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Adaptability

Azolla Caroliniana, is identified as a cold tolerant species and survives well even at very low winter temperature of 5C during the months of December to February in mid hills of Meghalaya. Azolla pinnata, is a local isolate found widely in the entire North Eastern Region, but does not survive under mid hills of Meghalaya. However, Azolla caroliniana, has shown its adaptability in hills and other similar locations.

Azolla caroli niana, can be preserved in shallow pond having 15 cm of standing water and by providing shade 10-15 cm above the pond water surface through weeds or paddy straw.

For raising Azolla inoculum a pond size of 3 m x 2 m x 1 m is most desirable. Under such weed or straw mulch cover, the Azolla multiplies rapidly and inoculum will be ready within a period of 20-25 days for further releasing in the main multiplication ponds on the onset of monsoon in the month of April-M ay.

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H ow to grow Azolla?
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Azolla can easily be cultivated separately for periodic application in fish ponds. T he system of cultivation involves a network of earthen raceways (20X3.0X0.6m) with water supply and drainage facilities. I n each raceways, 6 kg of Azolla is incorpoprated. 65grams of single super phosphate is added. Water depth of 10-15 cm to be maintained. Azolla is harvested @25kg/ raceway. I t has been estimated that about 1 ton of Azolla can be harvested every week from a water area 650 m2 I t has also been reported that application of Azolla @ 20 tons/ ha gives 50kg N , 13kg P, 45kg K.

H ow Azolla fixes atmospheric nitrogen?

T he remarkable feature of Azolla is that its symbiotic relationship with Cyanobacterium (Anabaena azollae) which remained on the dorsal leaf cavity of Azolla. T he fern provides protein substances to Anabaena (BGA). T he BGA then absorbed the atmospheric nitrogen and decomposes it through enzymic activity and converted in to soluble ammonia (N H 4+ ). I t can fix 3-7 kg N / ha daily. I t contains 4 % N on a dry-weight basis and is an excellent source of nitrogen fertilizer

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Favourable condition for higher efficacy of Azolla


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1. Water 2. pH 3. Salinity 4. L ight & Shade 5. H erbicide level 6. N utrition

Water

Azolla must grow in water or wet mud to survive. It dies in a few hours if it becomes dry. Water control is critical, especially for for year round production. A water level which allows the roots to touchthe touchthe soil surface will often cause mineral deficiencies to appear. 10-15 cm fresh current water is necessary in multiplication pond.
T emperature: the day/ night temperatures ranging between 32C and 20C have found to be most favorable. T he optimum temperature for luxurious growth of Azolla is 25-30C.

Wind and wave action can eventually fragment and kill azolla. azolla. Maintaining low water levels and rough plowing can protect azolla from wind. In Africa, hedges, bunds, and mixed culture (with crop p cro plants) are used to prevent wind damage. (Von Hovee t al., 1983).

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pH

Soil pH : Azolla grows well in slightly acidic soil having pH 5.2 to 5.8.

Auto-Readcasting: OffView Past Readcasts Since azolla lives in water the following refers to the pH of the water only. only.

Water pH :

Azolla can survive within a pH range of 3.5 3.5 to 10, but optimum growth is in the range of 5 to 7. The relative growth rate is influenced by a direct relationship between light intensity and pH with the highest growth rates achieved at high pH (9(9-10) and high light intensity and low pH (5(5-6) and low light. Nitrogen fixation is optimal at pH 6 and 200C. Deficiency problems can be caused in neutral to alkaline water b because ecause ferric ions precipitate. There can also be competition between ferrous and manganous ions in water with a neutral pH and reduction in absorption of both iron and managanese with high calcium concentrations. At pH 4, ferric ions are so readily available that a high concentration concentration of calcium is required to balance the increased absorption of iorn, iorn, otherwise azolla suffers from iron toxicity. (Lumpkin and Plucknett, Plucknett, 1980).

