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geological conditions. The cores should therefore be described and logged in a proper manner. The description can be carried out in various ways, and different companies may have their own procedures. However, there are some parameters a core log should always contain. There are RQD and joint frequency in addition to a general geological description. A rock mass classification system such as the Qsystem or RMR should be used. This report describes a method for systematic logging of cores where most needs should be covered. Tables for estimation of different Q- and RMRparameters are enclosed. Introduction Core drilling is a method often used during preinvestigations for tunnels, cavern and dams. Description core is important that this description is done systematically to get an uniform core log. The parameters that are needed will differ according to the project type. During boring in a dam foundation for example, thepermeability of the rock masses will be of great interest, whereas for a tunnel project the joint spacing will be very important. The core diameter varies, but is usually between 30 and 100 mm. The cores are placed in boxes which may contain from 3 to 10m of cores. Often it will be necessary to take out samples from the cores for laboratory testing, however, no samples should be taken out before the logging has been finished. 2 EQUIPMENT 2.1 Special forms should be used For core logging any advanced equipment is usually not necessary. Most of the work can be done by a ruler, paper and pencil. For a systematic logging special forms are necessary. Fig. 1 shows a form which can be used for the presentation of the logging data. Fig. 2 shows an example of the same form infilled In addition it is practical to have a form to be used directly during logging, see Fig. 3. The last form is only a sketch of the core box where the different parameter values can be filled in, the joints can be marked where they are found in the core, and the length of the different core pieces can be noted. 2.2 The cores should be photographed Before the logging starts, the core boxes should be photographed in order to have a documentation of the intact cores. A ruler should be used as a scale in the photographs, 2.3 Deluted hydrochloric acid can be used to identify calcite
4.1 Generally . it will be useful to prepare thin section and carry out a microscopic study. it starts to foam. texture and weathering. A section in a core box often contains one metre of core. A convenient length of a logging unit may be 5-10 m i. Marked weakness zones must be described as own units regardless of thickness. the depth in the borehole is often marked for each metre. 2. 5 ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL LOGGING 5. In the log it must clearly be pointed out which unit the different parameter values belong to. Sometimes the marking is related to each time the core has been taken up from the borehole i. they may more or less "disappear" in the log. If different rocks occur in a borehole. When diluted hydrochloric acid is added to this mineral. in a logging unit the rock mass quality should be rather uniform.Calcite is often found as a joint infill. a core box. However.1 Microscopic study of rocks may be useful The rock should be described in terms of mineralogy. The core length i.2 The rock distribution in the borehole must be described the rock distribution is marked by different symbols in its own column. If such zones are Jogged together with rocks of good quality.4 Profilometer and protractor can be useful to measure joint geometry The joint roughness can be measured by a profilometer. More exact mineralogical analyses will sometimes be necessary. and this can be used to identify calcite. 4 GEOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION 4. In order to get an exact description. A logging unit should be some metres long and should have an uniform rock mass quality. it will often be convenient to divide the core into units along rock type boundaries. 3 LOGGING UNITS Before the core logging starts. It is appropriate to use the special symbols recommended by the national geological survey. In the column "Geological description" in the form additional information about the rocks can be given. e. and a geological compass or a protractor can be used for measuring the angle between the joint and the core. all the cores from a borehole should be inspected and divided into practical sections which then will be logged as a unit. grain size. usually for lengths between two and three metres. A short review of the geological history of the region should also be given in the report. e. and in some cases it may be necessary to use units shorter than 5 m. Several of the engineering geological parameters can be determined for each metre. e. but for some parameters one metre will be too short. and for this purpose samples must be picked out. In addition a little knife is practical to test the mineral hardness.
