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Yahweh of War Ministries
Table of Contents The nature of the adversary............................................................................................................. 4 The adversary was in a continued argument with Yahweh ............................................................ 6 Job as Yahweh’s example ............................................................................................................... 8 Problems with a spiritual devil ....................................................................................................... 8 Summery ......................................................................................................................................... 8 Evidence from Job that the adversary was a man ........................................................................... 9 Discussion 1.1 ............................................................................................................................... 10 Was Yahweh Job’s Satan? ............................................................................................................ 12 Discussion 1.2 ............................................................................................................................... 13 Further support that the “hand” belongs to Yahweh not the accuser ............................................ 14 Discussion 1.3 ............................................................................................................................... 15 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 16 Considerations............................................................................................................................... 17
Because theologians commonly approach textual exegesis with a biased impression, through their habitual methodology, a high improbability occurs while attempting to discover the most authentic interpretation of a text, even when strict clarity is demonstrated in the text itself. When critically examining the book of Job, many have introduced these examinational errors, this leading to textual obscuration opposed to clarification. And when said errors are solidified and labeled “proper theological interpretation”, the reality of reaching authentic results becomes impossible, forcing academics to react “radically” in order to depart from theological expectation, making fair exegesis rare, creating a formidable predicament in proper theological teaching. The Book of Job is a poetic commentary on the nature of Yahweh’s sovereignty. It deals with the themes of: justice, mercy, blessings, curses, salvation and most importantly the centrality of Yahweh’s will over humankinds. Job begins with a legal narrative, ending with the same, this being a point commonly overlooked by many expositors. In our text, persons are said to have presented themselves before God, under the auspice of gaining His legal foresight or approval. Many theologians with a protestant aggadic interpretation, eisegete these persons, who are labelled the “sons of God” (Job 1:6) to be heavenly angels who are taking part in a Babylonish holy council ceremony as presented in Isaiah 6:1-8. The reason this traditional explication becomes challenging to the text is because the historical context in which Job is academically presumed to be written (post Abrahamic, PreMosaic) did not promote such a reading. Within this pre-pentateuchal timeframe, no developed theology that expounded or alluded to the existence of a angelic council, or designated times for angelic gatherings were recorded, more importantly, heavenly angels are not inherently discussed in the Job text anywhere, this supporting the notion that the development of such an interpretation is anachronistic, and composed of much later historical impressions (if not inherited from Babylonian/Egyptian myth, which is unfounded conjecture). Opposed to this above presented view, readers in the pre-pentateuchal period would have been well acquainted with consecrated gatherings for the purpose of worship, prayer, and self presentation, this to offer sacrifices or attain spiritual guidance from Yahweh’s presence; serving to support the idea that the sons of god are human beings and not heavenly at all.
