A website (alternatively, web site or Web site, a back-construction from the proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. A Web page is a document, typically written in (X)HTML, that is almost always accessible via HTTP, a protocol that transfers information from the Web server to display in the user's Web browser. All publicly accessible websites are seen collectively as constituting the "World Wide Web". The pages of websites can usually be accessed from a common root URL called the homepage, and usually reside on the same physical server. The URLs of the pages organize them into a hierarchy, although the hyperlinks between them control how the reader perceives the overall structure and how the traffic flows between the different parts of the sites. Some websites require a subscription to access some or all of their content. Examples of subscription sites include many business sites, parts of many news sites, academic journal sites, gaming sites, message boards, Web-based e-mail, services, social networking websites, and sites providing real-time stock market data. Becasue they require authentication to view the content they are technically an Intranetsite Intranet Contents [hide]
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1 History 2 Overview o 2.1 Website styles 2.1.1 Static Website 2.1.2 Dynamic website o 2.2 Software systems 3 Spelling 4 Types of websites 5 Prizes 6 See also 7 References 8 External links
 History The first online website appeared in 1991. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone. Before the introduction of HTML and HTTP other protocols such as file transfer protocol and the gopher protocol were used to retrieve individual files from a server. These protocols offer a simple directory structure which the user navigates and choses files to download. Documents were most often presented as plain text files without formatting or encoded in word processor formats. Web site history includes four main stages depending on the complexity of design and the level of development of Information Technologies.
The first stage is associated with the invention of the first web browser, Mosaic (1991). Website design at that time was determined by technical restrictions including inability to transfer the data quickly, monochrome monitors and slow modem connection. The design of the sites was plain and simple with headline banners and a full-page text. With time HTML was improved, so the web sites of the second stage were more professional and oversaturated with colored graphics, numerous icons and bullets. Although designers began to pay attention to the load time, web design was still limited with the necessity to adapt site to the certain screen resolution and to 8bit or 24bit monitors. Introduction of Flash technology marked the beginning of the third stage of web design history with its main purpose to deliver media content to the Internet users and attract more customers. The site structure and its navigation system came into the picture in order to allow users to find what they need quickly. In practice, the fourth stage repeats the main principles of the third stage with some improvements and distinguishing characteristic such as abundance of multi-media content and unique web–driven selling propositions which can only be delivered on the World Wide Web.  Overview Organized by function a website may be
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a personal website a commercial website a government website a non-profit organization website
It could be the work of an individual, a business or other organization and is typically dedicated to some particular topic or purpose. Any website can contain a hyperlink to any other website, so the distinction between individual sites, as perceived by the user, may sometimes be blurred. Websites are written in, or dynamically converted to, HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) and are accessed using a software interface classified as an user agent. Web pages can be viewed or otherwise accessed from a range of computer-based and Internet-enabled devices of various sizes, including desktop computers, laptop computers, PDAs and cell phones. A website is hosted on a computer system known as a web server, also called an HTTP server, and these terms can also refer to the software that runs on these system and that retrieves and delivers the Web pages in response to requests from the website users. Apache is the most commonly used Web server software (according to Netcraft statistics) and Microsoft's Internet Information Server (IIS) is also commonly used.  Website styles  Static Website A Static Website is one that has web pages stored on the server in the same form as the user will view them. It is primarily coded in HTML (Hyper-text Markup Language). A static website is also called a Classic website, a 5-page website or a Brochure website because it simply presents pre-defined information to the user. It may include information about a company and its products and services via text, photos, Flash animation, audio/video and interactive menus and navigation.
This type of website usually displays the same information to all visitors, thus the information is static. Similar to handing out a printed brochure to customers or clients, a static website will generally provide consistent, standard information for an extended period of time. Although the website owner may make updates periodically, it is a manual process to edit the text, photos and other content and may require basic website design skills and software. In summary, visitors are not able to control what information they receive via a static website, and must instead settle for whatever content the website owner has decided to offer at that time. They are edited using four broad categories of software:
Text editors. such as Notepad or TextEdit, where the HTML is manipulated directly within the editor program WYSIWYG offline editors. such as Microsoft FrontPage and Adobe Dreamweaver (previously Macromedia Dreamweaver), where the site is edited using a GUI interface and the underlying HTML is generated automatically by the editor software WYSIWYG Online editors, where the any media rich online presentation like websites, widgets, intro, blogs etc. are created on a flash based platform. Template-based editors, such as Rapidweaver and iWeb, which allow users to quickly create and upload websites to a web server without having to know anything about HTML, as they just pick a suitable template from a palette and add pictures and text to it in a DTP-like fashion without ever having to see any HTML code.
