Topics covered: Modeling. g ODEs. Linearization. Laplace transform. Transfer functions. Block diagrams. Masons Rule. Time response p specifications. p Effects of zeros and poles. Stability via RouthHurwitz. Feedback: Disturbance rejection, Sensitivity, Steady Steadystate state tracking. PID controllers and ZieglerNichols tuning procedure. Actuator saturation and integrator windup. Root locus. Frequency responseBode and Nyquist diagrams. Stability Margins. Margins Design of dynamic compensators.
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
Classical Control
Text: Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, 4th Edition, Edition G.F. G F Franklin, Franklin J.D. J D Powel and A. A Emami EmamiNaeini Naeini Prentice Hall 2002.
What is control?
For any analysis we need a mathematical MODEL of the system Model Relation between gas pedal and speed: 10 mph change in speed per each degree rotation of gas pedal Disturbance Slope of road: 5 mph change in speed per each degree change of slope Block diagram for the cruise control plant:
w 0.5
Control (degrees)
Slope (degrees)
y = 10(u 0.5w)
10
Output speed (mph)
y
3
What is control?
O Openloop l cruise i control: t l
w
PLANT
r u= 10
yol = 10(u 0.5w) r = 10( 0.5w) 10 = r 5w
What is control?
Cl Closedloop d l cruise i control: t l
w
PLANT
u = 20(r ycll )
ycl = 10(u 0.5w)
What is control?
Feedback control can help: reference following (tracking) disturbance rejection changing dynamic behavior LARGE gain is essential but there is a STABILITY limit The The issue of how to get the gain as large as possible to reduce the errors due to disturbances and uncertainties without making the system become unstable is what much of feedback control design is all about about First step in this design process: DYNAMIC MODEL
Dynamic Models
MECHANICAL SYSTEMS:
F = ma
& = u bx & m& x & v=x &=& & a=v x
Newtons law
velocity acceleration
b u Vo 1m & + v = v v = =Vo e st ,u =U o e st m m Uo s + b m
T Transfer f Function F ti
d s dt
Dynamic Models
MECHANICAL SYSTEMS:
F = I
Newtons law
Linearization
Dynamic Models
g Tc & & + = 2 l ml
Reduce to first order equations:
x1 = & x2 =
&1 = x2 x g Tc &2 = x1 + 2 x l ml
0 x1 Tc &= g x , u 2 x ml l x2 l
General case:
1 0 x + u 0 1
& = Fx + Gu x y = Hx + Ju
9
Dynamic Models
ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS: Kirchoffs Current Law (KCL): The algebraic Th l b i sum of f currents entering i a node d is i zero at every instant Kirchoffs Voltage Law (KVL) The algebraic sum of voltages around a loop is zero at every instant
Resistors:
vR (t ) = RiR (t ) iR (t ) = GvR (t )
iR
+ vR
iC
+ vC
iL
+ vL
Capacitors:
1 dv (t ) iC (t ) = C C vC (t ) = iC ( ) d + vC (0) dt C0
t
Inductors:
di (t ) 1 vL (t ) = L L iL (t ) = vL ( ) d + iL (0) dt L0
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
10
Dynamic Models
ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS:
OP AMP:
vO = A(v p vn ), A
vp +
ip
+
in
RI + 
RO A(vpv vn)
iO
vO +
v p = vn i p = in = 0
v+
n
11
Dynamic Models
ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS:
R2 R1 C
+ 
KCL:
v1
vO
1 t R2 = (OC) vO (t ) = vO (0 ) v I ( ) d R1C 0
v1
vO
1 K = RC
12
Inverting integrator
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
Dynamic Models
ELECTROMECHANICAL C O C C S SYSTEMS: S S DC C Motor torque armature current
T = K t ia &m e = K e
emf shaft velocity
13
Dynamic Models
HEATFLOW: Heat Flow Temperature Difference
1 q = (T1 T2 ) R 1 & T= q C
Thermal capacitance Thermal resistance
1 1 1 & (To TI ) TI = + CI R1 R2
14
Dynamic Models
FLUIDFLOW: Mass rate Mass Conservation law l
15
Linearization
Dynamic System:
& = f ( x, u ) x
0 = f ( xo , uo )
Equilibrium
Denote
x = x xo , u = u uo
& = f ( xo + x, uo + u ) x
Taylor Expansion
& Fx + Gu x
16
Linearization
& Fx + Gu x
F f x xo ,uo f1 f1 f1 f1 x L x u L u n m f 1 1 = M ,G = M M M u xo ,uo f n L f n f n L f n x1 u1 xn um xo ,uo xo ,uo
0 1 k x &= g x cos x1 l m xo
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
17
Laplace Transform
Function f(t) of time Piecewise continuous and exponential order F ( s ) = f (t )e
0 st
f (t ) < Kebt
+
dt
j 1 F ( s )e st ds L 1[F (s )] = f (t ) = 2j j
0 0 limit is used to capture transients and discontinuities at t=0 s is a complex variable (+j)
There is a need to worry y about regions g of convergence g of the integral g
18
F ( s ) = u (t )e
0
st
dt = e
0
st
dt =
st
( + j )t
+ j
dt = e
0
dt =
s +
1 = if > s +
F ( s ) = (t )e st dt = 1 for all s
0
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
19
(t )
u (t ) tu (t )
e t u (t )
te t u (t )
Transform 1
1 s 1 s2 1 s + 1
( s + ) 2
sin ( t ) u (t ) cos( t )u (t )
e t sin ( t )u (t ) e t cos( t )u (t )
s2 + 2 s s2 + 2
( s + ) 2 + 2 s + ( s + ) 2 + 2
20
d 2 f (t ) 2 = s F ( s ) sf (0) f (0) L 2 dt
d m f (t ) m m 1 m2 ( m) L L = s F ( s ) s f ( 0 ) s f ( 0 ) f (0 ) m dt
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
21
L{e t f (t )} = F ( s + )
as
tdomain translation: L{ f (t a )u (t a )} = e
F ( s ) for a > 0
t 0 +
lim f (t ) = lim sF ( s )
s
lim f (t ) = lim sF ( s )
s 0
22
L{ f ( ) g (t )d } = F ( s )G ( s )
0
1 + j L{ f (t ) g (t )} = F ( s )G ( s )d j 2j
