Substantive law is the statutory or written law that defines rights and duties, such as crimes and punishments

(in the criminal law), civil rights and responsibilities in civil law. It is codified in legislated statutes or can be enacted through the initiative process. Substantive law stands in contrast to procedural law, which is the "machinery" for enforcing those rights and duties. Procedural law comprises the rules by which a court hears and determines what happens in civil or criminal proceedings, as well as the method and means by which substantive law is made and administered. However, the way to this clear differentiation between substantive law and, serving the substantive law, procedural law has been long, since in the Roman civil procedure the actio included both substantive and procedural elements (see procedural law). Procedural law From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Procedural law or adjective law comprises the rules by which a court hears and determines what happens in civil lawsuit, criminal or administrative proceedings. The rules are designed to ensure a fair and consistent application of due process (in the U.S.) or fundamental justice (in other common law countries) to all cases that come before a court. Substantive law, which refers to the actual claims and defenses whose validity is tested through the procedures of procedural law, is different from procedural law. In context of procedural law; procedural rights may also refer not exhaustively to rights to Information, rights to justice, rights to participation which those rights encompassing, general Civil and Political rights. In environmental law, these procedural Rights have been reflected within the UNECE Convention on "Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters" known as the Aarhus Convention (1998). Legal procedure Although different legal processes aim to resolve many kinds of legal disputes, the legal procedures share some common features. All legal procedure, for example, is concerned with due process. Absent very special conditions, a court can not impose a penalty - civil or criminal - against an individual who has not received notice of a lawsuit being brought against them, or who has not received a fair opportunity to present evidence for themselves.

The standardization for the means by which cases are brought, parties are informed, evidence is presented, and facts are determined is intended to maximize the fairness of any proceeding. Nevertheless, strict procedural rules have certain drawbacks. For example, they impose specific time limitations upon the parties that may either hasten or (more frequently) slow down the pace of proceedings. Furthermore, a party who is unfamiliar with procedural rules may run afoul of guidelines that have nothing to do with the merits of the case, and yet the failure to follow these guidelines may severely damage the party's chances. Procedural systems are constantly torn between arguments that judges should have greater discretion in order to avoid the rigidity of the rules, and arguments that judges should have less discretion in order to avoid an outcome based more on the personal preferences of the judge than on the law or the facts. Legal procedure, in a larger sense, is also designed to effect the best distribution of judicial resources. For example, in most courts of general jurisdiction in the United States, criminal cases are given priority over civil cases, because criminal defendants stand to lose their freedom, and should therefore be accorded the first opportunity to have their case heard. What is the difference between procedural and substantive law? Procedural law provides the process that a case will go through (whether it goes to trial or not). The procedural law determines how a proceeding concerning the enforcement of substantive law will occur. Substantive law defines how the facts in the case will be handled, as well as how the crime is to be charged. In essence, it deals with the substance of the matter. Even though both are affected by Supreme Court opinions and subject to constitutional interpretations, each serves a different function in the criminal justice system. Some Basic Rules of Criminal Procedure Procedural law is exactly what the name implies. It sets out the procedure for how a criminal case will proceed. Every state has its own set of procedures which are usually written out in a set of rules called a code of criminal procedure. The basic rules which most jurisdictions follow include: 1. 2. An arrest must be based on probable cause; A state or federal prosecutor files a charging instrument setting out what you are accused of doing; You are arraigned on the charges; You advise the court whether or not you are seeking court-appointed counsel; A bond amount will be set in your case; You will be sent notice of a court appearance;

3. 4. 5. 6.


4. and then the jury can hear punishment evidence. Substantive law requires that the prosecutor prove every element of a crime in order for someone to be convicted of that crime. Elements are the specific acts needed to complete a crime. 2. while substantive law in Texas only requires the prosecutor to prove two prior convictions. you have the right to appeal. This is in stark contrast to the federal procedural law. and sometimes even by county. A federal defendant’s criminal history will be researched and summarized in a report by a federal probation officer. What elements are required will depend on the crime with which you are charged and the state’s substantive laws. It’s much easier to predict what your sentence will be in the federal system because the punishment procedures are based on a point system. for a felony driving while intoxicated charge. Texas has a bi-furcated trial system where first you must be found guilty. Because substantive law and procedural laws vary by state. For example. On a public roadway. And that you have prior convictions for driving while intoxicated. They will be more familiar with the rules and can help you invoke the protections outlined in the procedural and substantive laws of your state. While you were intoxicated. If you are convicted at trial. The range of punishment for a first degree felony is not less than five years and up to ninety-nine years or life. Substantive Law and Elements Substantive law. For example. 2 . make sure you consult with an experienced criminal law attorney in your jurisdiction if you are charged with a crime. on the other hand. Punishment Systems Differ How much detail is required for each phase of the criminal procedures will vary depending on the nature of your charges and what agency is prosecuting you. In New Mexico.7. then your case is set for a pre-trial and trial. Federal judges assess punishment and are required to utilize federal sentencing guidelines instead of a wide range system. 3. the prosecutor must show that you have previously been convicted three times for driving while intoxicated. You were driving or operating a motor vehicle. most states require prosecutors to prove that: 1. Every charge is comprised of elements. If you cannot reach a plea bargain agreement. A jury is given a range of punishment to assess in your case. deals with the “substance” of your charges. 8.

