1

- Ϫ/+ -
√Ϫ 1a
Ϫ Ω [Focus morpheme, follows fronted focalized constituent] - ex (object
focus): n+kkϪ1-x+!T-md it’s me [focus] that he hit c’est moi
[focus] qu’il a frappé - ex (subject focus): n+kkϪ-\!!1-֊׹+-n it’s I
[focus] who killed him c’est moi [focus] qui l’a tué.
√Ϫ 1b
Ϫ Ω [minimal demonstrative, in complementizers with following clitics].
Ϫ-\s Ω [complementizer] that ... que ... [generally in factive clauses; often
reduced to just s].
Ϫ-\d Ω [complementizer] that ... que ... [common in adverbial clauses;
DTF 1.147]
√Ϫ 1c
Ϫ Ω [determiner used in headless ‘what(-ever) ...’ relative clauses, cf. eIe √t 4
and 1 √± 2b] - ex (with Reslt verb): Ϫ!-ђ¸I+x-+dGao whatever you-
Sg get ce que tu trouveras.
√Ϫ 2 [N “-a” suffix ‘this’, also frozen in “amet-a” √mt « maintenant »]
w-Ϫ Ω [dem pron, MaSg] this ceci [Pl x-1].
hϪtw-ϪT-ka Ω [adv phrase] until now; (not) yet jusqu’à présent; (pas)
encore - ex: hϪIx-ϪxђIђsJe-׹1-s+J-ϪnT-ka I haven’t yet
heard any news je n’ai pas encore entendu de nouvelles.
t-Ϫ Ω [dem pron, FeSg] this ceci [Pl !-1].
Ϫ-d± Ω [dem pron] this ceci.
w-Ϫ-h± Ω [dem pron, MaSg] this ceci [Pl x-1-h1].
t-Ϫ-h± Ω [dem pron, FeSg] this ceci [Pl !-1-h1].
√Ϫ 3
Ϫ Ω [Future positive preverbal morpheme, form used before a clitic, variant of
Ϫd√d 3; replaced by e, he, or nϪd (depending on dialect) after Neg x+I
and more generally in dependent position; easily confused with √Ϫ 1] -
exx: Ϫ-\∅-h11-xђ!T-md he will hit me il me frappera; Ϫ-\!+!
ђxђ!-+׹T-md I will hit her je la frapperai.
√Ϫ 4
-\Ϫ- Ω [dative morpheme in 2nd and 3rd person dative pronominal clitics
like 3Sg -\Ϫ-s-and 2Sg dative -\Ϫ-k- ; -\Ϫ- has a variant -\hϪ-
after non-low vowels, and contracts with preceding Ϫ (transcribed
...Ϫ-\Ø-...)¸ - exx: ђk1e-׹-\Ϫ-x+n-\!T-md I gave it-Ma to you-
MaPl je vous-MaPl le-MaSg ai donné; 1-k1Ϫ-\Ø-k-\kT-md he
gave it-Ma to you-MaSg il te-MaSg le-Ma a donné.
2
-\Ϫ- Ω [in 1Sg clitic -\Ϫ-h1 and 1Pl clitic -\Ϫ-n+׹, used in both dative
and direct object function].
√Ϫ 5
±-...Ϫ Ω [apparent MaPl circumfix on nouns, with stem-ablaut].
t-±-...A Ω [apparent FePl circumfix on nouns, with stem-ablaut].
- b -
√b 1 [N √b and √bw]
+bo!T-ka Ω [interj] no! non! [usually doubled as +bo+bo! ; cf. k+JϪ
√k1 2].
√b 2 [N √b ; MGT 7.184, 186 <*√hbh]
-+bϪ-K K-d R T-md [Imprt 1bϪT-ka, MaPl Imprt 1b+-h+!K T-ka,
LoImpfP -!-1bϪ-Gao K T-ka] Ω a) [impersonal verb, with
fixed 3MaSg subject, and object denoting thing lost] (sth) be lost; (sb) be
lost (= die) (qch) ê. perdu; (qn) ê. perdu (= mourir) [euphemistic in sense
‘die’; see √mt 2; ‘get lost’ √sk 11; ‘cease to exist’ √z1 4] - ex:
d1-hϪ-\d-\!+nØ-+bϪT-md there where they were lost (= died)
là où ils se sont perdus (= sont morts); x+I-\k+y1-!-1bϪ-he!
T-ka may you-Sg not get lost! que tu ne te perdes pas! Ω b)
[impersonal verb, with fixed 3MaSg subject, object denoting thing lost, and
dative for affected person] (sth) be lost to (sb) (qch) ê. perdu pour (qn)
[object pronominal sometimes omitted] - ex: Ø-+b-\hϪ-sT-md
= Ø-+b-\hϪ-s-\!R he lost (= misplaced) it, he couldn’t find it il
l’a perdu, il ne l’a pas retrouvé Ω c) [impersonal verb, with fixed 3MaSg
subject, object denoting thing lost, and prep d+׹ for affected person] (sth)
be lost to (sb) (qch) ê. perdu pour (qn) - exx: Ø-+bϪ-\dђ׹-1
!-e׹seT-ka I’ve lost a sheep (or goat) j’ai perdu un mouton (ou une
chèvre) = Ø-+bϪ-\!+n-\dђ׹-1R I lost them je les ai perdus.
b-\Ϫ -sR Ω [clause-initial form] no longer, not again pas encore, (ne)
plus - ex: b-\Ϫ-\s-\d1-nϪJR he won’t come back any more il ne
viendra plus.
±bϪA-grm K T-ka[x±...], Pl 1bϪ-!+nT-ka Ω a) [nm] getting lost (e.g.
in desert) fait de s’égarer (dans le désert, etc.) Ω b) [nm] demise, death
décès, mort [all dialects] Ω c) [nm, as cpd initial] lack of (sth); lack of
(doing) manque (dq qch); manque (de faire) [K] - ex: 1bϪn!-ђJϪn
⍾!-+-yђ!!eK lack of (having) intelligence manque d’(avoir de l’)
intelligence; 1bϪnh+I+!K lack of anything (= means) manque de
qch (= de moyens).
±bϪnђ-mudT-ka = ±bϪn+-mudK-d Ω [cpd nm, lit. “loss of
prayer”] (woman’s) menstrual period période des règles (d’une femme)
[syn: !-Ϫ-׹1n1-!-! √׹ym 1]
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√b 3 [N √b or √d]
ϪbbϪIm K[xϪ...] K-d K-f R[xϪ...] T-md = ђbbϪ T-ka, Pl ϪbbϪ-!+n R
T-md = ђbbϪ-!+n T-ka Ω [nm] father, papa père, papa [cf. !1 √t 7;
parallel to ϪnnϪ √n 11 ‘mother’] - poss: 1Sg ϪbbϪ-n-1nA-grm Im
T-md = ђbbϪ-n-1nT-ka; 3Sg ђbbϪ-n-ne!T-ka.
ђbbϪ-n-±nw-Ϫ±-ss+m-+nT-ka Ω [nm+partpl, lit. “my father-big”]
my grandfather mon grand-père.
√b 4 [N √b]
t-ϪbϪT-ka[xt-Ϫ...], Pl !-Ϫb1x-enT-ka Ω [nf] tobacco tabac.
t-ϪbϪn⍾Ø-sed-ϪnGao Ω [nf, lit. “... of donkeys”] herb sp. plante
sp. [ID: probably locally variable; Gosi specimen was Heliotropium
ramosissimum (= H. undulatum =H. bacciferum); a similar cpd is applied
in KCh to the bushy herb Ambrosia maritima, Compositae].
√bb 1a [widespread W. African word in form babba or banba]
-ђbbubbϪ-T-ka = -+ bbubbϪ-K-d R [Imprt bϪ bbR T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫb+bbϪ-R T-ka] Ω [tr] carry (esp. baby) wrapped on back
porter (surtout un enfant) sur le dos [stem-paradigm parallel to that of
√¸¸ 3].
-ђbbђbbϪ- A-grm [Imprt bђbbA-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫb+bbϪ-A-grm]
Ω [= -ђbbubbϪ-].
Ϫ-bu bbK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbbubbϪ-].
Ϫ-bђbbA-grm R T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbbubbϪ- or -ђbbђbbϪ-].
b+bbϪK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbbubbϪ-] [see also √bb 1b].
-+m-b+bbϪ-T-ka [Imprt n-ђbђbbT-ka, ShImpfP -ђn-bђbbT-ka,
LoImpfP -!-1n-bђbb1-T-ka] Ω [intr, Recip] carry each other se
porter l’un l’autre.
Ϫ-m-bђbbT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+n-b+bbϪ-].
√bb 1b
b+bbϪK-d T-ka Ω [nm] simple woman’s hairdo with a tuft in back of head
coiffure féminine simple avec une touffe derrière la tête [see also
√bb 1a].
√bb 2 [perhaps <Fr]
+-boboT-ka, Pl 1-bobo-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] Bobo man homme bobo
[ethnic group of Burkina Faso and parts of southeastern Mali].
t-+-bobo-t-tT-ka, Pl !-1-bobo-!-enT-ka Ω [nf] Bobo woman; the
Bobo language femme bobo; langue bobo.
√bb׹
-ђbbubb+׹+-tA-grm = -+bbubb+׹+-tK-d[Imprt bubbђ׹-ђ!K-d,
LoImpfP -!-1bђbbђ׹u-!K-d] Ω [tr] hit (sb) with the hand donner
un coup avec la main à (qn).
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-ђbbubb+׹-A-grm [Imprt bubbђ׹A-grm, LoImpfP -!-1bђbbu׹-
A-grm Ω [tr] [= -ђbbubb+׹+-!].
t-+-b+bb+׹Ϫ-t-tA-grm T-ka = t-Ϫ-b+bb+׹Ϫ-t-tK-d Ω a) [nf] (a)
hard blow (of the hand) coup violent (de la main) Ω b) [nf] rash, skin
discoloration (due e.g. to insect bite) gale, décoloration de la peau (à la
suite d’une piqûre d’insecte etc.)
√bb¸ (bbց) [N √bbց]
-ђbbubb+¸+-tT-ka = -+bbubb+¸+-tK-d[Imprt bubbђ¸ђ-!T-ka,
LoImpfP -!-1bђbbђ¸u-!T-ka] Ω [tr] sear surface of (e.g. a hide, to
burn on hairs) brûler la surface de ( peau, par ex. pour enlever les poils).
-b+bb+ց+-tA-grm Ω [tr] [= -ђbbubb+¸+-!].
Ϫ-bђbbђ¸uK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbbubb+¸+-!].
√bbt 1 [homonym √bbt 2]
+-bobbϪtT-ka, Pl 1-bobbϪI-+nT-ka Ω a) [nm] outer shell of rice
grains; external chaff of millet or sorghum bale de riz paddy; bale de mil
ou de sorgho [T-ka] [removed by the first pounding in mortar, cf. verbs
√stI, √Ik ; see also √stbbt] Ω b) [nm] fine powder in grains poudre
fine dans les grains [K-d].
√bbt 2 [homonym √bbt 1; N √bb1]
+-bobbϪtA-grm Ω [nm] straw fire feu de paille [generally to warm up
animals on a cold morning].
√bbs [N √bbz]
+-bϪbϪsK K-d T-md, Pl 1-bubϪsK T-md Ω [nm] cross-cousin; son of
paternal aunt cousin croisé; fils de la tante paternelle [cf.
ϪI-ђn-nedd+n and variants √t 6] - poss: 1Sg +-bϪbϪs-1nT-ka
T-md, Pl 1-bubϪs-1nT-md.
+-bobϪsA-grm, Pl 1-bubϪsA-grm Ω [nm] [= +-bϪbϪs].
t-+-bϪbϪs-tT-ka T-md, Pl !-1-bubϪsT-ka Ω [nf] cross-cousin;
daughter of paternal aunt cousine croisée; fille de la tante paternelle.
t-+-bobϪs-tA-grm, Pl !-1-bubϪsA-grm Ω [nf] [= !-+-bϪbϪs-!].
-+bob+s-T-ka [Imprt bubђsT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1bubus-T-ka]
Ω [intr] be a cousin ê. cousin. Cf. √s-bbs.
t-ђbbubђsϪK R T-ka, Pl !-ђbbubђsϪx-enT-ka Ω [nf] cousin-hood
cousinage [can denote either a kinship relation, or an institutionalized
inter-tribal joking relationship]. Cf. verb √s-bbs.
√bd ### [for !-e-b+dde see √bdd]
√bd 1 [see variant √bdn 1; <Ar √Бbd]
Ϫb+dϪR T-ka T-md Ω [adv] never, not at all jamais, aucunement, pas du
tout [in isolation or in negative clause; variant √bdn 1; syn: hϪI
y+JJϪ √y1 1; cf. 1+xx! √Iw 4].
5
√bd2 [N √bd]
Ϫ-b+dϪT-ka, Pl 1-b+dϪ-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] bosom (of a woman, where
baby sleeps) sein (d’une femme, contre lequel un bébé s’endort).
+-bϪdϪA-grm K-d R T-md, Pl 1-bϪd-ϪnA-grm K-d R T-md Ω a) [nm]
(human or animal) penis pénis(d’homme ou d’animal) [A-grm R] [syn:
√zmby etc.] Ω b) [nm] private parts (male or female); vagina parties
génitales (d’homme ou de femme); vagin [K-d] [euphemism; syn √zI, cf.
√kd1, √kk 1].
√bd 3 [for Ϫ-bђd1 see √bdy]
bђd±A-grm[xbђ...] T-ka[xbђ...] Ω [nm] smallpox; similar animal disease
involving spots on skin variole; une maladie pareille des animaux avec
de petites taches sur la peau.
√bd 4 [<Ar √bdБ ; N √nbd]
±bdϪK[x±...] Ω [nm] former times, long ago jadis, autrefois.
k+1±bdaA-grm K K-d Ω [cpd nm] people of former times les gens
d’autrefois.
ϪցnϪw-Ϫn±bdϪK Ω [phrase] custom of old times coutume
d’autrefois.
bђdϪT-ka Ω [nm] former times, long ago jadis, autrefois.
k+1bђdaT-ka Ω [cpd nm] people of former times les gens d’autrefois.
s+ttbђdϪT-ka Ω [cpd nf] women of former times les femmes
d’autrefois.
√bdbd
e-bdebђdGnd Gos K-d K-f T-md = e-b+debђdT-ka[x⍾+-] Ts
= +-b+debђdGao Th, Pl 1-bdubϪdK-f T-ka = 1-bђdubϪdTh Ts
Ω [nm] prostrate herb sp. petite plante rampante sp. [ID: around K
chiefly hogweed Boerhaavia repens, Nyctaginaceae; around T usually
applied to herbs (often medicinal) of family Aizoaceae, including Glinus
lotoides and Zaleya (= Trianthema) pentandra (the latter confirmed RPRG
for the Gourma; confirmed in Niger Tamajak for Boerhaavia and Zaleya
but also used there for Tribulus longipetalus and T. ochroleucus,
Zygophyllaceae; overlapping terms: √mdts1 (Zaleya), √bhw 1c (Glinus),
√ms1 2 (Boerhaavia)].
√bdd(√bd) [N √bdd]
-ђbd+d-Im A-grm K T-ka T-md[Imprt ђbdђdIm T-md, LoImpfP
-bϪdd+d-Im T-ka] Ω [intr] stand up; (animal) remain on foot
(= healthy); stop se mettre debout; (animal) rester debout (= en bonne
santé); s’arrêter [cf. √nkt 1]. Caus √s-bdd.
t-e-b+ddeA-grm K R T-ka[x⍾t-+-], Pl !-1-bϪdd1x-enR Ω [nf,
vbln of -ђbd+d-] act of standing; height, stature; (animal’s) good health
fait de se mettre debout; hauteur; bonne santé (d’un animal).
t-e-b+dden±yyotT-ka Ω [phrase] beginning of the (lunar) month
début du mois (lunaire) [cf. ђnnђsђ1, !-Ϫ-n+!!Ϫn-! √mt 2].
6
-ђnn-ђbd+d-A-grm T-ka [Imprt n-+bd+dT-ka, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫn-+bdϪd-T-ka] Ω a) [intr, Recip, Pl subject] stand up to (= face)
each other faire face l’un à l’autre Ω b) [intr plus prep d] stand up to,
face (sb) faire face à (qn) - ex: 1-nn-ђbd+d-\dђI-ђsT-ka he
faced him il lui a fait face.
Ϫ-n-ђbdђdA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђnn-ђbd+d-].
√bd׹ 1 [N √bd׹]
-ђbd+׹-A-grm T-ka [Imprt ђbdђ׹T-ka, LoImpfP -bϪdd+׹-T-ka]
Ω [tr] (quadruped) kick (esp. with a front leg) (quadrupède) donner un
coup (surtout avec une patte de devant) [‘kick’: see √dys].
Ϫ-b+dϪ׹A-grm T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbd+׹-] .
t-Ϫ-bђddeq-qT-ka, Pl !-1-bђddϪ׹T-ka Ω [nf] kick (by quadruped)
coup de patte (d’un quadrupède).
√bd׹ 2 [N √bd׹]
t-Ϫ-bdoq-qK-d T-ka[x⍾t-+-], Pl !-1-bdo׹-enT-ka Ω a) [nf] old-
fashioned cotton fabric tissu en coton de type ancien [K-d T-ka] Ω b)
[nf] fabric (in general) tissu (en général) [K-d] [cf. √ktsy, √mst 2].
√bd¸ (bdց) [N √bdց ; EPPB 162]
-ђbd+¸-K K-d R T-ka = -ђbd+ց- A-grm [Imprt ђbdђ¸K R T-ka = ђbdђց
A-grm, LoImpfP -bϪdd+¸-K R T-ka = -bϪdd+ց-A-grm] Ω [intr]
be or become wet; (vegetation, foliage) be green, fresh (not withered or
dry) ê. ou devenir mouillé; (plantes, feuillage) ê. vert (non fané) [cf.
√1Ik 1, √nbh, √nIs 3, √1b¸ 1, √twntw] - ex: 1-bdϪ¸ K-d it’s wet
c’est mouillé. Caus √s-bd¸.
-ђbd+¸-T-md [Imprt 1bdϪ¸T-md, LoImpfP -!-1bdϪ¸-T-md] Ω [intr]
[= -ђbd+¸- (above)].
±-bdϪ¸-+nT-md K Ω [partpl, MaSg] wet mouillé.
t-ђbdϪ¸-+tK Ω [partpl, FeSg] wet mouillée.
ђbdϪ¸-nenT-ka = ђbdϪց-nenA-grm Ω [partpl, Pl] wet mouillés.
Ϫ -bdu¸K-d T-ka[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-bdu¸-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln] wetness;
green state (of plant) fait d’ê. mouillé; état vert (d’une plante).
√bd1 1 [cf. KCh budeJ1‘baggy pants’, perhaps <HassAr buudaJx-a ‘(father)
of waterbag (for well)’]
bud+1±T-ka = bud+1eT-md = budϪ 1±K, Pl bud+J1-!+nT-md
= bud+Je-!+nT-md Ω [nm] short pants; traditional baggy pants
culotte; pantalon bouffant traditionnel [cf. e-k+Ib+y].
√bd1 2 [<Ar √bd1]
-ђbbђdd+1-K [Imprt b+dd+JT-md K, LoImpfP -!-Ϫb+ddϪJ- K] Ω [tr]
exchange échanger [cf. √s-msk1].
7
√bd1 3
-ђbbudd+1-A-grm K-f T-ka = -+bbudd+1- K-d R [Imprt buddђJA-grm
K-f R T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1bђdduJ-K-d R = -!-1budd1J-A-grm]
Ω a) [intr] become crazy devenir fou [A-grm K R] Ω b) [intr] be lazy
ê. paresseux [T-ka]. Caus √s-bd1.
e-n-+bbeddђ1T-ka = e-n-+bbedd+1K-f = Ϫ-n-+bbeddђ1A-grm,
Pl 1-n-+bbeddђJ-+nT-ka = 1-n-ђbbuddϪJA-grm K-f T-ka
Ω a) [nm] crazy man (un) fou [A-grm K] Ω b) [nm] lazy one (un)
paresseux [T].
Ϫ-buddђ1A-grm K-f Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbbudd+J-].
t-Ϫ-bђdde1-tA-grm Ω [nf] craziness folie.
ђbbuddђ1K-d T-ka Ω [nm] laziness paresse.
√bdn 1 [variant of Ϫb+dϪ √bd 1].
Ϫb+ d+nR T-md Ω [adv] never, not at all jamais, aucunement, pas du tout
[cf. 1+xx! √Iw 4].
√bdn 2 [see also √nbd ; N √bdn]
-ђbd+n-A-grm K T-ka [Imprt ђbdђnT-ka, LoImpfP -bϪdd+n-T-ka]
Ω [intr] be crippled, paralyzed (unable to walk) ê. perclus, paralytique
(incapable de marcher) [due to polio or other causes].
Ϫ-b+dϪn A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbd+n-] Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbd+n-].
+-n-Ϫbd±nA-grm K, Pl 1-n-ђbdϪnA-grm K Ω [nm] crippled person
(un) perclus [Pl perhaps originally that of Ϫ-n-+bdon].
Ϫ-n-+ bdonK-d R T-ka, Pl 1-n-ђbdϪnR T-ka Ω [nm] crippled person
(un) perclus.
bђddђnK[xbђ...] K-d T-ka[xbђ...] Ω [nm] state of being crippled
qualité ou état d’ê. perclus.
√bdt 1 [N √bdt]
-+bod+t-A-grm K-d R T-ka T-md [Imprt budђIR T-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-!-1buduI-R K-d T-ka T-md] Ω [tr] be rude to, show disrespect to
(parents or other elders) ê. impoli envers, manquer de respect envers (ses
parents ou autres anciens et aînés) [cf. √Its, √I1nkd].
+-n-ђbbedђtA-grm Im K = +-n-+bbedђtT-ka = e-n-+bbedђtK-d
R = e-n-ђbbedђtK-d, Pl 1-n-ђbbudϪIA-grm K-d Ω [nm, Agent]
disrespectful child enfant impoli.
Ϫ-budђtA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -+bod+I-].
[Pl only:] t-±-budϪtK-d T-ka Ω [nfpl, vbln of -+bod+I-].
√bdt 2 [homonyms √bdt 3,4]
-ђbd+t-A-grm T-ka [Imprt ђbdђIT-ka, LoImpfP -bϪdd+I-T-ka]
Ω [tr] (returning traveler) offer gifts to (kin) (voyageur qui est revenu)
offrir des cadeaux à (ses parents).
Ϫ-b+dϪtT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbd+I-].
8
t-Ϫ-bђddet-tA-grm K T-ka, Pl !-1-bђddϪIA-grm T-ka Ω [nf] gift
given by a returning traveler cadeau de voyage (donné par un voyageur
de retour).
√bdt 3 [homonyms √bdt 2,4]
-ђbd+t-T-ka [Imprt ђbdђIT-ka, LoImpfP -bϪdd+I-T-ka] Ω [intr]
(female animal) be in heat (animal femelle) ê. en chaleur [cf. √hd 2] -
ex: !-ђbdϪIT-ka it (= ewe) is in heat elle (= brebis) est en chaleur.