 Dynamic website Main article: Dynamic web page A Dynamic Website is one that does not have web pages stored on the server in the same form as the user will view them. Instead, the web page content changes automatically and/or frequently based on certain criteria. It generally collates information on the hop each time a page is requested. There are two meanings for a dynamic website. The first is that the web page code is constructed dynamically. The second is that the web page content displayed varies based on certain criteria. The criteria may be pre-defined rules or may be based on variable user input. A dynamic website is also called a Web Application, a Data-driven website or an oCRAFT website because it presents variable information that is tailored to a particular user. It may accept a user’s input and respond to the request. For example, a user can enter text into a login form or keyword search, which prompts the website to fulfill the request and return a unique result. In addition, the user may be able to perform tasks that may alter the website itself, such as post a comment or update a user profile. Examples of task-based websites include, online banking, shopping, e-learning, and social networking. Furthermore, the website may be able to make instant decisions on the fly in various situations, such as online quiz scoring or credit card processing. This type of website usually displays different information depending on the visitor, thus the information is dynamic. Similar to talking to a customer service representative on the telephone, a dynamic website will provide personalized, real-time information and take the appropriate action intended to serve the customer’s needs immediately. The website usually requires advanced programming and a database, and it often includes admin tools for the website owner to update the website content frequently and easily. In summary, visitors are able to control what information they wish to receive via a dynamic website, instead of settling for only static content that the website owner has decided to offer.
In addition, a visitor may be able to manipulate the content of the website and perform a multitude of tasks. The term oCRAFT website stands for Online Customer Request and Fulfillment Tools. A website that accepts user input is said to have a customer request tool, such as a form. A website that generates dynamic results, makes decisions or enables a user to perform tasks is said to have a customer fulfillment tool, such as logins, searches, update/edit/post user data, banking, shopping, e-learning and social networking. Many commonly known modules are oCRAFT tools, such as Forums, Blogs, Wikis, photo galleries, calendars and more. Others include: data banks, directories, listings, profiles, surveys, questionnaires, quizzes/tests, registration/entry forms, order/quote requests, financial calculators, graphs/charts, event management, order tracking, inventory control, product catalog, checkout, e-commerce, auctions, classifieds, social networking, matchmaking, job boards, portfolio, logins, subscriptions, memberships, affiliate programs, elearning, course registration/scheduling, delivery/service/appointment scheduling, task tracking, support ticket system, reservations, approval process/work flows, member services, account/profile management, investment account management, lead capture/response/routing, chat, email and much more. oCRAFT can also be used internally and for company intranets, with tools such as employee/shift scheduling, project management, forecasting/analysis, client relationship management (CRM), content management system (CMS), sales force automation, work order and service request system, workforce training and more. The main purpose behind a dynamic site is that it is much simpler to maintain a few web pages plus a database than it is to build and update hundreds or thousands of individual web pages and links. In one way, a data-driven website is similar to a static site because the information that is presented on the site is still limited to what the website owner has allowed to be stored in the database. The advantage is that there is usually a lot more information stored in a database and made available to users. A dynamic website would call various bits of information from a database and put them together in a pre-defined format to present the reader with a coherent page. It interacts with users in a variety of ways including by reading cookies recognizing users' previous history, session variables, server side variables etc., or by using direct interaction (form elements, mouseovers, etc.). A site can display the current state of a dialogue between users, monitor a changing situation, or provide information in some way personalized to the requirements of the individual user. Some countries, for example the U.K. have introduced legislation regarding web accessibility .  Software systems There is a wide range of software systems, such as Java Server Pages (JSP), the PHP and Perl programming languages, Active Server Pages (ASP) and ColdFusion (CFM) that are available to generate dynamic Web systems and dynamic sites. Sites may also include content that is retrieved from one or more databases or by using XML-based technologies such as RSS. Static content may also be dynamically generated either periodically, or if certain conditions for regeneration occur (cached) in order to avoid the performance loss of initiating the dynamic engine on a per-user or per-connection basis. Plugins are available to expand the features and abilities of Web browsers, which use them to show active content, such as Flash, Shockwave or applets written in Java. Dynamic HTML also provides for user interactivity and realtime element updating within Web pages (i.e.,
Affiliate: enabled portal that renders not only its custom CMS but also syndicated content from other content providers for an agreed fee. There are usually three relationship tiers. Affiliate Agencies (e.g., Commission Junction), Advertisers (e.g., Ebay) and consumer (e.g., Yahoo). Archive site: used to preserve valuable electronic content threatened with extinction. Two examples are: Internet Archive, which since 1996 has preserved billions of old
