Aninal(20111,5:10, pp 1587-1593 @

doi:1 0.1 01 7/51 751731111000577

The Animal Consortium 2011


Thermoregulation and water balance in fat-tailed sheep and Kacang goat under sunlight exposure and water restriction in a hot and dry area
D. P. Rahardjat, A. L. Toleng and V. S. Lestari
Animal Physiology Laboratory, Animal Agriculture Faculty, Hasanuddin University


Makassat 90245 South Sulawesi, Indonesia

(Received 23 May 20'10; Accepted 15 March 2011; First published online 15 April 2011)

of this study was to analyze differences in thermoregulation and water balance under conditions of heat load and water restriction between fat-tailed sheep (S) and Kacang goats (G). The daily intakes of food and wate4 daily outputs of urine and feces, rectal temperature, respiration rates, hematocrit values and plasma volumes of five shorn S and five G were determined over 1 0 days of four consecutive experimental conditions: (1) indoor - unrestricted water; (2) indoor - restricted water; (3) 10 h sunlight exposure - unrestricted water; and (4) 10 h sunlight exposure - restricted water There was a 6- to 7-day adjustment period betvveen two consecutive conditions. The study was conducted during the dry season. The animals were placed in individual cages, fed chopped native grass ad libitum and had free access to a urea-molasses multi-nutrient block. IJnder sunlight exposure with unrestricted water availability S and G record an increase in the maximum rectal temperatures from 39.2"C to 40.2"C and from 39.9"C to 4l.8"C, respectively. The thermoregulatory strategy used by 5 for maintaining a lower rectal
The objective

temperature mostly depends on increasing the respiration rate as the main cooling mechanism. On the other hand, G apparently used sweating as the predominant mechanism for cooling. MoreoveL G seemed to be more tolerable to higher heat storage and body temperature than S with a significant increase in plasma volume (P < 0.01), and this may be beneficial to the animals for the prevention of water loss. Under restricted water condition in either indoor or outdoor environment, both species decreased their plasma volume significantly, but rectaltemperatures were relatively maintained. ln all experimental conditions, the daily total water exchanges (nt/kgf'82 per day) of S were significantly higher than G (P < 0.01,). However; when the percentages of the total daily water exchange were considered, the water lost through urination (38% to 39%), defecation (1 I % to l4%) and evaporation (46% to 49%) by S and G was not significantly different. Therefore, the results from this study clearly showed that S and G have different homeostatic strategies for the regulation of body temperature and fluid to cope with heat load and water restriction. These differences may have an important impact on the production management of S and G.
Keywords: sheep, goat, water balance, thermoregulation, plasma volume

Jeneponto, in South Sulawesi, lndonesia, is known to be the hottest and driest regency of the area, Under these
conditions, fat-tailed sheep and Kacang goats are faced with high environmental temperatures and water scarcity. Howevel these animals are raised by small herders using same management strategies, as the farmers do not recognize

needed to boost the small herder incomes and to improve the rural farmer livelihood in this region.

Environmental stress because of high temperature and/or water restriction has long been recognized as an important constraint for animal production in many parts of lndonesia. ln South Sulawesi, lndonesia, Jeneponto is well known as one of the hottest and driest regions with an annual rainfall of less than 200 mm over 63 rainy days per year. Moreove; the daily temperature fluctuates between 17"C and 42"C. This climate may have both direct and indirect negative effects on animal production. However, the population of

the characteristic differences between these two species. Therefore, this study was designed to elucidate these differences, especially in their water balances and thermoregulation abilities. Understanding these characteristics

