public agencies and enterprises should be structured as a support activity, not as a main activity, because in that case it grows into a disloyal competition to private initiatives in that industry. 20. State should support entrepreneurship in cultural and creative industries in devastated and undeveloped communities/municipalities by creating special local and regional funds for development of business initiatives and by encouraging others to create such funds. There is no state interest for investing in cultural and creative industries in developed cities and municipalities, but they have to be provided with an equal, just and fair position in free market. 21. State should, through election of management by contest, enable that enterprising managers run government funded establishments which would incorporate entrepreneurial culture in the whole collective. With time, conditions would be met which would allow that state owned cultural and creative sector develop autonomously with exclusive principal of public interest and considering profession. Public cultural sector in Serbia is on the brink of destruction mostly because of negative HR selection which is led by political parties who degraded and abused state ownership. 22. State isnt obliged to provide any cultural or artistic profession with a work place, but it is obliged to investigate the need of market for certain professions for which the citizens are educating in these areas, and to provide environment where young experts can find job in areas of culture for which they have been educated.

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23. On the level of national policies in Serbia and Western Balkan region, it is necessary to establish consistent programs of development and connecting regional market of creative goods and services, for the benefit of selfsustainable national economy of creative professions. Because of the complementarities of markets, identical or similar cultural models, joint cultural history it is necessary to intensify connections between Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina and especially between Serbia and Republika Srpska. Recommendation for authorities of these states and national entities is to open a dialog for solving the questions of joint cultural and economical progress through establishment of creativity market without customs or trade barriers. Singularly, both markets are too small within themselves to have any significant influence in GDP. 24. Forms of cultural and economic cooperation of states of Western Balkans, especially in dissemination of information and establishing partner-like interest cooperation and through policies of sustaining and introducing joint measures and instruments of top-down cultural and economical policies are possible through establishing cooperative platforms of all three sectors, both nationally and regionally, and on the local level. Local creative development is the basis of total national and regional development. 25. It is necessary to establish stable information network between the relevant departments and governments of Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska to exchange information, knowledge and experience. This is also possible through establishing a portal and through joint effort towards EU program Creative Europe (2014-2020), and towards other European and regional funds for development and cooperation. Long term goal should be wider regional connecting of creative subjects of the Balkan region and, through economic cooperation, achievements of other developmental goals of the region both, those already set up and those which are newly recognized. 26. Economy statistics in cultural enterprises must include all forms of employment of work force, especially export-oriented engagements from a far (ICT sector, graphic, web and product de-

sign, consulting, research and development). 27. Economy statistics of the state should equalize and standardize commercial activities in the areas of culture, cultural and creative industries and also to modernize profession nomenclature in these areas. 28. Recommendation to commercial organizations, entrepreneurs and non-profit organizations which contribute to development of local and national cultural and creative industries is to cooperate by using legal possibilities of establishing independent chambers of commerce for creative sector, on the level of commercial so-called creative industries, or by branch for every creative industry individually. This will enable affirmation of sectors, besides the territorial reasons for cooperation. We believe that this model will give better contribution to economical and creative development of the state and its municipalities. Except this way of associating, we recommend to the subjects of creative sector of Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska to develop other forms of business associating. Within the civil sector which contributes to cultural production and production of creative goods and services we recommend similar associating in sub-organizational forms of these business associations, so that organizations, societies and non-profit organizations (including universities, institutes and organizations for research and development) could put a better light on their role and map out all the agents of independent cultural and creative production which contribute economically and are statistically significant in national economy. These mixed cooperative platforms can, in due time, generate development of new creative clusters. 29. It is needed to build into National strategy for cultural development of Serbia (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska) a national orientation for development of cultural and creative industries and a specific role of civil and non-profit sector, so that the development could be consistently planned and implemented. It is necessary to diversify statistically those organizations and associations of civil society which contribute to economical, cultural and creative development from other professional, hobby and similar associations and from activ-

