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Running head: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY ASSIGNMENT 4

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Anatomy and Physiology Assignment 4 Student Name: Dermot Connolly Stenberg College Surrey BC. Canada

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY ASSIGNMENT 4

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Anatomy and Physiology Assignment 4

Briefly explain the formation of urine. The formation of urine occurs in three steps; 1) Filtration, 2) Reabsorption and 3) Secretion. The filtration process takes place in the bowman’s capsules and glomeruli. As blood flows through the glomeruli, it forces water and dissolved substances out of the glomeruli and into the bowman’s capsules. This process is called glomerular filtrate and about 180 liters is produced by the kidneys every day. We are all aware that we do not excrete 180 liters of urine every day and this is because almost 99% of the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed back into the blood capillaries. Reabsorption of Important nutrients such as water and glucose as well as sodium ions occurs at the proximal tubule, the loop of henle and the distal convoluted tubules. The final step in the process of urine formation is that of secretion which is essentially the reverse of reabsorption where substances such as hydrogen, potassium and ammonia ions move into the distal tubule from the blood capillaries surrounding them to form urine. Thibodeau & Patton (2010).

Name several substances eliminated or regulated by the kidney.

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY ASSIGNMENT 4 Through the formation of urine, the kidneys help to regulate the body’s homeostasis as well as eliminate many toxins. Many chemical substances are regulated by the body, such as

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chloride, sodium and potassium. Water content is also regulated through maintenance of water / salt concentrations in the body. The kidneys also play an important role in the removal of substances from the body. These substances include mineral ions such as sodium, potassium and chloride. It also contains products rich in nitrogen such as urea, ammonia and creatinine and some suspended solids such as bacteria blood cells and casts. Thibodeau & Patton (2010).

Explain the salt and water balance maintained by aldosterone and ADH. The antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is excreted from the posterior pituitary gland and is commonly called the “water retaining hormone” or the “urine decreasing hormone” Thibodeau & Patton (2010) because it decreases the amount of urine formed by making the kidneys tubules permeable to water. When ADH is not present the kidney tubules are impermeable to water. Consequently when ADH is present in the blood, the tubules are permeable to water. Aldosterone is a hormone that is secreted by the adrenal cortex and it is commonly known as the “salt and water retaining hormone” Thibodeau & Patton (2010). Aldosterone is responsible for the kidney tubules reabsorption of salt. Aldosterone works by stimulating the kidney tubules to increase the rate of reabsorbtion of sodium salts. It also stimulates the faster reabsorption of water through the tubules. Thibodeau & Patton (2010).

Why is proper blood pressure necessary for proper kidney function?

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY ASSIGNMENT 4 Blood pressure is important in proper kidney function as a reduction in blood pressure stops the filtration of water and dissolved substances out of the glomerular capsular. This prevents the formation of urine and explains why kidney failure is a common side effect of a hemorrhage. Thibodeau & Patton (2010).

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References: Thibodeau, G., & Patton, K. (2010). The Human Body in Health & Disease (5th Ed) Mosby & Elsevier.