To further clarify this point, in Genesis chapter 5, the sons of God are explained to be believers belonging to the lineage of Seth the son of Adam, who was the son of Yahweh (Gen 5:1, Luke 3:38), and the sons of Yahweh who married the daughters of men, where the sons of Adam who married the daughters of Cain (Cain being dispossessed from the holy/God’s lineage). Besides this clear reading, all outlying interpretations imposing fallen angels onto this or subsequent chapters have clear evidence of arriving from not canonized scriptural sources, but apocryphic and pseudepigraphic ones, such as: the book of 1st Enoch and The Watchers, or the more modern whimsical recurrence of ideas about angels and giants in Louis Ginzberg’s Legends of the Jews written in early 1900. Historically, “in sources from the Talmudic period (ca. 200–600 ce), traditions about the fallen angels have no place in the interpretation of Genesis. It is only centuries later, in the early Middle Ages … that Rabbinic Jewish sources even deign to suggest again that the “sons of God” of Gen 6:2 might be angels.” (Annette Reed. Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity, p.207) Both “Christians and Rabbinic Jews had different reasons for rejecting the angelic interpretation of Gen 6:1–4 and developed different understandings of these antediluvian men. Nevertheless, it proves significant that they agreed about the impropriety of the Enochic myth of angelic descent and about the need to see the “sons of God” as human beings.” (Reed, p.226) Concurrent interpretations presenting the sons of God’s nature to be human are found in the Jewish encyclopedia 1906 under “God, children of”. With the above projections taken into account, every such interpretation that promotes claims in support of fallen angels fall into the error of tradition based interpretive method, kicking against the pricks of the scripture in its entirety (Deu 14:1, Ezekiel 16:21, Hosea 1:10 &c.,) as well as being disempowered through like historical evidences. Now in understanding the nature of the sons of God, we must further understand the adversary who stands as a slanderous opponent against not only Job, but the value of faith itself. The nature of the adversary In approaching Job with belief in a supernatural satanic slanderer, expositors have fallen into the snare of tradition based exegesis, separating themselves from an honest reading of the text. Supports depicting the adversary as human and not angelic are displayed through the nature of the hitherto referred council members (those gathering before God). Greater support can be garnered in Yahweh Himself being unanimously declared responsible for every calamity
experienced by Job via the request of this adversary, through which in-text supports are numerous (Job 9:17-23, 13:24-27, 16:9-11, 12-14, 19:6-12 &c). To continue, the existence of a theology for an angelically fallen being had no existence in the pre-pentateuchal period, and teachings about angels having independent responsibility over Yahweh’s wrath contradicts all revelations presenting Him as the independent judge and prosecutor of His own singular will, this being ensconced in every nuance of the Old Testament, specifically represented during the lifetime of Abraham. Supports for the above assertion can be found in Yahweh’s personal destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (Gen 19:24 – Yahweh rained down from heaven), Yahweh’s personal destruction of Job’s life (Job 1:21, 6:4), Yahweh’s personal destruction of the rebellious Israelites in the desert (Exodus 32:9-10 – “I have seen this people, and, behold, it is a stiffnecked people: Now therefore let me alone, that my wrath may wax hot against them, and that I may consume them”), as well as through God’s continual confession of being singularly responsible for not only every good and evil in the world (Isaiah 45:7) but any and all destruction occurring in any city in the world (Amos 3:6, have I not done it?). Granted, a number of these texts do supersede the historical time of Abraham’s life, but they clearly indicate who performs Yahweh’s wrath and judgments, as well as definitively why. Approaching the Job text with a belief in an angelic Satan is as tradition’s based as the sons of God being interpreted to be Angels. As a test, the Job text when read divorced from the rest of scripture – it having no known counterpart in ancient times, making an isolated reading the original way it was viewed – could never depict