Ϫ-b+dϪtT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbd+I-].
√bdt 4 [homonyms √bdt 2,3]
-ђbd+t-T-ka [Imprt ђbdђIT-ka, LoImpfP -bϪdd+I-T-ka] Ω [intr plus
prep 1+J] be due to, be the result of, ensue from ê. dû à, ê. le résultat de
- ex: Ϫ-x-Ϫ-d+׹Ϫ-\1+J1-bd+IT-ka that [focus] is what it’s due
to c’est à cause de ça [focus].
Ϫ-b+dϪtT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbd+I-].
√bdw
ђ-b±dd+wT-ka = +-b±dd+wK K-d K-f R T-ka, Pl 1-b1dd+x-+nK K-f R
T-ka Ω [nm] monkey singe [syn: √ky 3].
√bdy N √bdy]
-ђbbђd+y-K-d T-ka [Imprt b+d+yT-ka, LoImpfP !-Ϫb+dϪy-T-ka]
Ω [intr] be transformed ê. transformé. Caus √s-bdy.
Ϫ-bђdђy (or: Ϫ-bђd±) Ω [nm] transformation transformation.
√bdydy 1
-+bd+yd+y-T-ka [Imprt bђdђydђyT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1bdђyd1y-
T-ka] Ω [intr] slope down être en pente. Caus √s-bdydy.
Ϫ-bdђydϪyT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+bd+yd+y-].
√bdydy 2
-+bd+yd+y-K-d [Imprt bђdђydђyK-d, LoImpfP -!-1bdђyd1y-K-d]
Ω [intr] (objects) accumulate, be collected (des objets) s’accumuler.
Ϫ-bdђydђyK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+bd+yd+y-].
√bdz [N √bdz]
+-bo ddϪzK-d, Pl 1-boddϪz-+nK-d Ω [nm] bad camel (weak, old, ugly,
etc.) mauvais chameau (faible, vieux, vilain, etc.) [cf. √bx1].
√bd 1 [N √bd or √wd with -! suffix]
-ђb+d-T-ka = -b+d-K-d [Imprt ђbђdT-ka, LoImpfP -!-ђbbϪd-K-d
= -ђbbϪd-T-ka] Ω [intr] (sb) run; run away suddenly, flee (qn)
courir; se sauver, fuir [not used for vehicles; partial syn: -os+J-√s1 2,
cf. √I׹ 1].
e-bedA-grm K-d Ω [nf, vbln of -ђb+d-].
t-+-bϪdϪT-ka, Pl !-1-bϪd1x-enT-ka Ω [nf, vbln of -ђb+d-].
9
t-e-b+deA-grm, Pl !-1-bϪdA-grm[x⍾t-ђ-] Ω [nf, vbln of
-ђb+d-].
√bd 2 (bdw)
-ђbdϪ-A-grm Im K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt ђbduIm K-d R T-ka T-md = +bd
A-grm R, MaPl Imprt +bdux-+!T-ka = +bdu-h+!T-ka = +bd-+!
A-grm T-md, LoImpfP -b1ddu-Im K K-d T-ka T-md = -bϪdd-
A-grm] Ω [intr] be separated, be distinct; be dissuaded (from sth) ê.
séparé, ê. distinct; ê. dissuadé (de faire qch).
e-b+ d d ±K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbdϪ-].
t-Ϫ-bђddϪw-tA-grm T-ka[x⍾t-+-] Ω [nf, vbln] separation,
distinctness séparation, distinction.
-ђnn-ђbd Ϫ-R T-ka [Imprt n-+bdR T-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫn-+bdϪ-
A-grm R T-ka = -!-1n-ђbdu-T-ka] Ω [intr] (e.g. rope) snap in two,
become dislocated corde etc.) se casser en deux, se disloquer [cf.
√׹ts 1b].
Ϫ-n-ђbdA-grm T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђnn-ђbdϪ-].
√bd1 1 [homonyms √bd1 1; N √bd1]
-ђbd+1-R T-ka [Imprt ђbdђJR T-ka, LoImpfP -bϪdd+J-R T-ka] Ω a)
[intr] drink at dusk to break one’s fast (in Ramadan) boire au crépuscule
pour rompre le jeûne (pendant le ramadan) [T] Ω b) [intr] drink to break
one’s fast (during the day, violating Islamic law) boire pendant la
journée pour rompre le jeûne (contre la loi islamique) [R T]. Cf. √s-bd1.
Ϫ-b+dϪ1R T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbd+J-].
√bd1 2 [homonyms √bd1 1]
-ђbd+1-K-d [Imprt ђbdђJK-d, LoImpfP -bϪdd+J-K-d] Ω [intr] climb
back up a well, or climb a cliff, without ropes (using feet and hands)
grimper pour sortir d’un puits, ou grimper sur la face d’une falaise, sans
cordes (en utilisant uniquement les pieds et les mains) [cf. √Itn].
Ϫ-b+dϪ1K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbd+J-].
√bdt ### [see √s-bdt]
√bdw ### [see √bd 2 ]
√bI 1 [possibly related to N √bI]
-ђbbuII+-tT-ka = -+bbuII+-tK K-d R T-md [Imprt bu11ђ-!R
T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1bђ11u-!T-ka] Ω a) [intr] (e.g. grain, sugar) be in
a large quantity (céréales, sucre, etc.) ê. en grande quantité [K K-d T] -
ex: Ø-+bbu11+-!-\d-ђsђssuk+IT-md there is a lot of sugar in it
il y a là-dedans beaucoup de sucre Ω b) [intr] be always sleeping; lie
sleeping as though dead or inanimate ê. toujours endormi; ê. endormi
comme si on est mort ou inanimé [K-d T] Ω c) [tr] (sb) drop (e.g. a heavy
sack) (qn) laisser tomber (un sac lourd, etc.) [T] [cf. √ttk].
10
-ђbbђII+-t A-grm [Imprt bђ11ђ-! A-grm = b+11+-! Gao, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫb+11Ϫ-! A-grm] Ω [tr] (sb) drop (e.g. a heavy sack) (qn) laisser
tomber (un sac lourd, etc.)
Ϫ-bђIIuA-grm R T-ka[x⍾ђ-] Ω [vbln of -ђbbu11+-!].
+-bϪIIuK-d Ω [vbln of -ђbbu11+-! ].
√bI 2 [cf. N √bIn]
b+ITh, Pl b+1-!+nTh Ω [nm] mushroom (puffball) champignon (sec).
√bց 1 [N √bց]
e-b+ցցA-grm Im K K-d R[x⍾+-] T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md Ts, Pl 1-b+ցց-Ϫn
A-grm Gao Im K K-d R T-ka T-md Ts Ω [nm] jackal chacal [ID:
primarily the side-striped jackal Canis adustus; may extend to the golden
jackal C. aureus ; syn: √wns 2, √ynd ; taboo replacement 1n
⍾!-ђ-!+֊׹-en ‘of wild date pits’ √tn׹].
√bց 2a [<KCh buցu]
bђցuT-ka, Pl bђցu-!+nT-ka Ω [n] hut case [syn: sϪnϪ¸ ; typically a
half-sphere in shape, made of light materials, a common dwelling in towns;
syn: √sn¸].
√bց 2b
+-boց±A-grm K K-d, Pl 1-boց1-!+nA-grm K K-d Ω [n] hut case.
√bց 3
-ђbbuցց+-tA-grm T-ka = -+bbuցց+-tK-d [Imprt buցցђ-!T-ka,
LoImpfP -!-1bђցցu-!K-d T-ka = -!-1buցց1-!A-grm] Ω [intr]
be shown to have lied; admit that one was wrong (lied or said sth incorrect)
ê. démenti; reconnaître qu’on avait tort (qu’on aa menti ou dit qch
d’erroné). Caus √s-bց.
Ϫ-bђցցuA-grm T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbbuցց+-!].
+-bϪցցuK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbbuցց+-!].
√bց 4
t-+-bϪցցϪ-t-tTh, Pl !-1-bϪցցϪ-!-enTh Ω [nf] small erect herb sp.
covered with hairs petite plante pubescente érigée sp. à poils [ID:
Spermacoce (= Borreria) radiata, Rubiaceae [form perhaps mutated from
√bցt]
√bցn ### [for +-bϪցђnsee √b¸n 1]
√bցnցn [N √bցnցn]
Ϫ-bђցђ֊ցђnK-f, Pl 1-bђցђ֊ցϪnK-f Ω [nm] agama lizard agama
(lézard) [ID: Agama agama, cf. √mdydt, √Ikn].
√bցt [Y ђ-ցђbbuI ‘tuft of hair’, N √ցbt]
Ϫ-bђցցotA-grm K-d T-ka[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-bђցցϪIA-grm T-ka Ω [nm]
tuft of hair, dense hair on head touffe de cheveux, cheveux denses sur la
tête [cf. kynky].
11
Ϫ-bђցցotn⍾ђ -k1±R T-ka T-md = ... n⍾+ -k1±K-f Ω [cpd n, lit.
“hair tuft of slave”] small erect herb sp. covered with hairs petite plante
érigée et pubescente sp. [ID: Spermacoce (= Borreria) radiata, Rubiaceae;
variant or syn: √bց 4, cf. √kny; UPWTA gives “abugur nekli” for the
grass Tragus racemosus, which my informants called √IdId]
√bցw [dialectal feminine of √b¸ 1]
t-e-b+ց+w-tA-grm[x⍾t-+-] K-d, Pl !-1-b+ց+x-enA-grm Ω [nm]
mare jument.
√b׹ [Y b+qq+-! √b׹ ‘explode’]
-ђbbuqq+-tA-grm T-ka = -+bbuqq+-tK K-d T-md [Imprt buqqђ-!
T-ka T-md, LoImpfP -!-1bђqqu-!T-ka T-md = -!-1buqq1-!
A-grm] Ω [intr] blow up, explode éclater, exploser. Caus √s-b׹ 2.
Ϫ-bђqquA-grm T-ka[x⍾ђ-] Ω [vbln of -ђbbuqq+-!]
+-bϪqquK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbbuqq+-!].
√b׹dd [<Ar (city name Baghdad)]
b+׹dϪ dK-d Ω [nm] a necklace for women made with beads and small gold
jewels, hanging down to the belly collier de femme fabriqué avec des
perles et des bijoux en or, et qui pend en bas jusqu’au ventre [syn: √tz1,
cf. √tb׹ 3].
√b׹1 1 [DTF.1 1.103 √bt1 ; N √b׹ without final J]
+-boqqϪ1A-grm K T-ka T-md, Pl 1-boqqϪJ-+nT-md Ω [nm] dust (on a
surface); dust (kicked up in air) poussière (sur une surface); poussière
(dans l’air après un mouvement) [cf. √sk 9, √b1׹ 1, √d1nd1].
√b׹1 2 [cf. KCh bobooJo].
bo׹1oT-ka Ω [nm] shiny catfish sp. silure brillant sp. [ID: Chrysicthys sp.].
√b׹1 3 [DTF 1.103 √bt1].
+-bo׹ђ 11±K-d, Pl 1-bo׹ђJJ1-!+nK-d Ω [nm] mulatto (man) métis,
mulâtre [one parent white, the other black, cf. e-Ie!ђy √tty, √t¸n 2].
t-+-bo׹ђ11±-t-tK-d, Pl !-1-bo׹ђJJ1-!-enK-d Ω [nf] mulatto
(woman) métisse.
-+bu׹+11+-tK-d [Imprt bu׹ђJJђ-!K-d, LoImpfP -!-1bu׹ђJJ1-!
K-d] Ω [intr] be a mulatto ê. métis(se).
Ϫ-bu׹ђ11±K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+bu׹+JJ+-!].
√b׹1m
bo׹1Ϫ mK-d Ω [nm] herb sp. used as spice or for medicine plante sp.
utilisée comme épice ou comme remède.
√b׹m
+-bo׹ϪmK-d T-ka, Pl 1-bo׹Ϫn-+nK-d T-ka Ω a) [nm] old, weak ram
bélier vieux et faible [T-ka] Ω b) [nm] old sheep (male or female)
vieux bélier ou vieille brebis [K-d].
t-+-bo׹Ϫm-tT-ka, Pl !-1-bo׹Ϫn-+nT-ka Ω [nf] old, weak ewe
brebis vieille et faible.
12
√b׹t [N √b׹t]
ђbbђ׹ђtIm Ω [nm] wealth, richness richesse.
t-Ϫ-b+׹ot-tK-d K-f T-ka, Pl !-1-b׹ϪIT-ka Ω a) [nf] wealth
richesse Ω b) [nf] (sb’s) lot, destiny (good or bad) sort, destin (de qn,
bon ou mauvais).
Ϫ-n+s-b+׹otIm K-d K-f T-ka, Pl 1-nђs-bђ׹ϪIIm K-f T-ka Ω [nm] rich
man; lucky one (un) riche; (un) chanceux.
√b׹w [N √b׹w, cf. DTF 1.103]
e-b+׹+wK-d T-ka, Pl 1-b+׹+x-+n T-ka = 1-bђ׹x-ϪnT-ka Ω a) [nm]
old bull vieux bœuf [T-ka] Ω b) [nm] old cow or bull vieux bœuf ou
vieille vache [K-d] Ω c) [nm] lion (euphemism) lion (euphémisme)
[K-d].
√bh [N √bh or √bhw]
bϪhuA-grm K T-ka[xbϪ...] T-md, Pl bϪhu-!+nT-md K A-grm Ω [n] lie;
falsehood (not necessarily intentional) mensonge; affirmation fausse
(non forcément voulue) [cf. √k1z 2] - phrases: +nnbϪhuT-md tell a
lie! dis un mensonge!; bϪhu-nn+kT-ka you-MaSg are lying!
tu-MaSg mens! Caus √s-bhw
+-n+s-bϪhu K K-d T-ka = Ϫ-n+s-bϪhu A-grm = Ϫ-nђs-bϪhuT-md, Pl
1-nђs-buhϪA-grm K T-ka T-md Ω [nm, Agent] liar menteur.
√bh׹ 1
e-b+h+׹ Im[x⍾+-], Pl 1-bђh׹-ϪnIm Ω [nm] valley (long depression)
beetween parallel dune ridges vallée entre deux dunes parallèles [cf.
√yt 3, √¸׹, √std 1b, √bt1].
√bh׹ 2
e-b+ h+׹ K-d Ω [nm] a Kidal-area music and dance style, performed at the end
of a soirée style de musique et danse de la zone de Kidal, joué à la fin
d’une soirée.
√bh1 1
b+h+11uT-md = b+h+11oT-ka Ω [nf] scrambling woody vine sp. plante
rampante ligneuse sp. [ID: Phyllanthus beillei, Euphorbiaceae; descriptive
syn: !-o1Ϫ+nh+JJϪ “it’s better than henna”].
√bh1 2
-ђbh+1-K-d T-ka [Imprt ђbhђJT-ka, LoImpfP -bϪhh+J-T-ka] Ω a)
[tr] take (e.g. a few peanuts) and put rapidly into mouth prendre
(quelques arachides, etc.) et les mettre rapidement dans la bouche [T-ka]
[involves snack foods, as opposed to grain eaten by fuller handfuls, or
pieces of meat] Ω b) [intr plus dative] shove, push hard pousser avec
force [K-d] Ω c) [intr plus dative] lunge at (sb) sauter vers (qn) [K-d].
Ϫ-b+hϪ1K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbh+J-].
-ђnn-ђbh+1-K-d [Imprt n-+bh+JK-d, LoImpfP -!-Ϫn-+bhϪJ-K-d]
Ω [intr, Recip] shove each other se pousser (avec force) l’un l’autre.
Ϫ-n-ђbhђ1K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђnn-ђbh+J-].
13
√bhw ### [see √bh and verb √s-bhw].
√bhw 1a [N and DTF 1.37 √bhw « couleur crème foncé »]
b+ hϪw-K-d R T-ka [Imprt 1bhϪxR T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1bhϪx-R T-ka]
Ω a) [intr] be smoky grey, ash-colored ê. gris, ê. de couleur cendre [K-d
R T] [esp. of goats and camels] Ω b) [intr] be ugly ê. vilain (laid) [R
(less common sense)].
b+hϪw-+nA-grm = b+h+ w-+nR Ω [partpl, MaSg] smoky grey gris.
±nettb+hϪw-+nT-ka T-md Ω [cpd nm, lit.“of ashy neck”]large
bustard sp. grande outarde sp. [ID: mainly Neotis denhami (no nape
crest) but sometimes also Ardeotis arabs (nape crest); cf. √s׹t, √¸ys].
b+hϪw-+tA-grm = b+h+ w-+tR Ω [partpl, FeSg] smoky grey grise.
b+hϪw-nenA-grm R Ω [partpl, Pl] smoky grey gris.
t-+bb+h+w-tK-d R T-ka, Pl !-+bb+h+x-enT-ka Ω [nf] smoky grey,
ashy color gris, couleur cendre.
Ϫ-bhϪwT-ka, Pl 1-bhϪx-+nT-ka Ω [nm] grey or ashy-colored one (un)
gris, (un) de couleur cendre.
t-Ϫ-bhϪw-tR T-ka, Pl !-1-bhϪx-enR T-ka Ω [nf] grey or ashy-colored
one (une) grise, (une) de couleur cendre [e.g. of goat; for use as botanical
term see √bhw 1c below].
√bhw 1b[perhaps a variant of √bwy and √bwn 2; cf. N √bwn]
bђh±wT-ka[xbђ...] = bђhewT-ka T-md = b±hewT-ka T-md, Pl
bђh1x-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] owl sp. hibou sp. [ID: perhaps Bubo
lacteus; cf. √¸s1, √wk 1].
√bhw 1c
t-Ϫ-bhϪw-tA-grm[x⍾t-+-] K-f T-ka T-md Ts, Pl !-1-bhϪx-en
A-grm T-ka T-md = !-ϪbhϪx-enT-md = !-1-bhϪxT-md Ω a)
[nm] herb sp. plante sp. [K T Ts] [ID: Glinus lotoides specimen
collected near river in T area (likewise “tabehawt” for this sp. in Niger
Tamajak), but can be applied locally to other herbs (Ts speaker applied to
herbs of family Compositae with yellow flowers); apparently a special use
of the color term under √bhw 1a; cf. √bdbd] Ω b) [nm] venomous snake
sp. serpent venimeux sp. [A-grm, perhaps a local euphemism].
√b¸ 1 (bց) [for feminine see √bցw ; N √bցw or √bց]
e-b+¸eIm K-d R T-ka[x⍾+-] = e-b+ցeA-grm[x⍾+-], Pl
1-b+¸+x-+nIm K-d = 1-b+ց+x-+nA-grm = 1-bђ¸x-ϪnR T-ka
Ω [nm] horse cheval [syn: √ys 2].
e-b+¸enk+1⍾t-+-neteTs Ω [cpd nf, lit. “... of forest people
(= djinns)”] dragonfly libellule.
√b¸ 2a [N √bց]
Ϫ-b+¸oA-grm K-d R T-ka, Pl 1-b¸ϪT-ka[x⍾ђ-] K-d = 1-bђ¸a A-grm
= 1-bђ¸x-ϪnR Ω a) [nm] Arab-style covering for she-camel’s udder
(prevents suckling) couverture de type arabe posée sur le pis de la
14
chamelle (empêche la tétée) [cf, √st1 1] Ω b) [nm] bra (for woman)
soutien-gorge (de femme).
√b¸ 2b
b+¸¸oR[xb+...], Pl b+¸¸o-!+nR Ω [nm] quilt, blanket couverture,
édredon [perhaps <Ful nba¸u ; cf. √zwt, √btd, √zkn].
√b¸b¸
t-Ϫ-b+¸ob+ ¸o-tR Ω [nm] low-branching shrub sp. arbuste bas sp. [ID:
Cadaba farinosa; syn: √b¸t 2, cf. √hhs].
√b¸¸ [N √bցց]
Ϫ-b+¸o¸K-d T-ka, Pl 1-b¸Ϫ¸K-d T-ka Ω a) [nm] adult ram bélier
adulte [T-ka] Ω b) [nm] castrated ram bélier castré [K-d].
√b¸n 1(bցn) [N √bցnցn with more general sense]
+-bϪ¸ђn Gnd K-d T-ka T-md Ts = +-bϪցђnA-grm Gao, Pl
1-bϪ¸ђn-ϪnK-d, 1-bu¸ϪnT-ka T-md Ts = 1-buցϪnA-grm Gao
Ω [nm] terrestrial monitor lizard varan terrestre [ID: Varanus griseus;
partial syn: √׹t 2, cf. √bw 3].
√b¸n 2
bu ¸¸enK-d Ts[xbu], Pl bu¸¸en-!+nTs Ω [nm] tiny flies near
stagnant water très petites mouches près de l’eau qui stagne.
√b¸t 1 (bցt) [N √bցt]
-ђbbђ¸+t-K-d T-ka = -ђbbђց+t-A-grm [Imprt b+¸+IT-ka, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫb+¸ϪI-K-d T-ka = -!-Ϫb+ցϪI-A-grm] Ω [tr] (mother)
reject, refuse to nourish (a child) (mère) rejeter, refuser de nourrir (un
enfant).
Ϫ-bђ¸ђtK-d T-ka = Ϫ-bђցђtA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbbђ¸+I-].
√b¸t 2
Ϫ-bu¸ђt±T-md = Ϫ-bu ¸+teK-d T-md Ts, Pl 1-bu¸ђI1-!+nT-md
= 1-bu¸+Ie-!+nT-md Ts Ω a) [nm] low-branching shrub sp.
arbuste bas sp. [ID: Cadaba farinosa, confirmed UPWTA 1.320
(“abago”); uncommon syn: √b¸b¸, cf. hhs] Ω b) [nm] zone with many
shrubs, good for hunting (gazelles) zone à arbustes, bonne pour la chasse
(gazelles).
√b¸y¸y 2
-+b¸+y¸+y-K-d [Imprt bђ¸ђy¸ђyK-d, LoImpfP -!-1b¸ђy¸1y-K-d]
Ω [intr] swell; (belly) be distended se gonfler; (ventre) ê. enflé.
Ϫ-b¸ђy¸ђyK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+b¸+y¸+y-].
√bk 1 [N √bk]
Ϫ-b+kϪA-grm K R T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md, Pl 1-b+kϪ-!+nA-grm K-f R T-ka
T-md Ω [nm] jujube (fruit) jujube [hard dry fruit with pit, sucked and
spit out, sold in markets; for maturity stages see √b1nI, √m1w 2, √k1z 1,
√syhn and cpd under √s-tm׹].
15
t-Ϫ-b+kϪ-t-tA-grm Gao Gnd K-d R T-ka T-md, Pl !-1-b+kϪ-!-en
A-grm K-d R T-md = !-1-bkϪR[x⍾t-ђ-] T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] T-md
Ω a) [nf] jujube tree jujubier [widespread] [ID: Ziziphus mauritiana,
Rhamnaceae, main source of dried jujube fruits sold in markets] Ω b) [nf]
dwarf jujube tree jujubier nain [ID: Ziziphus lotus, Rhamnaceae, the
common jujube of the high desert; this sp. given as primary referent in
Adrar by AASAI 90 but not verified by a K-f informant; cf.