23
Laplace Transform
Exercise: Find the Laplace transform of the following waveform
F (s) =
4(s + 2 ) s (s 2 + 4 )
f (t ) = e u (t ) + 5 sin (4 x )dx
4t 0 40 t d 5 te f (t ) = 5e 40t u (t ) + u (t ) dt
f (t ) = Au (t ) 2 Au (t T ) + Au (t 2T )
F (s) =
A(1 e s
Ts 2
24
Laplace transforms
Tim me doma ain (t dom main)
Complex frequency domain (s domain) Laplace transform L Algebraic equation Algebraic techniques q Inverse Laplace p transform L1 Response p transform
y ( n 1) (0 ),K, y (0 ), u ( m 1) (0 ),K, u (0 )
k 1 d k f (t ) k ( k 1 j ) j L = s F ( s ) f ( 0 ) s k dt j =0
( n 1 j ) i 1 m i 1 i i j ( i 1 j ) (0) s + ai s Y ( s ) y (0)s = bi s U ( s ) u ( i 1 j ) (0)s j i =0 j =0 j =0 i =0 j n 1
ai y
i =0 j =0
n 1
i 1
( i 1 j )
(0)s bi u (i 1 j ) (0)s j
j i =0 j =0 n 1
i 1
s + an 1s
n
+ L + a1s + a0
26
Laplace Transform
Exercise: Find the Laplace transform V(s)
4 3 V (s) = s (s + 6 ) s + 6
27
Transfer Functions
y ( n ) + an 1 y ( n 1) + L + a0 y = bm 1u ( m 1) + L + b0u
(s
Output
bm 1s m 1 + L + b1s + b0 B( s) Y (s) = n U (s) = U (s) n 1 s + an 1s + L + a1s + a0 A( s ) Y (s) bm 1s m 1 + L + b1s + b0 H (s) = = n U ( s ) s + an 1s n 1 + L + a1s + a0 ( s z1 )( s z2 )L( s zm ) =K ( s p1 )( s p2 )L( s pn )
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
28
Rational Functions
We shall mostly be dealing with LTs which are rational functions ratios of polynomials in s
bm s m + bm 1s m 1 + L + b1s + b0 F (s) = an s n + an 1s n 1 + L + a1s + a0 ( s z1 )( s z2 )L( s zm ) =K ( s p1 )( s p2 )L( s pn )
pi are the poles and zi are the zeros of the function K is the scale factor or (sometimes) gain A proper rational function has nm A strictly proper rational function has n>m An improper rational function has n<m
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
29
(s pi )F ( s) = k1 ( s pi ) + k2 ( s pi ) + L + ki + L + kn ( s pi )
( s p1 ) ( s p2 ) ( s pn )
Residue at a simple pole:
ki = lim ( s pi ) F ( s )
s pi
30
Example:
2 1 3 2 s 2 + 5s = + 3 2 s + 1 (s + 1) (s + 1) (s + 1)3
+1)3(2s2 +5s) = d ( s 1 lim 3 ds s 1 (s +1) +1)3(2s2 +5s) = 1 lim d2 ( s 2 3 2!s1ds2 + (s 1)
2 + 5s 1 2 2 s 1 3 t 1 2 ( ) = L L + = e 2 + t 3 t u (t ) 3 2 3 (s + 1) s + 1 (s + 1) (s + 1)
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
31
lim ( s a) F ( s)
Bundle complex conjugate pole pairs into secondorder terms if you want but you will need to be careful
( s j )( s + j ) = s 2 2s + 2 + 2
)]
Inverse Laplace Transform is a sum of complex exponentials The answer will be real
32
(s p1 ) (s p2 )
( s p3 )
31
32
2
(s p3 )
33
(s p3 )
+ ... +
(s pq )
Now appeal pp to linearity y to invert via the table Surprise! Nastiness: computing the partial fraction expansion is best d done b by calculating l l i the h residues id
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
33
Example 912
Find the inverse LT of 20( s + 3) F ( s) = ( s + 1)( s 2 + 2s + 5)
* k1 k2 k2 F (s) = + + s +1 s +1 j2 s +1+ j2
20( s + 3) k = lim ( s + 1) F ( s ) = = 10 1 s 1 2 s + 2 s + 5 s = 1 20( s + 3) k = lim (s + 1 2 j ) F (s) = 2 s 1 + 2 j ( s + 1)( s + 1 + 2 j ) 5 j = 5 5 j = 5 2e 4
s = 1 + 2 j
34
Invert as normal
d (t ) f (t ) = u (t ) + 2 (t ) + 0.5e t + 0.5e 3t dt
35
Block Diagrams
Series:
G1
G2
G = G1G2
G1
G2
Parallel:
+ +
G = G1 + G2
36
Block Diagrams
Negative Feedback:
R
R( s)
+
E (s)

G
H
C (s)
B( s)
E = RB C = GE B = HC
C G C = GR GHC (1 + GH )C = GR = R (1 + GH ) E 1 E = R HGE (1 + GH ) E = R = R (1 + GH )
Rule: Transfer Function=Forward Gain/(1+Loop Gain)
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
37
Block Diagrams
Positive Feedback:
R
R( s)
+
E (s)
+
G
H
C (s)
B( s)
E = R+B C = GE B = HC
C G C = GR + GHC (1 GH )C = GR = R (1 GH ) E 1 E = R + HGE (1 GH ) E = R = R (1 GH )
Rule: Transfer Function=Forward Gain/(1Loop Gain)
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
38
Block Diagrams
Moving through a branching point:
R( s)
C (s)
R( s)
B( s)
G 1/ G
C (s)
B( s)
+ +
C (s)
R( s)
+ +
C (s)
B( s)
G
B( s)
39
Block Diagrams
Example:
H1
R( s)
+ 
G1
G2
G3
C (s)
H2
R( s)
C (s)
40
Masons Rule
H4
H6
U (s)
+ +
H1 H5
+ +
H2
+ +
H3 H7
+ +
Y (s)
H4 H6
branches b a c es
3
U (s)
H1 H5
H2
H3 H7
Y (s)
41
Masons Rule
Path: P th a sequence of f connected t db branches h in i th the direction di ti of f the th signal flow without repetition Loop: a closed path that returns to its starting node Forward path: connects input and output
(gain products of all possible three loops that do not touch) +L i = value of for the part of the graph that does not touch the ith forward path
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
42
Masons Rule
H4 H6
U (s)
H1 H5
H2
H3 H7
Y (s)
Y ( s) H1 H 2 H 3 + H 4 H 4 H 2 H 6 = U ( s ) 1 H1 H 5 H 2 H 6 H 3 H 7 H 4 H 7 H 6 H 5 + H1 H 5 H 3 H 7
43
Impulse Response
Diracs delta:
0 u( ) (t )d = u(t )
h(t )
System Response:
u (t )
y (t )
y (t ) = u ( )h(t )d
0
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
44
Impulse Response
tdomain:
u (t )
y (t )
Impulse response
y (t ) = u ( )h(t )d
0
u (t ) = (t ) y (t ) = h(t )
The system response is obtained by convolving the input with the impulse response of the system.