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and then cooling them in desiccators for B h to achieve a constant weight as well as to determine the content of fecal water. 1988. lt is possible that the two species have the same level of water economy and less thermal discomfort. The preformed water from native grass and UMMB was determined separately by drying the samples at 80'C for 48 h.30 ). whereas a 10% pooled sample of urine and feces was collected each day. lt was assumed that a steady state was achieved when rectal temperature and respiratory rate remained constant for at least I h (within a range of 0. including the climate conditions as well as nutrient and water availability. Material and methods Five shorn fat-tailed sheep ewes (S) between 2 and 3 years and five Kacang goat does (G) between L5 and 2 years were used in this study.1. this study was conducted to elucidate water balances and thermoregulation strategies used by sheep and goats under sunlight exposure and restricted water availability.2'C and l0 respirations/min. Before collecting data for each period. 'l 8"C to 39. Total water intake was calculated daily as the sum of daily consumed wate[ water contained in ingested food (preformed water) and metabolic water. digestion. Rectal temperatures were measured using a digital thermometer (accuracy -+0. 2000a and 2000b). Rectal temperatures and respiration rates were monitored four times each day at 0600.3"C and 40% to 60% RH) Unrestricted Restricted (50% of intake in the Environment lndoor (18'C to 30"C and 60% to 70% Unrestricted (control) RH) Restricted (50% of intake in the first period) RH third peiiod) : relative humidity. the ash content was determined by ignition of samples for 6 h at 550"C. Dried food and fecal samples were finely ground to pass a 1 mm screen and were stored in sealed polyethylene containers for subsequent analysis.outputs of each animal were monitored three times a day for each period. Crude protein. Toleng and Lestari sheep and goats is denser than other regions. Evaporative water loss was estimated by subtracting the sum of fecal and urinary water loss from the total daily water intake. Silanikove. Urine and fecal.25 kg. The strategies used by these two species to adapt to the physical conditions of Jeneponto are intriguing. 0. respectively). lt appears that these two species of small ruminants have been well adapted to thrive in the harsh environment of Jeneponto. animals were allowed to acclimatize to the treatment con- ditions until the daily intakes of food and water were approximately constant.74 and 15. 1 400 and 1 600 h. At the commencement of the study.1'C) inserted at a -r5cm depth into the rectum.92 -r 1 . 1 992. Evaporation from the drinking water in the vessel and ingested grass was corrected daily. I I 00. The respiration rates were determined by counting flank movements over a set period of time with the aid of a stopwatch. 1990).3 and 16. This observation seems to conflict with numerous comparative studies that have suggested that goats are superior to sheep in thermoregulation. the body weights of 5 and G were 26.1. fat and carbohydrate (fiber. The metabolic water from digestible organic matter (protein. carbohydrates and fat) was estimated for each animal on the last 5 days for each period. Table 1 shows that there were four treatment periods of 10 days each. The animals were individually placed in specifically constructed cages that had food and water containers in the cages. and by calculating the sum of these values (Brody.Rahardja. However.41. The determination of daily water exchange between animals and their environment is important for estimating water requirement as well as for evaluating their adaptability and productivity (Silanikove. Therefore. All animals were orally dosed with an antihelminthic and intramuscularly injected with vitamin B-complex as well as a high dose of vitamin A shortly after being placed in the cages.65 t. 2000a). it is unknown whether sheep and goats use the same physiological strategies to counteract the climatic condition of Jeneponto. The amount of metabolic water was calculated by multiplying the amount of each digestible organic matter (protein. as well as feces-urine separators beneath the cages. respectively. The animals were fed chopped native grass and had access to a urea-molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB. and at the end of the study their body weights were 26.07. Silanikove. South Sulawesi. Food and Agriculture 0rganization. respectively. and a steady-state body temperature was obtained. 2007) ad libitum throughout the experiment. water balance and adaptive abilities (El Nouty et al. 1 588 .. lndonesia.98 -r 1 . 1 945).14 kg.60 and 1. The experiment was conducted during the dry season. carbohydrates and fat) by factors of 0. the Table 1 Environmental condition and water availability during four consecutive periods of experiment of l0 days each Experimental condition Outdoor (sunlight exposure for I 0 h/day. Both species originated from Jeneponto Regency. The organic matter content of the food or feces was calculated by subtraction of the ash content from the known weight of the food or feces sample.and nitrogen-free extracts) contents of the food and feces were determined using the procedures of the proximate analysis (Association of Official Analytical Chemists.