it may only be necessary to measure the pieces longer than 10 cm. and the number of fractures occurring along these planes may be more or less accidental depending on the boring equipment and handling of the cores. A legend for these abbreviations should be enclosed RQD and joint frequency is based on natural joints. but the RQD will usually be zero since core loss will as a rule will be caused by very jointed or altered rocks. The length of the crushed section should be noted in a column in the form in Fig. It must be pointed that it is only pieces between natural joints that are considered. they should be given a special symbol Usually it is easy to divide between natural joints and artificial fractures. In the heading of the form information about the project. The joint roughness and the joint filling must also be described. On the left hand side of the form there are columns for bore length and box number. The core should be systematically studied metre by metre. In strongly jointed rocks. These types of rock often have a high number of parallel weakness planes. The angle between the joints and the core must be estimated. eventually it can be measured exactly by means of a protractor. location. 1. Artificial fractures are usually very irregular and rough without any sign of weathering.2 Q-values By using the Q-method the stability of a rock mass can be described numerically. Therefore each fracture must be studied to find out if it is a natural joint or a artificial fracture caused by the drilling or the handling of the cores. Fig. Natural joints are often weathered and may have a mineral coating or filling.The form. 1. This information is partly found on the core boxes and partly in the report from the boring company. elevation and borehole orientation is noted. but this should be evalutated for each rock type. This length should be measured along an estimated line through the centre of the core. the core consists only of small pieces. 5. The mineral type of the infill should be marked by special abbreviations. shorter or longer sections of the core are missing. To go faster on with the logging. The joint angle for the most prominent joint sets is filled into a column in the form in Fig. During the logging the form shown in Fig. One must be aware of that such crushed sections may take up more space in the core box than the real core length it corresponds to. Each fracture is marked and the length of the different core pieces are measured to the nearest centimetre. In rocks with schistosity or foliation it may be difficult to distinguish between natural joints and artificial fractures. If artificial fractures are marked in the form. It is of course impossible to determine the different parameter values where the core is missing. During logging fractures along schistosity and foliation usually are considered as natural joints. 3 can be used. Sometimes core loss occurs. The calculation of the Q-value is based on 6 parameters. 1 may serve as a memory list during logging. 3. During core logging the values of the . see Fig. Core loss is usually recorded in the report from the boring company. Fig. The length of the crushed section should therefore be calculated by comparing it to the total length of intact core in the logging unit under consideration. 4.
5. 1. when the core bas dried out. These tests are carried out by isolating sections.l. Lugeon is defined as leakage in litre per minute per metre with an overpressure of 1MPa. In a shale for example there may be very few breaks just after the core has come up from the borehole and RQD may be 100%. and the core may consist of only thin disks. As a rule all fractures along the foliation are considered when the RQD-value is calculated. and RQD = 0%. 1. the handling of the cores and the core diameter. The apparent number of joints may here depend on the boring equipment. Joint frequency which is the number of natural joints per metre should also be calculated for the same sections as RQD. By a certain . There will usually be a higher number of breaks in a thin core than in a thick one. Fig. and the leakage of water into the rock is measured.value can be estimated by considering the angle between the joints and the core which is noted in a column in the form. see Table 1 and Fig. Jw can in principle only be determined from observations in a tunnel. Field observation will therefore be a useful supplement. After some weeks. Permeability tests are often carried out associated with core drilling. and Jn can be determined rather exactly. it may be caused by large joint spacing or that the joints are more or less parallel to the core. and the values are noted in special columns in the logging form.parameters RQD. The Jn -values should usually be estimated for core sections of several metres. for example 5m. The Lugeon values are noted in a column in the form. Ja is describing the joint filling and can be determined by observing the thickness and type of minerals in the infill. As a unit for water loss Lugeon is used. of the borehole by packers." During logging it is often practical to calculate the RQD for every metre or for every take up. The estimated Jn . RQD is defined as "the sum of the length of all core pieces (between natural joints) longer than 10 cm in per cent of the total core length. In the cores the Jn . Jn is a parameter describing the number of joint sets. In rocks with well developed foliation or schistosity the determination of RQD and joint frequency may be uncertain. because if a joint set apparently is missing in some metres of core. Fig. A conversion of the leakage to 1 MPa overpressure by supposing that the leakage are increasing proportionally with increasing pressure will not always be valid. A problem during core logging may be that the joint faces often are so short that it will be difficult to see if the joints are planar or undulating. these problems should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the logging results. The Ja . Jr is describing the joint roughness. however. Water with a fixed pressure is then pressed into this isolated section.value from drill cores will therefore usually be a minimum value. a disking effect may have taken place. Jn.value can easily be underestimated in the cores because soft mineral fillings for example of clay minerals may be washed away during drilling. The point of time of logging may also have effect on the result. Fig. Jr .