Convolution: sdomain: U ( s )
L{ u ( )h(t )d } = H ( s )U ( s )
0
Y ( s)
Impulse response
Y ( s ) = H ( s )U ( s )
u (t ) = (t ) U ( s ) = 1 Y ( s ) = H ( s )
The system response is obtained by multiplying the transfer function and the Laplace transform of the input.
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
45
1 H ( s) = h(t ) = e t s +
Impulse Response
Stable Unstable
>0 <0
Time Constant
46
H (s) =
s + 1
h(t ) = e t
Time Constant
Impulse Response
1 Y (s) = y (t ) = 1 e t s + s
Step Response
47
2 n Complex poles: H ( s ) = 2 2 s + 2 n s + n
2 n = (s + n )2 + n2 (1 2 )
n : :
H (s) =
(s + + jd )(s + jd )
2 n = (s + )2 + d2
= n , d = n 1 2
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
48
Impulse Response
>0 <0
Stable Unstable
49
Impulse Response
50
51
CASES:
2 = 0 : s 2 + n 2 (1 2 ) < 1 : (s + n )2 + n 2
Undamped p Underdamped
= 1 : (s + n )
> 1 : s + + 2 1 n s + 2 1 n
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
[ (
) ][ (
) ]
52
53
54
tp =
n 1
tr ts =
1.8
n
4.6
Mp =e
1 2
n
55
tr , t p , M p , t s
These specifications p give the p g position of the p poles
n , , d
Example: Find the pole positions that guarantee
56
57
Stability
Y ( s ) bm s m + bm 1s m 1 + L + b1s + b0 = n R( s) s + an 1s n 1 + L + a1s + a0
Impulse response:
R( s) = 1 Y ( s) = k1 k2 kn + +L+ ( s p1 ) ( s p2 ) ( s pn )
58
Stability
y (t ) = k1e p1t + k2e p2t + L + kn e pnt
We want:
e pit t 0
i = 1K n
Re{ { pi } < 0
a ( s ) = s n + an 1s n 1 + L + a1s + a0 a( s) = 0
59
Stability
Necessary condition for asymptotical stability (a.s.):
ai > 0
Use this as the first test!
60
Rouths Criterion
Necessary and sufficient condition Do not have to find the roots pi! Rouths Array:
sn s n 1 s n2 s n 3 s n4 M s0 an 1 a1 b1 c1 d1 a2 a3 b2 c2 d2 a4 L a5 L b3 c3
b1 =
an
a1a2 a3 aa a aa a , b2 = 1 4 5 , b3 = 1 6 7 a1 a1 a1 ba ab ba ab c1 = 1 3 1 2 , c2 = 1 5 1 3 , L b1 b1 c b bc cb bc d1 = 1 2 1 2 , d 2 = 1 3 1 3 , L c1 c1 M M
61
Rouths Criterion
How to remember this? Rouths Array:
sn s n 1 s n2 s n 3 M
m11
m12
mi , j =
, i 3
62
Rouths Criterion
The criterion: The system is asymptotically stable if and only if all the elements in the first column of the Rouths array are positive The number of roots with positive real parts is equal to the number of sign changes in the first column of the Routh array
63
s 2 + a1s + a2 = 0 s 3 + a1s 2 + a2 s + a3 = 0
Example 3: s 6 + 4 s 5 + 3s 4 + 2 s 3 + s 2 + 4 s + 4 = 0 Example 4:
s 3 + 5 s 2 + ( k 6) s + k = 0
64
+ 
s +1 s(s 1)(s + 6 )
Y (s)
65
Rouths Criterion
Special Case I: Zero in the first column We replace the zero with a small positive constant >0 and proceed as before. We then apply the stability criterion by taking the limit as 0 Example:
s 4 + 2 s 3 + 4 s 2 + 8s + 10 = 0
66
Rouths Criterion
Special Case II: Entire row is zero This indicates that there are complex conjugate pairs. If the ith row is zero, we form an auxiliary equation from the previous nonzero row:
a1 ( s ) = 1s i +1 + 2 s i 1 + 3 s i 3 + L
Where i are the coefficients of the (i+1)th ) row in the array. We then replace the ith row by the coefficients of the derivative of the auxiliary polynomial. Example:
s 5 + 2 s 4 + 4 s 3 + 8s 2 + 10 s + 20 = 0
67
Properties of feedback
Disturbance Rejection: Open loop
w
Ko
+
y
y = K o Ar + w
Closed loop
w
+
+ 
Kc
y
Kc A 1 y= r+ w 1 + Kc A 1 + Kc A
68
Properties of feedback
Disturbance Rejection: Ch Choose control t l s.t. t for f w=0,y 0 r Open loop:
1 Ko = y = r + w A
1 y r + 0w = r A
Feedback allows attenuation of disturbance without h having access to it (without ( h measuring it)!!! )
IMPORTANT: High gain is dangerous for dynamic response!!!