Means with different superscript letters at the same variable within the same row of S or G are significantly different at **P< 0.01).83b 38.10 -f 1.69" StzG Min-max rectal temperature ("C) S G 38.G Min-max respiration rate/min s G ns-* 20 to 160 32 to 136 ns-* ns-* 20 to 220 ns-* 20 to 220 36 to 190 20to115 t. howeve[ the digestibility of G was significantly higher than S (P<0.01. The plasma volume in G increased significantly when the maximum air temperature was increased to 39"C. rectal temperature and respiration rates.2 39.01).9 59. Table )rganic matter intake and digestibility Table 3 shows that under control conditions without a heat load or a reduction in the access to drinking water.95 17.35 34.974 -f 0. with G exhibiting better digestibility than S. the first factor was species (S and G) and the second factor was period (four measurement periods).93 + 0. in accordance with'the procedures previously described by Williams et al.48b -r 1iga -f 1 . USA.'-'o# SrzG S 'u-l"l:o fat-tailed sheep. When the animals were exposed to heat. Water balance 4 shows that in all experimental conditions. increas- ing respiration rates to the maximum level in all experimental conditions were higher in 5 than in G (P< 0.g7b 37.90 t 1.2.31" 26.70' -f 0. but the decrease in body weight of decreased 5 was not significant.4 39.8 38.91b 33.76 StzG Hematocrit value (%) 5 G 30.7 to 39. the maximum rectal temperature of G was significantly higher than S (P< 0.05. whereas both species had significantly higher digestibility when exposed to heat than under the control conditions.2 to 41.92 Restricted water Unrestrictedwater 27. The reduction of water intake significantly the body weights of G in both environmental conditions (P<0.38' + 0.7 to 40. The plasma volume of both species decreased significantly when access to drinking water was reduced to 50% of the The research was arranged as a factorial experiment of 2 x 4 with five replications and one factor as repeated measures.05).79 -f 0.01).201 1. Direct exposure to sunlight did not significantly change body weights of S and G that had restricted or unrestricted water availability. Chicago.05). are shown in Table 2. including plasma volume.25- G -r 1144 -f 1.43 + 0.60 + 1. Results Physiological parameters The effects of sunlight exposure and water restriction on several physiological parameters.68" 35. G digested more organic mattel especially under conditions of heat stress (P< 0.35 54. plasma volume. ad libitumleuel. S and G showed the same level of organic matter consumptions.8 Sv.82' 27.6712.791.30 -f 1 . ln contrast.65 -+ 1.O.70" 15.25b 57.9 to 40. however.Heat and water balances of sheep and goats Plasma volume was determined on the last day of each period at 1600 h using the dilution technique of Evan Blue. G Kacang goats.76 -r 1.2 39.06" 5v.19" 51.74" 'l 5.. 1996). hematocrit value. The analysis of variance for data and Duncan's multiple range test for significant differences of mean values were performed by using the computer statistical package 'SYSTAT for Windows version 6' (SPSS lnc. 5 u G differences at *P<0. Direct exposure to sunlight significantly increased the plasma volume in G that were given unrestricted access to water (P < 0. When access to water was restricted. Although there were no significant differences in the mini- mum rectal temperature between S and G. the total daily water intake of S was significantly higher than G. RH relative humidity.85 Restrictedwater 26. respiration rate and rectal temperature of 5 and G Experimental condition lndoor (18'C to 30'C and 60% to 70% Species and Parameters Body weight (kg) RH) Outdoor (18'C to 39'C and 40% to 60% RH) difference S Unrestricted water 26.82 32. 5 maintained a more constant plasma volume compared with G.92" 38. but the increase was not significant when water access was restricted.24 +.05 1 589 .01) in all experimental conditions. Table 2 The effects of sunlight exposure and water restriction on body weight. Wilkinson.7 to 39. both species reduced their organic matter consumptions. ln all experimental conditions. and : : : P<0.G Plasma volume (ml/kgo 82) 5 G 59.17b 52.1 to 39.2 to 41.98 16.45b 57.97 r.9 + 0.1 to 39.18b 29. (19911.85 + 0. Ihe plasma volume of 5 was not significantly altered by direct exposure to sunlight either when water availability was restricted or when unrestricted.2 39.06 a 1. S had significantly lower organic matter consumption than G.1.79" 57.