a fallen Satan as destroyer or seducer of humanity, but when divorced from other Biblical texts does present the adversary as a person who through personal doubts challenges Yahweh to test Job’s authenticity, this testing to provide evidence in support of the authentic nature of faith when separate from reward. As an aside, if the book of Job was written after the time of Moses, there would still not be enough support in the Pentateuch to promote an angelic reading. Issues with reading’s that promote an Angelic destroyer rob Yahweh of His position as both judge and executioner of His own sacred decisions, this attribute being an unalterable facet of His omnipotent sovereignty. Something very serious to consider is the lack of belief in Yahweh’s sovereignty and independent desire to dispense His
wrath on whomever He wishes as a form of sacred robbery; said robbery is the sort that promotes idolatrous fears and reverences in the minds of those who attribute God’s characteristics to a satanic fallen being. As to the nature of Yahweh’s adversary (seeing that this adversary in Job is against faith/Yahweh and not Job directly or only), interpretations that opine Satan to be man’s direct enemy cannot be found in the Job text without plenty imagination. Whether this adversary is a man belonging to the ancient Jewish faith who holds doubts about the disingenuous nature of some, or whether this adversary is a faithful Jew with prejudices against gentile believers (as suggested in the Targum of Job), or whether he is a gentile debater, is not inherent in the text, but what is clear is that this adversarial figure is debating Yahweh directly (either through Yahweh’s whirlwind presence as seen in Job 42, or via one of God’s representatives), and this presents a direct allusion to Job 42 that shows Yahweh speaking to Job and his friends from out of the whirlwind (note: according to this chapter, Job’s friends are present during Job’s rebuke, meaning that this final scene is a reiteration of the sons of God presenting themselves before God’s presence, it being another element of proof that encourages a human adversary). Why synonymy between the beginning arguments and ending proceedings are important is because the adversarial figure or Satan in the former, becomes Job’s contemporaries (who according to God, have confessed wrong against Him) such individuals being not fallen angelic creatures or anything supernatural but antagonistic persons who eventually find forgiveness. The adversary was in a continued argument with Yahweh Regarding the nature of the adversary’s complaints raised before God, it seems that this adversary had grown disturbed by what he determined as the undeserving or “outwardly good” individual to be equally as prosperous in society as the deserving or authentically good, this also being a well developed theme presented in the Job debates. This topic of argument is clearly important to the Job narrative because it stands as one of the ideal reason for the slanderer to suggest Job as insincere despite Yahweh’s prior recommendations. With the holy gathering and the adversary’s arrival, the context suggests that he is on a return trip from looking for evidence of something, his arrival being a continuation from an earlier unrecorded interaction between himself and God.
Like any three act narrative, we as the audience are invited into the story, not at the beginning but somewhere near the middle, we are ostensibly introduced at a climatic raising point where the story becomes valuable to us as readers. This way of looking at the adversaries arrival can explain why the form of Yahweh’s questioning promotes the need for the granted answer. Yahweh asks, “where comest thou?” and the adversary replies, “from going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it”. The adversaries answer in this KJV English is at best obscure, making mention of nothing that would suggest Yahweh to respond the way He does. Yet a better reading from the Aramaic Targum of Job has the adversary answering, “to move my eyes across, among the country, at the deeds man from to behave in it”, this answer suggesting prior engagements between these two parties, also disclosing that the adversary had been investigating peoples spiritual adherence with the intent to see who had been actually dedicated or without hypocrisy in regards to their spiritual practice. The adversary’s answer further motivates Yahweh to ask, “have you considered my servant Job…” through