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
69
Properties of feedback
Sensitivity to Gain Plant Changes Open loop
w
Ko
+
y
y To = = AK o r o
Closed loop
w
+
+ 
Kc
y
AK c y Tc = = r c 1 + AK c
70
Properties of feedback
Sensitivity to Gain Plant Changes Let the plant gain be A + A Open loop: Closed loop:
To
To
A
A
Tc
A To 1 = << = Tc A 1 + AK c A To
dT / T A dT S = = dA / A T dA 1 Tc To SA = , SA =1 1 + AK c
T A
71
PID Controller
PID: Proportional Integral Derivative P Controller:
Y (s) C ( s )G ( s ) R ( s ) = , R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s ) E (s) 1 = . R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s )
+ 
E (s)
C (s) = K p
U (s)
G (s)
Y (s)
Step Reference:
u (t ) = K p e(t ),
U (s) = K p E (s)
High gain proportional feedback (needed for good tracking) results in underdamped (or even unstable) transients.
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
72
PID Controller
P Controller: Example (lecture06_a.m)
R( s)
+ 
E (s)
Kp
U (s)
A s2 + s + 1
Y (s)
K pG ( s) KpA Y ( s) = = 2 R ( s ) 1 + K pG ( s ) s + s + (1 + K p A)
2 n =1+ K p A
2 n =1
1 = = K 0 p 2n 2 1 + K p A
9 Underdamped transient for large proportional gain 9 Steady state error for small proportional gain
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
73
PID Controller
PI Controller:
R( s) Y (s) C ( s )G ( s ) = , R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s ) E (s) 1 = . R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s )
+ 
E (s)
C (s) = K p +
KI s
U (s)
G (s)
Y (s)
Step Reference:
u (t ) = K p e(t ) + K I e( )d ,
0
KI U (s) = K p + s
1 K 1+ K p + I s
E (s)
=0
1 K 1+ K p + I s
G ( s )
1 = lim li s s 0
G ( s )
It does not matter the value of the proportional gain Plant does not need to have a pole at the origin. The controller has it!
Integral control achieves perfect steady state reference tracking!!! Note that this is valid even for Kp=0 as long as Ki0
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
74
PID Controller
PI Controller: Example (lecture06_b.m)
R( s)
+ 
E (s)
Kp +
KI s
U (s)
A s2 + s + 1
Y (s)
KI G ( s ) Kp + ( K p s + K I )A Y (s) s = = 3 2 KI R( s) s + s + (1 + K p A) s + K I A 1+ K p + ( ) G s s
DANGER: for large
s 3 + s 2 + (1 + K p A) s + K I A = 0
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
75
PID Controller
PI Controller: Example (lecture06_b.m)
s 3 + s 2 + (1 + K p A) s + K I A = 0
Necessary Conditions: This is satisfied because Rouths Conditions:
1 + K p A > 0, K I A > 0
s3 1 1+ K p A 2 s 1 KI A s1 1 + K p A K I A
1+ K p A KI A > 0
s0
KI A
1 KI < KP + A
76
PID Controller
PD Controller:
R( s) Y (s) C ( s )G ( s ) = , R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s ) E (s) 1 = . R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s )
+ 
E (s)
C (s) = K p + K D s
U (s)
G (s)
Y (s)
Step Reference:
de(t ) u (t ) = K p e(t ) + K D , dt
U ( s ) = (K p + K D s )E ( s )
PD controller fixes problems with stability and damping by adding anticipative action
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
77
PID Controller
PD Controller: Example (lecture06_c.m)
R( s)
+ 
E (s) C ( s) = K + K s U (s) p D
A s2 + s + 1
Y (s)
2 n = 1+ KD A
1+ KD A 1+ KD A = = 2n 2 1+ K p A
9 The damping can be increased now independently of Kp 9 The steady state error can be minimized by a large Kp
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
78
PID Controller
PD Controller:
R( s) Y (s) C ( s )G ( s ) = , R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s ) E (s) 1 = . R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s )
+ 
E (s)
C (s) = K p + K D s
U (s)
G (s)
Y (s)
de(t ) u (t ) = K p e(t ) + K D , dt
NOTE: cannot apply pp y pure p differentiation. In practice,
U ( s ) = (K p + K D s )E ( s )
KDs
is implemented as
KDs Ds +1
79
PID Controller
PID: Proportional Integral Derivative
R( s)
+ 
E (s)
U (s) 1 Kp 1 + + T s Ts D I
G (s)
Y (s)
U (s) 1 = Kp 1+ + TD s E (s) T s I
PID Controller: Example (lecture06_d.m)
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
80
Y (s) K Ke td s = U ( s ) s + 1
81
82
Ku
U (s)
G (s)
Y (s)
Increase the constant gain Ku until the response becomes p purely y oscillatory y (no ( decay y marginally g y stable pure imaginary poles) Measure the period of oscillation Pu
83
84
u
(Input of the plant)
uc
(Output of the controller)
85
E (s)
Kp +
KI s
U c (s)
U (s)
G (s)
Y (s)
What Wh t happens? h ?  large step input in r  large e  large uc u saturates  eventually e becomes small  uc still large because the integrator is charged  u still at maximum  y overshoots h t f for a long l time ti
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
86
87
For large Ka, this is a system with very low gain and very fast decay rate, i.e., the integration is turned off.