01. reduced.91" 55.01).94'r 1.95 G -f 2.92" 42.85 -f 2.50b 25.18" + ns 2. the urinary water loss of expressed in g/kg0'82 per day. G Kacang goats.32 -r 3.Rahardja. defecation and evaporation were comparable between both species.46 -f 0.G S fat-tailed sheep. Means with different superscript letters at the same variable within the same row of S or G are significantly different at **P< 0. ln all experimental conditions. and : : : P< 0.52 + 2. Howeve.20 ). which changed from 38% to 39% to 17o/o to 19o/o for urination.01). which changed from 460/o to 49o/o under indoor conditions to 75o/o to 78o/o under outdoor conditions. the proportion of fecal water loss was significantly affected temperature decreased significantly by the increase in the maximum air temperature. the proportion of the fecal water losses of both species ranged between 12o/o and 15o/o of the total water loss.01) in the proportion of water lost through evaporation.47b -f -f ns 2. was significantly higher than that of G.44 Unrestrictedwater 47. Evaporative water loss Evaporation was the major mechanism of water loss under all experimental conditions and was significantly higher in S than in G (P<0. Discussion The body weight and plasma volume of S were maintained more constantly at a higher level than G when the daily maximum air temperature was 39'C.14 -r 3. RH relative humidity. defecation and evaporation by S was markedly higher compared with G (P< 0. the proportions of total water loss by urination. The results from Silanikove (1987) are consistent with the general trend noted in ruminants.07b 24. which ln all experimental conditions.70 ! 1.3.00c 63.95 -r 2.28b 55.28d 42. S u G differences at *P< 0. Therefore.01) in water lost by evaporation.24 Sv. whereas at a maximum air proportion of fecal water loss to 5% to 7o/o (P<0. The results from S are Fecalwater loss The fecal water loss accounted for the smallest fraction of total water loss in S and G compared with the other mechanisms of water loss.02b 2.29 -r 5. ln all experimental conditions.46" 29. When the proportion of the total water loss was considered. where an increase in plasma volume is in proportion to an increase in water turnover (Silanikove. but did not change when drinking water was reduced to 50% of the ad libitum level. Therefore.1fb 30.48 + 0.05.09b SUG Digestible organic matter (g/kgo tt per day) S 24. 0n the other hand. Toleng and Lestari Table 3 The effects of sunlight exposure and water restriction on the intakes and digestibility of organic matter of 5 and G Experimental condition lndoor (18"C to 30'C and 60% to 70% RH) Outdoor (18'C to 39'C and 40% to 60% RH) Species and Parameters difference 5 G Unrestricted water 53.14 -r 1.95 -f 0. the feces produced by G were drier than those produced by 5.89 -r 4.05).97" 55.G S ns G 50. and from 12o/o to 15% to 5o/o to 7o/o for defecation.83b 62. Both species showed a significant reduction in urinary water loss when the daily maximum air temperature increased from 30"C to 39'C or when water consumption was t showed that the blood plasma volume increased under heat stress in Merino sheep.844 52. Urinary water loss inconsistent with a study by Silanikove ('1987). However. the proportion of urinary water loss of the total water loss was comparable between the two species. which increased up to 2.87c n5 Organic matter intake (g/kgo tt per day) Organic matter digestibility (%) + ns 21gb 2.01c Restrictedwater 38. both species had comparable proportions of total water loss under all experimental conditions. the loss of water (g/kg0'82 per day) through urination.70b n5 25. and suggest that the 1 590 .47 -ts Restricted water 43. Both species showed a significant increase (P<0.78 -f 2.88" 27. Howeve. but was not of 39'C the significantly affected when water consumption was restricted.52b 57.33" ns 53. 1992 and 2000b). respectively.0'l).73 23.76 -r 2. At a maximum air temperature of 30'C. these inconsistencies may be explained by the higher water turnover observed in S.01).00 -f 2. the water lost through evaporation was not significantly affected by water availability (P> 0. These proportions changed when the maximum air temperature was increased (from 30'C to 39'C).42 -r 1. and was not significantly different between 5 and G. Both species had a significant increase (P< 0. the proportion of water lost through urination and defecation was markedly reduced when the indoor and outdoor conditions were compared (P<0.5 times when the daily maximum air temperature increased from 30'C to 39'C.05 Both species increased water consumption when the daily maximum air temperature increased to 39'C. The amount of fecal water loss was higher in S than in G when expressed as g/kg0'82 per day.10 55.10b Sv.