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(and new) Web pages; and Google Groups, which in early 2005 was archiving over 845,000,000 messages posted to Usenet news/discussion groups. Blog (or web log) site: sites generally used to post online diaries which may include discussion forums (e.g., blogger, Xanga). Content site: sites whose business is the creation and distribution of original content (e.g., Slate, About.com). Corporate website: used to provide background information about a business, organization, or service. Commerce site (or eCommerce site): for purchasing goods, such as Amazon.com, CSN Stores, and Overstock.com. Community site: a site where persons with similar interests communicate with each other, usually by chat or message boards, such as MySpace. Database site: a site whose main use is the search and display of a specific database's content such as the Internet Movie Database or the Political Graveyard. Development site: a site whose purpose is to provide information and resources related to software development, Web design and the like. Directory site: a site that contains varied contents which are divided into categories and subcategories, such as Yahoo! directory, Google directory and Open Directory Project. Download site: strictly used for downloading electronic content, such as software, game demos or computer wallpaper. Employment site: allows employers to post job requirements for a position or positions and prospective employees to fill an application. Fan site: A web site created and maintained by fans of and for a particular celebrity, as opposed to a web site created, maintained, and controlled by a celebrity through their own paid webmaster.May also be known as a Shrine in the case of certain subjects, such as anime, and manga characters. Game site: a site that is itself a game or "playground" where many people come to play (e.g. MSN Games and Pogo.com). Geodomain refers to domain names that are the same as those of geographic entities, such as cities and countries. For example, Richmond.com is the geodomain for Richmond, Virginia. Gripe site: a site devoted to the critique of a person, place, corporation, government, or institution. Humor site: satirizes, parodies or otherwise exists solely to amuse. Information site: contains content that is intended to inform visitors, but not necessarily for commercial purposes, such as: RateMyProfessors.com, Free Internet Lexicon and Encyclopedia. Most government, educational and non-profit institutions have an informational site. Java applet site: contains software to run over the Web as a Web application. Mirror (computing) site: A complete reproduction of a website. News site: similar to an information site, but dedicated to dispensing news and commentary. Personal homepage: run by an individual or a small group (such as a family) that contains information or any content that the individual wishes to include. Phish site: a website created to fraudulently acquire sensitive information, such as passwords and credit card details, by masquerading as a trustworthy person or business (such as Social Security Administration, PayPal) in an electronic communication (see Phishing). Political site: A site on which people may voice political views. Rating site: A site on which people can praise or disparage what is featured. Review site: A site on which people can post reviews for products or services. School site: a site on which teachers or administrators can post information about current events at or involving their school.
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Search engine site: a site that provides general information and is intended as a gateway or lookup for other sites. A pure example is Google, and the most widely known extended type is Yahoo!. Shock site: includes images or other material that is intended to be offensive to most viewers (e.g. rotten.com). Warez: a site designed to host and let users download copyrighted materials illegally. Web portal: a site that provides a starting point or a gateway to other resources on the Internet or an intranet. Wiki site: a site which users collaboratively edit (such as Wikipedia).
Some websites may be included in one or more of these categories. For example, a business website may promote the business's products, but may also host informative documents, such as white papers. There are also numerous sub-categories to the ones listed above. For example, a porn site is a specific type of eCommerce site or business site (that is, it is trying to sell memberships for access to its site). A fan site may be a dedication from the owner to a particular celebrity. Websites are constrained by architectural limits (e.g., the computing power dedicated to the website). Very large websites, such as Yahoo!, Microsoft, and Google employ many servers and load balancing equipment such as Cisco Content Services Switches to distribute visitor loads over multiple computers at multiple locations. In January of 2007, Netcraft, an Internet monitoring company that has tracked Web growth since 1995, reported that there were 106,875,138 Web sites with domain names and content on them in 2007, compared to just 18,000 Web sites in August 1995.  Prizes The Webby Awards are a set of awards presented to the world's "best" websites, a concept pioneered by Best of the Web in 1994.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search An extranet is a private network that uses Internet protocols, network connectivity, and possibly the public telecommunication system to securely share part of an organization's information or operations with suppliers, vendors, partners, customers or other businesses. An extranet can be viewed as part of a company's Intranet that is extended to users outside the company (e.g.: normally over the Internet). It has also been described as a "state of mind" in which the Internet is perceived as a way to do business with a preapproved set of other companies business-tobusiness (B2B), in isolation from all other Internet users. In contrast, business-to-consumer (B2C) involves known server(s) of one or more companies, communicating with previously unknown consumer users.