this exchange, it becomes comprehensible that the adversary’s search was ongoing and that his arrival to the meeting was for the purpose of providing a critical review against others, or, to present justification for his own disbelief or lack of adherence, and was not something that occurred by chance or out of a puff of smoke as many would like to have others believe. What seems to compel the adversary is the same doctrinal ignorance that motivates Job’s friends to speak critically of Job before God. The adversary is confounded by the reality that faith in itself can be selfishly motivated, it being solely based upon the reception of material blessings or goods in return for its practice, and such a conclusion causes him to reject accepting the faith (if a gentile), or reject the belief that non Jews could practice the faith without a promise of material benefits (if a faithful Semite), or to simply question the value of faithful observance at all. Moreover, for this brand of moral questioning to be raised in this intermediate period between Abraham and Moses is entirely justifiable, if not necessary, and support for the importance of this variety of questioning is seen in the profuse use of Job’s narrative in the Davidic psalms and Solomonic proverbs. In seeing that the adversary’s view of faith is as useful as a religious formality, it’s only rational that Yahweh with whom this man is arguing would teach him otherwise. In using Job as His example, Yahweh allows the adversary’s doubts to be displayed openly while teaching others (who certainly also hold similar questions in mind ex, Jobs friends),
this educating them about faith, and how its practice is precious when divorced from reward (proverbs 1:25, 1 Tim 5:20). Job as Yahweh’s example Job was used as an example with the intent to further strengthen his belief (“purification as gold”) but to also cleanse him of self-righteousness and ignorance which he repents of (Job 42:3, 6). And through Job’s trials, this adversarial man is provided an example of faith without direct benefit, this making his arguments moot. Inevitably, through Job’s anguish, the reader is also taught the authentic nature of Yahweh’s sovereignty, which is a theme consistent in prepentateuchal belief. Problems with a spiritual devil If one is to believe that the accuser is a spiritual devil, such an idea has been erased entirely from the Job debates. This is because in the narrative six people are given the opportunity to place blame upon the devil as Job’s adversary, these being (1) Job’s wife (2) Job himself (3) Job’s friends: Eliphaz, Bildad and Zophar and (4) Elihu, yet in each of their communications, they never mention Satan or the fear of him, but they do acknowledge Yahweh as Job’s singular enemy (Job’s Wife 2:9, Eliphaz 5:17-18, Bildad 8:4, Zophar 20:15, Elihu 33:16-22). Bildad also attributes the death of Job’s children to their own sinfulness (if this is why they perished) and Yahweh as their punisher (8:4), their deaths being an act traditionally attributed to Satan. It is also necessary to mention that neither David nor Solomon focused any of their psalms or proverbs on an angelic, fallen satanic figure, not a single support for his existence can be aroused from their works, and this is with their heavy reliance upon the Job narrative. As is also well known, David calls the embodiment of Yahweh, Satan, when moved to count Israel (1Chron 21:1-17, 2Sam 24:1-25) showing synonymy in belief between those of the Job text and him. Summery Through the adversary’s disbelief (1) Job is taught the fundamental source of his righteousness and the full nature of Yahweh’s authority, (2) the adversary is taught the true nature and value of faith apart from reward, and (3) the readers are granted an authentic vision of God, which is entirely innovative and necessary for this intermediate time period between Abraham and Moses,