Salinity T olerance

The growth rate of azolla gradually declines as salinity increases. At about 1.3% salt (33% of sea water) the growth of azolla stops and higher concentrations will kill it. In rice fields where salt concentration reaches 148014801872 mg/ l during the dry season azolla wilts. Salinity is a factor which should be looked wherever azolla is being considered (Lumpkin and Plucknett, Plucknett, 1980).

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Shade Tolerance & Herbicide Sensitivity

Shade T olerance:
Azollaprefers to grow well under partial shade. As dual cropping Azolla gets partial shade from rice plant and therefore as dual cropping with rice is most successful. Auto-Readcasting: OffView PastReadcasts Relative growth and nitrogenaseactivity nitrogenaseactivity is at a maximum at 50% 50% of full sunlight although the difference between growth growth at 50% and 100% sunlight is not that great. Heavy shading is known to to decrease decrease azolla growth to almost zero (Lumpkin and Plucknett, Plucknett, 1980).

H erbicide Sensitivity:

Most rice herbicides kill or inhibit azolla growth. Differences in sensitivity are specific to the different azolla species (Moody and Janiya, Janiya, 1992).

N utrition
Being an N fixing fern Azolla does not require nitrogenous fertilizer for its growth. Phosphorus is the most common limiting factor in the growth of azolla. Fronds placed in P deficient solution decrease or stop growth, become red, and develop curled roots. T he minimum P requirement is not known but it thrives on as little as 1.1 mg P/ liter. Problems due to iron deficiency or toxicity are fairly frequent. Azolla fronds turn yellow when iron is lacking. Rapid growth is achieved with 1 ppm iron.

Yield: Azolla produces around 300 tons of green biomaas/ ha/ year under normal sub tropical climate which is comparable to 800 kg of N (1800 kg of urea).

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Note: You can always click on the Readcast button to share with your Scribd followers. Auto-Readcasting: OffView Past Readcasts Basal application on green Azolla manure @ 10-12 t/ ha Undo increases soil nitrogen by 50-60 kg/ ha and reduces 30-35 kg of nitrogenous fertilizer requirement of rice crop.
Release of green Azolla twice as dual cropping in rice crop @ 500 kg/ ha enriches soil nitrogen by 50 kg/ ha and reduces N requirement by 20-30 kg/ ha. Auto-Readcasting: OffView Past Readcasts
Use of

Contribution of Azolla

Azolla increases rice yield by 20 to 30 %.

Rice varieties like D R-92, RCPL -1-87-8, M endri,

H -2850 and M anipuri produced more than 30 q/ ha rice when grown with Azolla as dual cropping under natural soil fertility.

Under

low land condition a thick Azolla mat does not allow the weeds to grow in rice filed thus, Azolla suppresses the weed growth and creates congenial condition for rice production. Azolla reduces evaporation from water surface and increases water use efficiency in rice. Dry Azolla flakes can be used as poultry feed and green Azolla is also a good feed for fishes.

Azolla is used in carp ponds at @ 40 ton/ ha/ yr proving the full complement of nutrients.

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Go BackAdd Ravi Kumar11 Note months ago Reply Link very useful ppt..................helped a lot to get an idea as well knowledge regarding Biofertilizer concept Embed Keshab Saved for Kumar later Mohapatra8 months ago Reply of 27 very usefull ppt Readcast kezvou3 years ago Reply Not Readcasted Autotrophs and Heterotrophs in fish polycultured ponds need frequent assessment and monitoring for better fish nutrition. Note: You can always click on the Readcast button to share with your Scribd followers. About Auto-Readcasting: OffView Past Readcasts Undo About Scribd Blog Join our team! Contact Us Premium Auto-Readcasting: OffView Past Readcasts Premium Reader Scribd Store Advertise with us Get started AdChoices Support Help FAQ Press Partners Developers / API Legal Terms Privacy Copyright Copyright 2013 Scribd Inc. Language: English

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