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ist organizations which insure for citizens their right to culture. 30. Creative development as the economic development is most obvious on the local level in town and municipal policies. State and city policies in synchronicity can start a creative development in cities. Recommendations to city and municipal authorities in Serbia is to start a process of integration of creative resources in local economical growth of their communities - by mapping and researching of capacities, probing of needs and attitudes and afterwards, adjusting local development plans in accordance with these findings and needs, so that local economies could be created based on development of creative hubs, cultural centers, creative quarters, creative incubators and generating development of creative clusters. 31. Export oriented commercial activities of cultural and creative industries with great potential are graphic and web design, product design, IT sector - production of software and computer services, film industry, industry of traditional crafts and souvenirs; these industries should be subject to special analysis, research and creation of economical strategy of the state. 32. To attract investments in film industry and for them to pay off, through creation of domestic film supporting industries, employment and value chain in local tourism and catering industry, it is needed to carry out as soon as possible all planned measures of tax cuts and tax return for foreign production companies, as stated in The Cinematography Law. 33. Presuppositions for continuation of development of creative industries or creative economies of Serbia and Western Balkan region are: efficient protection of copyright and intellectual property, functioning of public administration and courts, and stimulating and uncomplicated tax system. 34. In cooperation with corporate sector, international funds and with mediation of civil society organizations, support funds for development of cultural entrepreneurship on national level, and efforts directed towards recovery of regional market can be fruitful investment, which will in period from 3 to 5 years bring increase in employment and better economical trade in Western Balkan.

35. It is necessary to introduce principles of lifelong learning and constant professional improvement in state funded cultural institutions, just like in sectors of education and health care. 36. In the process of reforming elementary and high school education in Serbia, it is needed to introduce programs for entrepreneurship and development of entrepreneurial personality. 37. It is necessary for state to conduct a process of accreditation for those organizations which provide adult education and professional education for cultural and creative sector, and cultural industries, and also to evaluate programs on the market and to provide further development for best programs through measures of incentives and co-financing.

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Copyright, intellectual property and IT sector

1. Key factor which determines the level of concurrency of economy of a country is the condition of high tech industries, and with that the copyright, industrial and intellectual property law. 2. Authors work is a private property and as such should be subject to all the legislation concerning protection of private property. Idea that copyright (and the right of intellectual property in general) should be abolished because it is unnecessary or detrimental is extreme and unrealistic. Although it is popular, it loses sight of what is the public interest in this matter, and it is under the influence of myth of so-called, new business models on the internet as an allpowerful substitute for copyright. State should sanction any infringements of copyright, but it should also refrain from constraining copyright through abolishing or diminishing royalties for certain commercial or social groups and thus damaging authors themselves. 3. Copyright should basically protect the right of the individual - right of an author. Copyright has an accented dimension as regulator of copyright market - protection of authors interest is a means to an end, not for the purpose of itself. Authors in creative and cultural industries in Serbia should accommodate height of royalties through organizations for collective achievement of copyright to the economical possibilities of commerce, and also to part of that royalties invest in creation of environment beneficial to development of cultural and creative industries in which they act. 4. Intellectual property system is invented to stimulate creativity, research and development. Economically most powerful countries of the modern world are those that have the strongest intellectual property system. There isnt a developed country which doesnt have well developed intellectual property system. Copyright industry has increasing its contribution to GDP. In average, copyright based industries contribute to GDP with 4 to 6.5 percent. In technologically and economically most developed countries, this percentage is even higher. 5. Intellectual property in cultural system has to be as close as possible to control of the individual author and as least as possible a commod-

ity, since it comes from cultural diversity and it goes back into that diversity, so it is self-inspiring and it is intended for something which is a common good and a civilization achievement. 6. Changes in The Copyright Law state that broadcasting companies are obligated to keep electronic records of broadcasting and rebroadcasting of copyrighted works and obligation of the state is to tidy up and to put in order that system, in upcoming period, in music industry firstly. 7. System for collection of royalties has diminished the quality of program in many media, which, in effect, turned to massive, featureless and worthless kitsch program because it is the cheapest. Protecting their profits, creative industries have a tendency to promote kitsch as real cultural products, constantly maintaining taste for worthless production. Such business approach, albeit a source of constant income for corporations which, by pushing out smaller competitors, accumulate monopolistic position it makes real cultural product too expensive for the majority of people. Strategic decisions by the government, public cultural institutions and civil sector should oppose their solutions to the corporations and diminish their power, especially where corporate interests conflict with interests of protection and sustainable exploitation of cultural resources and diversity of cultural expressions. By financing consumer culture and kitsch, the state works directly against national cultural interests. 8. Better and more organized cooperation of different state institutions on one hand and private sector on the other, in joint effort to fight piracy seems to be the key element for success. This is proven by different experiences around the world. Nowhere in the world, including our country, is battle against piracy jurisdiction of single institution. That battle always includes coordinated action of different government structures and copyright owners, and experiences of other countries show us that only this way of handling things brings results. 9. Highly certain vision of future reform of copyright in the world of digital communication, which could succeed, includes: (a) gradual diminishment of exclusive property authorizations of the copyright owners, (b) gradual