and (4) an angelic Satan is nowhere explicitly mentioned in the text by those who would have most certainly present him as Job’s adversary if they could have. Evidence from Job that the adversary was a man To discuss the claims of this adversarial figures humanity, we must look at the language used in the Targum of Job and the Greek LXX to see what the Jewish and Aramaic reader’s believed in the earliest periods. In the following excerpts, we are presented the legal nature of the antagonist/Yahweh discussions; we will also view the humanness of the accusing person through his activities which are all-together human and not supernatural as suggested by the prominent translations found in the KJV. All following transliterations from the original sources are made not from traditional denomination biased lexicons, but those created by academic institutions (all lexicons made by theologians are inherently influenced by one denominational bias or another, making them subject to question). The following texts are presented in their original languages to be cross referenced and examined by all desiring to do so. TARGUM Job – 1:7-8 01:07 שוט״מלמישט בארעא ולמבדק בעובדי בני אנשא ומן מהלכא בה׃#2#את אתי ואתיב סטנא קדם ייי ואמר ״מן ואמר ייי לסטנא מנן 01:08 לבבך״לבך דשויתא איפשר לסטנא ייי ואמר#2#ארום״ארי איוב עבדי על ״#2#דעממי ארעא בכל דיכמיה לית ״ אביש״ביש מן ועדי ייי קדם מן דחיל ותריץ שלים גבר#2#( ״׃right to left) Transliteration 7 said Yahweh to adversary whence you to (come with legal opinion) or bring (a proof, or allegation)? Answered adversary before Yahweh to litigate, to move my eyes across among the country at the deeds man from to behave in it. 8 Commanded Yahweh to the adversary, possible to be considered worthy in your inward part my servant Job, because not like in all the country a gentile man perfect and upright to be terrified before Yahweh and to pass over evil. (The comprehensive Aramaic lexicon) LXX – Job 1:7
καί εἶπον ὁ κύριος ὁ διάβολος πόθεν παραγίγνοµαι καί ἀποκρίνω ὁ διάβολος ὁ κύριος εἶπον περιἔρχοµαι ὁ γῆ καί ἐν περιπατέω ὁ ὑπό οὐρανός παραεἰµί Transliteration and said this Lord this slanderer from where to come near and to begin to speak, this slanderer this Lord to say go round (like a stranger seeing sights) this land (country) and in walk about while teaching (argue with) to have arrived heaven to be present. (Liddell-Scott-Jones Intermediate
Translation Yahweh said to the slanderer, where have you come from to speak before me? The slanderer said to Yahweh from going from place to place in the country arguing with others have I arrived before you. LXX – Job 1:8 καί εἶπον αὐτός ὁ κύριος προςἔχω ὁ διάνοια σύ κατά ὁ παῖς ἐγώ Ιωβ ὅτι οὐ εἰµί κατά αὐτός ὁ ἐπί ὁ γῆ ἄνθρωπος ἄµεµπτος ἀληθινός θεοσεβής ἀποἔχω ἀπό πᾶς πονηρός πρᾶγµα Transliteration and say Him this Lord to bring to this mind you toward this servant my Job because never to be according to him this upon this land blameless authentic worshipping God away separate every evil which is done Translation And Yahweh said to him, have you brought to mind my servant Job? Because never was a man in this country so blameless, worshipping me authentically separating from every form of evil. Discussion 1.1 The above transliterations are important because they contain no contemporary bias (even if Targums are not canonized renditions, and contain ancient bias by virtue of their nature). When each word is translated, “Satan” as a proper name appears nowhere, as it shouldn’t in any Old or
New Testament and by this, an instant demystification around the adversarial person’s nature vanishes, showing him to be a simple man. In the above exchange we see (1) the adversary has come before God with legal allegations that men are not faithful without receipt of reward and (2) Yahweh asks this man who has been investigating the nature of the faithful to consider Job who is not only faithful, but according to the Targum a gentile. Through this discourse, conjecture can be made about the accuser’s race or religious affiliation, but because the text doesn’t explicitly say anything more about him, all such assumptions remain secondary. The suggestion that Job is a gentile shows up only in the Targum, so this fact can be also set aside because it finds no secondary support in the LXX or BHS. So the opinion of the adversary being a Semite who is against gentile believers can be erased. The value of comparing the LXX to the Targum is that through their language we see the adversary to be a contentiously slanderous person, who has been spending his time debating with others about the nature of authentic faith. We see this man traveling throughout the country, speaking with others, while on a vehement search for false practitioners of faith, as though the honest sort couldn’t be found. In looking at the KJV renderings of the same text, we are provided with an inept translation that completely ignores the nature of the man’s debating activities and it also seems to purposely promote a supernatural caricature in his place: KJV – Job 1:7.8 Job 1:7 And the LORD said (8799) unto Satan, Whence