and : : : P< 0. Previously. as the plasma is a component of the extracellular fluid.13*-f 3.G ln feces (% total water loss) S ! a -r 1.G 82 per day) Preformed water (g/kgo s G 28.26c 41.42'r z.74" + 1.66d 12.8f 34.154 G + 0.68 0.82b 13. Means with different superscript letters at the same variable within the same row of S or G are significantly different at **P< 0.49" 28. however. ln this study.yb ns -r 2.|.94d 132.10b SUG Estimated metabolic water (g/kgot' per day) S 6.53" 10.5.221 0.38 -r 0. alterations in plasma volume were apparently in proportion to the thermoregulatory requirement.28h 74.91 -f n5 1. G Kacang goats.14 -r 7.314 n5 121.88" ns -r 3. 2000b.50" Sv. our present results indicate that heat load may also increase TBW in G.67' 35.96 t ! 13.2000a).30 131. RH relative humidiry.82 21 .69b + 3. an increase in air temperature resulted in a remarkable increase in the respiration rate of both species. Silanikove.33 38.55 ns -r 7.64 14.184 6.21 -r 4.55b StzG ln feces (g/kgo 82 n5 per day) 5 G 40.924 10.58 -'.094 38.4.45b 0.69*-{.28+ 14.36 -f 3. This response seems to be similar to those found in desertadapted goats (El Nouty ef a/. which is comparable with the increased plasma volume observed in storage and body temperature than S.63h 74.G ln urine (% total water loss) S G 39. We hypothesize that this is a strategy of G having smaller body size compared with S as a mechanism for coping with the high environmental temperature.77 -f G 7.09 a 4. 1988.01.49 r.Heat and water balances of sheep and goats Table 4 Effects of sunlight exposure and water restriction on water balance of 5 and G Experimental condition lndoor (18'C to 30'C and 50% to 70% Species and Parameters RH) Outdoor (18'C to 39'C and 40% to 60% RH) difference Unrestricted water Restricted water Unrestrictedwater -f 19.58" 133.70 -f 3.40d 41 .97 -r 1.38 (g/kgo'" per day) Estimated evaporative water (% total water loss) G 52. Therefore.24b Water loss 81.12 11. S tz G differences at *P< 0.321 6.09d 5uG 5 G -t 4. The present results showed that in addition to an increase in body temperature. S and G showed different mechanisms for the dissipation of excessive heat because of an increase in air temperature.54 + rt 10. 5 had an 11{old increase in the respiration rate compared with the basal conditions.68b 53.13b !2.81 -f n5 6.G n5 ln urine (g/kgo 82 per day) s G 109.0.32" 7. Silanikove.05 basal conditions (control) are heat stressful.90c 27.881 10.39 12. a 5.63 + 1. ln G.04 r 8.92' Sv.22" !0.14 -f 8.50 + 6-fold increase was observed compared with basal conditions.16 -r 3.574 n5 t 60. A significant increase in plasma volume in G should occur concomitantly with an inirease in the total amount of body water (TBW).67" 1.734 0.734 49.904 46. and this may be beneficial to the animals for the prevention of water loss.96 '16.03 -f 0.90" -f 1.04 14.56' 324.63b 21. Taymour et al. (19841showed that heat stress increased TBW of the goats by about 8%.1.78b 5.20b n5 23.85 -r 1.76b 26.65 251 . The basic mechanism for cooling is the evaporation of water from the respiratory tract (panting) and body surface (sweating.61 -r 4.91 " 71.89 -l. which causes an increase in heat loss our current study.71 '+ 11.23" 47.05.97 74.44 28.49 a + 1.44 -r 0.66h 77.39b 12.58c 6.76" 38.33 20..50 7.63c Restrictedwater lngested water (g/kgo 82 per day) s G 242.244 47. whereas it was relatively stable in S.97 !2.11 211.17 -r 0.10 -r 9. 4.53b StzG 5 fat-tailed sheep. .66d 25.65b 19.18 + 178.70' + 9.05 t '.85 -f 0.05' 18. 2004).94 -r 0.144 87.99 17. G seem to be more tolerable to higher heat to semi-xeric condition (Merino) and breeds adapted to hot tropical environments (S of Jeneponto).38 6.37b 26.34-+ 5.90 ns 77.65b ns StzG Estimated evaporative water S n5 130.66 -r 13.31 -'.03 -f 0.96t234h 64.72b 1.83 8.79 -r 1. Robertshow.13" 32.60 12.40d r r Sv. These results may also reflect physiological differences between breeds adapted Accordingly.43' 215.28 1.1.98 -f 1.98" ns -f L86" 436b 5.21d + ns Sv.15 t 2.584 2.59b n5 Water intakes 397. An increase in the respiration rate leads to an increase in the ventilation rate.g5*r.36b 6. ln G.