for the reading of the sentence. On June 14. but for execution of the judgment against him. the Supreme Court. 1943. concur. No. the petition must be filed with the proper Court of First Instance. the attorney for appellant filed a motion praying for the reconsideration of the said order of denial. 1944. prayed for in the petition. 1944.: The petitioner in this case was convicted by the Court of First Instance of Laguna of the crime of arson and sentenced to the indeterminate penalty of from 5 years 4 months and 21 days of presidio correccional to 10 years and 1 day of prision mayor. 3 .G. 1946 G. ranging from more than 5 years to more than 10 years. RESOLUTION Feria (Felicisimo). with the strong dissenting opinion of Mr. The judgment or sentence which. and the petition was denied on July 5. Pablo. 1945. 1944. The certified copy of the judgment is sent by the clerk of the appellate court to the lower court under section 9 of Rule 53. also without alleging any reason. Sumilang Republic of the Philippines SUPREME COURT Manila EN BANC DECISION December 18. for the crime of arson allegedly committed in Pila. the Court of Appeals affirmed the sentence of the lower court. according to section 6. 1941.. vs. a petition for certiorari with the Supreme Court for the review of the decision of the Court of Appeals. on May 23. dissenting: Guillermo Sumilang was sentenced by the Court of First Instance of Lagunato imprisonment.” And the petition is based on the resolution of this Court of October 1. after receiving the record of the case remanded by the clerk of the appellate court for the execution of the latter’s decision in accordance with section 9. Such a practice is not in accordance with law. defendant-appellee. on July 17. It is a well established rule of statutory construction that statutes regulating the procedures of the court will be construed as applicable to actions pending and undermined at the time of their passage. we have noted that. Laguna. A motion for reconsideration of the order denying the petition for certiorari was filed by the petitioner on July 17. and also denied.J. No. 1945.R. and a second motion for re-hearing or consideration could not be filed after the expiration of the period of fifteen days from the promulgation of the order or judgment deducting the time in which the first motion had been pending in this Court (section 1.” and “prays this Court that the reading of the sentence of the accused be suspended and that said accused be permitted or allow to file whatever pleading that may be allowed by this Honorable Tribunal necessary for the protection of the rights of the accused. J. Rule 54). L-49187 THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES. C. but it can not be invoked in and applied to the present case in which the decision had become final before said resolution became effective. Justice Jose P. Quiapo. 1945. the Supreme Court. 1944. Bengzon.R. Therefore. for said period had already expired before the adoption of the resolution on October 1. affirmed the lower court’s decision. L-49187. Manila. As to the suspension of the reading of the sentence of the Court of Appeals affirming that the Court of First Instance. On October 8. impugning the decision of the Court of Appeals. the Court of Appeals. until further notice. refers also to said sentence or judgment of the Court of First Instance. GUILLERMO SUMILANG. the Court cannot now permit or allow the petitioner to file any pleading or motion in the present case. which suspends. Paras. and a right of a defendant to be present at the promulgation of the judgment granted by section 1. without stating any reason. not upon the expiration of the fifteen days after the promulgation thereof. On July 17. of the same Rule 53. 1944. in his petition. The petitioner filed on June 14. or his bondsmen to produce the body of the defendant to the court. because it is to be presumed that the accused or his attorney had already been notified thereof in accordance with section 7 and 8. Padilla and Tuason. it is generally the practice followed by the clerks of Court of First Instance to require the accused to appear. the motion for reconsideration filed by the defendant was denied on July 17. Rule 111. Melencio. 1944. People v. is the sentence rendered by the Court of First Instance after the trial of the case by this court. must be promulgated in the presence of the defendant. it is applicable to cases pending in courts at the time of its adoption. From the records it appears that a copy of a resolution of this Court denying the motion for reconsideration was mailed to the petitioner’s attorney at his address 307 Palma. Sumilang filed a petition for a writ of certiorari to the Supreme Court on April 20. summarily denied the petition for review on certiorari. In this case. Procedural laws are retrospective in that sense and to that extent. 1944. section 8 of Rule 53. but upon the expiration of fifteen days from notice of such judgment to the parties in accordance with the Rules of Court. J. as amended. Rule 116. As the resolution of October 1. On July 5. 1944. Rule 53. and provides that judgment shall be entered. It is necessary to promulgate or read it to the defendant. Separate Opinions PERFECTO.. not for the promulgation or reading thereof to the defendant. On appeal. Moran. If the accused desires to have the execution of the judgment in this case temporarily suspended for some justifiable reason.. denied the motion. that he did not receive the notice because then “he was already hiding in the mountains of Laguna as a guerrilla officer of the Markings guerrilla. Gonzales and Fernandez for petitioner. relates to the mode of procedure. 1944. JJ. But the attorney for the petitioner alleges now. made applicable to criminal cases by section 17 of Rule 120. petitioner-appellant.