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extension of copyright restrictions and (c) strengthening of relative and obligatory right component of copyright. In other words, copyright will lose its strength as a basis for restraint of internet access to the authors work, but it will gain more power as a basis for money claim which will, probably, be paid in lump sum. Government and authors should move towards this change and anticipate it in their own practices. 10. Violation of copyright and related rights should be efficiently sanctioned and punished and in that sense we recommend to executive branch of government to specialize several courts in the country for processing cases which infringe copyright and intellectual property laws. 11. Right to information and freedom of speech, and other personal and civil freedoms are violated by allegedly more important laws concerning copyright and intellectual property and that inviolability of copyright is accented by some international agreements, including ACTA. Behind these agreements are actually lucrative businesses of large capital and attempts to control civil movements and groups of citizens organized through social networks, which is usually governmental modus operandi. Recommendation to citizens and civil sector is to follow future changes in this area, because the pressure will rise, so they should fight back the attempts to control them and to limit freedom of speech and information on internet. 12. IT sector - software production and computer services is one of the fastest growing sectors within creative economy in the last 5 years. Growth projection makes us come to the conclusion that in this sector in this decade Serbia can employ 200.000 experts, young experts, in the first place. 13. Providers of services in the area of computer activities, individuals, arent detected by domestic commercial system, because they gain income directly providing services to third parties abroad. Instead of reaching for restrictive measures of introducing these activities in legal economy, the state should find adequate incentives that these incomes are recorded and that they pay a minimum income tax. That way, freelancers could be treated as em-

ployed abroad and they could pay some form of tax which would be appropriate with their income, with tax rate not higher than 10 percent. 14. Start-up business initiatives in IT sector should not be financed by the state, but the state should enable entrance of foreign venture capital, which would be guaranteed with simple procedure of investing and taking out profit, as well as selling parts of ownership in international market. Government should just enable business environment for free flow of capital in this sector, i.e. to enable fair market game. Recommendation to the government is to create funds for support activities - financing professional development for experts in IT sector, covering the expenses of going out to foreign market and promotion of products, software, as well as development and financial coverage of expenses of network of legal experts for copyright, intellectual property and patents, which would serve domestic commercial societies which plan to export software and computer services. 15. State government should simplify tax policies for copyright and abolish double taxes with all the states relevant for Serbian foreign trade. 16. In the educational system for IT sector, the state should simplify the process of certification and accreditation of all relevant domestic and international educational institutions to the maximum. 17. The state should verify all the free forms of employment in IT sector (freelancing, work force leasing and contracts with foreign employers) because these are forms specific to IT sector.

1.

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Non-profit sector in Cultural and Creative Industries

