You are on page 1of 5

Grammar: Present Perfect or Past Simple?

1: Work it Out Two tenses often used to talk about events that happen in the past are the past simple and the present perfect. Can you work out when we use 'past simple' and when we use 'present perfect'? A: I read a great book last week. B: I've read three books so far this week. A: I lost my keys and had to get in through a window. B: I've lost my keys. How am I going to get in? A: I passed my exams in 2008 and went to university. B: I've passed my exam ... fantastic! Now try the quiz below to check your ideas. 2: Check Present Perfect or Past Simple Decide if the missing verbs in the following sentences should be 'present perfect' or 'past simple': 1) You should take an umbrella with you. It started/has started to rain. 2) It started/has started to rain so we decided to stay in. 3) Steve finished/has finished his homework and then went out with his friends. 4) I finished/has finished my homework. Can I see what's on TV? 5) My father lived/has lived in the same house until the day he died. 6) I lived/has lived in this town for the past 3 years. 3: Sentence Transformation For each question, complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use no more than three words. 1. I started my English course 3 weeks ago. ........................................ on this English course for three weeks. 2. I haven't seen John since Friday. The last time ........................................ John was Friday. 3. The last time Claire went on holiday was five years ago. Claire ......................................... on holiday for five years. 4. Marie has been married for seven months. Marie ........................................ seven months ago. 5. Do you know what score you got in the test? ........................................ had the result of your test? 6. I watched one film this morning and one this afternoon. I ........................................ 2 films so far today. 1

Study Tip! To practise 'past simple' and 'present perfect' compare things you did last week or last year with this week or this year. For example: ! Last week I went out with my friends twice. I haven't been out yet this week. Last year I probably read about 10 new books. I think I've read 2 books so far this year.

Grammar: Will or Going To? 1: Work it Out There are several ways you can talk about the future in English. Two verbs often used are 'will' and 'going to'. Look at the following pairs of sentences. Can you work out when we use 'will' and when we use 'going to'? A: I think I'll go to bed now. I'm feeling tired. B: As my exams are on Friday I've decided I'm going to go to bed earlier this week. A: Let's see ... I'll have the chicken with pasta sauce I think. B: I've told my wife I'm going to cook a nice meal tonight to celebrate our anniversary. A: I'll go to the shop if you want. B: I can't go out. Paul's going to call me later. Now try the quiz below to check your ideas.

2: Check Will or Going To Decide if the missing verbs in the following sentences should be 'will' or 'going to':1a) Where are you going with dad's tools?

1b) He asked me to get them for him. Hewill/is going to put up some pictures in my bedroom. 2a) I've just cooked a lovely apple tart. Who would like a slice? 2b) Great! I will/am going to have some please. 3a) I've left my wallet at home. 3b) Don't worry. I will/am going to lend you some money. 4a) So, what are your plans for this morning? 4b) Well, I will/am going to do some studying and then pop into town to do some shopping.

3: Sentence Transformation For each question, complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use 'will' or 'going to' in your answer. 2

Use no more than three words. 1. I plan to travel to China this year. I ........................................ travel to China this year. 2. I might stay in tonight as there's a good film on TV. I think I ........................................ in tonight as there's a good film on TV. 3. Let me wash up as you cooked dinner. I ......................................... as you cooked dinner. 4. I've decided to paint the living room a relaxing pale-green colour I ........................................ paint the living room a relaxing pale-green colour. 5. Tim plans on seeing the doctor later about his bad back. Tim ........................................ see the doctor later about his bad back. 6. I might call Sarah to see if she wants to go out. I think I ........................................ Sarah to see if she wants to go out. Study Tip! To practise 'will' and 'going to' for future reference think what you might be doing over the coming week. For things that are planned, use 'going to'. For anything you decide to do during the exercise use 'I'll'. For example: I'm going to meet my friends on Saturday. We're going to go shopping in the city centre. I think I'll go to bed early tonight. I think I'll have a break from studying for a while.