!-e-sehђn-!].
t-Ϫ-b+kϪ-t-tne1uA-grm T-ka Ω [cpd nf, lit. “jujube of elephant”] a
jujube-like tree sp. arbre sp. qui ressemble au jujubier [uncommon term;
ID: perhaps Ziziphus mucronata, Rhamnaceae, mainly south of Niger R;
syn: !-+-bϪJuJ-! √b11 3].
√bk 2 [N √bk]
-ђb+k-A-grm K K-d [Imprt ђbђkA-grm K, MaPl Imprt +bk-+!K
= ђbђk-+!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-ђbbϪk-K = -ђbbϪk-K A-grm]
Ω [tr] put (dry snack) in one’s mouth with hand mettre (une friandise
sèche) dans sa bouche avec la main [often swallowed with some liquid].
e-bekK K-d A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђb+k-].
√bk 3 [homonyms √bk 4; DTF 1.47, cf. N √tbk]
-ђbbђk+-tK-d T-ka [Imprt b+k+-!A-grm T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1bђku-!
T-ka = -!-Ϫb+kϪ-!A-grm K-d R] Ω [intr] hide (from sb’s view), lie
low se cacher (de la vue de qn), se tapir [syn: see √bkm 1a].
Ϫ-bђkuA-grm K T-ka[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-bђku-!+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of
-ђbbђk+-!].
√bk 4 [homonyms √bk 3; cf. also √bkt and √bkw ; N √bk]
-ђbbђk+-tA-grm T-ka = b+kϪ-tA-grm Gao [Imprt b+k+-!T-ka,
LoImpfP -!-Ϫb+kϪ-!T-ka] Ω [intr] be spotted, have large spots; be
multicolored ê. tacheté, avoir de grandes taches; ê. bigarré [esp. goat
with brown or black spots].
b+ke-nT-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] spotted; multicolored tacheté; bigarré.
b+ke-tT-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] spotted; multicolored tachetée; bigarrée.
b+ke-tA-grm Ω [partpl, FeSg] [= b+ke-!].
b+kϪ-t-nenA-grm T-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] spotted; multicolored tachetés;
bigarrés.
t-+bb+k+-t-tK-d T-ka Ω [nf] spottedness fait d’ê. tacheté.
e-b+k±T-ka = e-b+k±A-grm[x⍾+-], Pl 1-b+k1-!+nT-ka
= e-b+k1-!+n A-grm Ω [nm] spotted one (un) tacheté.
t-e-b+k±-t-tR T-ka, Pl !-1-b+k1-!-enT-ka = !-1-b+kϪ-!-en
T-ka Ω a) [nf] spotted one (une) tachetée [R T] Ω b) [nf] spotted viper
sp. vipère tachetée sp. [R T] [ID: can apply to the horned viper Cerastes
cerastes; syn: √kttnց, cpd under √sk 1].
16
√bk 5
bokkoT-ka, Pl bokko-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] juvenile guinea-fowl pintadeau
[subdialectal term; see !-ϪyJϪJ-! √y11 1].
√bk 6 [N √bk]
-+ bok-K-d R T-ka (3MaPl +bok-+nK-d R) [Imprt 1 bϪk K-d R, LoImpfP
-!-1bϪk-R] Ω [intr plus dative] intend (to ...), be about to avoir
l’intention (de ...), ê. sur le point de - ex: x+IØ-+boke
⍾Ø-n+zz-ϪnR he has no intention of buying il n’a pas l’intention
d’acheter [with √ns 1].
t-ђbukk (or: t-ђbuk-k) R Ω [nf] intention intention.
t-+-bϪk±-t-tK-d Ω [nf] intention intention.
√bk 7
e-be k±K-d Ω [nm] night to go to the well nuit où on va au puits [at the
time of year when one goes to the well approximately every second night;
opp: √msd].
√bkbk [N √bkbk]
-ђbbђkb+k-A-grm K T-ka [Imprt b+kb+kA-grm T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫb+kbϪk-A-grm T-ka] Ω [tr] shake or dust (sth) off épousseter
(qch) [syn: √kyky 1a].
Ϫ-bђkbђkA-grm T-ka, Pl 1-bђkb1k-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of
-ђbbђkb+k-].
√bkd 1 [N √bkd, cf. Latin peccatum, Italian peccato]
-ђbbukk+d-T-ka [Imprt bukkђdT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1bђkkud-T-ka]
Ω [intr] sin, commit a sin pécher, commettre un péché.
Ϫ-bukkђdT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbbukk+d-].
Ϫ-b+kkϪdK-d T-ka Ω [nm] sin; waste péché; gaspillage.
Ϫ-n+s-b+kkϪdT-ka, Pl 1-n+s-b+kkϪd-+nT-ka Ω [nm] sinner
pécheur.
√bkd 2 [variant of √bkt]
bђkђd Gao Ω [nf] nightjar (bird) engoulevent (oiseau) [ID: all local spp.,
the common one being Caprimulgus eximius (golden color)].
√bk1 1
Ϫ-bђkke1A-grm K T-ka T-md, Pl 1-bђkkeJ-+nA-grm T-ka T-md
= 1-bђkkϪJ K Ω [nm] young billygoat (about 5-7 months old) jeune
bouc (vers l’âge de 5-7 mois).
t-Ϫ-bђkke1-tT-ka T-md, Pl !-1-bђkkeJ-enT-ka T-md Ω [nf] young
nanny-goat (about 5-7 months old) jeune chèvre (femelle, vers l’âge de
5-7 mois).
√bk1 2 [DTF 1.52 √bk1, cf. N √bk1 with different sense]
+-bokϪ1K-d T-ka, Pl 1-bokϪJ-+nT-ka Ω a) [nm] bottom of foot, sole
plante du pied Ω b) [nm] large, ugly, flat foot grand pied laid et plat.
17
√bkm 1a [N √bkm]
-+bk+mm+-tA-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt bђkђnnђ-!A-grm T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1bkђnn1-!K-d T-ka = -!-1bђkђnn1-!A-grm] Ω [intr] (sb,
animal) crouch low (e.g. to avoid being detected), lie low (qn, animal)
s’accroupir (par ex. pour ne pas ê. vu) [syn (‘lie low’): √bk 3, √bky,
√1׹s 1a, √btm, √d׹t 1b, √tnk1 ; ‘hide, conceal’: √It 2, √n¸t 1,
√tw1 2, √s-t1k, √stt 1; ‘keep secret’: √stt 2].
Ϫ-bkђmm±K-d T-ka = Ϫ-bђkђmm± A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of
-+bk+nn+-!¸.
Ϫ-b+k+mmϪ A-grm Ω [nm, Agent] one who hides qn qui se cache [see also
under √bkm 1b].
√bkm 1b [see also under √bkm 1a; Y Ϫ-b+k+nnϪ ‘thicket, small forest’]
Ϫ-b+k+mmϪT-ka T-md, Pl 1-b+k+nnϪ-!+nT-ka Ω a) [nm] dense low
thorny scrub zone dense d’arbustes épineux Ω b) [nm] tree sp. with
large thorns arbre sp. à longues épines [said to be used east of T as a
descriptive alternative to +-sϪnnϪ √sn 4 (Maytenus senegalensis)] Ω c)
[nm] thorny scrambling shrub arbuste épineux [R] [local syn of busu
Capparis sepiaria var. fischeri] Ω d) [nm] low rise or mound in earth
petite butte de terre [resembles a crouching person].
√bkmbk [cf. √bkmk, √btmbk ; N √bknbk]
-+bk+mb+k+-tT-ka [Imprt bђkђnbђkђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1bkђnbђk1-!T-ka] Ω a) [intr] cover oneself up (to sleep) se
couvrir complètement (pour dormir) [T-ka] [cf. √btm 3, √ցm 2, √kbnkb,
√tbtb 2] Ω b) [intr] be well-covered ê. bien couvert [K-d].
Ϫ-bkђmbђk±K-d T-ka = Ϫ-bђkђmbђk±A-grm, Pl 1-bkђnbђk1-!+n
T-ka Ω a) [nm, vbln of -+bk+nb+k+-!] Ω b) [nm] hide-and-seek
jeu de cache-cache.
√bkn [Y !-ђ-bђkkun-! = !-ђ-bsђkkun-! ‘heap’]
-ђbk+n-T-ka [Imprt ђbkђnT-ka, LoImpfP -bϪkk+n-T-ka] Ω [intr] be
stacked up ê. entassé. Caus √s-bkn.
-ђbbђk+n-K-d [Imprt b+k+nK-d, LoImpfP -!-1bђkun-K-d] Ω [intr]
[=-ђbk+n-].
t-Ϫ-bђkun-tA-grm K R T-ka, Pl !-1-bђkun-enR = !-1-bkun-en
T-ka = !-1-bђkkϪn K = !-1-bukϪn K Ω [nf] heap (of sand, grain,
etc.) grand tas (de sable, de céréales, etc.)
t-Ϫ-bђ kkun-tK-d Ω [nf] [= !-Ϫ-bђkun-!].
√bkt 1 [N √bkt]
bukϪtIm K R = bukϪt A-grm[xbu...] Ω [nm] black indigo-dyed fabric
tissu noir (percale teintée à l’indigo) [syn: √kn 5].
18
√bkt 2 [cf. √ktwt, √ktt ; N √bkt]
e-b+k+tA-grm K T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-bђkI-ϪnA-grm K T-ka Ω [nm]
young adult ram jeune bélier adulte [after about 6 months, cf. √ktwt].
t-e-b+k+t-tA-grm, Pl !-1-bђkI-enA-grm Ω [nf] ewe brebis [after
about 6 months].
√bktt 1 [Y ђ-bђkoIϪI ‘bird sp.’, DTF 1.53 √bktt (small bird with crest)]
t-+-b+kotϪt-tT-ka[x⍾t-+-], Pl !-1-b+koIϪI-enT-ka Ω [nf] lark
sp. alouette sp. [small bird, simple nest on ground underϪ-1+zo grass
or the like].
√bktt 2
[Pl only:] ±-b+kot+t-+nK-d Ω [nmpl] a Tuareg clan (near Gao) fraction
tourègue (près de Gao).
√bkts [perhaps a variant of √bktt]
t-+-b+kotϪs-tTs, Pl !-1-b+koIϪs-enTs Ω [nf] dark bird sp. with
small white spots oiseau noirâtre sp. à petites taches blanches.
√bkt [see variant √bkd 2; perhaps related to √bk 4 ‘spotted’; N “bђkђt” √bk]
bђkђtA-grm[xbђ...] Gnd K-d R[xbђ...] T-ka[xbђ...] T-md Ts[xbђ...] ,
Pl bђkђ!-+nA-grm R T-ka T-md Ts =bђkђ!-enT-ka Ω [nf]
nightjar (bird) engoulevent (oiseau) [ID: all local spp., the common one
being Caprimulgus eximius (golden color)].
bђkђte-dђsT-md Ω [cpd nf] [= bђkђ!].
√bkw [variant of √bk 4 ‘be spotted’]
t-+bb+k+w-t Ω [nf] spottedness fait d’ê. tacheté.
√bkwkw [N √bkwkw]
-+bk+wk+w-K K-d T-ka = -b+k+wk+w- A-grm[Imprt bђkђxkђx A-grm
T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1bkђxk1x- R T-ka = -!-1bђkђxk1x- A-grm]
Ω [intr] (sb) to have flabby skin (after losing weight); (e.g. mangoes on
tree) sag, hang down (qn) devenir flasque, avoir la peau ridée (après
avoir perdu du poids); (mangues dans l’arbre, etc.) pendre. Caus
√s-bkwkw.
Ϫ-bkђwkђw (or: ...ku)R T-ka = Ϫ-bђkђwkђwA-grm = Ϫ-bkђwkϪw
T-ka, Pl 1-bkђxk1x-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+bk+xk+x-].
t-e-b+k+wk+w-tA-grm K-d R T-ka[x⍾t-+-] T-md, Pl
!-1-b+k+xk+x-enA-grm T-md Ω [nf] multicolored decorative
tassels (fringe of tent or saddle) frange décorative multicolore (de tente
ou de selle) [cf. ђ-zzђm± √zmy]. Cf. verb √s-bkwkw.
√bky [cf. √bkm 1a, √bk 3]
-+bk+yy+-tT-ka [Imprt bђkђyyђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1bkђyy1-!
T-ka] Ω [intr] crouch, lie low s’accrouppir, se blottir en
s’accrouppissant [syn: see √bkm 1a].
Ϫ-bkђyy±T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+bk+yy+-!].
19
√b1 1 [cf. the ending of the frozen KS cpd saaJunbeJe, compare KCh
saaJ1yawithout this ending]
bϪ11ϪGnd Ω [nm] fish sp. poisson sp. [ID: Citharinus distichoides; syn:
√sty 2].
√b1 2
t-+-bϪ11eT-ka, Pl !-1-bϪJJ1x-enT-ka Ω [nf] rabbit’s excrement
pellet crotte de lièvre [children play with the pellets].
√b1 3 [variant of √tb1 ; <Fr table, perhaps alongside Ar √tb1]
t-Ϫb+1 A-grm[xt-Ϫ...] = t-Ϫbђ1 K-d, Pl !-Ϫb+J-en A-grm
= !-ϪbђJ-en K-d Ω [nm] table; pedlar’s portable selling stand (in
street) table; table d’un vendeur (dans la rue).
√b1 4 [N √b1]
e-be1ϪT-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-beJϪ-!+nT-ka = 1-beJ-ϪnT-ka Ω [nm]
torch flambeau [cf. √mm1 2].
√b1 5 [variant of √µ1 ; <Fr]
b±1T-ka, Pl b1J-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] battery (for radio etc.) pile [syn:
√hn 4].
√b1bd [N √b1bd]
Ϫ-b+1bodA-grm K[x⍾+-] K-d T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-bђJbϪdA-grm K-d
T-ka Ω [nm] cloth bag (for tea, sugar, etc.) sac en tissu (pour le thé, le
sucre, etc.)
t-Ϫ-b+1bot-tA-grm T-ka, Pl !-1-bђJbϪdA-grm T-ka Ω [nf] small
Ϫ-nxϪI (leather grain sack) petit Ϫ-nxϪI (sac en peau pour les
céréales) [cf. √nwt].
√b1b1 1 [N √b1b1]
Ϫ-bђ1bђ1A-grm K K-d T-ka[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-bђJbђJ-+nT-ka Ω a) [nm]
large earthenware water jug grand canari à eau en terre cuite [T] [syn:
√hb 2, cf. √׹ss 1a, √1kn] Ω b) [nm] small round earthenware jug (for
oil or butter, or to hold milk overnight for children as alms) petit canari
rond en terre cuite (pour l’huile ou le beurre, ou pour garder le lait du soir
au matin pour le donner aux enfants comme aumône) [A-grm K K-d].
Ϫ-bђ1bђ1nђ1m+׹tuIK-d earthenware jug for alms canari pour les
aumônes.
√b1b1 2 [N √b1b1]
e-be 1be1Gnd K-d R T-ka T-md = +-be1be1A-grm Gao Ts, Pl
1-beJbeJ-+nA-grm Gao R T-ka T-md Ts = 1-beJbϪJA-grm
Ω [nm] cattle egret; egret or heron (any sp.) garde-bœufs (aigrette sp.);
aigrette ou héron (de toute espèce) [ID in specific sense: Ardeola ibis] -
phrase: Ø-oJϪhd⍾+-beJbeJ!-ђ-nђJJeK-d it’s as white as an
egret il est blanc comme une aigrette [√m11 1].
20
e-be1be1w-Ϫn⍾t-Ø-sђmbϪdT-md Ω [cpd nm, lit. “... of tails”]
sacred ibis ibis sacré [uncommon term; ID: Threskiornis aethiopica,
mostly white except black head and neck].
√b1b1 3 [regional word]
bu1Ϫbu1ϪA-grm R Ω [nm] blue dye (from indigo) colorant bleu (d’indigo)
[cf. √ցt 4; √sn 5, √1ms 2].
√b1b1n 1
bђ1bu 1+nK-f Ω [nm] herb sp. plante sp. [ID: Cistanche phelypaea,
Orobanchaceae; syn: √kyt].
√b1b1n 2
b+1bu 1+nK-d Ω [nm] large, pretty, late-model Toyota grand et beau
Toyota de fabrication récente.
√b1d 1 [see variant √b1׹ 2; cf. perhaps <Ar √b1t]
t-Ϫ-bђ11ut-t (or: ...1ot-t)A-grm Im R T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] T-md, Pl
!-1-bђJJud-enA-grm Im T-ka T-md Ω [nf] buttock fesse [R
speaker gave this Sg, but a Pl from √b1׹ 2; syn: √t׹s 1].
√b1d 2 [N √b1d]
bϪ1±dK-d T-ka[xbϪ...], Pl bϪJ1d-+nT-ka Ω [nm] odd one out, one left
over objet impair, unité en surplus, qch qui est exclu.
√b1dwy [Y bђJђdxђy, Y vbln e-bJђdxђy, cf. DTF 1.59 « ê. élégant ...»]
-+b1+dw+y-A-grm K-d T-ka = -b+1+dw+y-A-grm [Imprt bђJђdxђy
T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1bJђdx1y-T-ka = -!-1bђJђdx1y-A-grm]
Ω [intr] fall to the side; toss and turn (like a person with fever); shift
constantly in position, be unstable tomber de côté; s’agiter, se tourner et
se retourner (comme une personne fiévreuse); changer constamment de
position, ê. instable.
Ϫ-b1ђdwђy (or: ...w±)K-d T-ka = Ϫ-bђ1ђdwђyA-grm = Ϫ-b1ђdwϪy
T-ka, Pl 1-bJђdxϪy-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+bJ+dx+y-].
-+m-b+1+dw+y-T-ka [Imprt n-ђbђJђdxђyT-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1n-bђJђdx1y-T-ka] Ω [intr] fall over (onto each other)
tomber de côté (l’un sur l’autre). Caus √s-n-b1dwy.
Ϫ-m-bђ1ђdwϪyT-ka = Ϫ-m-bђ1ђdwђy (or: ...w±)A-grm, Pl
1-n-bђJђdxϪy-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+n-b+J+dx+y-].
√b1׹ 1
+-bϪ1+qqA-grm K R Ω [nm] dust (kicked up in air) poussière (dans l’air
après un mouvement) [cf. √b׹1 1, √sk 9, √d1nd1].
√b1׹ 2 [variant of √b1d 1]
t-Ϫ-bђ11uq-q (or: ...1oq-q)K R, Pl !-1-bђJJu׹-enK R Ω [nf]
buttock fesse [syn: √t׹s 1].
√b1׹ 3 [N √b1׹]
Ϫ-b1ђ׹K-d T-ka[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-bJђ׹-+nK-d T-ka Ω [nf] brick brique.
21
√b1׹1׹ [DTF 1.678 √b1t1t]
Ϫ-b+1+׹1+׹Gao Ω [nm] type of dark, soft, inedible acacia gum sorte de
gomme (résine) molle, non comestible, de couleur foncée, des acacia [cf.
√bt¸ 4, √hn-btց].
√b1׹n [N √b1׹n]
e-b+1+qq+nR T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-b+J+qq+n-+nR T-ka Ω [nm] fruit of
+-¸ϪII tree fruit de l’arbre +-¸ϪII [ID: Maerua crassifolia,
Capparaceae].
√b1h
bђ11uh-T-ka = b+11uh-K-d R [Imprt 1bJϪhT-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1bJϪh-T-ka] Ω [intr] (animal) be tame, docile (easy for children
to approach), easy to mount or lead (animal) ê. apprivoisé, domestiqué
(de sorte que les enfants peuvent s’en approcher), qui se laisse monter ou
conduire facilement [cf. √nn 2, √kId]. Caus √s-b1h.
bђ11uh-+nA-grm T-ka = b+11u h-+nK-d Ω [partpl, MaSg] tame,
docile apprivoisé.
bђ11uh-+tT-ka = b+11u h-+tK-d Ω [partpl, FeSg] tame, docile
apprivoisée [see example under √kbt 1].
b+11uh-+tTs Ω [partpl, FeSg] tame, docile apprivoisée [see example
under √kbt 1].
bђ11uh-nenA-grm T-ka = b+11uh-nenK-d Ω [partpl, Pl] tame, docile
apprivoisés.
t-ђ-b1ђheK-d T-ka Ω [nf, vbln of bђJJuh-].
t-Ϫ-bђ11uh-tA-grm Ω [nf] tameness fait d’ê. apprivoisé.
√b1hd [variant of √b1ht]
+-b±1h+ttK-d, Pl 1-b1Jh+d-+nK-d Ω [nm] eyelid paupière.
√b1ht [see variants √b1hw, √b1hd, and cf. √b1ws ; N √b1d ; DTF 1.69; EPPB
83]
ђ-b±1h+ttT-ka = +-b± 1h+t t R = Ϫ-bђ1hђttA-grm, Pl
1-b1Jh+!!-+nR T-ka = 1-bђJhђ!!-ϪnA-grm Ω [nm] eyelid
paupière.
√b1hw [variant of √b1ht]
+-b± 1h+wK, Pl 1-b1Jh+x-+nK Ω [nm] eyelid paupière.
√b1¸(b1ց) [cf. N √b1ց and DTF 1.59 √b1ց « partager ...»]
-ђb1+¸-K-d T-ka T-md = -ђb1+ց-A-grm [Imprt ђbJђ¸T-ka T-md,
LoImpfP -bϪJJ+¸-T-ka T-md] Ω a) [tr] cut up (carcass) in long
slices; cut (carcass) with chopping motion découper (viande) en
tranches; couper (viande, en frappant comme avec une hache) [main sense;
syn: see √nkd 1a] Ω b) [tr] cross (road) traverser (chemin) [T-ka].
Ϫ-b+1Ϫ¸T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md = Ϫ-b+1ϪցA-grm Ω [nm, vbln] act of
crossing fait de traverser.
22
√b1¸b1¸ [Y bђJђsbђJђs ‘cut into pieces’, Y bђJђzbђJђz ‘splatter (e.g.
mud)’]
-+b1+¸b+1+¸-K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt bђJђ¸bђJђ¸T-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-!-1bJђ¸bђJ1¸-T-ka T-md] Ω [tr] cut up (sth alive or wet, e.g.
meat); cut up into many long slices découper (chose vivante ou humide,
par ex. la viande); découper en plusieurs tranches.
Ϫ-b1ђ¸bђ1ђ¸K-d T-ka[x⍾+-] Ω [vbln of -+bJ+¸b+J+¸-].
√b1k [N √b1k and √b1ky]
Ϫ -b+1k+yK-d[x+-], Pl 1-b+Jk+y-+nK-d Ω [nm] soft inner flesh (e.g.
of melon); soft bread (inside crust) chair intérieure tendre (de melon,
etc.); mie de pain.
√b11 1 [cf. √b11׹ ; N √b11]
Ϫ-b1Ϫ1T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-bJϪJ-+nT-ka Ω [nm] ball, lump boule.
t-Ϫ-b1Ϫ1-tA-grm Im[x⍾t-+-] K K-d T-ka, Pl !-1-bJϪJ-enA-grm
Im[x⍾t-ђ-] T-ka Ω a) [nf] grain (of millet sand, etc.); ball (any small
spherical object)) graine (de mil, de sable, etc.); boule, boulette [cf.