1. Key trends of development of non-profit sector in the next decade are: growth and diversification, turning towards providing public services and services to the state, commercialization, professionalism and formalism of new ethical standards of work, globalization and prevailing of open society paradigm over the state paradigm. From the conventional, non-profit sector is moving towards development of complex and combined model which includes, at same time, the preservation of non-profit mission and opening of professional and commercial services. Professionalization of civil and nonprofit sector, as well as sector of commercial subject which provide services and are generators of employment and total economical growth, remains a constant goal. State should recognize this sector as different from parapolitical and paraprofit organizations, political movements and initiatives. 2. Civil and non-profit sector in cultural and creative industries has been shown in practice to be a solid form of encouragement of both personal and professional growth and a kind of an incubator and creative hub on a local level. This sector develops different forms of employment and working engagement, professional proficiency and learning, commercial activity, especially for young adults and marginalized groups. Social entrepreneurship as a specific form of entrepreneurship and a way of creating new jobs should be of a special public interest and interest of the state. 3. We recommend special cooperation of civil sectors of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia in this area, in the first place in affirmation of importance of creativity in building a civil society, but all the specific roles of civil sector have to be recognized, especially when it comes to promotion of cultural diversity - professionalization of civil society - economical development of the two states and region. 4. Civil sector has a special role in shining a light on phenomena of cultural and creative industries and their practices. Civil sector can contribute to process of balanced and critical analysis of the role of cultural and creative industries in economical development of society through research, development and monitoring projects/programs of public cultural, economical and social policies. Special obligation

of civil sector which deals with cultural policy and affirms participating in culture and cultural animation is to open dialogue about all the relevant topics of protection and promotion of cultural diversity as a right of a person to culture. We recommend to association Independent Cultural Scene in Serbia to put the topic of right to culture on its future agenda. 5. Cultural statistic is important in monitoring economic growth and development of national economies. Considering that the civil sector employs, has a part in GDP, brings in money from foreign funds, works with cultural policies, cultural production, dissemination and animation in culture and improves participation in culture and creativity it is necessary to adopt wider statistical number for organizations of civil society which deal with these activities, so that they could become a part of national statistics and so that their effects in the area of cultural and creative industries could be detected, mapped and measured.

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Rural development and village preservation

1. Concept of rural development in Serbia is outof-date, and village today is not consistently taken into consideration with cultural or economical policies. Statistically, there is no village in Serbia, because in public records it is found under category other settlements. This is the reason why in the future it should be categorized under rural settlement. Except rural settlement, typology in Serbia should include mixed settlements (those that are both rural and urban settlements). 2. Village is the main vehicle of tradition and rural communities are important keepers of both intangible and tangible cultural heritage. Therefore, ruining of villages is ruining of living tradition and culture and this process must be urgently stopped by the state. 3. Development of village must be totally integrated social development, from infrastructure to educational policy. Public services have to be developed according to the rural model, not urban model. In the absence of permanent services, local governments can organize mobile services for rural settlements. 4. Cultural life in village, in the absence of cultural institutions can be organized within village schools. Cultural institutions, and also abandoned village schools, local governments can revitalize for stationary, occasional (residential) programs of civil/non-profit cultural sector. 5. Except programs which deal with heritage and tradition, state government should affirm in the village programs of contemporary artistic production and new media, based on cultural diversity. 6. The state should introduce special measures to help social joining of civic initiatives for the village. Civil society organizations can provide village with many services of vital importance for social and cultural development and improvement of quality of living for its residents. Legislation should back up and make it easier to found this kind of organizations in rural settlements and enable within civil sector organizations of services and activities which are important for improvement of conditions of living, especially of cultural life, because culture can contribute to depopulation of rural communities in Serbia.

7. It is necessary to introduce modern models of rural and ethno tourism in concordance with established experience and knowledge gained by positive examples in the world. 8. Phenomenon of founding ecological communes on the brinks of rural settlements is a positive example of social integration of urban population which is leaving cities and settling in rural communities in order to establish production of organic food or for other reasons. The state government could finance new research projects to examine this phenomenon and, based on that, to create strategies for development and revitalization of villages through integration of urban population. 9. The state should encourage cultural production in village and for village with a special fund, as well as protection and promotion of intangible cultural heritage. Considering that acculturation of the village has gained momentum and that the customs of rural life are disappearing, urgent measures should be considered to store current intangible heritage (customs, language, dialect, oral literature, public memory of the village) as video and phono records. 10. Through economical, agricultural and other policies, including social policy, the state must do whatever is in its power to make rural life economically sustainable and susceptive for young adults and for women.