comest (8799) thou? Then Satan answered (8799) the LORD, and said (8799), From going to and fro (8800) in the earth, and from walking up and down (8692) in it. Job 1:8 And the LORD said (8799) unto Satan, Hast thou considered * (8804) my servant Job, that there is none like him in the earth, a perfect and an upright man, one that feareth God, and escheweth (8802) evil? Because of the KJV council’s known theological leanings, they unmistakably interpret our text without translating the word Satan into accuser (Hebrew) or slanderer (Greek). They ignore word meanings leaving them purposely vague to promote a supernatural feeling, depicting the adversary or slanderer as a person that seems to omnisciently travel around the world looking for
sinners to slander. Said council had all together done a poor job at translating our text in a frank or honest way. And from the KJV, the modern tradition of a supernatural Satan arises, not from scholarly readings of the original texts themselves. Was Yahweh Job’s Satan? Here presented is an investigation into the nature of Job’s antagonist; we will be using source texts from the Greek LXX, BYZ, Hebrew BHS and Aramaic Tagrum of Job. We will begin at Job 1:10 where the accuser is speaking directly to Yahweh, raising doubts about the nature of Job’s faith. These texts are presented in their original state for the dedicated scholar’s review, and all transliterations and translation come directly from the original texts and are not from modern English translations. BYZ – Job 1:10 οὐ σύ περιφράσσω ὁ ἔξω αὐτός καί ὁ ἔσω ὁ οἰκία αὐτός καί ὁ ἔξω πᾶς ὁ εἰµί αὐτός κύκλος ὁ ἔργον ὁ χείρ αὐτός εὐλογέω καί ὁ κτῆνος αὐτός πολύς ποιέω ἐπί ὁ γῆ Transliteration Certainly not you fortify all around this without him and this within this house him and this and without each this to exist (to have) him around this business this help him and this to praise and this beast him many to make upon this seeing this that. Literal translation Haven’t you made fortifications around him, within his house and around everything he has, your help has encircled his business, he has many beasts and in seeing this he gives you praise. LXX – Job 1:11
ἀλλά ἀποστέλλω ὁ χείρ σύ καί ἅπτοµαι πᾶς ὅς ἔχω εἰ µήν εἰς πρόσωπον σύ εὐλογέω
Transliteration never the less withdrawal this help you and attack each which to have if truly towards face you to praise
Literal translation never-the-less withdrawal your help and touch everything he has if his praise is true before your face. LXX – Job 1:12 τότε εἶπον ὁ κύριος ὁ διάβολος ἰδού πᾶς ὅσος εἰµί αὐτός δίδωµι ἐν ὁ χείρ σύ ἀλλά αὐτός µή ἅπτοµαι καί ἐκἔρχοµαι ὁ διάβολος παρά ὁ κύριος Transliteration then to speak this Lord this slanderer each as great as to be his to give by this hand (care) you nay him I touch (attack) and withdrawal to go out this slanderer from this Lord. Literal translation Then spoke Yahweh to the slanderer, everything he has by my protection will be touched ("you" in the above transliteration refers to the request of 1:11) I will not touch him, and the slanderer left from before Yahweh. TARGUM Job – 1:12 (right to left) 21:10 הלא״הא לסטנא ייי ואמר#2#קדם מן בהרמנא סטנא ונפק ידך תושיט לא לותיה לחוד בידך מסר ליה דאית כל ״ ייי׃ Transliteration Yahweh commanded to adversary look! All there is for to condemn to attack no to injure only towards (person) no to injure to attack and out adversary with command from before the presence of Yahweh Literal translation Yahweh said to the adversary behold! All he has will be condemned and attacked; only he will not be injured or attacked. The adversary was commanded to leave Yahweh's presence. Discussion 1.2
When Job is read in this original context, the LXX, Hebrew BHS and Aramaic Targum each individually show the adversary telling Yahweh that (1) Yahweh has formed fortifications around Job and (2) Job's faith will fail in having everything he has touched by Yahweh's hand (in a negative sense). The adversary in every above translation asks Yahweh Himself to touch Job, and is never expressly granted any "power" of his own. The word used as power (more properly “hand”) in Aramaic has 10 possible uses, in Greek 7 and Hebrew has 11, and in this text each reference is to the hand of God in either a protective or destructive sense, never is the adversary referred to as touching Job as problematically rendered in the KJV. In both Greek and Aramaic the word hand (“Yad”: Aramaic and “paradidomi”: Greek) have synonymy with subjection and punishment, just