Briefly, an extranet can be understood as a private intranet mapped onto the Internet or some other transmission system not accessible to the general public, but is managed by more than one company's administrator(s). For example, military networks of different security levels may map onto a common military radio transmission system that never connects to the Internet. Any private network mapped onto a public one is a virtual private network (VPN). In contrast, an intranet is a VPN under the control of a single company's administrator(s). An argument has been made that "extranet" is just a buzzword for describing what institutions have been doing for decades, that is, interconnecting to each other to create private networks for sharing information. One of the differences that characterized an extranet, however, is that its interconnections are over a shared network rather than through dedicated physical lines. With respect to Internet Protocol networks, RFC 4364 states "If all the sites in a VPN are owned by the same enterprise, the VPN is a corporate intranet. If the various sites in a VPN are owned by different enterprises, the VPN is an extranet. A site can be in more than one VPN; e.g., in an intranet and several extranets. We regard both intranets and extranets as VPNs. In general, when we use the term VPN we will not be distinguishing between intranets and extranets. Even if this argument is valid, the term "extranet" is still applied and can be used to eliminate the use of the above description." It is important to note that in the quote above from RFC 4364, the term "site" refers to a distinct networked environment. Two "sites" connected to each other across the public Internet backbone comprise a VPN. The term "site" does not mean "website." Further, "intranet" also refers to just the web-connected portions of a "site." Thus, a small company in a single building can have an "intranet," but to have a VPN, they would need to provide tunneled access to that network for geographically distributed employees. Similarly, for smaller, geographically united organizations, "extranet" is a useful term to describe selective access to intranet systems granted to suppliers, customers, or other companies. Such access does not involve tunneling, but rather simply an authentication mechanism to a web server. In this sense, an "extranet" designates the "private part" of a website, where "registered users" can navigate, enabled by authentication mechanisms on a "login page". An extranet requires security and privacy. These can include firewalls, server management, the issuance and use of digital certificates or similar means of user authentication, encryption of messages, and the use of virtual private networks (VPNs) that tunnel through the public network.
Many technical specifications describe methods of implementing extranets, but often never explicitly define an extranet. RFC 3547  presents requirements for remote access to extranets. RFC 2709  discusses extranet implementation using IPSec and advanced network address translation (NAT).
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1 Industry uses 2 Advantages 3 Disadvantages 4 Notes 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading
 Industry uses
During the late 1990s and early 2000s, several industries started to use the term "extranet" to describe central repositories of shared data made accessible via the web only to authorized members of particular work groups. For example, in the construction industry, project teams could login to and access a 'project extranet' to share drawings and documents, make comments, issue requests for information, etc. In 2003 in the United Kingdom, several of the leading vendors formed the Network of Construction Collaboration Technology Providers, or NCCTP, to promote the technologies and to establish data exchange standards between the different systems. The same type of construction-focused technologies have also been developed in the United States, Australia, Scandinavia, Germany and Belgium, among others. Some applications are offered on a Software as a Service (SaaS) basis by vendors functioning as Application service providers (ASPs). Specially secured extranets are used to provide virtual data room services to companies in several sectors (including law and accountancy). There are a variety of commercial extranet applications, some of which are for pure file management, and others which include broader collaboration and project management tools. Also exist a variety of Open Source
extranet applications and modules, which can be integrated into other online collaborative applications such as Content Management Systems.