√ktty, √ktkt 3a, √mtw] Ω b) [nf] pill (medicine) comprimé
(médicament) [syn: √m׹wn].
t-Ϫ-b1Ϫ1-tђnt-ettT-ka, Pl !-1-bJϪJ-enђn!-e!!Ϫx-en
T-ka Ω [cpd nf, lit. “ball of eye”] iris (of eye) iris (de l’œil) [√t 8].
√b11 2 [see variant √b1n 2; N √b11]
-ђbbђ1+1-Gao R T-ka [Imprt b+J+JT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫb+JϪJ-A-grm
T-ka] Ω [intr] (sb) be spoiled, well-treated (qn) ê. choyé, bien traité.
Caus √s-b11.
e-n-+bb+1+1K-d R T-ka = e-n-+b+1+1A-grm, Pl 1-n+bb+J+J-+n
T-ka = 1-n-ђbbђJϪJR = 1-n-ђbђJϪJA-grm Ω [nm] sb (male)
who is well taken care of, favored son qn (mâle) qui est bien traité, fils
choyé.
t-e-n-+bb+1+1-tT-ka = t-e-n-+b+1+1-tA-grm, Pl
!-1-n-+bb+J+J-enT-ka = !-1-n-ђbђJϪJA-grm Ω [nf]
[= e-n-+bb+J+J, female].
√b11 3
+-bϪ1u1K-d T-ka, Pl 1-buJϪJT-ka Ω b) [nm] (any) tall tree (tout)
grand arbre.
t-+-bϪ1u1-t A-grm R, Pl !-1-buJϪJ A-grm R Ω a) [nm] jujube-like tree
sp. arbre sp. qui ressemble au jujubier [ID: perhaps Ziziphus mucronata,
Rhamnaceae; syn: !-Ϫ-b+kϪ-!-!n⍾eJu √bk 1, cf.
!-e-sehђn-!] Ω b) [nm] (any) shrub (tout) arbuste [Dimin].
√b11ց [N √b11ց « duodénum, ... caillette »]
+b1e1ђցGao Ω [nm] colon, big intestin côlon, grand intestin [informant’s
gloss given here, but the N glosses denote the connection from colon to
23
small intestin (duodenum), and the fourth “stomach” (abomasum) of
ruminant animals; cf. ђbbϪnϪdϪn-+n √dn 1 ‘colon’, √1my ‘colon].
√b11׹ [cf. √b11 1; N √b11׹]
t-Ϫ-b1u1+q-qA-grm K K-d R[x⍾t-ђ-] T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] T-md, Pl
!-1-bJuJ+׹-enK R T-md = !-1-bJuJϪ׹A-grm T-ka T-md
Ω [nf] lump, ball; eyeball boule, boulette; globe oculaire.
t-+-b+1Ϫ1Ϫq-qK-d T-ka T-md, Pl !-1-b+JϪJϪ׹-en T-ka T-md Ω [nf]
ball; eyeball boule; globe oculaire.
-+b1Ϫ1+׹-A-grm T-ka [Imprt bђJuJђ׹A-grm T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1bJuJu׹-K T-ka = -!-1bJuJ1׹-A-grm] Ω [intr] be ball-
shaped, spherical; have one’s eyes bulging, gape ê. en forme de boule
(sphérique); avoir les yeux écarquillés. Caus √s-b11׹.
Ϫ-b1u1ђ׹A-grm T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+bJϪJ+׹-].
√b11׹s
bђ11u1+qqϪsT-ka = bђ11u1+׹ϪsT-ka, Pl bђJJuJ+qqϪs-+nT-ka
= bђJJuJ+׹Ϫs-+nT-ka Ω [nm] fruit of +-1ϪI+qqbush fruit du
buisson +-1ϪI+qq [ID: Chrozophora brocchiana, √It׹ 3].
√b1mb1 [Y bђJђnbuJђ-! ‘(giraffe, camel) roll on ground’, cf. Songhay
b1J1nb1J1n]
-+b1+mbϪ1+-tK-d T-ka K R = -b+1+mbϪ1+-tA-grm [Imprt
bђJђnbuJђ-!A-grm K R T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1bJђnbuJu-!R T-ka
= -!-1bJђnbuJ1-!A-grm] Ω [intr] (cylinder, e.g. gas drum) roll on
ground; (sleeper) roll over; (donkey) roll on its back on the ground
(cylindre, par ex. fût) se rouler par terre; (personne endormie) se rouler;
(âne) se rouler par terre sur le dos [cf. √׹ttd, √׹t֊׹t, √¸1nk]. Caus
√s-b1mb1.
Ϫ-b1ђmbu1uK-d T-ka = Ϫ-b1ђmbu1±K, Pl 1-bJђnbuJu-!+nT-ka
Ω [nm, vbln of -+bJ+nbϪJ+-!].
√b1mbt׹ [appears to end in semi-segmentable -bot+׹, cf. √bt׹]
b+11+mbot+׹T-ka = bђ11ђmbot+׹A-grm T-md, Pl b+JJ+nboI+׹-+n
T-ka = bђJJђnboI+׹-+nA-grm T-md Ω [nm] half-ripe, barely edible
fruit (esp. of wild date) fruit mi-mûr, à peine comestible (surtout de
dattier sauvage) [cf. √bt׹ 1, √b1nI, √b1n׹].
√b1n 1 [N √b1n]
-ђbbђ11+n-A-grm T-ka T-md [Imprt b+JJ+nA-grm T-ka T-md,
LoImpfP -!-Ϫb+JJϪn-A-grm T-ka T-md] Ω [intr] wrestle (each
other), tussle lutter (ensemble, corps à corps), en venir aux mains [cf.
√z1 4, √zbb] - ex: ђbbђJJ+n-+׹-\dђI-ђsT-ka I wrestled with him
j’ai lutté (à mains nues) avec lui.
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t-ђbb±11+n-tT-ka = t-+bb±11+n-tA-grm Im K-d R T-md, Pl
!-ђbb1JJ+n-enT-ka = !-+bb1JJ+n-enA-grm R
= !-1-bђJJϪnA-grm Ω [nf] wrestling lutte (à main nue).
√b1n 2 [variant of √b11 2]
e-n-+bb+1+nIm, Pl 1-n+bb+J+n-+nT-ka Ω [nm] sb (male) who is
well taken care of, favored son qn (mâle) qui est bien traité, fils choyé.
√b1nI
Ϫ-bo 1+nIϪK-f, Pl 1-boJ+n1-ϪnK-f Ω [nm] unripe wild date datte
sauvage verte (non mûre) [cf. √bt׹ 1, also √b1mbt׹, √b1n׹].
bђ11ђnIϪ R, Pl bђJJђn1Ϫ-!+nR Ω [nm] unripe jujube fruit jujube
verte (non mûre) [cf. √bk 1].
√b1nց [<Songhay (and regional) buJa֊ցa]
b+1+֊ցϪT-ka T-md = bu1+֊ցϪA-grm K, Pl b+J+֊ցϪ-!+nT-ka
= buJ+֊ցϪ-!+nA-grm Ω [nm] shea-butter (for cooking) beurre de
karité [ID: made from fruits of karité, a tree of southern Mali (Vitellaria
paradoxa), butter sold in northern towns].
√b1n׹ [see variant √bn׹1, also √b1mbt׹, √b1nI, √b1n׹; cf. N √1n׹]
+-bo1+֊׹A-grm K-d T-md, Pl 1-boJ+֊׹-+nA-grm T-md Ω a) [nm]
inedible, unripe wild date datte sauvage crue, non comestible [K-d
T-md] [syn: √bn׹1 ; cf. basic term √bt׹ 1] Ω b) [nm] very large and
fleshy date or wild date datte (importée ou sauvage) très grosse et très
charnue [A-grm].
√b1n¸d [DTF 1.65 (Reseda)]
Ϫ-bђ1ђn¸+dTs, Pl 1-bђJђn¸+d-+nTs Ω [nm] plant sp. plante sp. [not
seen by informant; this term given FS 208 for Reseda villosa, Resedaceae,
and this sp. is recorded (rarely) for northern Mali].
√b1nsd
Ϫ-b1ђ ns +d K-d Ω [nm] sb who is nonchalant and gawky qn qui est
nonchalant et un peu gauche [i.e. who does not have the bearing or gait of a
respectable adult]
√b1s 1 [regional term (e.g. Hausa, Songhay)]
b+1+sϪA-grm Gao Gnd K T-ka Ω [nm] medicinal herb sp. plante
médicinale sp. [often sold in markets as crushed leaves; ID: variously
applied to Commelina forskalaei, Commelinaceae, or to certain herbs of
the family Aizoaceae including Limeum diffusum (at Th) and Limeum
pterocarpa; RPRG gives a cpd “balasa-n-ejef,” i.e. ‘balasa of the dune’ for
L. pterocarpa; cf. √myttt].
√b1s 2 [<Ar √Бb1s, ultimately Greek d1aboJos]
±b1±sT-ka[x±b1±s] A-grm K, Pl 1bJ1s-+nT-ka Ω [nm] devil, Satan
diable, Satan [cf. √sytn].
25
√b1s 3
t-+-bo11Ϫs-tK-f, Pl !-1-boJJϪs-enK-f Ω [nf] bush sp. buisson sp.
[unidentified, said to occur near hills in Adrar, not good for grazing
animals].
√b1s 4 [N √b1s « botte de céréales; gerbe »]
t-+-bo1Ϫs-tIm K-d, Pl !-1-boJϪs-enIm K-d Ω a) [nm] millet stalk
tige de mil [Im] Ω b) [nm] millet ear épi de mil [K-d].
√b1t ### [see √b1d].
√b1w [cf. perhaps N √b1w]
e-b+1+wGao T-ka[x⍾+-] T-mdTs, Pl 1-b+J+x-+nT-ka T-md
Ω [nm] succulent plant sp. plante succulente sp. [said to be edible and
more slender than √tybt ; ID: Caralluma spp., including the edible C.
mouretii (not listed for Mali in CPVM but known in Mauritania), perhaps
also the marginally edible C. dalzielii and the toxic C. decaisneana; see
UPWTA 1.223-24 for background; DHF 1.174 has Berber-like “ebey1e”
for C. dalzielii and C. edulis (= C. mouretii) in Mauritanian Hassaniya, and
the same term “abila, aboïla, abuaïla” is recorded UPWTA 1.223 for C.
decaisneana and C. mouretii].
t-e-b+1+w-tK-d T-md Ts, Pl !-1-b+J+x-enT-md Ts Ω a) [nf] button
bouton (de vêtement) [K-d] [syn: √1k 1] Ω b) [nf] grass sp.
graminée sp. [K-d T] [ID: Aristida stipoides, bits of stem sucked by
children; UPWTA 2.185 gives Tam “telolud” for this sp. but confirms the
sucking by children].
√b1w1w [N √b1w1w]
-+b1+w1+w-K K-d T-ka = -b+1+w1+w-A-grm [Imprt bђJђxJђxT-ka,
LoImpfP-!-1bJђxJ1x-T-ka] Ω [intr] (e.g. cooked rice) be (too)
watery or soggy (like porridge) (riz cuit etc.) ê. (trop) liquide (comme de
la bouillie). Caus √s-b1w1w.
Ϫ-b1ђw1ϪwT-ka = Ϫ-bђ1ђw1ђw (or: ...1u)A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of
-+bJ+xJ+x-].
√b1ws [cf. √b1ht and variants]
+-b± 1w+sK-d Ω [nm] swollen eyelid paupière gonflée.
√b1wt
Ϫ-b+1w+ttϪT-ka = Ϫ-b+1w+tϪT-md, Pl 1-b+Jx+!!Ϫ-!+nT-ka
= 1-b+Jx+!Ϫ-nT-md Ω [nm] coucal (bird) coucal (oiseau) [ID:
perhaps Centropus senegalensis, not seen, described as a noisy bird in
bushes].
√b1wz ### [see √z-b1wz]
√b1y1y [cf. √d1y1y ; Y bђJђyJђy ‘dangle (uselessly)’]
e-b+1+y1+yK-d T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md, Pl 1-b+J+yJ+y-+nT-md Ω [nm]
(big) penis; donkey’s penis (grand) pénis; pénis de l’âne [syn: see
√zmby].
26
√bmbt [regional, probably directly <Fr]
Ϫ-b+mb+tϪA-grm T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md, Pl 1-b+nb+IϪ-!+nT-ka T-md
= 1-b+nb+I-ϪnA-grm K Ω [nm] Bambara (man) (homme)
bambara.
t-Ϫ-b+mb+tϪ-t-tT-ka, Pl !-1-b+nb+IϪ-!-enT-ka Ω [nf] Bambara
(woman); Bambara (= Bamana) language (femme) bambara; langue
bambara (= bamana).
√bmby [N √bnby]
-ђbbumb+y-A-grm T-ka = -+bbumb+y-K-d [Imprt bunbђyA-grm K
T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1bђnbuy-R T-ka = -!-1bunb1y-A-grm]
Ω [intr] lie down flat on one’s belly, lie face down se coucher à plat
ventre, se coucher face contre terre [cf. √skt 3]. Caus √s-bmby.
Ϫ-bumbђy (or: ...b±)A-grm K-d T-ka[x⍾ђ-] T-md = Ϫ-bumbϪyT-ka
Ω [nm, vbln] lying face down; putting or holding upside-down fait de se
coucher sur le ventre; fait de mettre ou de tenir à l’envers (sens dessus
dessous) [opp: √s-skt] - poss: 1Sg Ϫ-bunb1-n1n A-grm T-ka.
√bn 1 [N √bn]
e-benA-grm K K-d T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md, Pl 1-ben-+nA-grm K T-md
Ω a) [nm] tobacco pipe pipe à tabac [the usual sense; the local type has a
thin metal barrel] Ω b) [nm] earthenware bowl for indigo poterie à
indigo [T] - phrase: +¸-\ed+׹⍾+-benT-ka put it-MaSg in the
bowl! (= dye it)! mets-le dans l’écuelle! (= colore-le!).
t-e-ben-tA-grm K-d T-ka[x⍾t-+-], Pl !-1-ben-enA-grm T-ka[x
⍾t-ђ-] Ω [nf] earthenware bowl used for tanning hides poterie dans
laquelle on tanne les peaux.
√bn 2 [for nouns see √1bn ; <Ar √bny]
-ђ bnϪ-K-d R T-ka [Imprt ђbnuR T-ka, LoImpfP -b1nnu-R T-ka] Ω a)
[tr] (sb) establish oneself (in a place); begin construction on, do the
groundwork for (a building); begin developing (a business); become
successful (in business) (qn) s’établir (dans un lieu); commencer à
construire, faire le travail de base pour (une structure); commencer à
développer (une entreprise); avoir du succès (dans une entreprise) [K-d T]
Ω b) [tr] (God) create (sth) (Dieu) créer (qch) [R] [syn: √x1k] Ω c)
[intr] be created (by God) ê. créé (par Dieu) [R].
e-b+nn±K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbnϪ-].
t-Ϫ-bђ nnϪw-tR T-ka Ω [nf] development; creation développement;
création.
√bnbk [cf. N √bnbk and √bnbn]
-+bnϪb+k-T-ka [Imprt bђnubђkT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1bnubuk-T-ka]
Ω [tr] conceal (a secret) cacher (un secret) [cf. √stt 1, √stt 2].
Ϫ-bnubђkT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+bnϪb+k-].
27
√bnd [<Fr]
+-bϪnd±A-grm K T-ka, Pl 1-bϪnd1-!+nT-ka = 1-bђndϪ A-grm
Ω [nm] bandit bandit [cf. √ns-¸I].
√bn׹ [for feminine see √bn׹w ; for sense (a) cf. Songhay ba֊ցu].
e-b+֊׹A-grm[x⍾+-] Im K K-d T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md, Pl 1-b+֊׹-Ϫn
A-grm Im K T-md Ω a) [nm] floodplain, seasonal pond; plain, flat area
(seasonally inundated or not) mare; plaine, terrain plat (inondé ou non
pendant la crue) [the usual sense; cf. √׹st, √׹zt, √hn-s-skt, √׹t1b]
Ω b) [nm] eyebrow socket (bones) arcade sourcilière (os) [K-d] [the only
sense given DTF 1.76].
√bn׹1 [variant of √b1n׹, cf. √b1mbt׹, √b1nI, √b1n׹]
e-b+֊׹+1T-ka, Pl 1-b+֊׹+J-+nT-ka Ω [nm] very unripe wild date fruit
datte sauvage (fruit) peu mûre [ID: cf. basic term √bt׹].
√bn׹w [for masculine see √bn׹ ; cf. Songhay ba֊ցu ]
t-e-b+֊׹+w-tA-grm K-d T-ka T-md, Pl !-1-b+֊׹+x-enA-grm T-ka
T-md Ω [nf] small flat area; seasonally inundated area, floodplain
petite plaine; mare, zone inondée pendant la crue.
√bn¸(bnց) [N √bnց]
e-be nnϪ¸K-d T-ka[x⍾+-] = e-bennϪցA-grm Ω [nm] cloud cover,
overcast sky; fog ciel couvert, couverture de nuages; brouillard [cf.
√h׹st, √¸tk].
be nnϪ¸R[xbe...] Ω [nm] [= e-bennϪ¸].
√bn¸t
t-+-bϪn¸et-tT-ka = t-+-bϪn¸+t-tTs, Pl !-1-bun¸ϪIT-ka
= !-1-bϪn¸+I-enTs Ω [nf] shrub sp. arbuste sp. [occurs in the
Gourma, said to resemble the jujube tree √bk 1].
√bnkt [N √bnkt]
Ϫ-b+ ֊kotK-d T-ka, Pl 1-bђ֊kϪIT-ka Ω [nm] old well (used seasonally,
re-dug each year) vieux puits (utilisé pendant une saison, recreusé
chaque année).
√bnn 1 [see variant √mbnn ; N √bnn ; DTF 1.75; MGT 7.193]
b+nnϪnA-grm K T-ka T-md Ω [adv] freely; for nothing, in vain pour rien,
gratuitement; inutilement, en vain [for cpd see under √s¸tt].
Ϫb+nnϪnT-ka = Ϫb+nnϪnT-md Ω [adv] a little (time or amount) un peu
(de temps, ou de quantité) - ex: ђqqђJ-\Ϫ-h1Ϫ-b+nnϪnT-ka wait
for me a little while attends-moi unpetit peu.
t-+-bϪnn±n-tT-ka, Pl !-1-bϪnn1n-enT-ka Ω [nf] speaking of or
taking (sth) lightly, trivialization fait de ne pas prendre (qch) au sérieux
[for verb see √s-bnn].
√bnn 2
b±n±n±T-ka Ω [nm] climbing vine sp. liane sp. [local term; ID: Cocculus
pendulus, occurs in wet spots in desert thorn scrub in association with wild
date √bt׹ 1and acacias; girls make necklaces from pods].
28
√b֊n
Ϫ-bђ֊֊ђnT-ka[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-bђ֊֊ђn-+nT-ka Ω [nm] thick patch of
burrgrass abondance de cram-cram.
t-Ϫ-bђ֊֊ђn-tA-grm K-d R T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] Ts, Pl !-1-bђ֊֊ђn-enR
T-ka Ts Ω a) [nf] [= Ϫ-bђ֊֊ђn] Ω b) [nf] burrgrass cram-cram
(graminée) [ID Cenchrus biflorus, a major pasture grass; syn: √wz¸].
√b֊sb [<Songhay cpd ba֊asubu “hippo-grass”]
b+֊ϪsubuT-ka = b+֊֊Ϫs±buTs, Pl b+֊֊Ϫs1bu-!+nTs Ω [nm]
aquatic grass sp. graminée aquatique sp. [syn: √bthIy ; ID: may
include Paspalidium geminatum (UPWTA “baugassongau”)]
√bnt1 [regional, <Fr or Eng]
bunt+1T-ka[xbu...] = bont+1T-md = buntђ1R = butђ1A-grm K[x
bu...], Pl bun!+J-+nT-ka = bon!+J-+nT-md = bun!ђJ-+nR
= bu!ђJ-+nA-grm K Ω [nm] bottle bouteille.
√bnw ### [for !-+-bђnnϪx-! see √bn 2]
√bnw 1 [perhaps historically related to √bnw 2; DTF 1.76]
t-Ϫ-b+ n+w-tGao K K-ad T-md = t-Ϫ-b+ nϪw-tGnd A-grm R
= t-e-b+n+w-tT-ka, Pl !-1-b+n+x-enK-f T-ka T-md
= !-1-b+nϪx-enA-grm R Ω [nf] grass sp. graminée sp. [ID:
Pennisetum pedicellatum, botanically close to cultivated millet but a much
shorter plant].
√bnw 2 [DTF 1.76 « bleu bluet » (of women who use indigo facial makeup)]
b+nϪw-T-ka = -ђbbђn+w-T-ka [Imprt b+n+xT-ka, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫb+nϪx-T-ka] Ω [intr] be dark brown (chocolate color) ê. brun
foncé (de couleur chocolat) [used chiefly of goats; other brownish shades:
√bzw, √dt 5, √dm, √Iw 3, √׹w1 2]. Caus √s-bnw.
b+n+w-+nT-ka = b+ n+w-+nK Ω [partpl, MaSg] dark brown brun
foncé.
b+n+w-+tT-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] dark brown brun foncé.
b+nϪw-nenA-grm T-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] dark brown brun foncé.
t-+bb+nn+w-tR T-ka = t-ђbbђnn+w-tA-grm, Pl !-+bb+nn+x-en
T-ka Ω [nf] dark brown color (goat, camel, cow) couleur brun foncé
(chèvre, chameau, vache).
Ϫ-bnϪwA-grm[x⍾+-] T-ka, Pl 1-bnϪx-+nT-ka Ω [nm] dark brown
animal (male) animal (mâle) brun foncé.
t-Ϫ-bnϪw-tT-ka, Pl !-1-bnϪx-enT-ka Ω [nf] dark brown animal
(female) animal (femelle) brun foncé.
√bnwnw [Y bђnђxnђx ‘have poor vision’]
-+bn+wn+w-A-grm T-ka [Imprt bђnђxnђxA-grm T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1bnђxn1x-T-ka = -!-1bђnђxn1x-A-grm] Ω a) [intr] (e.g.
flashlight) be dim, give off only a weak illumination (torche etc.) ê.
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faible, émettre une lumière faible [T] Ω b) intr] lurch, lose one’s balance
tituber, perdre son équilibre [A-grm].
Ϫ-bnђwnђw (or: ...nu) A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -+bn+xn+x-].
√bt ### [for +-boI1see √bty ; for 1-beIђx-+n see √btw].