168. Perm. (34 W. 183 La. notwithstanding that it was never notified to the accused or to her attorney. the judgment or order shall be entered by the clerk. that section 8 of Rule 53 does not and can not apply to 4 . in a manner calculated to convey information to the public generally. Promulgation means publication. 769. & P. and shipment of cattle from a quarantined state into any other state. sec. On August 2. which refers to section 2 of Rule 35. Louisville & N. the one issued on July 17. 1938. Before proceeding further.) In regard to the necessity of a railway company formulating and promulgated rules. providing that SEC. is premised on a completely mistaken concept of the idea of promulgation. 329.. at 307 Palma. & P. to announce officially. On August 12. When and how judgments and orders entered.. upon the erroneous and absurd theory that its entry by the clerk constituted its promulgated in accordance with section 8 of Rule 53. 1945. Brown vs. 967.&P.” (Webter’s New International Dictionary of the English Language. Quiapo. but it evident that he may (a) ask permission to file a second motion for reconsideration and. the majority must be reminded. p. Sumilang filed a petition before us. the order was promulgated. at the time. attorney of Sumilang. 329.. the word “make” and “promulgate” are not synonymous. (34 W. or that it be given such publicity as that the servant. 1946. praying that the reading of the sentence be suspended and accused permitted to file whatever pleadings necessary for the proper protection of his rights and that he granted such other relief. 104.. R. that is. Perm. United States vs. above quoted. – The judgment shall be entered upon the expiration of fifteen days after promulgation thereof. Cazort vs. 453. just and equitable. which came from the Latin promulgate. we are constrained to analyses and refute the majority position regarding the interpretation of the word “promulgation” as used in section 8 of Rule 53. 1905. constitutes promulgation thereof. Manila..) Promulgate. prescribes no particular form for the promulgation of regulations by the board of control of the Agricultural Experiment Station. to publish. but to “promulgate” them required the giving notice thereof to the officers of carries. to make known to the public. To publish. but also the decision of the Court of Appeals. had already become final. Y.. to publish abroad. the clerk of Supreme Court issued notice of the order of July 17. (34 W. 2d Ed. Fernandez. the decision of the Court of Appeals. to announce officially. The first question we are called upon to consider concerns the effect of the second order of denial. Since Acts 1915. to make public as important or obligatory. The notice was never received by said attorney who. which reads as follows: Sec. 1946. Perm. The entry shall be in the same for as provided in section 2 of Rule 35.) In Act Cong. to proclaim. S. not only of the order of denial of his petition for a writ of certiorari. if granted. 167. with a certificate that such judgment or order has become final and executory. 18 N. Western New York & P. 3.) The word “promulgate” is defined as to make known.. 1944. delivery. 103. decree. – If no appeal or motion for new trial is filed within the time provided in these rules. 329.. July 17. 21 U. Entry of judgment. unless and until notified of said order of denial. the same. as a law... The notation shall contain the dispositive part of the judgment or order and shall be signed by the clerk. because they were issued and rendered by tribunals set up by the enemy during Japanese occupation. therefore. 33 Stat. 1944. as maintained by the majority. in the proper discharge of his duties. The notation of the judgment or order in the book of entries or judgment shall constitute its entry. Sumilang did not specify what pleadings he intends to file or what just and equitable relief he seeks to obtain from this Court in case his petition is favorably acted upon..J. C. denying the motion for reconsideration filed by the accused. March 3. Promulgate means “1. In our opinion. Bernard Parish. 1944. requiring the Secretary of Agriculture to “make” and “promulgate” rules governing the inspection. 936... etc. to file thereafter said motion.. & P.W. (b) To issue or give out (a law) by way of putting it into execution. was adopted. to make public as important or obligatory. Perm. any public act of the board promulgating or declaring. “promulgate” means to make known.. etc. 338. 165 F. 198 S. composed of the words pro (forth) and vulgus (the people).S. Co. At this stage.A. 130 Ark. 1265. sought by the accused to be revoked.). was already hiding in the mountains of Laguna as an officer of the Marking Guerrillas. State. Law (a) To make known or public the terms of (a proposed law).. which is appulse of logic.) The majority maintain that when the resolution of October 1. Democratic Parish Committee of St.R. 329. c. 768. in the premises. That is the etymological meaning of the word. (34 W. 125. that the rules should be brought to the attention of the service affected thereby. 165 So. for the reading of the sentence. sec. Co. 1496.. a dogma. To make known by open declaration.On July 21. addressed to Jose F. 939. 8.. and their publication in the selected newspapers within the affected district. must be consider as nonexistent as regards accused Sumilang and. or (b) attack the validity. and the duty to “make” rules was sufficiently accomplished by writing them and signing them officially. 2. and section 1 requiring publication of notice of quaratine and the giving of notice to the proper officers of carriers doing business in any quarantined state. official announcement. 720. or esp. more than two years later.” The theory that by the entry made by the clerk. this conclusion being premised on the assumption that the order of July 17. 1944. is bound to take notice of it Wooden vs. for all legal purposes. by the notation of the order in the book of entries of judgments made by the clerk. he is entitled to enjoy the legal benefits resulting from the nonexistence of said order of denial. which in turn came from the word provulgare. of which neither Sumilang nor his attorney was ever notified.. creating a distinct or area for the eradication of the cattle ticks. produced its legal effects againts the accused in the same manner as if the latter had been duly notified of said order on the day of its issuance. in the first place. the bondsmen of the accused received an order to produce the person of the same in the Court of First Instance of Laguna on August 16. invoking at the same time the resolution of this Court dated October 1. 2. (50 C.. 1945. the existence of its regulations.