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
88
E (s)
C (s)
U (s)
G(s)
Y (s)
E (s) 1 = R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s )
Test Inputs:
tk r (t ) = 1(t ) k! 1 R ( s ) = k +1 s
Type n System
E (s)
C (s)
Go ((ss) U ) sn
G(s)
Y (s)
90
Type yp n System
E (s)
Go ( s ) sn
Y (s)
s nk ess = lim n s 0 s + G ( 0) o
Input (k)
Steady State Error: Type (n) Type 0 Type 1 Type 2 Step (k=0) Ramp (k=1) Parabola (k=2)
1 1 1 = = Go (0) lim s 2C ( s )G ( s ) K a
s 0
91
n=0 n =1
K a = lim s 2C ( s )G ( s ) n = 2
92
tk w(t ) = 1(t ) k! 1 W ( s ) W ( s ) = k +1 s
C (s)
U (s)
+
G(s)
Y (s)
e=ry=y
1 s k +1
sn = lim To ( s ) k s 0 s
93
W (s) U (s)
+ +
E (s)
C (s)
G(s)
Y (s)
Steady State Output: Disturbance (k) Type (n) Type 0 Type 1 Type 2 Step (k=0)
*
Ramp (k=1)
*
Parabola (k=2)
*
0 <*<
94
0 0
E (s)
K Kp + I s
U (s)
+
A s (s + 1)
Y (s)
type 1 to w KI 0 K P 0, K I = 0 type 0 to w
95
Root Locus
Controller
R( s) +

Plant
U (s) Y (s)
E (s)
C (s)
G(s)
H (s)
Sensor
C ( s ) = KD ( s )
Y (s) C ( s )G ( s ) C ( s )G ( s ) = = R ( s ) 1 + C ( s )G ( s ) H ( s ) 1 + KL ( s )
Writing the loop gain as KL(s) we are interested in tracking the closedloop poles as gain K varies
96
Root Locus
Characteristic Equation:
1 + KL( s ) = 0
The roots (zeros) of the characteristic equation are the closedloop poles of the feedback system!!! The closedloop poles are a function of the gain K Writing the loop gain as
b( s ) s m + b1s m 1 + L + bm 1s + bm L( s ) = = n a ( s ) s + a1s n 1 + L + an 1s + an
The closed loop poles are given indistinctly by the solution of:
1 + KL ( s ) = 0,
1+ K
b( s ) = 0, a(s)
a ( s ) + Kb( s ) = 0,
L( s ) =
1 K
97
Root Locus
RL = zeros{ 1 + KL( s )} = roots{den( L) + Knum( L)}
when K varies from 0 to (positive Root Locus) or from 0 to  (negative Root Locus)
98
E (s)
U (s)
1 (s + 10)(s + 1)
Y (s)
1 + L( s ) = 0 s 2 + 11s + (10 + K ) = 0
s = 1,10
K=0
81 4 K 2 4 K 81 2
81 4 K s = 5.5 2
We need a systematic approach to plot the closedloop closed loop poles as function of the gain K ROOT LOCUS
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
100
E (s)
U (s)
s +1 s (s + 5)(s 2 + 4 s + 8)
Y (s)
L( s ) =
so = 1 + 3i
belongs to the locus?
101
45o 36.87
o
90o
108.43o
78.70o
102
so = 1 + 3i
We need a systematic approach to plot the closedloop closed loop poles as function of the gain K ROOT LOCUS
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
103
Root Locus
RL = zeros{ 1 + KL( s )} = roots{den( L) + Knum( L)}
when K varies from 0 to (positive Root Locus) or from 0 to  (negative Root Locus)
1 + KL( s ) = 0 L( s ) =
Basic Properties:
1 a ( s ) + Kb( s ) = 0 K
K = 0 a(s) = 0
RL ends at openloop open loop zeros e os or o asymptotes as mptotes
b( s ) = 0 K = L( s ) = 0 s (n m > 0)
RL symmetrical about Reaxis
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
104
Root Locus
Rule 1: The n branches of the locus start at the poles of L(s) and m of these branches end on the zeros of L(s). n: order of the denominator of L(s) m: order of the numerator of L(s)
Rule 2: The locus is on the real axis to the left of and odd number of poles and zeros. In other words, an interval on the real axis belongs to the root locus if the total number of poles and zeros to the right is odd. This rule comes from the phase condition!!!
105
Root Locus
Rule 3: As K, m of the closedloop poles approach the openloop zeros, and nm of them approach nm asymptotes with angles
l = (2l + 1)
and centered at
nm
l = 0,1,K, n m 1
b1 a1 poles zeros = = , nm nm
l = 0,1,K, n m 1
106
Root Locus
Rule 4: The locus crosses the j axis (looses stability) where the Routh criterion shows a transition from roots in the left halfplane to roots in the righthalf plane. Example:
G (s) =
s+5 s ( s 2 + 4 s + 5) K = 20, s = j 5
107
Root Locus
Example:
G (s) =
s +1 s 4 + 3s 3 + 7 s 2 + 6 s + 4
108
Root Locus
Design dangers revealed by the Root Locus: High relative degree: For nm n m3 we have closed loop instability due to asymptotes.
s +1 G ( s) = 4 s + 3s 3 + 7 s 2 + 6 s + 4
Nonminimum phase zeros: They attract closed loop poles into the RHP
G ( s) =
s 1 s2 + s + 1
109
Root Locus
Vietes formula: When the relative degree nm n m2, 2 the sum of the closed loop poles is constant
110
(s z j ) = r e , ( s pk ) = r e
p p i k k
z z i j j
j = 1K m k = 1L p
z z i m m p inp n
K = Ke
i K
G(s) = K e
i K
r e r e
z z i1z z i2 1 2 p p p i1 p i2 1 2
r e r e Lr e
Lr e
111
r e r e
K
z z i1z z i2 1 2 p p p i1 p i2 1 2
r e r e Lr e
z 2 p 2
= K e i
r r Lr e (
z 1 p 1
r r Lr e (
Lr e
z z i m m p inp n
z z +L+m z i 1z +2 m p p p p i 1 +2 +L+n n
Now it is easy to give the phase and magnitude of the o e transfer a s e function: u o
z r1z r2z L rm G ( s) = K p p , p r1 r2 L rn
z ) (1p + 2p + L + np ) G ( s ) = K + (1z + 2z + L + m
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
112
s = so = 7 + 5i
r3p
r1z
r2p r1p
3p
1z 2p
1p
G ( s ) = 1z (1p + 2p + 3p )
r1z G(s) = p p p r1 r2 r3
113
114
Root Locus
Selecting K for desired closed loop poles on Root Locus: If so belongs to the root locus, locus it must satisfies the characteristic equation for some value of K
1 L( so ) = K
Then we can obtain K as
1 K = L( so ) 1 K= L( so )
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
115
Root Locus
Example:
L( s ) = G ( s ) =
(s + 1)(s + 5)
so = 3 + i 4 K =
1 = so + 1 so + 5 = 3 + i 4 + 1 3 + i 4 + 5 L( so ) =
( 2)2 + 42 (2)2 + 42 = 20
Using MATLAB:
sys=tf(1,poly([1 5])) so=3+4i [K,POLES]=rlocfind(sys,so)
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
116
Root Locus
Example:
L( s ) = G ( s ) =
(s + 1)(s + 5)
so = 3 + i 4
so = 7 + i5 K= 1 = 42.06 L( so )
so = 7 + i5
When we use the absolute value formula we are assuming that the point belongs to the Root Locus!