√bt 1a [cf. √bt¸, √btd 2, √bt׹ 3; N √bt, √bt׹]
+-bϪtϪA-grm R T-ka T-md, Pl 1-bϪIϪ-nA-grm R T-ka T-md Ω [nm]
road, path chemin [used mainly in T] [cf. √zb 3].
t-Ϫ bϪt-+tK-f K-d T-ka[xt-Ϫ...] = t-Ϫbet-+tA-grm[xt-Ϫ...], Pl
!-1-bϪI-+!-enT-ka = !-Ϫb+I-Ϫ!-enK-f = !-ϪbeI-Ϫ!-en
A-grm Ω [nf] road, path chemin [esp. A-grm, K] - phrase:
x+I-\hϪ-kցe-׹!-ϪbeI-+!d+׹⍾!-ϪbϪA-grm I don’t
encourage you-MaSg in (= to use) tobacco je ne te conseille pas le tabac
[cf. √׹ 3].
√bt 1b [see variants √btt 2 and √t 9; DTF 1.96 √btn]
ebteT-ka = bte K = b+te Gao = ±beteK-d Ω [nm, functioning as prep]
toward vers - exx: ebIen⍾!-+-sϪJ¸eT-ka to the left, toward the
left side à gauche, vers le côté gauche - 1beIen⍾+-¸ussK-d
toward the south vers le sud - 1beIe-n+n+׹K-d toward us vers
nous.
sebteT-ka T-md Ω [cpd prep (with possessed noun)] toward (se
dirigeant) vers [variants √btt 2, √t 9] - ex: sebIen⍾+-¸ussT-ka
toward the south, southward vers le sud.
√bt 2 [N and DTF 1.84 √bt]
+-botϪA-grm Im K K-f K-d Ts, Pl 1-boIϪ-!+n Ts, Pl 1-boI-ϪnIm K-d
Ω [nm] sorghum (grain staple) sorgho, gros mil [ID: Sorghum bicolor;
syn: √sb 4; other grain staple: √n1 1].
√bt 3 [N √bt]
-ob+t-A-grm K T-ka [Imprt ϪbђIA-grm K T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1bђI-K
T-ka = -!-Ϫb+I-A-grm] Ω [tr] grab a large handful of (sth) prendre
une grande poignée de (qch) [cf. √kwt 1].
±bbutA-grm T-ka, Pl 1bbuI-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ob+I-].
ϪbbϪtA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ob+I-].
t-±btϪA-grm[xt-±...] K-d R T-ka, !-1bIϪx-enR T-ka Ω [nf, vbln
of -ob+I-].
t-e bbet-tK-d Ω [nf] large handful grande poignée.
√bt 4
t-Ϫ-bђttu-t-tR[x⍾t-ђ-] T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] T-md = t-Ϫ-b+ttu-t-t
A-grm[x⍾t-+-] K-d, Pl !-1-bђIIu-!-enT-ka T-md Ω [nf]
sandgrouse sp. ganga sp. (perdrix) [ID: Pterocles spp., for some speakers
specifically P. quadricinctus; cf. √ցdd (and variant √kd)].
30
√bt 5 [<dialectal KCh booIu]
boto Gnd Ω [nm] catfish sp. silure sp. [Gnd (known to river people)] [ID:
Clarotes laticeps].
√bt 6 [widespread regional word]
butuA-grm[xbu...] R T-ka[xbu...], Pl buIu-!+nK R T-ka Ω [nm or
nf] long French bread, baguette baguette (pain) [occasional feminine
concord perhaps under the influence of !-Ϫ-¸ђJJϪ √¸1 3] - ex (with
FeSg concord): buIun+qqoI-+!T-ka large baguette grande
baguette.
√bt 7 [cf. N √bt]
-ђbbuttϪ-T-ka [Imprt buIIT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1bђIIu-T-ka] Ω [tr]
reject or disavow (parent, child); hate (sb) rejeter ou désavouer (un
parent, un fils, une fille); détester (qn).
Ϫ-buttT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbbuIIϪ-].
√btb1 [cf. perhaps Songhay (KS) buJbuJ ‘bubbles’]
b+tbu11eT-ka T-md Ts, Pl b+IbuJJe-!+nT-ka Ts Ω [nm] mushroom,
tree fungus champignon de terre ou d’arbre [ID: includes Cistandra
phelipaea].
√btbt 1 [N √btbt]
-ђbbђtb+t-A-grm T-ka T-md[Imprt b+Ib+IA-grm T-ka T-md,
LoImpfP -!-Ϫb+IbϪI-A-grm T-ka T-md] Ω [intr] go out sortir
[most common around K; syn: √z¸t 2]. Instr nominal √s-btbt.
Ϫ-bђtbђtT-ka[x⍾ђ-] A-grm Ω [vbln of -ђbbђIb+I-].
√btbt 2 [Y e-bђIIђbђI ‘half-grown guinea-fowl, etc.’]
Ϫ-bђttђbђtT-ka[x⍾ђ-] = Ϫ-bђttђbђttK-d T-md = Ϫ-b+tt+b+tt
R[x⍾+-], Pl 1-bђIIђbђI-+nT-ka = 1-bђIIђbђII-+nK-d T-md
= 1-b+II+b+II-+nR Ω a) [nm] half-grown chicken or bird,
fledgeling oiseau ou poulet à mi-croissance, oiselet [all dialects] [cf.
Ϫ-kђI! √ktt 1, √swt 2, √1mxsy] Ω b) [nm] infant (learning to walk)
jeune enfant (qui apprend à marcher) [K-d].
t-Ϫ-bђttђbђt-tT-ka T-md, Pl !-1-bђIIђbђI-enT-ka Ω [nf]
[female Ϫ-bђIIђbђII].
√btby
Ϫ-b+tboyT-ka Ω a) [nm] sweet, edible sedge nut « pois sucré » (tubercule
de cypéracée) [ID: tubers of Cyperus esculentus, Cyperaceae; grown in
southern Mali and sold in north as a snack] Ω b) bunch petit tas.
t-Ϫ-b+tboy-tT-ka Ω [nf] small bunch petit tas.
√btd 1 [N √btd, DTF 1.86]
t-+-bϪtde A-grm K-d T-ka, Pl !-1-bϪId1x-enA-grm K-d T-ka Ω a)
[nf] traditional quilt (patched together) couverture piquée [the usual
sense; syn: √zkn, cf. √zwt, √b¸ 2b] Ω b) [nf] light tent (patched
31
together from rags, for hot season) tente légère (à base de chiffons, pour
la saison chaude) [K] [cf. √hkt 1a].
√btd 2 [variant of √bt¸, cf. √bt 1a; DTF 1.86, EPPB 128]
Ϫ-b+t±d Ω [nm] road, path chemin [northern dialects].
Ϫ-n+s-b+t±dA-grm Im, Pl 1-nђs-bђIϪdIm Ω [nm] guide guide.
√btd [perhaps related to √btt 2; N √btd, DTF 1.86-87]
-ђbbђt+d -R T-ka [Imprt b+I+dR T-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫb+IϪd-R T-ka]
Ω [intr] (man) be brave and handsome (homme) ê. brave et beau [said of
a good-looking, resolute, and serious man who does many things well].
Ϫ-bђtϪd (or: Ϫ-b+tϪd) K-d T-ka, Pl 1-b+IϪd-+nK-d Ω a) [nm, vbln
of -ђbbђI+d-] [T-ka] Ω b) [nm] brave and dashing man (un) brave
[K-d].
Ϫ-n+s-b+ tϪd R Ω [nm] man who does everything well homme qui fait
tout bien.
ђbbђtђd K-d T-ka Ω [nm] being brave and dashing, bravura fait d'ê.
brave et beau, bravoure.
√btdw1 [DTF 1.87/102 (variant of √btzw1)]
e-b+td+we1T-ka Ts, Pl 1-b+Id+xeJ-+nT-ka Ts Ω [nm] young hare
jeune lièvre.
√btI 1 [homonyms √btI 2; Y bђIђ11ђ-! ‘cave in, (e.g. wall) crumble’]
-+bt+II+-tK K-d T-ka = -b+t+II+-t A-grm [Imprt bђIђ11ђ-!
A-grm T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1bIђ111-!T-ka = -!-1bђIђ111-!
A-grm] Ω a) [intr] (tent, horse) collapse; (well) cave in (tente, cheval)
tomber, s’écrouler; (puits) s’effondrer [cf. √btm, √btz, √btzzw, √nd 3]
Ω b) [tr] pound (grain, into fine powder) piler (des grains) en poudre fine
[A-grm] [cf. √bt׹] Ω c) [tr] puncture, pop (balloon) faire éclater
(ballon) en le piquant [K-d].
Ϫ-btђII±T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+bI+11+-!].
√btI 2 [recent, deliberate neologism < Fr bref; homonyms √btI 1]
-b+t+II+-t A-grm [Imprt bђIђ11ђ-!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-1bђIђ111-!
A-grm] Ω [tr] put the micron accent on (vowel a) mettre l’accent bref
sur (voyelle a) [in the government-approved orthography].
√btI֊ (btIn) [local dialect word, equated by informants with dialectal KS
b1I11na]
bђtIђ ֊֊ϪGos = bђtIђnnϪA-grm, Pl bђI1ђ֊֊Ϫ-!+nGos
= bђI1ђnnϪ-!enA-grm Ω [nm] plant sp. plante sp. [unidentified; I
recorded baI11nna for Senna obtusifolia in Foulan Kiryabé Songhay
north of Hombori].
√btց ### [see √bt¸].
√btցn [regional word, <Fr barrique, barriquaut].
b+tցѐܚT-ka = b+tցo nR T-md = b+tցoK A-grm = b+tցoK-d[x
b+...], Pl b+Iցѐn-!+nT-ka = b+Iցon-!+nR T-md = b+Iցo-!+n
32
K = b+Iցo-!+nA-grm Ω [nm] 200-liter gas drum (empty metal barrel,
rolled on the ground to transport water) fût à pétrole de 200 litres
(tonneau vide en métal, qu’on roule à terre pour transporter l’eau) [cf.
√Iyd, √nց1yt, √1bty].
t-+-b+tցon-tT-ka, Pl !-1-b+Iցon-enT-ka Ω [nf] small gas drum
petit fût.
√btցndy [<Songhay (KS baI1¸enda, DjCh baI1ցandey)]
b+t±ց+nd+yGnd Ω [nm] sardine sp. sardine sp. [Gnd (known to river)]
[ID: Brycinus (= Alestes) macrolepidotus; cf. √sI 2 (and √nsI)].
√bt׹ 1 [N √bt׹]
t-+-bo tϪq-qGao Gnd K T-ka T-md, Pl !-1-boIϪ׹-enK T-ka T-md
Ω [nf] wild date tree dattier sauvage [ID: Balanites aegyptiaca, very
common in thorn scrub, unrelated to palms].
+-botϪ׹T-ka T-md, Pl 1-boIϪ׹-+nT-ka T-md Gao Ω [nm] wild date,
fruit of !-+-boIϪq-q tree datte sauvage, fruit de l’arbre
!-+-boIϪq-q [fleshy part of fruit is edible; ripeness stages √b1mbt׹,
√b֊׹1 or √b1֊׹, √b1nI ; ‘pit’ √tn׹ or √btn׹] - cpd: see under
√hyn 2.
√bt׹ 2 [N √bt׹]
-+bt+qq+-tT-ka K K-d = -b+t+qq+-tA-grm [Imprt bђIђqqђ-!T-ka,
LoImpfP -!-1bIђqq1-!T-ka] Ω a) [tr] pound (grain) into flour in
mortar piler (les céréales) en farine dans un mortier [widespread]
[denotes the final pounding, not the earlier ones where chaff and bran are
removed from the grains; cf. √dh 2] Ω b) [tr] dent, deform (by ramming)
déformer (en cognant) [K K-d].
Ϫ-btђqq±A-grm K-d T-ka[x⍾ђ-].
√bt׹ 3 [N √bt׹, DTF 1.98 (rectangular white wool garment)]
Ϫ -bto׹K-d T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-bIo׹-+nT-ka Ω [nm] old-fashioned
decorated blanket couverture décorée de type traditionnel [often placed
on haunch of camel].
√bt׹ 4 [N √bt׹, DTF 1.97]
Ϫ-b+t+qqϪT-ka, 1-b+I+qqϪ-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] path chemin [for more
common terms see √bt¸]
√bt׹s [see also variant √nbt׹s ; N √bt׹s, cf. DTF 1.99 √btttt]
-+bt+qq+s-K-d = -b+t+qq+s-A-grm [Imprt bђIђqqђsA-grm,
LoImpfP -!-1bђIђqq1s-A-grm] Ω [intr] make a clanging sound
(metal on metal) produire un son métallique (métal contre métal).
Ϫ-btђqqђsK-d = Ϫ-bђtђqqђsA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -+bI+qq+s-].
√bt׹w
e-b+ t׹+wK-f Ω [nm] herb sp. plante sp. [plant said to occur around hills in
Adrar].
33
√bthIy [perhaps <KS cpd baI1ha1e ‘horse penis’]
bϪt±h+I+yT-ka Ω [n] aquatic grass sp. graminée aquatique sp. [rare
word] [said to be a syn of b+֊Ϫsubu √b֊sb].
√bt¸ 1 [variant √btd 2, cf. √bt 1a; cf. N √dtz]
Ϫ-b+t±¸K = Ϫ-bђt±¸T-ka[x⍾ђ-] T-md, Pl 1-bђI¸-ϪnT-ka T-md
= 1-bIϪ¸T-ka[x⍾ђ-] Ω [n] road, path, way chemin, voie [replaces
Ϫ-b+I1d in eastern dialects; cf. √zb 3, √bt׹ 3].
Ϫ-nђs-bђt±¸T-ka, Pl 1-nђs-bђI1¸-+nT-ka = 1-nђs-bђIϪ¸T-ka
Ω [nm] guide guide.
√bt¸ 2 (btց) [N √btց]
-ђbbђt+¸-T-ka T-md = -ђbbђt+ց- A-grm [Imprt b+I+¸T-md, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫb+IϪ¸-T-ka T-md = -!-Ϫb+IϪց- A-grm] Ω [intr] be
arrogant, boastful ê. arrogant, vantard.
e-n-+bb+t+¸T-ka Ω [nm, Agent] boastful person personne qui se
vante.
Ϫ-bђtђ¸R[x⍾ђ-] = Ϫ-bђtϪ¸ (or: Ϫ-b+tϪ¸)K T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md
= Ϫ-bђtϪցA-grm, Pl 1-bђ IϪ¸-+nR T-ka Ω [nm, vbln] arrogance,
boastfulness vantardise, arrogance.
Ϫ-n+s-b+tϪ¸K-d R T-ka = Ϫ-n+s-b+tϪց A-grm, Pl 1-n+s-b+IϪ¸-+n
= 1-n+s-b+IϪց-+n A-grm Ω a) [nm] boastful or vain person
vantard, (un) vaniteux [all dialects] Ω b) [nm] reliable and helpful
person (who keeps promises) personne sérieuse et serviable (qui tient ses
promesses) [K-d].
√bt¸ 3(btց) [regional word, e.g. Songhay buIցu, local Fr bourgou; N
√btց]
bђ t¸uR T-ka[xbђ...] T-md Ts[xbђ...] = bђtցuA-grm, Pl bђI¸u-!+n
R T-ka T-md Ts Ω [nm] bourgou grass bourgou (graminée) [ID:
Echinochloa stagnina, a grass of deep water, good animal fodder and
source of a sweet beverage and a syrup; see √knd 1, √wtmn, √kt 4].
√bt¸ 4 [cf. √hn-btց ; DTF 1.89]
Ϫ-btђ¸Gao, Pl 1-bђI¸-ϪnGao Ω [nm] dark edible gum from certain
acacias gomme (résine) comestible de couleur foncée de certains acacias
[cf. √b1׹1׹, √hn-btց].
√bt¸¸y(btցցy) [N √btցցy]
-ђbbђ t¸+¸¸+y-K-d T-ka = -b+tց+ցց+y-A-grm [Imprt b+I¸+¸¸+y
T-ka = bђIցђցցђyA-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫb+I¸+¸¸Ϫy- T-ka
= -!-1bђIցђցց1y-A-grm] Ω [intr] (hair) stand on end; (sb) be
startled (and jump up), jump up (to standing position); (drying clay) rise
above ground level (cheveux) se dresser; (qn) sursauter (et se mettre
debout), sauter pour se mettre debout; (argile en train de sécher) se lever
au-dessus du niveau du sol. Caus √s-bt¸¸y.
34
Ϫ-bђt¸ђ¸¸ђy (or: ...¸±)T-ka = Ϫ-bђtցђցցђyA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of
-ђbbђI¸+¸¸+y-].
√bt¸1 [DTF 1.89 √btց1]
-ђbbђt¸+1-T-ka [b+I¸+JT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫb+I¸ϪJ-T-ka] Ω [intr]
be bowlegged avoir les jambes arquées.
t-+bb+t¸+1-tT-ka Ω [nf] bowleggedness fait d’avoir les jambes
arquées.
√bt¸n [N √btցn and √btkn, DTF 1.89 √btցn « tente en poil »]
e-b+ t¸+nK-d T-ka, 1-b+I¸+n-+nT-ka Ω a) [nm] thatch hut case
couverte de paillasson [T-ka] Ω b) [nm] slave’s tent; old, worn-out tent
tente d’esclave; vieille tente usée [K-d] [pejorative].
√bt¸w1 1a(btցw1) [N √btցw1, DTF 3.1487]
-+bt+¸w+1-K-d T-ka = -b+t+ցw+1- A-grm [Imprt bђIђ¸xђJT-ka
= bђIђցxђJ A-grm, LoImpfP -!-1bIђ¸x1J-T-ka
= -!-1bIђցx1J-K] Ω [intr] be backward; be inside-out; (sb) be
unpredictable, be of changeable nature ê. renversé; ê. à l’envers; (qn) ê.
de nature instable, ê. de nature changeante. Caus √s-bt¸w1.
Ϫ-btђ¸wђ1K-d = Ϫ-bђtђցwђ1A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -+bI+¸x+J-].
√bt¸w1 1b
+-b+tϪ¸w±1R T-ka T-md, Pl 1-b+IϪ¸x1J-+nT-ka Ω [nm] cross-winds;
cool SW wind (at beginning of wet season when prevailing wind shifts)
vent de travers; vent frais du sud-ouest (au début de la saison des pluies
quand le vent tourne].
t-+-b+tϪ¸w±1-tT-ka, Pl !-1-b+IϪ¸x1J-enT-ka Ω [nf]
[= +-b+IϪ¸x1J].
√btk 1 [N √btk]
Ϫ-btђkK-d T-ka, Pl 1-bIђk-ϪnT-ka Ω [nm] throng, vast number
multitude, grande foule.
√btk 2 [<Ar √btk ; N √btk]
-ђbbђtt+k-T-ka [Imprt b+II+kT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫb+IIϪk-T-ka]
Ω a) [intr] make a pilgrimage (to a shrine or a holy man) faire un
pèlerinage (à un lieu saint ou chez un marabout) Ω b) [tr] treat (visitor)
hospitably accueillir (un étranger) avec hospitalité.
Ϫ-bђttђkT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbbђII+k-].
-+bbutt+k-K-d [Imprt buIIђkK-d, LoImpfP -!1bђIIuk-K-d]
Ω [intr] make a pilgrimage (to a shrine or a holy man) faire un
pélerinage (à un lieu saint ou à un marabout).
Ϫ-buttђkK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+bbuII+k-].
√btkn [N √btk]
Ϫ-b+t+kkϪnK-f, Pl 1-b+I+kkϪn-+nK-f Ω [nm] large tamarix sp. (tree)
grande Tamarix sp. (arbre) [ID: Tamarix aphylla, Tamaricaceae;
confirmed AASAI 87 and PT 1.77 (“tabarekkat”); cf. √zw 4].
35
t-Ϫ-b+t+kkϪn-tK-d Ω [nf] tree sp. arbre sp. [probably the same as
Ϫ-b+I+kkϪn].
√btks
-ђbbђtk+s-K-d [Imprt b+Ik+sK-d, LoImpfP -!-Ϫb+IkϪs-K-d]
Ω [intr] (women) run palms of hand over moistened flour to form small
lumps (for couscous) (femmes) frotter de la farine humide dans la paume
de la main pour faire des boulettes (de couscous) [cf. √m1s, √1ksks
(√sksk)].
Ϫ-bђtkђs K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbbђIk+s-].
√btkt [DTF 1.95; Y Ϫ-b+Iko! ‘old sheep- or goatskin’]
Ϫ-b+tkotA-grm[x⍾+-] R T-ka T-md, Pl 1-bђIkϪ!A-grm R T-ka T-md
Ω [nm] stomach (organ) estomac, panse - phrase: !-ђJϪϪ-b+Iko!
T-ka she has a belly (= is expecting) elle a un ventre (= est enceinte)
[euphemism].
t-Ϫ-b+tkot-tT-ka T-md, Pl !-1-bђIkϪ!T-ka T-md Ω [nf] stomach
estomac.
√btkw [N √btkw]
e-b+ tk+wR, Pl 1-b+Ik+x-+nR Ω [nm] calf veau.
√btky
botk±yϪT-ka Ω [nm] hooded vulture charognard sp. [ID: Neophron
(= Necrosyrtes) monachus; sp. and word rare, known mainly in the
Gourma; cf. √׹1¸, √¸dt 1].
√bt1
±bt±1T-ka[x±...] A-grm[x±...] Ω [nm] April avril.
√btm 1a [Y !-Ϫ-b+Ion-! ‘grass sp.’]
Ϫ-b+tomA-grm Gnd K-d R T-ka[x⍾+-] Ts = Ϫ-bђtomT-md, Pl 1-bIϪn
R A-grm[x⍾ђ-] T-ka T-md Ω [nm] tall clumpy grass sp. of floodplains
graminée haute cespiteuse qui pousse dans les mares [ID: Vetiveria
nigritana, slender but has tough culms used in wicker-like thatching (cf
!-+-s-Ϫ!1-!-! √s-ty); applied in Burkina to another tall grass,
Andropogon gayanus (TNEBF 303)].
√btm 1b
±n⍾+-b+tomT-ka K-d = ±n⍾+-b+tumGao, Pl ђdd1n
⍾+-b+IunGao Ω a) [nm] wild dog chien sauvage, lycaon [in full
form interpretable as ‘of Vetiveria grass’; apparently a local expression;
ID: Lycaon pictus] Ω b) [nm] swampy area with Vetiveria grass zone
marécageuse où pousse le Vetiveria [K-d].
Ϫ-b+tumGao Ω [nm] [= ±n⍾+-b+tum].
√btm 2 [N √btm, DTF 1.95 (Andropogon laniger, cf. √btm 1a)]
t-e-b+tem-tA-grm Gao Gnd Gos K-f R T-ka[x⍾t-+-] T-md Ts, Pl
!-1-b+Ien-enT-md Ts = !-1-bIϪnGosK-f R T-ka
36
= !-1-bђIϪnA-grm Ω [nf] lemon-grass (citronella) sp. citronnelle
sp. (graminée) [ID: Cymbopogon schoenanthus].