1. Exchange large volumes of data using Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) 2. Share product catalogs exclusively with wholesalers or those "in the trade" 3. Collaborate with other companies on joint development efforts 4. Jointly develop and use training programs with other companies 5. Provide or access services provided by one company to a group of other companies, such as an online banking application managed by one company on behalf of affiliated banks 6. Share news of common interest exclusively
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An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet protocols and network connectivity to securely share part of an organization's information or operations with its employees. Sometimes the term refers only to the most visible service, the internal website the Intranetsite. The same concepts and technologies of the Internet such as clients and servers running on the Internet protocol suite are used to build an intranet. HTTP and other Internet protocols are commonly used as well, such as FTP. There is often an attempt to use Internet technologies to provide new interfaces with corporate "legacy" data and information systems. Briefly, an intranet can be understood as "a private version of the Internet," or as a version of the Internet confined to an organization. The term first appeared in print on April 19, 1995, in Digital News & Review in an article authored by technical editor Stephen Lawton .An IntranetSite differs from a website in the fact that websites are oriented to public web browsers that do not need be authenticated in order to view the content. The IntranetSite content is private and does require authentication for each web viewer. Some websites require a subscription to access some or all of
their content and be cause of the authentication requirement it makes them an IntranetSites or ExtranetSites. Intranets differ from "Extranets" in that the former are generally restricted to employees of the organization while extranets can generally be accessed by customers, suppliers, or other approved parties. There does not necessarily have to be any access from the organization's internal network to the Internet itself. When such access is provided it is usually through a gateway with a firewall, along with user authentication, encryption of messages, and often makes use of virtual private networks (VPNs). Through such devices and systems off-site employees can access company information, computing resources and internal communications. Increasingly, intranets are being used to deliver tools and applications, e.g., collaboration (to facilitate working in groups and teleconferencing) or sophisticated corporate directories, sales and CRM tools, project management etc., to advance productivity. Intranets are also being used as culture change platforms. For example, large numbers of employees discussing key issues in an online forum could lead to new ideas. Intranet traffic, like public-facing web site traffic, is better understood by using web metrics software to track overall activity, as well as through surveys of users. Intranet "User Experience", "Editorial", and "Technology" teams work together to produce in-house sites. Most commonly, intranets are owned by the communications, HR or CIO areas of large organizations, or some combination of the three. Because of the scope and variety of content and the number of system interfaces, the intranets of many organizations are much more complex than their respective public websites. And intranets are growing rapidly. According to the Intranet design annual 2007 from Nielsen Norman Group the number of pages on participants' intranets averaged 200,000 over the years 2001 to 2003 and has grown to an average of 6 million pages over 2005–2007.
1 Advantages of intranets 2 Planning and creating an intranet
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3 See also 4 References 5 External links
 Advantages of intranets
1. Workforce productivity: Intranets can help users to locate and view information faster and use applications relevant to their roles and responsibilities. With the help of a web browser interface, users can access data held in any database the organization wants to make available, anytime and - subject to security provisions - from anywhere within the company workstations, increasing employees' ability to perform their jobs faster, more accurately, and with confidence that they have the right information. It also helps to improve the services provided to the users. 2. Time: With intranets, organizations can make more information available to employees on a "pull" basis (ie: employees can link to relevant information at a time which suits them) rather than being deluged indiscriminately by emails. 3. Communication: Intranets can serve as powerful tools for communication within an organization, vertically and horizontally. From a communications standpoint, intranets are useful to communicate strategic initiatives that have a global reach throughout the organization. The type of information that can easily be conveyed is the purpose of the initiative and what the initiative is aiming to achieve, who is driving the initiative, results achieved to date, and who to speak to for more information. By providing this information on the intranet, staff have the opportunity to keep up-to-date with the strategic focus of the organization. 4. Web publishing allows 'cumbersome' corporate knowledge to be maintained and easily accessed throughout the company using hypermedia and Web technologies. Examples include: employee manuals, benefits documents, company policies, business standards, newsfeeds, and even training, can be accessed using common Internet standards (Acrobat files, Flash files, CGI applications). Because each business unit can update the online copy of a document, the most recent version is always available to employees using the intranet. 5. Business operations and management: Intranets are also being used as a platform for developing and deploying applications to support business operations and decisions across the internetworked enterprise.
6. Cost-effective: Users can view information and data via webbrowser rather than maintaining physical documents such as procedure manuals, internal phone list and requisition forms. 7. Promote common corporate culture: Every user is viewing the same information within the Intranet. 8. Enhance Collaboration: With information easily accessible by all authorised users, teamwork is enabled. 9. Cross-platform Capability: Standards-compliant web browsers are available for Windows, Mac, and UNIX.
 Planning and creating an intranet
Most organizations devote considerable resources into the planning and implementation of their intranet as it is of strategic importance to the organization's success. Some of the planning would include topics such as:
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What they hope to achieve from the intranet Which person or department would "own" (take control of) the technology and the implementation How and when existing systems would be phased out/replaced How they intend to make the intranet secure How they'll ensure to keep it within legislative and other constraints Level of interactivity (eg wikis, on-line forms) desired. Is the input of new data and updating of existing data to be centrally controlled or devolved.
These are in addition to the hardware and software decisions (like Content Management Systems), participation issues (like good taste, harassment, confidentiality), and features to be supported . The actual implementation would include steps such as 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. User involvement to identify users' information needs. Setting up a web server with the correct hardware and software. Setting up web server access using a TCP/IP network. Installing the user programs on all required computers. Creating a homepage for the content to be hosted. User involvement in testing and promoting use of intranet.