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UNIVERSIDAD DE LAS AMERICAS Political Science and International Relations CPR705 - International Security Andr Granda Garrido 24 April

2013 Prcis The United Nations System of International Peace and Security The topics covered by Mearsheimer, Kupchan and Glennon cover both intellectual debate between classical realism and idealism, and the evolution of theories in international relations, particularly in terms of international security and the role of institutions. Mearsheimer's central thesis is that it has been given an exaggerated role to international institutions and despite its importance; they cannot change the basic behavior of states in a system ruled by anarchy. Mearsheimer's position is very critical of institutionalism theories, which according to him, are divided into three: liberal institutionalism, collective security and critical theory. The three theories are flawed because of the lack of consistency between the realistic approaches and institutionalism solutions they promote. According to him, the theory of collective security does not give a proper explanation of how states overcome their fears and trust each other. Collective security assumes as true several approaches of realism, however, proposes a solution based on unrealistic international institutions. Collective security proposes: the renunciation by states of the use of force to change the status quo. At the same time, recognize the possibility that certain states do not accept this and make use of violence, it is then when states must defend against the lonely aggressor together, thinking in general terms that benefits the whole group and not only special interests. The main problem of collective security is the need for trust among states. This is a big problem, since a state must be sure that all the others will compromise to renounce aggression. Kupchan is very critical to the points made by Mearsheimer. Argues that collective security recognizes the basic premises of realism, but against the balance of power, collective security is a better mechanism for establish a balance against potential aggressors. Under collective security, several states can form a defensive coalition to protect the international order. According to him, within the collective security is easier for states to promote a framework of cooperation and trust. In an international institution states will be able to define their interests in ways that contribute to the welfare and international stability. Finally, Kupchan emphasizes the importance of regime type and domestic policy of a government, a factor often left aside by international relations theorists. On the other hand, Glennon discusses the role of the Security Council in the post-Cold War world, under the hegemony of the United States, and especially the invasion of Iraq. According to his analysis, France, China and Russia have tried to be a counterweight to the power of states but without success. The invasion of Iraq was exposed to UN Security council, but USA made clear that regardless of the vote, this invasion would proceed. According to Glennon, this shows the failure of the Security Council, the United Nations, and international institutions because international law issues are replaced by geopolitical criteria of the great powers.