as the context in Job demands. In the text Yahweh is presented as the one doing the punishing, and the accusative man's words are only agreed upon and acted out as a form of proving Job, this proving not being done by the accuser himself. The words "touch" (“haptomai”: Greek, “naga”: Hebrew and “qrb”: Aramaic) individually can be rendered as: to assail, strike and attack, and when these words are used in reference to the above mentioned “hand”, it is always speaking about Yahweh's punishment without fail (Job 1:10-12, 2:5-6 &c.,) Translations that mistake the “hand” of Yahweh for the hand of the accuser have assigned the designated “hand” to the incorrect individual, producing a convoluted meaning and textual confusion, this serving to corrupt the text, as the above original scriptural comparisons reveal. The reason such scriptures have been rendered by the KJV interpreters as they had, are because of the denominational bias and belief in the existence of a spiritual Satan. Through this shared dogmatic belief, they irreverently translated this independent text through a modern lens, adding in their own preconceived notions, this creating a mythology around Satan as the issuer and inveigler of Yahweh’s wrath; this stealing from Yahweh’s glory as issuer of His own sacred punishments and tests. Further support that the “hand” belongs to Yahweh not the accuser LXX – 2:5 (the accuser speaks to Yahweh) οὐ µήν δέ ἀλλά ἀποστέλλω ὁ χείρ σύ ἅπτοµαι ὁ ὀστέον αὐτός καί ὁ σάρξ αὐτός εἰ µήν εἰς πρόσωπον σύ εὐλογέω
By no means surely more over never the less withdrawal this hand (holding the hand, care) you to
touch this a bone him and this flesh him if truly towards the face you to praise Literal translation Moreover withdrawal your protection and touch his bone and flesh if truly his praise is towards your face. LXX – 2:6
εἶπον δέ ὁ κύριος ὁ διάβολος ἰδού παραδίδωµι σύ αὐτός µόνον ὁ ψυχή αὐτός διαφυλάσσω
Transliteration to say this Lord this diabolos behold to give up to justice (give up a slave to be examined by torture) you him only this breath him to guard carefully. Literal translation The Lord says behold! I will give him over to your justice, only his life will be carefully guarded. TARGUM Job – 2:6
02:06 ואמר ייי נט לסטנא הא הוא מסור בידך לחוד ית נפשיה ור׃
Transliteration to command Yahweh to adversary here look! He (to be accused, to condemn) to hand over (to condemn), to attack (take aggressive action against), alone life to reserve (to watch over guard). Literal translation Yahweh said to the adversary, Look! He is condemned to attack, alone his life will be reserved. Discussion 1.3
While taking the above scriptural references into account, the BHS has an unmistakable support showing the “hand” of punishment referred to above as belonging to Yahweh. Note: in giving Job over to the accuser’s “justice” Yahweh in a Hebraism says “I will afflict him”: In Job 2:5 the adversary requests that Yahweh sends His hand to touch Job's bone and flesh “indeed stretch out now hand to strike against bone …” (Hebrew right to left) "ֽח־נ֣א ָ ַשֽׁל ְ ֔ ְי ֽד ָ וְגַ ֥ע ְמ ֹו ַ אל־ ֶ שׂ ֑ר ֹו ָ בּ ְ אל־ ֶו ְ ” In Job 2:6 Yahweh acquiesces and says "Behold! Hand indeed, soul to keep." ֖ עצ
(Right to left) “ִנּ ֹו ְ א ֹ שׁמ ְ ” In the simplicity of the Hebrew, we see that it is ֣ ָד ה ֑ ֶ בי ֖ ַ ְשׁ ֹו ֥ ֽר אֶת־נַפ
Yahweh's hand that does the touching/harming. We also see that subject verb agreement is paramount in understanding this pericope (selection of verses), and that these verses cannot make further logic if the accuser’s hand is being alluded to by Yahweh, specifically seeing that we have the accuser suggesting that Yahweh does the touching/harming. This translation not only supports the remainder of the Job accounts in its entirety (with reference to Yahweh as Job’s antagonist as already supported), but also agrees perfectly with the Aramaic Targum, clarifying while complementing the Greek LXX. Furthermore, such a translation removes the requirement of an evil counterpart to God, or need for an issuer of His wrath divorced from Himself; this once again supporting Yahweh’s authority as executioner of justice and dispenser of His own judgments (even if it is that they arrive by intermediary tools such as: angels, serpents, whirlwinds, Kingdoms, armies, earthquakes, diseases, famine &c.,) this statement being in perfect accordance with the entire Tanakh and New Testament when understood apart from denominational bias. Finally, in Job 19:21 we have Job himself saying “Have pity upon me, have pity upon me, O you my friends; for the hand of God has been against me” (Peshitta). The same language is reflected in the LXX: “punishment of the Lord touched me”, the Job Targum: “blow from God near among (me)”, the BHS: “hand God strike me” and the KJV: “hand of God hath touched me”. So confusion about who is the source of Job’s trial is beyond dispute, Yahweh is responsible for Job’s trials. Conclusion Taking everything into account, the book of Job supports no idea for an angelic Satan figure who is the enemy of God or man, when understood from its original source texts without theological