Present Simple or Present Continuous? Present 1: Work it Out Do you know when to use the present simple or the present continuous? Look at these sentences. Can you work out the rules? Adam goes to the same school as my sister. I'm going to evening classes at the moment to get ready for the exam. We eat dinner as soon as John gets home from work. I'm eating dinner just now. Can I call you back? All children learn a foreign language at our school. Christine's learning French for her trip to Paris. That book belongs to Claire. The children love baking cakes. Now try the quiz below to check your ideas. 2: Check Present Simple or Continuous 1) Most mornings my husband is leaving/leaves for work at 7.30. 3

2) I am leaving/leaves for work earlier this week as I have some important jobs to get done. 3) Steve is playing/plays guitar for a local group. 4) Sshh, I m listening/listen to the news. 5) I am going/go to the gym whenever I get the chance. 6) I am reading/read a good book at the moment. 7) My youngest daughter is knowing/knows all the words to that song. 8) I am hating/hate getting up for school on cold winter mornings. 3: Multiple Choice Cloze Practice Read the text below. How are you? I hope/am hoping you are well. You wanted me to tell you about my job. Well, I work/am working in an office in London just for the summer holidays. It's a magazine publishing company and usually I spend/am spending my time answering customers questions on the phone but as there are some people off sick I write/am writing letters at the moment. I really am liking/like the people here. They always help/are helping each other out when there are any problems. Unfortunately, this week we do/are doing a course in health and safety, which is a bit boring but it will soon be over. The good news is I am learning/learn) Spanish as well during my lunchtime! I do not understand/am not understanding much at the moment but I am getting/get better. Write back soon! Study Tip! Practise present simple and continuous forms by comparing things in your life that are permanent with things that are more temporary or in the process of happening. For example: I live in Lisbon. I study in a private language school. I'm trying to find a part-time job. I'm reading a good book.

Present Simple & Continuous as Future Tenses 1: Work it Out We can use the present simple and the present continuous to talk about the future. Do you know the difference between the two? Look at these sentences and see if you can work out the rules. The train leaves at 9.00. John takes his exam next week. What time do you finish college tonight? I'm staying in this evening.

I'm going to bed in a minute. When are you taking your holiday this summer? Now try the quiz below to check your ideas. 2: Check Present Simple or Continuous 1) Are you doing/do you do anything later? I thought we could go out. 2) The lesson is beginning/begins soon so we need to get back to college. 3) Susan is meeting/meets me for lunch later. 4) The match is kicking off/kicks off at 3.00. 5) What time is your meeting starting/does your meeting start later? 6) I am visiting/visit my Nan next Sunday. 7) I am finishing/finish work early today as I have an appointment at the dentist. 8) I've just phoned the centre and the doors are opening/open at 1.00.

3: Multiple Choice Cloze Practice Read the text below. MEMO To: Sarah From: Director of Studies As you know, I have quite a busy week coming up. On Monday I am meeting/meet with the Marketing team all day to discuss next year's brochure. On Tuesday I am visiting/visit our partner school in London. My train is leaving/leaves at 7.30 so I won't be coming to the office first. We have interviews for the new teacher's job on Wednesday. The first one is starting/starts at 9.30 and they are ending/end at 3.30 - 6 people altogether I think. I am seeing/see the deputy head on Thursday and as soon as I get back there's the weekly team meeting - that usually is going/goes on until 5.30. I have a day's holiday owed to me so I am taking/take a day off on Friday. But as the new term is starting/starts next Monday I am coming/come in on Saturday or Sunday briefly to check everything is OK. Email me at any time if you need advice.

Try our Study Tip below. Study Tip! Practise present simple and continuous future forms by talking about what's happening in your life in the coming week. For example: I'm seeing my friends this evening. My English lesson starts at 6.00 on Thursday. I'm finishing work early on Wednesday.