√btm 3 [Y bђIђnnђ-! ‘(sth heavy) fall, collapse’]
-+bt+mm+-tK-d T-ka = b+t+mm+-tA-grm [Imprt bђIђnnђ-!T-ka,
LoImpfP -!-1bIђnn1-!T-ka] Ω a) [intr] (tent, horse) collapse; (well)
cave in (tente, cheval) tomber, s’écrouler; (puits) s’effondrer
[widespread sense; also √btI, √btz, √btzzw, √nd 3] Ω b) [intr] cover
oneself well (to sleep) bien se couvrir (pour dormir) [A-grm] [syn
√bkmbk] Ω c) [intr] crouch (out of sight), lurk se blottir [K-d] [cf.
√1׹s 1a, √bk 3, √bky, √bkm 1a].
Ϫ-btђmm±K-d T-ka = Ϫ-bђtђmm±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of
-+bI+nn+-!].
√btmbk [cf. √bkmbk]
-+bt+mbϪk+-tA-grm K-d R = -b+t+mbϪk+-tA-grm [Imprt
bђIђnbukђ-!A-grm K-d R, LoImpfP -!-1bIђnbuku-!R
= -!-1bђIђnbuk1-!A-grm] Ω [intr] (sb) cover oneself (with
blanket) (qn) se couvrir (avec une couverture) [cf. √ցm 2, √s-kmbs].
Ϫ-btђmbukuR = Ϫ-bђtђmbuk±A-grm K-d Ω [nm, vbln of
-+bI+nbϪk+-!].
√btn ### [for ebIen (= b+Ien) ‘toward’ see √bt 1]
√btn¸y [see variants √Itnցy and √Itn¸y ; perhaps N √btnցw]
-+bt+n¸Ϫy+-tR T-ka [Imprt bђIђn¸uyђ-!R T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1bIђn¸uyu-!R T-ka] Ω [intr] jump to one’s feet, rise (to
standing position) abruptly; get up and leave abruptly se lever d’un
bond; se lever et sortir brusquement.
Ϫ-btђn¸uyuR T-ka, Pl 1-bIђn¸uyu-!+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of
-+bI+n¸Ϫy+-!].
√btt 1 [N √btt]
-ђbt+t-A-grm K-d T-ka [Reslt -ђbIϪI-K-d, Imprt ђbIђIT-ka,
LoImpfP -bϪII+I-T-ka] Ω a) [intr] be ruined, malfunction; (sb,
animal) be of no use ê. gâté, ne pas marcher; (qn, animal) ê. inutile [T]
[cf. √׹sd] Ω b) [intr] (sb) be weak (qn) ê. faible [A-grm K-d]. Caus
√s-btt.
±-btϪ t-+nK-d T-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] ruined, no good; weak gâté,
inutile; faible.
Ϫ-b+tϪtR Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbI+I-].
ubtϪtA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbI+I-].
Ϫ-btut (or: Ϫ-btot)A-grm R[xђ-] Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbI+I-].
Ϫ-b+ttϪT-ka[x⍾+-] Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbI+I-].
ђbbђttђtK-d Ω [nm] weakness faiblesse.
37
√btt 2 [N √btt]
b+tϪtA-grm[xb+...], Pl b+IϪI-+nA-grm Ω [nm] boy garçon [syn:
Ϫ-JyϪd √1yd].
t-Ϫ-b+tϪt-tA-grm, Pl !-1-b+IϪI-enA-grm Ω [nf] girl fille [syn:
!-Ϫ-JyϪ!-!].
√bts׹ ### [see √bts׹]
√bts 1
Ϫ-b+t+ssϪK-d T-ka, Pl 1-b+I+ssϪ-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] anvil enclume.
√bts 2
Ϫ b+t+s K-d T-ka[xϪ...], Pl Ϫb+I+s-+nT-ka Ω [nm] first milk premier
lait [milk from female animal who has given birth in the last 10 days or so;
cf. √d׹s].
√btsd
ђ-bots+dT-ka = +-bots+dA-grm K-d, Pl 1-boIs+d-+nA-grm T-ka
Ω [nm] protruding navel nombril protubérant [cf. !-ђ-bu!u-!-!
√bt 3].
√bts׹ (bts׹) [N √bts׹]
b+ts+׹T-md = b+ tse׹K-d R T-ka = b+tseqqA-grm Ω [adverbial
particle (with following phrase)] a fortiori, not to mention... à plus forte
raison....
√bts¸ [DTF 1.91 √bthց]
e-b+ts+¸K-d, Pl 1-b+Is+¸-+nK-d Ω [nm] old, worn-out tent vieille
tente [cf. √hkt 1a, √hkm]
√btsts [Y bђJђzJђz ‘(sleeve etc.) be long’]
-+bt+st+s-T-ka [Imprt bђIђsIђsT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1bIђsI1s-
T-ka] Ω [intr] (garment) have long sleeves or legs, be long (cover one’s
hands or feet) (vêtement) avoir de longues manches, ê. long (couvrir les
bras ou les pieds) [cf. √nII 2]. Caus √s-btsts.
Ϫ-btђstϪsT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+bI+sI+s-].
√btt 1
bu tutuGnd Ω [nm] sparrow sp. moineau sp. [ID: probably includes Passer
griseus, cf. √kbt 1, √xndbt].
√btt 2 [variant of sebIe √bt 1b]
s⍾+-btetA-grm Ω [cpd prep (with possessed noun)] toward (se
dirigeant) vers.
√bttk [N √bttk]
e-b+ tt+kK-d R, Pl 1-b+I!+k-+nR Ω [nm] whip fouet [originally
made with thin strips of hide; now usually with copper wires].
√btw
[Pl only:] ±-betђw-+nGao Ω [nm] roasted fonio grains (cooked in milk,
then eaten) fonio grillé (cuit dans le lait, puis mangé).
38
√bt-w׹s [cf. √w׹s]
bet-w+qqϪsT-ka, Pl beI-x+qqϪs-+nT-ka Ω [nm] wild beast of prey
(lion, hyena, etc.) animal prédateur (lion, hyène, etc.)
√bty(bt) [N √bty]
+-bot±A-grm Im K-d T-ka T-md, Pl 1-boIђy-+n (or: 1-boIy-+n)
A-grm Im K-d R T-ka T-md Ω [nm] stick bâton [general word; cf.
√ktt 3, √1w׹] - poss: 1Sg +-boI1-n1nT-ka.
t-+-bot±-t-tK-d, Pl !-1-boIђy-enK-d Ω [nf] little stick petit
bâton.
√btyd [for verb see √s-btyd ; cf. perhaps N √btyd]
t-e-betyϪt-tK-d R[x⍾t-+-] T-ka, Pl !-1-beIyϪd-enR T-ka
Ω [nf] a mocking gesture with the lips moue des lèvres (moquerie).
√btz [N √btz, DTF 4.1608 √btz]
-+bt+zz+-tK-d T-ka = -b+t+zz+-t A-grm [Imprt bђIђzzђ-!T-ka,
LoImpfP -!-1bIђzz1-!T-ka = -!-1bђIђzz1-!A-grm] Ω a)
[intr] (tent, horse) collapse; (well) cave in (tente, cheval) tomber,
s’écrouler; (puits) s’effondrer [T] [cf. √btI 1, √btm 3, √nd 3] Ω b) [intr]
(e.g. parts of ceiling) start to fall off (parties du plafond, etc.) commencer
à tomber, s’effriter [A-grm K-d] [cf. √btzzw] Ω c) [intr] (waterskin)
have a small leak in one spot (outre) avoir une petite fuite [K-d].
Ϫ-btђzz±K-d T-ka = Ϫ-bђtђzz± A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of
-+bI+zz+-!].
√btzzw [cf. √׹tzzw, √btz]
-ђbbђ tz+zz+w-K-d [Imprt bђIzђzzђxK-d, LoImpfP
-!-1bђIzђzz1x-K-d] Ω a) [intr] (sb) fall or be thrown down through
a roof or floor (as a structure collapses) (qn) tomber ou passer à travers
le toit ou le sol (lorsqu’une structure s’effondre) [usually with Centripetal
-\ђdd] Ω b) [intr] (building, wall) collapse in stages, crumble; (ceiling)
crumble, start to fall in bits (maison, mur) s’effondrer par étapes,
s’ébouler; (plafond) s’écrouler, commencer à tomber en petits morceaux
[cf. ]√btI 1, √btm 3, √btz, √nd 3] Ω c) [intr] (stuffing) dribble out
(from cushion liner) (rembourrage) commencer à sortir (d’un coussin).
Caus √z-btzzw.
Ϫ-bђtzђzzђwK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbbђIz+zz+x-].
√b-s ### [for clause-initial b-\Ϫ-s see √b 2 ‘be lost’]
√bs 1 [<Fr pièce]
be s ϪR T-ka[xbe...] K-d T-md = besϪA-grm, Pl besϪ-!+nK-d T-ka
T-md = besϪ-!+nA-grm Ω [nm] set of six women’s wraps (unit of
sale) pièce de six pagnes de femme (unité de vente) [’wrap’:
!-Ϫ-s-ђ¸bђs-! √s-¸bs, √׹I 3].
39
√bs 2 [N √bs, √bs, and √Is]
-ђbsϪ-A-grm K-d T-ka T-md[Imprt +bsA-grm T-ka T-md, FePl Imprt
ђbsђ-n+!K-d, LoImpfP -bϪss-A-grm K-d T-ka T-md] Ω [intr]
vomit vomir - ex: x+InϪdØ-+bs A-grm he will not vomit il ne
vomira pas. Caus √s-bs.
e-b+ss±K-d = e-bђss±T-md Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbsϪ-].
[Pl only:] ebs-ϪnA-grm K-d T-ka[xe...] T-md Ω [nm] vomit
vomissement
√bs 3 [perhaps DTF 1.363 “taIs±t”]
t-Ϫ-bs±-t-t (or: t-Ϫbs±-t-t) A-grm[x⍾t-+-] K-f R[x⍾t-ђ-]
T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-], Pl !-1-bs1-!-en K-f = !-Ϫbs1-!-enA-grm
Ω [nf] globular yellow flower of acacia tree fleur jaune sphérique
d’acacia [ID: especially !-+-nϪ!! √mt 3 Acacia ehrenbergiana, but may
also apply to other acacias with this type of flower].
√bs 4
t-e-bes-tT-ka[x⍾t-+-] Ω [nf] dust (in air) poussière (dans l’air)
[syn: √zyt, √hz 2].
√bs 5 [N √bs]
-ђb+s-T-ka[Imprt ђbђsT-ka, LoImpfP -!-ђbbϪs-T-ka = -ђbbϪs-
T-ka] Ω [intr] (person, animal) be exhausted, be without energy (at end of
dry season) (personne, animal) ê. au bout de ses forces, ê. sans énergie (à
la fin de la saidon sèche).
e-besT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђb+s-].
√bs 6 [cf. N √Itt and √Is]
[Pl only:] ±-bsu-t+nK-d T-ka Ω [nmpl] two hands cupped together les
deux mains mises en coupe.
√bs׹ [N √bs׹ or √Is׹]
Ϫ-bsђ׹A-grm[x⍾+-]R[x⍾ђ-] T-ka, Pl 1-bsђ׹-+nA-grm T-ka
Ω [nm] acacia sapling (esp. of Ϫ-hђks or !-+-nϪ!! tree) jeune arbre
de type acacia (surtout de Ϫ-hђks ou de !-+-nϪ!!) [A-grm T] Ω b)
[nm] (any) small shrub (tout) petit arbuste [R].
t-Ϫ-bsђq-qA-grm K-d R T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] T-md, Pl !-1-bsђ׹-en
A-grm R T-ka T-md Ω a) [nf, Dimin or collective of Ϫ-bsђ׹] [K-d]
Ω b) [nf] thorny acacia sp. acacia épineux sp. [A-grm T] [ID: Acacia
tortilis ssp. raddiana = Ϫ-hђks] Ω c) [nf] (any) small shrub (tout)
petit arbuste [R].
√bs¸ [variant of √bs¸ 1]
+-bus+¸T-md, Pl 1-bus+¸-+nT-md Ω [nm] slip-on shoes, slippers
babouches.
√bsk [see variant √bswk ; <Fr]
b±sk±T-ka[xb±...], Pl b1sk1-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] biscuit, cookie biscuit
[syn: √ksktt].
40
√bskw [variant of √bwk]
b±skw±T-ka = bђskw± A-grm, Pl bђskx1-!+n A-grm Ω [nm] biscuit,
cookie biscuit.
√bs1
-ђbs+1-T [Imprt ђbsђJT, LoImpfP -bϪss+J-T] Ω a) [tr] toss, flick
(some water) jeter (de l’eau) Ω b) [tr] fleece (sb), take all the
possessions of (sb) escroquer, enlever tous les biens de (qn).
Ϫ-b+sϪ1T Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbs+J-].
√bs1w
t-Ϫ-bђss±11+w-+tT-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] = t-+-b±s±11+w-+tT-ka, Pl
!-1-bђss1JJ+x-en = !-1-b1s1JJ+x-+!-enT-ka Ω [nf] fruit of
Salvadora shrub fruit de l’arbuste Salvadora[for some speakers,
denotes a small, half-ripe fruit; see √s׹].
√bst 1 [N √bst]
Ϫ-bsђt (or: Ϫ-bs+t)A-grm[x⍾+-] Im K-d K-f T-ka[x⍾ђ-] T-md, Pl
1-bsђI-+n (or: 1-bs+I-+n)A-grm[x⍾ђ-] Im K-d K-f T-ka T-md
Ω [nm] folding knife; (any) knife couteau pliant; (tout) couteau [cf.
√1׹ 4b, √1ms 4].
t-Ϫ-bsђt-tT-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] T-md, Pl !-1-bsђI-enT-ka T-md Ω [nf]
small knife petit couteau.
√bst 2 [N √bst]
-ђbs+t-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt ђbsђIT-ka, LoImpfP -bϪss+I-A-grm
T-ka] Ω a) [tr] set (grain, seeds, wet clothes) out in sun to dry exposer
(céréales, semences, habits mouillés) au soleil pour les faire sécher Ω b)
[intr] be set out in sun to dry ê. exposé au soleil pour sécher.
Ϫ-b+sϪtA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbs+I-].
√bst 3 [for verb see √s-bst]
-ђbs+t-A-grm [Imprt ђbsђIA-grm, LoImpfP -bϪss+I-A-grm]
Ω [intr] break one’s fast in the evening (during Ramadan) rompre le
jeûne le soir (pendant le ramadan).
Ϫ-b+sϪtA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbs+I-].
t-+-bo s s et-tR T-ka, Pl !-1-bosseI-enR T-ka Ω [nf] pre-dawn meal
during Ramadan repas avant l’aube pendant le ramadan.
√bss [regional word, e.g. KCh booso]
bђsђsoGnd T-md = bђsђsoA-grm Gao = b+s +s o R T-md T-ka Ts
= bososoK-d, Pl bђsђso-!+nA-grm = bђsђso-!+nT-ka
= b+s+so-!+n R T-ka Ts Ω [n] tamarind (fruit and tree) tamarinier,
tamarin [ID: tree Tamarindus indica grows in south, fruits and especially
juice known in the north].
√bsy [N √bsy or √Isy, DTF 1.362]
-ђbs+y-A-grm K-d T-md [Imprt ђbsђyT-md, LoImpfP -bϪss+y-
A-grm T-md] Ω a) [intr] (butter, animal fat) melt; (group) break up,
41
disperse (beurre, graisse d’animal) se fondre; (groupe) disperser [cf.
√m¸tm¸t] Ω b) [tr] dismantle (tent) démonter (une tente).
Ϫ-b+sϪyA-grm T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbs+y-].
√bs 1 [cf. Rdp √bsbs, cf. √bs¸]
-ђbbђss+-tA-grm [Imprt b+ss+-!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫb+sϪ-!
A-grm] Ω [tr] shake or knock (tree branches, to make fruits fall)
secouer ou battre (branche d’arbre, pour faire tomber les fruits) [cf. noun
Ϫ-skon].
√bs 2
bus u R T-ka T-md = bu s uGnd, Pl busu-!+nR T-ka T-md Ω [nm]
scrambling thorny shrub sp. arbuste rampant épineux sp. [ID: Capparis
sepiaria var. fischeri (= C. corymbosa); cf. √׹1zby 1b, √bkm 1b].
t-ђ-busu-t-tT-ka, Pl !-1-busu-!-enT-ka Ω [nf] [= busu ].
√bs 3 [cf. N √Its ]
-+ bbos +-tK-d T-ka [Imprt busђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1busu-!K-d
T-ka] Ω [intr] (porridge) boil over; (pond) overflow after rains
(bouillie) bouillir jusqu’à déborder; (mare) déborder après les pluies.
+ -bϪs uK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+bbos+-!].
[Pl only:] ±-bos-ϪnK-d Ω [nmpl] water that has boiled over eau qui a
bouilli jusqu’à déborder.
√bsbs [Rdp of √bs 1; N √bzbz]
-ђbbђsb+s-A-grm T-ka [Imprt b+sb+sA-grm T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫb+sbϪs-A-grm T-ka] Ω [tr] shake or knock (tree branches, to
make fruits fall) secouer ou battre (branche d’arbre, pour faire tomber les
fruits) [cf. noun Ϫ-skon].
Ϫ-bђsbђsA-grm T-ka, Pl 1-bђsbђs-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of
-ђbbђsb+s-].
√bsd ### [see √s-bsd]
√bs¸ 1 [see variant √bs¸ ; N √bzց]
+-bus+¸K-d R T-md = ђ-bus+¸T-ka, Pl 1-bus+¸-+nK-d R T-ka T-md
Ω [nm] slip-on shoes, slippers babouches.
√bs¸ 2 [cf. N √bzց ‘crazy’]
ubse¸A-grm K-d T-ka[xu...], Pl ubse¸-+nT-ka Ω [nm] a mild skin
ailment (small sores due to allergy) maladie de peau ( petits boutons
allergiques).
√bs¸ 3 [cf. √bs 1]
-ђbs+¸-K-d [Imprt ђbsђ¸K-d, LoImpfP -bϪss+¸-K-d] Ω [tr] tap (tree
branch) to knock off fruits battre (branche d’arbre) pour faire tomber les
fruits.
Ϫ-b+sϪ¸K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbs+¸-].
42
√bsn¸
e-b+s+n¸eT-ka, Pl 1-b+s+n¸e-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] fruit of Ϫ-d+IϪs tree
fruit de l’arbre Ϫ-d+IϪs [local term; ID: Commiphora africana,
Burseraceae].
√bsnw [DTF 1.37 √bhnw]
e-b+sn+wK-d T-ka, Pl 1-b+sn+x-+nT-ka = 1-bђsnϪxT-ka Ω [nm]
useless donkey (old, weak) âne inutile (vieux, faible).
√bst 1
e-bes+t (or: ...s ђt)R T-ka, Pl 1-bes+I-+nR T-ka Ω [nm] traditional
woman’s cloth hat chapeau de femme traditionnel en tissu.
√bst 2 [<Ar √bst]
-ђbbuss+t-T-ka = -+bbuss+t-K-d R [Imprt bussђIR T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1bђssuI-R T-ka] Ω [intr with optional dative] announce good
news (to sb) annoncer de bonnes nouvelles (à qn).
Ϫ-bussђtR Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbbuss+I-].
bu s s +tR T-ka Ω [nm] [occurs in the cpd below].
e-ց+dedbuss+t Ω [cpd nm, lit. “bird of B”] pied kingfisher martin-
pêcheur (oiseau) [ID: Ceryle rudis].
t-ђ-buss±t-t (or: ...set-t)T-ka Ω [nf] good news bonnes nouvelles.
√bst 3 [possibly related to √bst 2]
-+bes+t-T-ka [Imprt bϪs+IT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫb+sϪI-T-ka] Ω [tr]
blurt out (e.g. abuse) at (sb, direct object) dire avec impétuosité, laisser
échapper (des injures, etc.) à (qn, complément direct).
√bst 4 [DTF 1.39 √bht]
t-+-bϪsϪt-tT-ka Ω [nf] riding bareback fait de monter à cru [cf.
√sId 2].
t-+ bbϪs +tK-d Ω [nf] riding bareback fait de monter à cru - ex: nϪy-+׹
!-+bbϪs+IK-d I am riding bareback je suis monté à cru [√ny 1].
√bsw
b+ s Ϫw-K-d R [Imprt 1bsϪxK-d, LoImpfP -!-1bsϪxK-d] Ω [intr] be
half-deaf, hard of hearing ê. dur d’oreille, ê. à moitié sourd, entendre
mal.
-ђbbђs+w-T-ka [Imprt b+s+xT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫb+sϪx-T-ka]
Ω [intr] [= b+sϪx-].
b+sϪw-+nK-d T-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] hard of hearing à moitié sourd.
b+sϪw-+tT-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] hard of hearing à moitié sourde.
b+sϪw-nenT-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] hard of hearing à moitié sourds.
±-bb±s+w-+nA-grm Ω [partpl, MaSg] hard of hearing à moitié sourd.
t-ђbb±s+w-+tA-grm Ω [partpl, FeSg] hard of hearing à moitié sourde.
ђbb±s+w-nenA-grm Ω [partpl, Pl] hard of hearing à moitié sourds.
t-+bb+ s +w-tR T-ka = t-ђbbђs+w-tA-grm Ω [nf] being half-deaf
fait d’ê. mi-sourd.
43
b+s+wT-ka = e-b+s+wA-grm, Pl 1-b+s+x-+nA-grm Ω [nm] man who
is hard of hearing homme qui est à moitié sourd, qui entend avec
difficulté.
t-e-b+s+w-tA-grm, Pl !-1-b+s+x-enA-grm Ω [nf] woman who is
hard of hearing femme qui est à moitié sourde.
√bt 1
e-b+ttA-grm R T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md, Pl 1-b+!!-ϪnR T-md
= 1-b+!!-+n A-grm T-ka Ω a) [nm] flat, low-lying area (especially
after the annual floods subside) terrain plat (surtout pendant la décrue)
[A-grm] [with or without vegetation] Ω b) [nm] meadow, grassy area
(near river) pré, zone herbeuse (près du fleuve) [T].
√bt 2 [N √bt]
-ђb+t-A-grm = -b+t-K-d [Imprt ђbђ!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-ђbbϪ!-
A-grm] Ω [tr] snatch (sth and flee) happer (qch et fuir) [cf. √h׹ 3,
√zw 1; for idioms see !-ђJJ+y ‘dizziness’ √1y 4 and e-׹+I׹+I
√׹t׹t 2 ‘full speed’].
e-betA-grm K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђb+!-].
√bt 3 [N √bt or √btt]
t-ђ-bu tu-t-tR T-ka T-md = t-+-butu-t-tA-grm K-d, Pl
!-1-bu!u-!-enA-grm R T-ka T-md Ω [nf] (nonprotruding) navel
nombril (qui ne sort pas) [cf. √btsd ].
√bt 4 [N √bt]
b+toT-ka[xb+...], Pl b+!o-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] discussion, debate débat
[syn √mds ].
√bt 5 [Songhay b1!a]
+ -b±ttR, Pl 1-b1!!-+nR Ω [nm] millet porridge bouillie de mil [syn:
√1w 2].
√bt 6 [N √bt]
Ϫ-bђttK-d, Pl 1-bђ!!-ϪnK-d Ω [nm] outer husk on millet or rice grains
bale de mil ou de riz.