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
117
L( s ) = G ( s ) =
(s + 1)(s + 5)
Can we place the closed loop pole at so=7+i5 only varying K? NO. We need a COMPENSATOR.
L( s) = G ( s ) =
(s + 1)(s + 5)
L( s ) = D( s )G ( s ) = (s + 10 )
(s + 1)(s + 5)
118
s+z , D( s) = s+ p
p>z
When we study frequency response we will understand why we call Phase Lead to this compensator.
L( s ) = D( s )G ( s ) =
1 s+z , s + p (s + 1)(s + 5)
p>z
119
L( s ) = D( s )G ( s ) =
s+z 1 , s + p (s + 1)(s + 5)
p<z
21.04
111.80o 140.19o
1z ?
L( s ) =
Kp
120
L( s ) = D( s )G ( s ) =
s + 6.735 1 s + 20 (s + 1)(s + 5)
Phase lead COMPENSATOR
so = 7 + i5 K = 117
121
122
L( s ) = D( s )G ( s ) =
s + 6.735 1 s + 20 (s + 1)(s + 5)
L( s ) = D( s )G ( s ) =
p<z
Phase lag Ph l COMPENSATOR
We choose:
123
L( s ) = D( s )G ( s ) =
124
125
D( s) = D( s) =
s+z , s+ p s+z , s+ p
z< p z> p
We will see why we call phase lead and phase lag to these compensators when we study frequency response
126
Frequency Response
We now know how to analyze and design systems via sdomain methods which yield dynamical information
The responses are described b by the e exponential ponential modes The modes are determined by the poles of the response Laplace Transform
We next will look at describing cct performance via frequency response methods This guides us in specifying the system pole and zero positions
127
Y ( s ) = G ( s )U ( s ) = K
( s z1 )( s z2 )L( s zm ) A ( s p1 )( s p2 )L( s pn ) (s 2 + 2 )
Only the response due to the poles on the imaginary axis remains after a sufficiently long time
This is the sinusoidal steadystate response
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
128
Transform
U ( s ) = A cos
s + A sin s2 + 2 s2 + 2
Response R Transform T f
k k* k1 k2 kN Y ( s ) = G ( s )U ( s ) = + + + +L+ s j s + j s p1 s p2 s pN
Response Signal
forced response
natural response
ySS (t ) = ke jt + k *e jt
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
0
129
u(t ) = Acos(t + )
Signal g calculation
k k* + yss (t ) = L s j s + j = k e jK e jt + k e jK e jt
1
= 2 k cos(t + K )
yss (t ) = A G( j ) cos(t + + G( j ))
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
130
Output frequency = input frequency Output p amplitude p = input p amplitude p G(j (j) Output phase = input phase +G(j) Th The Frequency F Response R of f the h transfer f function f i G(s) G( ) is i given i by its evaluation as a function of a complex variable at s=j
We speak of the amplitude response and of the phase response They cannot independently be varied Bodes relations of analytic function theory
131
Frequency Response
Find the steady state output for v1(t)=Acos(t+)
+ V1(s) _ sL R + V2(s) 
C Compute t the th sdomain d i transfer t f function f ti T(s) T( ) R T s ( ) = Voltage divider sL + R Compute the frequency response
T ( j ) = R R 2 + (L) 2 ,
L T ( j ) = tan 1 R
]
132
Bode Diagrams
Loglog plot of mag(T), loglinear plot of arg(T) versus
Bode Diagram 0
5 5
10
15
20
25 0
45
90 10
4
10
10
Frequency (rad/sec)
133
Frequency Response
u (t ) = A cos(t + )
G( s)
yss = G ( j ) A cos(t + + G ( j ))
Stable Transfer Function
After a transient, the output settles to a sinusoid with an amplitude magnified by G ( j ) and phase shifted by G ( j ) . Since all signals can be represented by sinusoids (Fourier series and transform), the quantities G ( j ) and G ( j ) are extremely important. important Bode developed methods for quickly finding G ( j ) and G ( j ) for a given G ( s ) and for using them in control design. design
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
134
Frequency Response
Find the steady state output for v1(t)=Acos(t+)
+ V1(s) _ sL R + V2(s) 
C Compute t the th sdomain d i transfer t f function f ti T(s) T( ) R T s ( ) = Voltage divider sL + R Compute the frequency response
T ( j ) = R R 2 + (L) 2 ,
L T ( j ) = tan 1 R
]
135
5 5
10
15
20
25 0
45
90 10
4
10
10
Frequency (rad/sec)
[ ] = rad / sec, = 2f , [ f ] = Hz
136
Bode Diagrams
( s z1 )( s z2 )L( s zm ) G (s) = K ( s p1 )( s p2 )L( s pn )
z z z r1z r2z L rm ) i [ K + (1z +2 +L+m (1p +2p +L+np )] G (s) = K p p e p r1 r2 L rn
The magnitude and phase of G(s) when s=j is given by: Nonlinear in the magnitudes
z r1z r2z L rm , G ( j ) = K p p p r1 r2 L rn
z ) (1p + 2p + L + np ) G ( j ) = K + (1z + 2z + L + m
137
Bode Diagrams
Why do we express G ( j ) in decibels?