it is reasonable to hypothesize that the appetite reduction of S under heat load may be primarily due to an elevation in body temperature. which leads to an increase in gut fill (Abdullah and Falconel results could be attributed to the remarkable water economy exhibited by G as compared with S. '1989). the digested organic matter was also lower. and S used panting as the main evaporative cooling system. ln addition. 0n the other hand. The reductions in the plasma volume of S and G resulted from water restriction in either the indoor or outdoor conditions. 0n the other ambient temperature. 1977). '1983). 1989) and increase water re-absorption from the kidneys (Molony eta1. as noted by Silanikove (1992). which is consistent with the general pattern for this species (Silanikove. in addition to the higher daily total water exchange. sheep (Degen and Shkolnik. Therefore. ln contrast. Both species had a reduction in urinary and fecal water losses as well as in the amount of water per 100 g of fecal dry matter. Both species apparently used panting and sweating as a mechanism for cooling. as there was a significant increase in plasma volume. respectively. Moreovel G seems to be more tolerable to a higher heat storage and body temperature than S. Silanikove (2000a) suggested that goats originated from and adapted to hot and dry areas of the world. the water lost by evaporation remarkably increased. Reduced sweating during dehydration and/or excessive heat storage resulted in increased body temperature and selective brain cooling (Dmi'el. Moreove[ the increase in the respiration rate observed in S may have more homeostatic relevance. defecation (12% to 15%) and evaporation (460/o to 49o/o) by S and G were not significantly different. Toleng and Lestari from the respiratory passage (Joshi et al. Thermoregulatory S for maintenance of a lower rectal temperature mostly depend on increasing respiration rate as the main mechanism for dissipating excessive heat load. cows (Silanikove and Tadmore. the water lost through urination and defecation was decreased lo 17o/o lo 19o/o and 5% lo 7o/o. However. Different mechanisms may have an important impact on production management for improving productivity in the harsh . and the water turnover rate accelerates in goat (Silanikove.9"C to 41. 1972.. and that their water economy may be more efficient than other ruminants. Bakernd and Mijland. Previous studies have shown that the water content in the rumen tends to increase when water consumption increases. Conclusion 5 and G have developed different homeostatic mechanisms of thermoregulation and water balance to cope heat stress Under control conditions. G appeared to maintain a constant consumption of both food and water. which would be expected from the slower rate of passage (Christopherson and Kennedy. Sand ef a/. whereas in G these additional water amounts were relatively stable. '1986. 1989) and swamp buffalo (Chaiyabutr et a/. 1993). These used sweating as the main evaporative cooling system (Dmi'el.1987. both species showed a similar increase in their digestibility.2'C and from 39. As a percentage of the daily total water exchange. Howevel under this condition. 1986.8"C. This may be beneficial to the animals for the prevention of water loss. because S had a lower intake of organic matter than G. which was most likely due to the metabolic rate of S. This may be attributable to a reduction in thyroid secretion as well as gut motility. As a consequence. it may also be related to an increase in gut fill and a slower passage rate of digested material in the gastrointestinal tract. the water losses through urination (38% to 39%).. 1993). G apparently used sweating as the main cooling mechanism. for the dissipation of excessive heat and the maintenance of a lower body temperature compared with G. As expected. 1978).. There is a positive relationship between digestibility and The results clearly showed that under sunlight exposure with unrestricted water availability. Baker and Nijland. S and G had a total water 82 exchange of approximately 280 and 175 ml/kgo per day.. which most likely relates to the thermolability observed in G from the present experiment. Sheep and goats that live in the harsh environment of Jeneponto may be able to withstand and adapt to the conditions because of their own mechanisms of heat and water balances. S and G strategies of increased their maximum rectal temperatures from 39. An increase in ambient temperature resulted in reduced feed intake. the additional water (metabolic water and preformed water) in S was reduced. respectively. The above discussion indicates that a simple physiological mechanism does not explain the remarkable tolerance of sheep and goats to heat stress and to low water availability. the daily total water consumption in both species increased at the daily maximum air temperature of 39'C. An increase in vasopressin levels would suppress food intake (Purohit et al. Howeve4 in relation to the organic matter intake and digestibility. 1 987) as well as from the last part of the gut (Robertson. which may have to do with the origin of the goats. their daily water exchange increased to 430 and 295ml/kgo82. ln all experimental conditions. I 984). Under heat stress. it may have resulted in a lower metabolic rate. The increased water content in the rumen was used to counterbalance water losses from the systemic fluid during dehydration. the daily total water exchanges (ml/kgo 82 per day) of S were higher ihan G. hand. with or without concomitant scarcity of water. 1987). which showed that the water balance increased to a higher level than under the control conditions. G respectively.. When S and G were exposed to heat load. however. a reduction in feed intake by S occurred simultaneously with an increase in water consumption. 1977). 2000b). heat production and body temperature in S than in G.. and suggested that the release of vasopressin increased. Meyer ef al. respectively.Rahardja. Under conditions of sunlight exposure.2"C to 40. ln addition. whereas the loss through evaporation increased to 75o/o to 78o/o.

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