prejudice. When the book is read in seclusion from the remainder of the Bible and without pre knowledge of Biblical traditions (as many read it in its pre-pentateuchal state) the reader can never arrive at the conclusion that an evil angel could be responsible for Job’s calamity. In clarifying the discourse between the slanderer/accuser and Yahweh, we see that the man is a person on a mission to disprove the validity of faith divorced from gaining reward, and that his debating nature kept him in a continual conflict with God. For God to finally squelch this divisive man’s doubts He decided to use Job as an example that would undoubtedly prove the authentic nature of faith apart from reward. And because Job had hidden faults keeping him from complete perfection, Yahweh used the opportunity to perfect him further, this while producing a narrative that would educate believers for many centuries until today. Lastly, with having adequate knowledge of the Tanakh, it is impossible for any modern reader to presume that Job’s antagonist is a fallen angel and not Yahweh Himself, and because of the sheer magnitude of references to God as dispenser of His own personal wrath upon His enemies, ideas depicting the contrary stand as stark heresy. With the truth now properly supported, and if accepted, Yahweh will once again be adequately revered as both fearful and truly omnipotent. With this correction to Yahweh’s nature firmly made, all doctrines concerning Satan as an angelic antagonist in the Old Testament (Ezek 28:129, Isaiah 14:12-22, Zach 3:2) must be re-examined with the un-doubtable conclusion that he as an angel cannot be the source of human trial or cause for sin. Considerations With Job’s Satan becoming a simple human antagonist, supports for an Old Testament Satanic adversary to God (or man) becomes unfound. And the adversarial force or slanderer as we know it must be replaced by another, this being human self-will and carnal desire, which in the New Testament are shown to be the instigators of sin and eventual death (James 1:15, Rom 6:23, Ijohn 3:20, &c.,). As the gospel proclaims, Yahshua/Jesus came to defeat Satan/The flesh/self-will by a renewed spiritual life in Himself (Heb 2:14, 1Pet 2:24 &c.,) Furthermore, all idolatrous fears towards a satanic devil must be dispelled, this glorifying Yahweh, placing Him as the source of all sacred justice and cause of both good and evil in the world (apart from direct human sin), this allowing the repentance of many believers who have placed unjustified fear in an idolatrous demigod with no authentic place in the scriptures (when properly understood).
If the understanding of Satan’s personality cannot come from Job, he/it is then reduced by the bibles biography to any adversarial force of slanderous person including Yahweh, then a reflection of defeatable haughty human leaders (Ezekiel & Isaiah), a powerful and evil antiChristian government (Revelations), personal obstruction to Yahweh’s will (Zachariah) or human self-talk and desire apart from God’s commandment (Genesis 3). All glory be to Yahweh in Yahshua His eternal Son. Amen.
Works Cited Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. N.p.: Hendrickson Pub, 2006. Digital. Carroll, Robert P., and Stephen Prickett. The Bible: Authorized King James Version. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2008. Print. Lamsa, George M. The Holy Bible from the Ancient Eastern Text: George M. Lamsa's Translations from the Aramaic of the Peshitta. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985. Print. Reed, Annette Yoshiko. Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2005. 207+. Print. Septuaginta Septuagint (Old Testment in Greek). N.p.: Hendrickson Pub, 2006. Digital. Targum Job. TgJob. Retrieved from: Cal1.cn.huc.edu/index.htm. 2013. Digital.
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