G ( j ) dB = 20 log G ( j )
z r1z r2z L rm G ( j ) = K p p G ( j ) dB = ? p r1 r2 L rn
z z ) (20 log r1p + 20 log r2p + L + 20 log rnp ) 20 log G ( s ) = 20 log K + (20 log r1z + 20 log rm + L + 20 log rm
The magnitude and phase of G(s) when s=j is given by: Linear in the magnitudes (dB)
G ( s ) dB = K dB + r1z
z ) (1p + 2p + L + np ) G ( s ) = K + (1z + 2z + L + m
dB
+ r2z
dB
z + L + rm
dB
) (r
1 dB
+ r2p
dB
+ L + rnp
dB
)
138
Bode Diagrams
Why do we use a logarithmic scale? Let Lets s have a look at our example:
1 1+ R L
2
T ( j ) dB
Asymptotic behavior:
: T ( j ) dB 20 log
0 : T ( j ) dB 0
R/L
R ( ) = 20 log / 20 log = R L
L dB
20 log
139
Bode Diagrams
Decade: Any frequency range whose end points have a 10:1 ratio A cutoff frequency occurs when the gain is reduced from its maximum i passband b d value l b by a f factor t 1/ 2 :
= 0 T ( j ) = 2 = R / L L 1+ R 1
T ( j ) = 1 T ( j ) = 1 / 2
This i Thi is a lowpass l fil filter!!! !!! P Passband b d gain= i 1, C Cutoff ff frequency= f R/L The Bandwith is R/L!
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
140
The magnitude (dB) (phase) is the sum of the magnitudes (dB) (phases) of each one of the terms. We learn how to plot each term, we learn how to plot the whole magnitude and phase Bode Plot. Classes of terms:
123 34
G ( j ) = K o G ( j ) = ( j )
m n q
G ( j ) = ( j + 1)
2
j j G ( j ) = + 2 + 1 n n
141
G ( j) dB = 20 log K o d 0 G ( j ) =
200 180 160
G (s ) = 10
40 35 30
if K o > 0 if K o < 0
140
Magnitude (dB)
Phas se (deg)
25 20 15 10
120 100 80 60 40
5 0 1 10
0 1 2
20
10
10
10
0 1 10
Frequency (rad/sec)
10 10 Frequency (rad/sec)
10
142
G ( j) dB = m 20 log G ( j ) = m
20
1 m = 1, G (s ) = s
2
0
10
G (1) dB = 0
Pha ase (deg)
1 2
20
40
10
60
20
30
dB m 20 dec
10
0
80
100
40 1 10
10
10
120 1 10
10
10
10
Frequency (rad/sec)
Frequency (rad/sec)
143
G ( j) dB = n 10 log( 2 2 + 1) G ( j ) = n tan 1 ( )
Asymptotic behavior:
o G ( j ) 0 <<1 / o G ( j ) n 90 >>1 /
144
n = 1, = 1 / 10
n 3dB dB n 20 dec
Magnitude (d dB)
G (s ) =
1 s +1 10
G ( j 0) dB = 0dB G ( j1 / ) dB = n 3dB
10
0
10
10
10
G () dB = sgn(n)dB
Frequency q y( (rad/sec) )
145
n = 1, = 1 / 10 G (s ) = 1 s +1 10
Phase (deg) P )
n 45o
G ( j 0) = 0o G ( j1 / ) = n 45o
10
1
10
10
G ( j) = n 90o
Frequency (rad/sec)
146
Asymptotic behavior:
2 2 2 G( j ) dB = q 10 log 2 1 2 + n n 1 2 / n G( j ) = q tan 1 2 / 2 n
G ( j ) dB 0 <<
n
o G ( j ) 0 <<
n
G ( j ) dB 2q n dB + q 40 log g >>
n
o G ( j ) q 180 >>
n
147
q 2
q = 1, n = 1, = 0.05
dB
dB q 40 dec
1 G (s ) = 2 s + 0.1s + 1
G ( j 0) dB = 0dB
dB
10 Frequency (rad/sec)
10
10
G ( j ) dB = G ( jr ) dB = q 2 1 2
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
dB
= r =
n 1 2
148
q = 1, n = 1, = 0.05 1 G (s ) = 2 s + 0.1s + 1
G ( j 0) = 0o G ( j1 / ) = q 90o G ( j) = q 180o
Phase (deg) P )
q 90o
10
10
10
Frequency (rad/sec)
149
Frequency Response
Example:
150
Example: p
1 G (s ) = s2
This frequency response cannot be found experimentally but can be computed and used for control design.