sections with crushed core. and a SRF value of 2. For tunnels with overburden of several hundred metres.value of 0. it is necessary to make some assumption. especially concerning Jw and SRF..-. see Fig. For even higher Lugeon values and rock masses with open fractures a lower Jw . in dry holes or holes with only small leakage (< 1 Lugeon) Jw can be determined to 1. a SRF-value of 5 will be relevant. This is based on the empirical connection between the existing support and Q. The RMR-values are calculated by addition of the different parameter values.value will be relevant. 9 5.pressure the fractures may start to open which will lead to a rapid increase in leakage. Fig. high SRF-value (50-400) may be used in cases of rock burst. the spreadsheet shown in Fig. 7 is an example of a completed spreadsheet.values in more than 1000 reference projects.66 can be used. During the measurement. The different parameter values for RMR can be filled into the spreadsheet. min. In such cases it will be informative to note the real leakage by the used pressure. If there are marked fault zones in the cores. 8. In many cases SRF can be set to 1. see Fig. The Q-values can be used to describe the support in rock masses nominally. . Compression strength The compression strength for the rock forms the base for the first of the parameters in the RMR-system. SRF is the stress reduction factor and must be related to a fixed tunnel at a fixed depth. With higher leakage (1-10 Lugeon) a Jw. The values are determined from Table 2 and Fig. It is practical to use the same logging units as for the Q. To get a review of the rock quality in a borehole. i.5 will be realistic. Fig. the cores have to be clamped to . This will be useful to show the variation of the different Qparameter values in a borehole. An approximate value for the compression strength can be measured by a Schmidt hammer. e. 11. 11 and 12. In cases with rather soft rock or rocks with swelling minerals even higher SRF must be used. 6 may be used. Another spreadsheet based on histograms is shown in Fig. If tunnels are taken into consideration. This spreadsheet also calculates the max. the ground water pressure at the tunnel depth must be considered. Here the Q-values and the different parameter values are shown.3 RMR-values RMR together with the Q-system are the two most used classification system for the stability in rock masses. For a tunnel near the surface the stress will usually be low. 10.logging. and this value can be used in rock masses of good quality in moderate depth. 12 and 13. To some degree of accuracy Jw can be estimated from the permeability tests.and mean Qvalues. Calculation of Q-values The Q-values are calculated from the following formula: When a Q-value based on core logging data shall be calculated.
Joint aperture Based on observations the parameter values is determined from Table 2. Joint spacing Based on the average joint spacing in the logging unit the parameter value is determined from the curve in Fig. a foundation or a slope. and field observation will therefore be a good supplement. Determination of joint aperture may be difficult from drill cores. As for 1w in the Q-system this parameter may be stipulated from the Lugeon values in the borehole. If the drill cores cannot be related to a certain tunnel or slope. RQD Based on the RQD-value the parameter values is calculated from the curve in Fig. 12.a heavy base. Joint roughness The parameter value is determined from Table 2. . Water condition The parameter value is based on leakage. the compression strength has to be stipulated from the petrographic description of the rock. see Table 2. Joint infill The parameter values will depend on the thickness of the infill and whether the infill is soft or hard. see Table 2. If Schmidt hammer measurements and other tests are missing. the parameter value "fair" can be used as a preliminary value. 13. Grade of weathering The parameter values are determined from Table 2. Joint orientation This parameter is evaluated from the joint orientation related to a tunnel. see Table 2.
Thin sections must then be prepared. To test the rock strength a Schmidt hammer can be used. and the remaining material in the cores may not be representative. use of microscope will be necessary. A problem may be that clay minerals are easily washed away during drilling. . and the roughness amplitude can be measured. With this equipment profiles along any direction of a joint can be drawn. To measure the friction angle along joints the tilt test is used. The cores may also be used for uniaxial compression strength tests or triaxial tests. For point load test the grade of saturation of the samples is important. In order to give a exact petrographic description concerning mineralogy. grain size etc. and samples consisting of both faces of a joint are required. Special equipment is needed for tilt tests. To study joint infill X-ray diffractometer will be convenient. Point load test is another method especially designed for cores. To measure the roughness (JRC) a profilometer can be used. grade or alteration.SPECIAL TESTS For some projects special tests may be required on the cores. A heavy metallic base will then be necessary to clamp the core.
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