therefore. J. 1944. as well from the main majority decision as from the majority resolution on the motion for reconsideration. 7. 1944. should accept both as reciprocally interchangeable. Filing and notice of judgment. do not any ground of such a farfetched and absurd interpretation. Coming to a different order of ideas. are signed by the justices taking part. whose judicial processes have been declared null and void and without effect by proclamation of General Douglas MacArthur. 5 . for any purposes. The judgment not only shall be delivered for filing to the clerk. mention the word “order”. Valdez Tan Keh and Dizon. Section 7 of Rule 53. Sumilang is entitled to take all the legal steps to protect his rights under and within the legal situation resulting from the fact that with respect to him said order. HILADO. they shall be delivered for filing to the clerk who shall cause true copies thereof to be served upon the parties or their counsel.the order of denial of July 17. of an order or judgment which will jeopardize his fundamental rights. – After the judgment and dissenting opinions. Valdez Tan Keh and Dizon (75 Phil. if any. provides: SEC. 113). but must be notified to the parties or their counsel. A judicial promulgation accomplished without actual notice to the litigants or their attorneys is mere twaddle which necessarily will strobilate and proliferate into unending judicial errors. Sumilang is entitled to all the legal remedies available to one who is convicted by a decision which is null and void ab initio. no promulgation has been legally accomplished and. pharisaical. not by notice to him. but by an official routine undertaken at his back. byadroit logodaedaly. even if we do violence to the rule meaning of the two word and. is nonexistent. or otherwise. we dissent from the resolution denying Sumilang’s petition dated August 12. the decision of the Court of Appeals dated October 8. supra. without his knowledge.. hypocritical gesture within the administration of justice. who will be served by the clerk with true copies thereof. it does not attenuate or minimize the error in giving to the word “promulgation” a definition which. liberty. But. The above provision determines the true procedure of how promulgation is to be accomplished. which does not. is repugnant to reason and common sense. for all legal purposes. fortunately. Justice Perfecto for the reasons stated in its penultimate paragraph and those expressed in my own dissents in Co Kim Cham vs. because the promulgation of the judgment or order is made. an accused. having been served by the clerk upon accused Sumilang and his attorney. 1946. time within which he may ask relief by asking for reconsideration. besides leading to repellent iniquity. property. the entry made by the clerk? Conscience revolts againts such a mockery in legal procedure. In the case at bar. no true copies of the order of denial of July 17. etymologically and philosophically. which must be taken into consideration jointly with section 8 thereof. concurring: I concur in the above dissent of Mr. having been rendered by a tribunal created and organized by the enemy during Japanese occupation. such farcical. but at the same time deprives him of the opportunity of availing himself of that time. or life. Any law student knows that there is a world of difference between “judgment” and “order”. 1943. For all the foregoing. absurdities and injustices. as we have explained in our dissenting opinion in Co Kim Cham vs. What principle of justice this Court in giving a party litigant. a person who is fighting for his honor. The rules of court.” the word used in said section. because said order is not a “judgment.

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