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Zahvaljujemo na ueu i saradnji / We are grateful to:


dr Milena Dragievi ei, Univerzitet umetnosti u Beogradu dr Miroslav Zdravkovi, Makroekonomija.org dr Branimir Stojkovi, Fakultet politikih nauka, Beograd dr Miroslav Prokopijevi, Institut za evropske studije i Centar za slobodno trite, Beograd dr Goran Nikoli, Institut za evropske studije, Beograd dr Predrag Cvetianin, Centar za empirijske studije kulture, Ni Aleksandar Stevanovi, Centar za slobodno trite, Beograd Zoran Hamovi, izdavaka kua Clio, Beograd Ivan Blagojevi, Niville festival, Ni mr arko Paunovi, Fakultet politikih nauka, Beograd Nevena Paunovi, Ministarstvo kulture i informisanja Srbije, Taka kulturnog kontakta Gordana Beki Pjei, Kancelarija za saradnju sa civilnim drutvom Vlade Republike Srbije Tijana Rolovi, Kancelarija za saradnju sa civilnim drutvom Vlade Republike Srbije Irena Soldat Vujanovi, Ministarstvo prosvjete i kulture Republike Srpske Dejan Ubovi, Kulturni front, Beograd Vladimir Paunovi, NVO Milenijum, Kragujevac Miroslav Tamburi, UG Forca, Poega Goran Radisavljevi, Timoki omladinski centar, Zajear Novica Bogdanovi, DIS pozorite mladih, Banja Luka Katarina Milenkovi, Academica, Beograd Marija Duki, magazin i portal Biznis i finansije, Beograd dr Nada Popovi Perii, Fakultet za medije i komunikacije, Beograd Saa Radulovi, Blog B92 Marko Radenkovi, Dizajn inkubator Nova iskra, Beograd mr Aleksandar Brki, Univerzitet umetnosti, Beograd Nemanja abri, BIRN / BICCED Balkanska inicijativa za kulturnu saradnju, razmenu i razvoj, Beograd Mia David, Kulturni centar Beograda Mirjana aki, Erste banka, Beograd dr Slobodan Markovi, Pravni fakultet u Beogradu mr Vladimir Mari, Zavod za zatitu intelektualne svojine, Beograd Vladimir Jeri, Creative Commons Srbija, Beograd

mr Jasna Mati, Ministarstvo finansija Republike Srbije, Beograd Aleksandar Kovaevi, SOKOJ, Beograd Aleksandar Blagojevi, Piratska partija, Ni dr Ksenija Petovar, Arhitektonski fakultet, Beograd dr Miladin evarli, Poljoprivredni fakultet, Beograd Boidar Mandi, Porodica bistrih potoka, Brezovica, Gornji Milanovac Manuela Graf, Zavod za prouavanje kulturnog razvitka, Beograd Mia Stojiljkovi, novinar RTV B92, Beograd Aleksandar eri, Academica

Struni saradnici / Associate experts:


dr Tomislav ola, Sveuilite u Zagrebu mr Sran Janiijevi, Mokrogorska kola menadmenta, Beograd mr Goran Tomka, Fakultet za sport i turizam Marko Radenkovi, Dizajn inkubator Nova iskra mr Aleksandar Brki

Treneri, konsultanti i mentori / Trainers, consultants and mentors:


Zoran Filipovi Marko Radenkovi mr Goran Tomka mr Aleksandar Brki eljko Gakovi Marina Deli Danijela Nedi Goran uki Miroslav Tamburi Katarina Milenkovi dr Fahrudin Salihbegovi Darko Saraevi Benedict Haefeli Dragan Vasovi Aleksandar eri

Kulturne industrije i kulturna raznolikost / Cultural Industries and Cultural Diversity Bela knjiga / White Paper PREPORUKE / RECOMMENDATIONS
Priprema i objava / Prepared and published by: ACADEMICA Akademska grupa Program Mad Marx (Centar za istraivanje kreativne ekonomije) Beograd, mart 2013. Za izdavaa urednik / For publisher Editor-in-chief Aleksandar eri Prevod na engleski / English translation Milena Milojevi Milo Lukovi Grafiki dizajn / Graphic design Monika Lang Distribucija integralnog elektronskog izdanja je slobodna kroz slobodni internet. Miljenja izneta u ovom dokumentu su miljenja neprofitne organizacije Academica i ne moraju nuno odraavati stavove lanova projektnog tima i donatora.

www.madmarx.rs www.academica.rs