√btbt [said to be < Fr péter ‘fart’, from the sound it makes]
b+tb+t±Gao, Pl b+!b+!1-!+nGao Ω [nm] simple rubber or plastic
sandals sandale simple en caoutchouc ou en plastique [syn: √sbsb].
√btց [variant of √btk, <Fr boutique]
bђtց± K-d, Pl bђ!ց1-!+nK-d Ω [nm] shop, store boutique [syn: √dkn,
√1xnt, cf. √mm1 1].
m+ss±-sђnbђtց± K-d Ω [nm] shopkeeper, store owner boutiquier.
√bt׹ 1a [N √bt׹]
-+bt+qq+-tT-ka [Imprt bђ!ђqqђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1b!ђqq1-!
T-ka] Ω [intr] be unable to walk; be weary (e.g. from walking, from a
problem) ê. incapable de marcher; ê. fatigué (de marcher, d’un problème,
etc.)
44
Ϫ-btђqq±T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+b!+qq+-!].
√bt׹ 1b
-+bt+qq+-tK-d [Imprt bђ!ђqqђ-!K-d, LoImpfP -!-1b!ђqq1-!K-d]
Ω [intr] be hollowed, have a concave or dented spot avoir un creux.
Ϫ-btђqq±K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+b!+qq+-!].
+-b+ t+qquK-d, Pl ±-btђqqϪK-d Ω [nm] low spot interrupting a long
dune ridge endroit bas qui interrompt une longue dune.
√btk [see variant √btց ; <Fr]
bђtk±T-ka[xbђtk±], Pl bђ!k1-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] shop, store boutique
[syn: √dkn, √1xnt].
ubђtk±T-ka Ω [cpd nm, lit. “son of ...”] shopkeeper boutiquier.
√bt1 [N √bt1]
Ϫ-b+to1K-d T-ka, Pl 1-b!ϪJA-grm[x⍾ђ-] T-ka Ω [nm] small
depression in sand (e.g. for a nest); small trough (depression) between dune
ridges petit creux dans le sable (par ex. pour un nid); petite vallée
(dépression) entre les dunes [cf. √¸׹, √std 1b, √bh׹ 1].
√btn׹
+-bo t+֊׹K-f, Pl 1-bo!+֊׹-+nK-f Ω [nm] pit of wild date noyau de
datte sauvage [cf. √bt׹ 1].
√btt 1 [N “ba-ttat”√btt« il n’ya que »]
bϪtt+tT-ka T-md Ω [intr] it is necessary (that ...) il faut (que ...)
√btt 2 [KCh boo!eIe (and variants) belongs to this set, perhaps of Fula origin,
cf. Fula-Tukulor “botiré” for Ipomoea cairica UPWTA 1.537]
bo t+tϪGnd Ω [nm] long crawling vine with pretty flowers in inundated areas
(can float) longue plante rampante à jolies fleurs (capable de flotter) [ID:
Ipomoea aquatica; other wild Ipomoea’s are e-nђssekђn√s-kn 1b
and !-Ϫn+JϪ√n1 2; cf. J+׹J+׹o].
√btt 3 [N √btt has different sense]
-ђbbђt+t-T-ka [Imprt b+!+IT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫb+!ϪI-T-ka]
Ω [intr] step back (a short distance), be put a short distance away (e.g. from
fire) reculer (un peu), ê. un peu à l’écart (d’un feu etc.) Caus √s-btt.
Ϫ-bђtђtT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbbђ!+I-].
√bttn [<Fr via local languages]
b+ttunT-ka = bђttunT-md = b+tto1A-grm, Pl b+!Iun-!+nT-ka
Ω [nm] petroleum (oil or gas) pétrole (huile ou essence). cpd: see
!-e-1+!eJ-!√It1.
√btsn
botђss+nT-ka, Pl bo!ђss+n-+nT-ka Ω [nm] odd jobs, handywork
bricolage.
45
√bw 1 [N √bw]
ђ-b±wϪT-ka T-md = + -b±wϪR = +-b±wwϪA-grm, Pl 1-b1xϪ-!+nR
T-ka T-md = 1-b1x-ϪnT-md = 1-b1xx-ϪnA-grm Ω [nm] small
animal pen (e.g. for separating goat kids from their mothers) petit enclos
pour les animaux (par ex. pour séparer les chevreaux de leurs mères) [cf.
√It¸ 1, √׹1 4].
√bw 2 [regional, e.g. Songhay (box) and Hausa]
+-bϪwwA-grm Gao R[x+-] T-ka T-md Ts, Pl 1-bϪxx-+nA-grm R T-ka
T-md Ts Ω a) [T] [nm] straw (long grass stems used for thatching)
paille (longues tiges utilisées pour les paillassons) [T] [cf. √ktms,
√sbt 1] Ω b) [nm] wild rice sp. riz sauvage sp. [A-grm R T Ts] [ID
Oryza longistaminata, the only local perennial wild rice (with deep roots)].
√bw 3 [also in Songhay (box)]
b+wwA-grm[xb+...] Gnd T-ka T-md Ts[xb+...], Pl b+x-!+nT-ka T-md
Ts Ω [nm] aquatic monitor lizard varan aquatique (lézard) [large
specimens also called √znցwy ; ID: Varanus niloticus; cf. √b¸n 1] -
poss: 1Sg b+xx-1nA-grm T-ka.
√bwn 1 [N √bwn ; DTF 1.80 with a drawing]
+-bϪwђnA-grm R T-ka T-md, Pl 1-b1xϪnA-grm R T-ka T-md Ω a) [nm]
large leather bag (for traveling) grand sac en peau (pour les voyages)
[A-grm R T] [cf. √nwt] Ω b) [nm] sand cat chat des sables [A-grm]
[ID Felis margarita; for T see ց+n¸1nus] Ω c) [nm] thicket formed by
dense tall grass such as Ϫ-b+Ion fourré d’herbe haute et dense comme
le Ϫ-b+Ion [K-d].
t-+-bϪwђn-tK-d Ω [nf] large leather bag (for traveling) grand sac en
peau (à voyager).
√bwn 2 [variant of √bwy and perhaps √bhw 1b; cf. N √bwn]
bђwwenA-grm[xbђ...] = buwenK-d R[xbu...], Pl bђxxen-+nA-grm
= buxen-+nK-d R Ω [nm] owl hibou [ID: see √bhw 1b].
√bws [see variant √bys ; N √bs]
-+bew+s-T-ka = -ђbbew+s-A-grm [Imprt bϪx+sT-ka = b1xђs
A-grm, LoImpfP -!-ϪbϪxϪs-T-ka = -!-1b1x1s-A-grm] Ω [intr]
be wounded, (body) be cut ê. blessé. Caus √s-bws.
Ϫ-b±wђsA-grm R T-ka[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-b1xђs-+nA-grm
= 1-b1x1s-+nR T-ka Ω [nm] wound, cut (in body) blessure.
√bwy [variant of √bwn 2 and perhaps √bhw 1b; cf. N √bwn]
buweyGao Ω [nm] owl hibou [ID: see √bhw 1b].
√bx1 [DTF 1.55]
+-bϪxu1K-d, Pl 1-buxϪJK-d Ω [nm] very old camel chameau très
vieux [cf. √bdz].
46
√bxs [<Ar √bxs]
-ђbx+s-K-d [Imprt ђbxђsK-d, LoImpfP -bϪxx+s-K-d] Ω [tr] waste,
squander (e.g. money, food) gaspiller (argent, nourriture, etc.)
Ϫ-b+xϪsK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbx+s-].
√by 1 [DTF 1.43]
t-+ -boy-tK-d R T-ka T-md Th, Pl !-1-boy-enT-md = !-1-boyy-en
K-d R T-ka Ω a) [nf] flower (of tree) fleur (d’arbre) [K-d R T] [cf.
√mmhk] Ω b) [nf] flowering herb sp. plante à fleurs sp. [Th] [ID:
Heliotropium ramosissimum, Boraginaceae].
√by 2 [<Hausa ‘payment’]
bϪyϪA-grm[xbϪ...] Ω [nm] tax taxe, impôt [local word; syn: !-1xse
√ws 5]
√by 3 [DTF 1.40]
-+bbuyy+-tK K-d = -ђbbuyy+-tA-grm [Imprt buyyђ-!A-grm K,
LoImpfP -!-1bђyyu-!K = -!-1buyy1-!A-grm] Ω [intr] be
shiftless (lazy, inept) ê. un vaurien (paresseux, fainéant, incompétent).
Ϫ-n-+bbϪyyuK K-d R T-ka, Pl 1-n-ђbbuyyaK R T-ka Ω [nm, Agent]
shiftless one vaurien.
ђbbђyyuA-grm K K-d T-ka Ω [nm] shiftlessness fait d’ê. un vaurien.
Ϫ-n+s-bϪyyuA-grm, Pl 1-nђs-buyyϪA-grm Ω [nm] shiftless man
vaurien [form anomalous, perhaps a mutation from Ϫ-n-+bbϪyyu].
t-Ϫ-n+s-bϪyyu-t-tA-grm, Pl !-1-nђs-buyyϪA-grm Ω [nf]
shiftless woman vaurienne.
√byby
-ђbbђyb+y-K-d [Imprt b+yb+yK-d, LoImpfP !-Ϫb+ybϪy-K-d]
Ω [intr] be hyperactive ê. très actif.
Ϫ-bђybђyK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbbђyb+y-].
b+yb+yϪ-s+1K-d Ω [phrasal cpd nm, lit. “be active in daytime”] large,
fast-moving, stinging black ant sp. grande fourmi sp., rapide et piquante
[see variant √bybysn].
√bybysn [mutation of phrasal cpd under √byby]
b+yb+yϪs+nTs, Pl b+yb+yϪs+n-!+nTs Ω [nm] large, fast-moving,
stinging black ant sp. grande fourmi sp., rapide et piquante.
√byd¸ 1a (bydց) [Y b+yd+ց ‘(camel) be off-white’; DTF 1.41-42]
-ђbbђyd+¸-T-ka [Imprt b+yd+¸T-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫb+ydϪ¸-T-ka]
Ω [intr] be off-white in color ê. blanchâtre [said of camels, sometimes of
humans (whites)].
b+yd+¸-+nT-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] off-white blanchâtre.
b+yd+¸-+tT-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] off-white blanchâtre.
b+ydϪ¸-nenT-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] off-white blanchâtres.
t-+bb+yd+k-kK-d T-ka Ω [nf] off-white color couleur blanchâtre.
47
e-b+yd+¸A-grm K-d T-ka, Pl 1-b+yd+¸-+nT-ka Ω a) [nm] off-white
camel chameau blanchâtre [K-d T] Ω b) [nm] good-quality male camel
(well-trained) chameau mâle de bonne qualité (bien dressé) [A-grm].
t-e-b+yd+k-kA-grm T-ka, Pl !-1-b+yd+¸-enT-ka
= !-1-b+yd+ց-enA-grm Ω [nf] off-white she-camel chamelle
blanchâtre.
√byd¸ 1b (bydց) [mostly same forms as √byd¸ 1a]
-ђbbђyd+ց-A-grm [Imprt b+yd+ցA-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫb+ydϪց-
A-grm] Ω [intr] become a thief devenir voleur [A-grm and east].
t-ђbbђydђցϪA-grm Ω [nf] thiefhood, being a thief vol, qualité de voleur.
e-b+yd+ցA-grm, Pl 1-b+yd+ց-+nA-grm Ω [nm] thief voleur [A-grm
and east, as in Niger; syn: e-n-+kI+d √ktd 3b, √zbzb].
√bydk ### [see √byd¸ 1,2]
√by׹ [N √by׹]
Ϫ-b+yo׹ A-grm K-d, Pl 1-byϪ׹A-grm K-d Ω a) [nm] waterskin (of sheep-
or goatskin, with hairs intact) outre en peau (avec ses poils) [A-grm]
Ω b) [nm] small waterskin petite outre [K-d].
t-Ϫ-b+yoq-qA-grm K-d T-ka, Pl !-1-byϪ׹A-grm[x⍾t-ђ-] K-d T-ka
Ω a) [nf] small waterskin of sheep- or goatskin petite outre en peau
Ω b) [nf] a head cold with phlegm in throat; rhume avec mucosités dans la
gorge [in T, this sense requires plural of noun].
√byk [<N √byk]
-ђby+k-K-d [Imprt ђbyђkK-d, LoImpfP -bϪyy+k-K-d] Ω [tr] speak
critically of (sb) critiquer (qn).
Ϫ-b+yϪkK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђby+k-].
√bykt [N √bykt]
Ϫ-b+ ykotK-d T-ka, Pl 1-bђykϪIK-d T-ka Ω [nf] mutt, cur (worthless
dog) mauvais chien [can be used as a human insult].
√by1
b±yϪ11oR, Pl b1yϪJJo-!+nR Ω [nm] bird sp. oiseau sp. [ID: perhaps
the red-winged starling, Onychognathus morio].
+ցb±y+11oT-ka Ω [cpd nm, lit. “son of ...”] cliff-chat (bird) traquet de
roche (oiseau) [ID: Myrmecocichla cinnamomeiventris].
√byn [probably <Ar √byn]
-ђbbђyy+n-T-ka [Imprt b+yy+nT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫb+yyϪn-T-ka]
Ω [tr] witness, see (with one’s own eyes) ê. témoin de, voir de ses
propres yeux [cf. √¸yh]. Cf. √s-byn.
Ϫ-bђyyђnT-ka, Pl 1-bђyyђn-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђbbђyy+n-].
-+bbuyy+n-K-d [Imprt buyy+nK-d, LoImpfP -!-1bђyyun-K-d]
Ω [intr] be visible ê. visible.
Ϫ-buyyђnK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+bbuyy+n-].
48
√bys [variant of √bws ; DTF 1.44 “bouis”]
-+ boy+s-K-d R [Imprt bu yђsR, LoImpfP -!-1buyus-K-d] Ω [intr] be
wounded, (body) be cut ê. blessé. Caus √s-bys.
Ϫ-buyђsR Ω [nm, vbln of -+boy+s-].
√byt1 [N √byt1 with different sense]
e-b+ yt+1K-d T-ka, Pl 1-b+y!+J-+nT-ka Ω [nm] abortive attempt;
unsuccessful trip that must be done again; job that needs to be redone from
the beginning essai manqué; voyage manqué qui doit ê. refait; travail qui
doit ê. recommencé à zéro - phrase: 1-qq+J-\dђ׹-1⍾+-b+y!+J
T-ka I have a job to redo j’ai un travail à recommencer.
√bz 1 [cf. perhaps HassAr bazaIցu]
+ -bozzK-d T-ka[x+-] R, Pl 1-bϪzz-+nA-grm K-d R T-ka Ω a) [nm]
very skinny, emaciated animal; meat of such an animal animal très
maigre; viande d’un tel animal [A-grm K T] [cf. √1wxm] Ω b) [nm]
carrion (animal that dies without being ritually slaughtered, hence not
edible for Muslims) charogne (animal qui meurt sans ê. égorgé) [T].
√bz 2 [probably <Fr]
+-bozoT-ka, Pl 1-bozo-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] Bozo man homme bozo
[ethnic group of fishing people in several pockets along Niger and Bani
Rivers; cf. √zց 2, √stk 1]
t-+-bozo-t-tT-ka, Pl !-1-bozo-!-enT-ka Ω [nf] Bozo woman; the
Bozo language femme bozo; langue bozo.
bozo R, Pl bozo-!+nR Ω [nm] [= + -bozo].
√bzn [see variant √bzn ; <Fr]
buzђnϪT-ka = buzneK-d[xbu...], Pl buzђnϪ-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] poison
poison [syn: √sm 6].
√bztցd
[Pl only:] bђzђtցђdu -t+nGao Ω [nmpl] guts, viscera entrailles, viscères.
√bz [N √bz]
-ob+z-[Imprt Ϫbђz, LoImpf P -!-1bђz-] Ω [tr] take prendre [term used
chiefly farther east among Iwellemmeden].
√bzn variant of √bzn ; [<Fr]
boznϪA-grm[xbo...], Pl bozna-!+nA-grm Ω [nm] poison poison
[syn: √sm 6].
√bzw [N √bzw « blanc jaunâtre », DTF 1.118 « gris cendre »]
b+zϪw-A-grm T-ka [Imprt b+z+xT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫb+zϪx- T-ka]
Ω [intr] be yellow-brown ê. d’un brun jaunâtre [cf. √bnw 2, √dt 5, √dm,
√Iw 3, √׹w1 2].
b+zϪw-A-grm T-ka [Imprt 1bzϪxT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1bzϪx-T-ka]
Ω [intr] [= b+zϪw-, different imperfectives].
b+z+w-+nT-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] yellow-brown brun jaunâtre.
49
b+z+w-+tT-ka = b+z+w-+tA-grm Ω [partpl, FeSg] yellow-brown
brun jaunâtre.
b+zϪw-nenT-ka = b+zϪw-nenA-grm Ω [partpl, Pl] yellow-brown
brun jaunâtre.
t-+bb+z+w-tK-d T-ka = t-ђbbђz+w-tA-grm, !-+bb+z+x-enT-ka
Ω [nf] yellow-brown color (of person or camel) couleur brun jaunâtre
(de personne ou de chameau).
Ϫ -bz ϪwK-d T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-bzϪx-+nT-ka Ω [nm] yellow-brown
camel chameau brun jaunâtre.
t-Ϫ-bzϪw-tT-ka, Pl !-1-bzϪx-enT-ka Ω [nf] yellow-brown she-camel
chamelle brun jaunâtre.
- c -
√cc [see variant !ђce √tc ; <Songhay (KS ce!e, KCh !ece)]
c+ceT-ka T-md, Pl c+ce-!+nT-ka T-md Ω [nm] wall (of housing
compound, enclosing courtyard) mur (de concession, entourant la cour)
[cf. √ց1 1, √׹1 4, √1xyt].
- d -
√d ### [for !-1dђ!-!see √dt 2; for Ϫdu (= Ϫdђx from /Ϫdwگ/) ‘go in mid-
afternoon’ see √dw 4].
√d 1 (dt) [N √d and √dt ; DTF 1.140]
d Ω [prep] with, in the company of, along with; and avec, en compagnie de;
et [form used after or before a vowel; mainly comitative or as a
conjunction, with some extensions into instrumental usage, but see √s 1; in
pronominal clitics: d+I-, reduced dialectally to dђ- ; in some dialects d
‘with’ and locative d+׹ ‘in, at’ merge in these pronominal clitics] - with
pronominal: 1Sg dђI-1 T-ka = dђ׹-1R, 1Pl d+ I-n+׹, 2MaSg
dђI-ђkT-ka = dђ-kR, 2FeSg dђI-ђnT-ka = dђ-nR, 2MaPl
d+I-x+nT-ka, 2FePl d+I-kn+!T-ka, 3Sg dђI-ђsGao T-ka
= dђ-sK R, 3MaPl d+ I-s+n T-ka = dђ-s+nR, 3FePl d+ I-sn+!.
ђd Ω [form of d used when not after or before a vowel]
Ϫ-\d Ω [complementizer, with d cliticized to √Ϫ 1b; easily confused with
Future Ϫd √d 3, but the two constructions have different negatives]
√d 2 (hd) [see variant √dd 7; N “du”and variants; DTF 1.147-9]
-\±ddT-ka T-md = -\± dGao = -\ђddGao Im K K-d T-ka = -\dd
A-grm = -\dK-d Ω [Centripetal clitic, allomorph after consonant;
contrasts with Centrifugal -\1n √n 2a] (to) here, this way (vers) ici
50
[also various extended uses, e.g. with ‘remember’] - ex: eIe-\dd
os+-nT-md whoever comes celui (quiconque) qui vient; x-1-\dd
os+-nenT-md they-Ma who come eux qui viennent, FePl !-1-\dd
os+-nenT-md they-Fe who come elles qui viennent.
-\dK-d T-ka Ω [Centripetal clitic, allomorph after consonant-final particle
and before vowel].
-\ddA-grm Im T-ka T-md Ω [Centripetal clitic, allomorph after vowel
(which must be accented); verb-stem final Ϫ shortened to +] - ex:
1-k!+-\ddIm he remembered il s’est souvenu.
-\hђdT-ka Ω [Centripetal clitic, allomorph after high vowel {u ±} before
consonant].
-\hђddT-ka Ω [Centripetal clitic, allomorph after high vowel {u ±} before
vowel].
-\d±A-grm Ω [Centripetal clitic, allomorph after word-final consonant].
√d 3 (√t) [see allomorph Ϫ √Ϫ 2 and variant ϪI √t 1; N √d, DTF 1.146-7]
Ϫd Ω [clause-initial Future preverbal particle; followed by a ShImpf or less
often LoImpfP verb; replaced by Ϫ√Ϫ 2 before a clitic; when noninitial in
clause (i.e. after Neg x+I or other element) replaced by nϪd (A-grm),
nϪI (T-ka), e (R, T-md), or he (K); distinct from hϪI ‘until, except’;
indistinguishable in form in positive clauses from complementizer with
Instrumental clitic Ϫ-\d, but they differ in the position of Neg x+I].
√d 4 [see positional variant √dd 6; N “dђdd”, “±dd”, long form “ђddђd”]
ђddT-md = dT-ka Ω [prenominal Pl particle in a few combinations, in form
a cpd initial; cf. d+ցց or variant ђdd+ցց under √ց 1, ђdd1n
!-e!!Ϫx-en under √t 8, and ђddn+ndϪn (and variants) under
√mndm].
√d 5a (√nd) [for -ђnd1- see √nd 1; N √d and √dh ; DTF 1.149-50]
d± Ω [Near-Distal particle following a noun, indicating location near addressee
or otherwise nearby, cf. Proximal √± 2d, Distal √n 2b] - ex: Ϫ-nnђsd1
T-md [dem pronoun] that camel (near you) ce chameau (près de vous).
-d± Ω a) [Near-Distal morpheme in demonstratives indicating location near
addressee or otherwise nearby] Ω b) [with following -d+׹, indicates
discourse-anaphoric status].
Ϫ-d± Ω [dem pron] this ceci - with prep: d+׹Ϫ-d1A-grm T-ka in this
dans ceci.
Ϫ-d±-sT-ka Ω [clause-initial adv] so, ... donc, ... [√s 9].
s±-d± Ω [dem adv] in that area là, dans cette zone-là.
s±-d±-d+׹ Ω [dem adv] around there, over that way vers là-bas.
dђ-d±-d+׹ Ω [dem adv] there, in that (same) place là, dans ce (même)
endroit.
w-ђ-d±T-ka = w-ђ-d±T-ka Ω [dem pronoun, MaSg] that (near you); that
one (that we mentioned earlier) ça (près de vous); ça (dont on parlait il y
51
a un moment) [accent most often on final syllable] - ex (head of relative:
xђ-d-1!-ђk1e-dϪ-zIђ1T-md that one to whom you gave the
money celui-là à qui tu as donné l’argent.
w-ђ-d±-h±T-ka Ω [dem pronoun, MaSg] [= x-ђ-d1].
w-±-d±T-ka = w-±-d±T-md [MaPl of x-ђ-d1, both senses].
t-ђ-d±T-ka T-md Ω [FeSg counterpart of x-ђ-d1].
t-±-d±T-ka T-md [FePl of !-ђ-d1].