151
( ) = K tan t 1 ( / )
0 K = o 180
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
2 + 2
K >0 K <0
152
( ) = K tan 1 ( / )
T ( 0) = K
2 + 2
K T ( 0) T ( j ) = = = c = 2 2 2 2 + K
, T ( ) = 0
Cutoff frequency
T ( j ) <<
T ( j ) >>
= c =
Cutoff frequency
Bandwith
153
B = c
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
( ) = K tan 1 ( / )
(0) = K ( ) = K tan 1 (1) = K 45o
2 + 2
( ) K <<
o ( ) K 90 >>
154
( ) = K + 90o tan t 1 ( / )
0 K = o 180
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
2 + 2
K >0 K <0
155
( ) = K + 90o tan 1 ( / )
T (0) = 0, T () = K
2 + 2
K T ( ) = = c = T ( j ) = 2 2 2 2 + T ( j ) K / << T ( j ) K >>
K
Cutoff frequency
= K = c = Cutoff frequency
B=
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
Bandwith
156
2 + 2
= K
157
T ( j ) << <<
1 2
K1 K 2
K1 K 2 T ( j ) = 2 + 2 2 + 2 1 2
K1 K 2
1 2
K1 K 2
T ( j ) << <<
1 2
1 2
K1 K 2
K1 K 2
= cH = 1
2
K1 K 2
T ( j ) << <<
1 2
K1 K 2
= cL = 2
158
B = cL cH = 2 2 Passband
T ( j ) K1 << <<
2 1
K2
2
T ( j ) <
2
= K1
K2
K1
K2
T ( j ) <
1
K1
1 K 2
K1
= 1 2
Bandstop
159
B = 1 2
T (s) =
Ks
2 s 2 + 2o s + o
T ( j ) =
Kj 2 2 + 2o j + o
o : :
T ( j ) = <<
o
= T ( j ) >>
o
2 o
= o
T ( j ) =
K / o K / o T ( j ) = =o MAX 2 o 2 + j o
161
T ( j ) o = 2
o
K / o T ( j ) MAX K / o 2 = T ( j ) = = 2 + j 2 2 2
C1 = o + 1 + 2 C 2
o
( = (+ +
1+ 2
) )
2 o = C1C 2 B = C 2 C1 = 2
162
T (s) =
K s + 2o s +
2 2 o
T ( j ) =
K
2 2 + 2o j + o
o : :
T ( j ) =
K
2 2 + 2o j + o
T ( j ) <<
o
2 o
= T ( 0)
K
= T ( j ) >>
o
2 o
= o
2
K / o T ( 0) T ( jo ) = = 2 2
T ( j ) MAX =
T ( 0) 2 1 2
= MAX = o 1 2
164
Ks 2 K K 2 T (s) = 2 T ( j ) = 2 2 s + 2o s + o 2 + 2o j + o
o : :
T ( j ) <<
o o
2 o
K 2
T ( j ) = K = T () >>
2 o
= K = o
K T ( ) T ( j o ) = = 2 2 T ( j ) MAX = T ( )
2 1
2
= MAX
o = 1 2
166
Frequency Response
u (t ) = A cos(t + )
G( s)
yss = G ( j ) A cos(t + + G ( j ))
Stable Transfer Function
G ( j ) = G ( j ) e jG ( j )
G ( j ) = Re{G ( j )} + j Im{G ( j )}
167
Frequency Response
G ( j ) = Re{G ( j )} + j Im{G ( j )} = G ( j ) e jG ( j )
How are the Bode and Nyquist plots related?
They are two way to represent the same information
j Im{G ( j )}
G ( j )
G ( j )
Re{G ( j )}
168
Frequency Response
Find the steady state output for v1(t)=Acos(t+)
+ V1(s) _ sL R + V2(s) 
C Compute t the th sdomain d i transfer t f function f ti T(s) T( ) R ( ) = T s Voltage divider sL + R Compute the frequency response
T ( j ) = R R 2 + (L) 2 ,
L T ( j ) = tan 1 R
]
169
5 5
10
15
10 G ( s) = s + 10 R / L = 10
20
25 0
45
90 10
4
10
10
Frequency (rad/sec)
[ ] = rad / sec, = 2f , [ f ] = Hz
170
R 2 + (L) R2 Re{T ( j )} = 2 , R + 2 L2
T ( j ) =
, 2
L T ( j ) = tan t 1 R
Im{T ( j )} =
RL R 2 + 2 L2
1 0 : T ( j ) 1, 1 2 : T ( j ) 0, 34
T ( j ) 0
T ( j ) = 1
T ( j ) 90o
T ( j ) j
R 0 L
Re{T ( j )} = 0 =
Im{T ( j )} = 0 = 0, =
171
10 G ( s) = s + 10 R / L = 10
172
Nyquist Diagrams
General procedure for sketching Nyquist Diagrams: Find G(j0) Find G(j) Find Fi d * such h that h Re{ R {G(j*)}=0; } 0 Im{ I {G(j*)} is i the h intersection with the imaginary axis. Find * such that Im{G(j*)}=0; } 0; Re{G(j*)} is the intersection with the real axis. Connect the points
173
1 G(s) = 2 ( ) s s +1
1
2
G ( j ) =
j ( j + 1)
( j )(1 j )2 = 2 + j ( 2 1) 2 2 2 j ( j + 1) ( j )(1 j ) ( 2 + 1)
1
1 0 : G ( j ) = 2 j 1
1 j 0 2 : G ( j ) 3
34
Re{G ( j )} = 0 =
Im{G ( j )} = 0 = 1, =
Re{G ( j1)} =
1 2
174
1 G(s) = 2 ( ) s s +1
175
60
dB dec
176
G(s)
Y (s)
When is this transfer function Stable? NYQUIST: The closed loop is asymptotically stable if the number of counterclockwise encirclements of the point ( 1+j0) that the Nyquist curve of G(j) is equal to the (1+ number of poles of G(s) with positive real parts (unstable poles) Corollary: If the openloop system G(s) is stable, then the closedloop system is also stable provided G(s) makes no encirclement of the point (1+j0).
177
G (s) =
1 s 4 + 5 s 3 + 3 s 2 + 3s + 1
178
G(s)
K
Y (s)
When is this transfer function Stable? NYQUIST: The closed loop is asymptotically stable if the number of counterclockwise encirclements of the point ( 1/K+j0) that the Nyquist curve of G(j) is equal to the (1/K+ number of poles of G(s) with positive real parts (unstable poles)
179
Neutral Stability
U (s)
+ 
KG ( s )
Y (s)
1 G (s) = 2 s(s + 1)
KG ( s ) = 1, G ( s ) = 180o
At points of neutral stability RL condition hold for s=j
KG ( j ) = 1, G ( j ) = 180o
Stability: At G ( j ) = 180o
KG ( j ) < 1 If K leads to instability KG ( j ) > 1 If K leads to instability
Classical Control Prof. Eugenio Schuster Lehigh University
180
Stability Margins
The GAIN MARGIN (GM) is the factor by which the gain can be raised before instability results.
GM < 1( GM
dB
< 0)
UNSTABLE SYSTEM
at the frequency
The PHASE MARGIN (PM) is the value by which the phase can be raised before instability results.
PM < 0
UNSTABLE SYSTEM
181
Stability Margins
G(s) = 1 2 s (s + 1)
1/GM
PM
182
Stability Margins
GM
1 G(s) = 2 s(s + 1)
PM
183
184
dM G ( jo ) = W (u )du du
M = ln G ( j ) W (u ) = ln (coth u / 2 ) u = ln( / o )
185
c BW 2c
186
187
PM 100
188
<1
189
190
>1
191
192