√d 5b [DTF 1.150-1 “de”]
d-±-hϪ Ω [adv] here ici [√h 3].
d-±-hϪ-d+׹ Ω [adv] (right) here ici (même) [√d׹ 1b].
d-±-hϪ-\d ... Ω [conj] where ..., when ... où ..., lorsque ... [in adverbial
clauses, with cliticized Comitative prep d].
d-±-hen Ω [adv] there là [√hn 1].
d-±-hen-d+׹ Ω [adv] right there là-même, juste là.
√d 5c
d-en Ω [adv] over there là-bas - phrase: ђn!Ϫd-enK-d T-ka that over
there; there he/she/it is ça là-bas; le/la voilà.
√d 6 [N √d, DTF 1.151]
dϪ Ω [enclitic particle] here (I am, etc.) (me etc.) voici! - exx: n+kkdϪ
K-d T-ka here I am! me voici!
dϪ-d+׹T-ka[adverbial] thus ainsi - ex: ђnnђk-1n dϪ-d+׹T-ka my
manner (nature, situation) is (like) this ma façon (= nature, situation) est
comme ça.
√d 7 [arguably e √e 5 plus cliticized Comitative -\d, or else reduced from
e-d+ցց ‘place’; N √d, cf. DTF 2.692-3]
edK-d T-ka Ω [clause-initial particle] because ..., since ...; when(-ever) ...
parce que ..., puisque ...; lorsque ..., toutefois que ... [cf. other ‘because’
forms under √I1 1]
√d 8 (dy) [N √wd or √wz, DTF 1.140]
ud±A-grm[x u...] K[x u...]K-d R T-ka T-md, Pl udyϪx-+nA-grm K-d
T-ka T-md R = ud1-!+nA-grm T-ka Ω [nm] butter beurre -
poss: 1Sg ud1-n1nR.
√d 9 [see variant √dh 3; N √d]
t-ђddϪA-grm Im K-d T-md, Pl !-ђddϪ-!enA-grm Im T-md Ω [nf]
millet cream (beverage containing coarsely ground millet, drunk as a snack
between meals crème de mil [syn: √d׹n (and √dn 3), √sdt ; cf. √dkt].
√d 10 (yd, Pl yd ) [N √d and Pl √d ; MGT 4.24 √yd, EPPB 200]
ed±A-grm[xe...] Gnd K-d R T-ka[xe...] T-md, Pl 1-yђd-ϪnA-grm K-d
R T-ka T-md Ω [nm] dog chien [note d/d alternation].
ed± nϪm-ϪnGnd A-grm Ω a) [cpd nm, lit “dog of water”] aquatic
mammal mammifère aquatique [ID: perhaps the marsh mongoose,
Atilax paludinosus] Ω b) [nm] tiger fish poisson-chien [ID: Hydrocynus
52
(= Hydrocyon) brevis and H. forskali; syn: √zwy ; perhaps calqued on
local Fr].
t-ed±-t-t, Pl !-1-yђd-enA-grm T-ka T-md Ω [nf] bitch, she-dog
chienne.
√d 11 [<Songhay duu]
duT-md Gnd A-grm[xdu], Pl du-!+nA-grm T-md Ω [nm] fish sp.
poisson sp. [sp. and term known to river people; ID: Labeo senegalensis
and the darker L. coubie; cf. √dktmb ; the two spp. are optionally
distinguished as dђkuI+y(L. senegalensis) and dux-Ϫk+x+J-+n
(L. coubie)].
√d 12 [<Songhay (e.g. KS) duu]
duA-grm[xdu] T-ka, Pl du-!+nA-grm T-ka Ω [nm] husk, chaff (of
millet, removed by pounding) son (de mil, enlevé en pilant).
√d 13 [<Songhay daa]
dϪT-md, Pl dϪ-!+nT-md Ω [nm] fish sp. poisson sp. [ID: Distichodus
brevipinnis; syn: √dksy].
√d 14 [N √d, DTF 1.220]
t-±deA-grm[xt-±...] Im K-d R[xt-±...] T-ka T-md, Pl !-Ϫd1x-en
T-ka T-md = !-1dϪx-enIm Ω [nf] sweat sueur [cf. √tI 4,
√sbnsb] - phrase: !-ђ¸IϪx-\!!-1deT-md sweat has gotten him
(= he is sweating) la sueur l’a eu (= il transpire) = !-ђIdϪb-\!
!-1deT-ka.
√d 15 [perhaps N “adda” (father)]
±ddϪT-ka[x±...], Pl 1ddϪ-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] grandfather, great-
grandfather, etc. grand-père, arrière grand-père, etc. [male ancestor at
least two generations up; competes with analytic !1-sђn!1-s ‘his/her
father’s father’] - poss: 1Sg 1ddϪ-n1nT-ka.
√d 16 [variant of ϪIdϪ √td 3]
+ddϪ A-grm K-d, Pl +ddϪ-!+nA-grm K-d Ω [nm] machete blade (without
handle) lame de machette (sans manche), coupe-coupe [syn √kbkb].
√d 17
udd!T-ka Ω [interj] shoo! (to camel) pschtt! (à un chameau).
√db [N √db]
-+ddob+-tA-grm K-d R T-ka [Imprt dubђ-!T-ka = dϪb+-!A-grm
= udϪb+-!Im K-d, ShImpf -ђdϪb+-! R T-ka (3MaSg 1-dϪb+-! R
T-ka) = -ђddubђ-!T-ka = -udϪb+-!Im K-d, LoImpfP
-!-1dubu-!K-d R T-ka = -!-ϪdϪbϪ-!A-grm] Ω a) [tr, often with
verbal noun as object] be able to, can (do sth) ê. capable de, pouvoir
(faire qch) [all dialects] Ω b) [intr, followed by Ϫ-\s ‘that ...’] be
possible (that ...) ê. possible (que ...) [K-d] [cf. √mkn, √ms 4].
+ -dϪbuR Ω [nm, vbln of -+ddob+-!].
53
t-+-dϪb±-t-t A-grm T-ka Ω [nf, vbln of -+ddob+-!].
t-+-dϪbu-t-tR Ω [nf, vbln of -+ ddob+-!].
√dbdb 1a [N √dbdb]
-ђddubd+b-T-ka = -+ddubd+b-K-d [Imprt dubdђbT-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1dђbdub- T-ka] Ω a) [tr] fill to the brim remplir à ras [T-ka]
Ω b) [intr] (objects, sand) form a mound, be piled up into a large heap
(objets, sable) ê. mis en tas [K-d].
Ϫ-dubdђbT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђddubd+b-].
ђ-dђ bdubK-d Ω [nm] mound (of sand) tas (de sable) [less than a dune]
√dbdb 1b
e-debdϪbT-ka Ω [nm] light to moderate rain pluie légère ou modérée
[syn: √hs 4, cf. √dmdm 3].
√db׹ [N and DTF √db׹ has different sense]
-ђdb+׹-K-d T-ka [Imprt ђdbђ׹T-ka, LoImpfP -dϪbb+׹-T-ka] Ω [tr]
slap hard gifler avec force [cf. √st׹ 1a, √ttk].
Ϫ-d+bϪ׹T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdb+׹-].
t-Ϫ-dђ bbeq-qK-d T-ka, Pl !-1-dђbbϪ׹T-ka Ω [nf] (a) slap gifle.
√db1 [N √db1]
-ђdb+1-K-d T-ka [Imprt ђdbђJT-ka, LoImpfP -dϪbb+J-T-ka] Ω a)
[tr] carry (child, goat) in one’s arms porter (un enfant, une chèvre) dans
les bras [K-d T-ka] Ω b) [tr] fold up (end of garment) plier (le bout
d’un vêtement) [K-d].
Ϫ-d+bϪ1T-ka Ω a) [nm, vbln of -ђdb+J-] Ω b) [nm] hem (of garment)
bord (de vêtement).
√dbn 1 [N √dbn]
-+dob+n-A-grm K-d T-md T-ka [Imprt dubђnA-grm K-d T-ka T-md,
ShImpf -ђdubђn-K-d R, LoImpfP -!-1dubun-K-d T-ka
= -!-1dub1n-A-grm] Ω [intr] get married; become engaged (to
marry) se marier; se fiancer [cf. idioms under e-h+n √hn 3a and
!-Ϫ-n-ђzzuq-q √z׹ 1, cf. √z1y 1b]. Caus √s-dbn.
Ϫ-dubђnA-grm K-d R T-ka[x⍾ђ-] T-md = +-dubђnR T-md, Pl
1-dubun-+nR = 1-dubnϪx-+nA-grm K-d T-ka T-md Ω [nm,
vbln] marriage mariage.
+-n+s-dϪbϪnT-ka, Pl 1-nђs-dubϪnT-ka Ω [nm] bridegroom (le)
marié [in Pl can also mean ‘bride and groom’ as a couple].
t-+-n+s-dϪbϪn-tT-ka, Pl !-1-nђs-dubϪnT-ka Ω [nf] bride (la)
mariée.
√dbn 2 [N √dbn]
t-Ϫ-dђbun-tK-d T-ka, Pl !-1-dbϪnK-d T-ka Ω [nf] mound, small dune
butte, petite dune.
54
√dbt 1a [N √dbt]
d+bϪt-A-grm K-d R T-ka [Imprt d+ b+IR T-ka = dђbђIA-grm, ShImpf
-+dd+b+I-R, LoImpfP -!-Ϫd+bϪI-A-grm T-ka] Ω [intr]
(donkey) be grey (âne) ê. de couleur grise [probably based on color of
doves, √dbt 1b].
d+b+ t-+nK-d T-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] grey gris.
d+b+t-+tT-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] grey grise.
d+bϪt-nenT-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] grey gris.
t-+dd+b+t-tT-ka, Pl !-+dd+b+I-enT-ka Ω [nf] greyness couleur
grise.
t-e-d+bet-tT-ka Ω [nf] grey spots on face (e.g. on a woman during late
stage of pregnancy) taches grises au visage (par ex. d’une femme en état)
[more common homonym under √dbt 1b].
Ϫ-d+b+tϪA-grm K-d T-ka, Pl 1-d+b+IϪ-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] grey one
(donkey) un gris (âne).
t-Ϫ-d+b+tϪ-t-tK-d T-ka, Pl !-1-d+b+IϪ-!-enT-ka Ω [nf] grey one
(she-donkey) une grise (ânesse).
√dbt 1b[N √dbt]
e-d+betA-grm K-d T-ka T-md Ts, Pl 1-d+beI-+nT-ka T-md
= 1-dђbI-ϪnA-grm Ω [nm] male pigeon or dove pigeon ou
tourterelle mâle [cf. √ցb].
e-d+betђnzϪnn±R T-ka Ts Ω a) [cpd nm] speckled pigeon pigeon
de Guinée [T Ts] [ID: Columba guinea, dark red skin around eyes] Ω b)
[cpd nm] domestic pigeon pigeon domestique [R].
e-d+betђmm+s+tT-ka Ω [cpd nm] speckled pigeon pigeon de
Guinée [ID: Columba guinea].
t-e-d+bet-t A-grm Gao R T-ka[x⍾t-+-] T-md, Pl !-1-d+beI-enR
T-ka T-md = !-1-dђbI-enA-grm Gao Ω [nf] pigeon, dove pigeon,
tourterelle [ID: several including the very common dove Streptopilia
senegalensis; cf. √ktks 1b, ].
t-e-d+bet-tn⍾+-¸eIR Ω [cpd nf, lit. “... of dune”] speckled pigeon
pigeon de Guinée [ID: Columba guinea].
√dbt 2 [<Songhay d1baI]
d±bϪtGnd T-ka = dђb+tT-ka = dђb+tT-ka, Pl dђb+I-+nT-ka
Ω [nm] catfish sp. silure sp. [ID: Auchenoglanis occidentalis ; √¸I 1].
√dbt 3 [<Ar √dbt]
+dd+bϪtϪA-grm K-d T-ka, Pl +dd+bϪIϪ-!+nA-grm T-ka Ω a) [nm]
strategem, solution (to a problem) stratagème, solution [all dialects] [cf.
√mk 2] Ω b) [nm] case for holding drinking glasses caisse pour garder
des verres à boire [K-d] [cf. √mzttց].
55
√dby
Ϫ-d+bϪyK-d, Pl 1-d+bϪy-+nK-d Ω [nf] village village [K-d]
[especially a Songhay village]
t-Ϫ-d+bϪy-tA-grm K-d R T-ka[x⍾t-+-] T-md, Pl !-1-dbђyy (or:
!-1-db1)A-grm K-d R T-ka Ω a) [nf] town, village village [all
dialects] [cf. √׹tm 1] - poss of Pl: 1Sg !-1-db1-n1nR Ω b) [nf] very
small village très petit village [K-d].
√dd ### [for Centripetal allomorph -\dђd see √d 2; for prenominal Pl morpheme
ђddђdsee under ђd√d 4].
√dd 1 [N √dd]
-ђd+d-A-grm R T-ka = -d+d-T-md K K-d [Imprt ђdђdA-grm T-md,
LoImpfP -!-ђddϪd-A-grm K-d R T-md = -ђddϪd-T-ka] Ω [tr]
(e.g. dog) bite (sb); (insect) sting (sb) (chien etc.) mordre (qn); (insecte)
piquer (qn) [cf. √׹ws 1a, 1b, √kws, √kw1 2, √¸td, √mtd 2].
t-e-dedeA-grm R[x⍾t-+-] T-ka[x⍾t-+-], Pl !-1-dϪ d1x-en R
= !-1-d1dT-ka = !-1-dudA-grm Ω [nf, vbln of -ђd+d-].
e-m-+d+dIm = e-m-Ϫd+dA-grm, Pl 1-n-Ϫd+d-+nA-grm Ω [nm,
Agent] biter mordeur.
Ϫ-m-+ dϪdR T-ka, Pl 1-n-+dϪd-+nT-ka Ω [nm, Agent] biter
mordeur.
t-Ϫ -dudeK-d Ω [nf] (a) bite (une) morsure.
-ђmm-ђd+d-T-ka [Imprt n-+d+dT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫn-+dϪd-T-ka]
Ω [intr, Mediop] be bitten, have bites or bite marks on body ê. mordu,
avoir des morsures ou traces de morsures sur la peau. Caus √s-m-dd.
Ϫ-m-ђdђdT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђnn-ђd+d-].
-+tw-+d+d-A-grm R T-ka = -t+w-+d+d-A-grm [Imprt !ђx-ђdђd
A-grm R, LoImpfP -!-1!x-ђd1d-R T-ka = -!Ϫx-+dϪd-A-grm]
Ω [intr, Passive] be bitten ê. mordu.
Ϫ-tw-ђdђdA-grm R Ω [nm, vbln of -+!x-+d+d-].
-ђtt-ђd+d-T-ka [Imprt !-+d+dT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ!-+dϪd-T-ka]
Ω [intr, Passive] be bitten ê. mordu [the usual T-ka passive].
e-m-+tt-+d+dT-ka Ω [nm] one who is bitten qn qui est mordu.
Ϫ-t-ђdђdT-ka = Ϫ-t-ђdϪdT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ!!-ђd+d-].
-+nm-+d+d-T-ka = -n+m-+d+d-A-grm [Imprt nђn-ђdђdT-ka,
LoImpfP -!-1nn-ђd1d-T-ka] Ω [intr, Recip] bite each other se
mordre l’un l’autre.
Ϫ-nm-ђdϪdT-ka = Ϫ-nђm-ђdђdA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -+nn-+d+d-].
√dd 2
±dd±dK-d T-ka[x±...]T-md, Pl 1dd1d-+nA-grm T-ka T-md Ω [nm]
large waterskin (goatskin waterbag) grande outre pour l’eau [cf. √kst 1,
√skw 1, √nwt, √¸dd, √kst 1, √¸ 5, √k1k1 4, √z 8].
56
√dd 3a [homonyms √dd 4; N √dd]
-od+d-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt ϪdђdA-grm T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1dђd-
K-d T-ka = -!-Ϫd+d-A-grm] Ω [tr] push or press against (sth)
pousser ou appuyer sur (qch). Cf. noun √s-dd 2.
ϪddϪdA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -od+d-].
±ddudK-d R T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -od+d-].
√dd 3b
m-Ϫ dϪdK-d T-ka[xm-Ϫ...] Ω [nm] fit, convulsion (where one is unable to
speak); stiffness or inability to speak when awakened in middle of night
convulsion (où on est incapable de parler); raideur ou incapacité de
parler quand on est réveillé en pleine nuit.
√dd 4 [homonyms √dd 3a]
-o d+d-K-d [Reslt -od+d- K-d, Imprt ϪdђdK-d, LoImpfP -!-1dђd-
K-d] Ω [intr] (mount animal) be too slow (to reach destination on time)
(monture) ê. trop lent(e) pour arriver à temps.
±ddudK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -od+d-].
√dd 5
t-+ -dϪdϪGao Ω [nf] load on one side of donkey’s back chargement sur un
des deux côtés du dos de l’âne [normally paired with one on the other
side].
√dd 6 [variant of √d 4]
ђddђ dR T-ka T-md = dђ dK-d R Ω [Pl marker, in form a cpd initial; for exx
see under n+ndϪn √mndm, x+IϪ׹ √wt׹ 1, and !-1n+-ho
‘steamboat’ √hh].
√dd 7 [variant of √d 2]
-\dђdA-grm Im K T-md Ω [Centripetal clitic, allomorph in some dialects
between consonants, or phrase-finally after a consonant] - ex:
os+-n-\dђdA-grm they-Ma came ils sont venus (alongside
os+-n-\dA-grm); !-Ϫ-\dђd!-os+-!T-md she who comes
elle qui vient.
-\ddђdA-grm Im T-md Ω [Centripetal clitic, allomorph in some dialects
after a vowel].
√ddt [cf. KCh d11deIe, source unknown]
d± d+teGnd R T-ka T-md Ts, Pl d1d+Ie-!+nR T-md Ts Ω [nm] aquatic
grass sp. graminée aquatique sp. [ID: Vossia cuspidata].
√dds 1 [based on e-des √ds 1].
d+desT-ka Ω [nm, functioning like prep] beside, next to â côté de
[originally *d+-des but no longer segmentable] - ex: d+desn
⍾+-h+nT-ka beside the house à côté de la maison - with
pronominal: 1Sg d+des-1nT-ka; 3Sg d+des-ђnne!T-ka.
ђsd+desT-ka Ω [adv phrase] to the side à côté.
57
√dds 2 [perhaps a variant of √¸¸s]
+-dϪd±sT-ka, Pl 1-dudϪsT-ka Ω [nm] mini-dune, small rise in sand
mini-dune, petite élévation de sable.
√ddw [see variant √dw 6; <Ar √dwy]
t-Ϫ-d+dd+wϪ-t-tR T-ka[x⍾t-+-] T-md, Pl !-1-d+dd+xϪ-!-en
T-ka T-md Ω [nf] soluble ink (used by holy men and koranic students)
encre soluble (utilisé par les marabouts et par les élèves coraniques) [cf.
√md 5].
√dI 1 [N √dI]
Ϫ-duIA-grm K-d R[x⍾ђ-] T-ka[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-du1-ϪnA-grm K-d R
T-ka Ω a) [nm] long bone, esp. femur os long, surtout fémur [A-grm
K-d R] [the primary sense; such bones are good for sucking marrow] Ω b)
[nm] piece of bone (e.g. knuckle segment) segment d’os (phalange du
doigt, etc.) [T] [cf. √׹s 2] Ω c) [nm] marrow moelle [K-d T]
[secondary sense; cf. √x1bb, √xtb 1].
t-Ϫ -duI-tK-d T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-], Pl !-1-du1-enT-ka Ω [nf] segment
(of finger, of grass stem) between two joints partie (d’un doigt, d’une
tige de graminée) entre deux articulations.
√dI 2 [N √dI]
-+ddoI+-tA-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt du1ђ-!A-grm T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1du1u-!T-ka = -!-ϪdϪ1Ϫ-!A-grm] Ω [intr] (animal) be
slightly plump (animal) légèrement gras [cf. √dt 1]. Caus √s-dI.
Ø-+ddoIe-nT-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] plump un peu gras.
t-+ddoIe-tK-d T-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] plump un peu grasse.
+ddoI+-t-nenT-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] plump un peu gras.
+-dϪIuA-grm T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+ddo1+-!].
ђdduIuK-d Ω [nm] moderate plumpness état un peu gras.
√dIt 1 [N √dIt]
Ϫ-d+IotA-grm[x⍾+-] Im K-d R T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md, Pl. 1-d1ϪI
A-grm[x⍾ђ-¸ Im K[x⍾+-¸ R T-ka T-md = 1-dђ1I-ϪnK K-d
Ω [nm] pillow, cushion oreiller, coussin.
√dIt 2 [N √dIt]
dђIIђtA-grm Ω [prep] behind derrière [syn: dϪI√dt 1, dϪI+!√dtt]
√d-ց ### [for d+ցց = ђdd+ցց ‘sons of...’ see √ց 1].
√dց 1 [N √dց]
e-d+ցցA-grm K-d R T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md, Pl 1-d+ցց-ϪnA-grm K-d R
T-ka T-md Ω a) [nm] place, location; (sb’s, sth’s) place lieu, endroit;
place (de qn, de qch) [all dialects; cf. √hn-dց] - phrases: d+׹⍾+-d+ցց
en-d+׹T-md on the spot sur place - ђ¸¸+s-+׹e-d+ցց-ђnne!
T-ka I took his place j’ai pris sa place Ω b) [nm] (time, instance
(une) fois [A-grm] [syn: √1mt 2, !-ene √n 14, √hn-dց] - phrase:
ђss1n⍾Ø-d+ցց-ϪnA-grm twice deux fois.
58
t-e-d+ցց±-t-tK-d R, Pl !-1-d+ցցϪ-!-enR Ω [nf] small place
petit endroit [much less common form].
√dց 2 [positional variant of √dw 1]
d+ցցT-ka T-md Ω [prep, optionally replacing dϪx before vowel-initial noun]
under sous, au-dessous de - ex: d+ցց+Js1bT-md under the pocket
sous la poche; d+ցց⍾+-h+nT-ka under the house sous la maison.
√dց 3 [<Songhay duցu]
[Pl only:] dђցu -t+nK-d Ω [nmpl] incense encens [from rhizome of the
sedge Cyperus maculatus; syn: √¸t 2b, √1bxt]
√dցdց 1 [<dialectal Ar √dցdց, cf. Ar √dqq]
-ђddђցd+ց-K-d [Imprt d+ցd+ցK-d, LoImpfP -!-Ϫd+ցdϪց-K-d]
Ω [tr] break (sth) into pieces casser (qch) en morceaux [cf. √tz 1,
√t׹t׹].
Ϫ-dђցdђցK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђddђցd+ց-].
√dցdց 2 [<KCh duցuduցu]
duցudu ցuGnd Ω [nm] duck or goose (various spp.) canard ou oie
(plusieurs spp.)
√dցց [N √dցց has different sense]
t-Ϫ-dցϪk-k (or: t-ϪdցϪk-k)T-ka[xt-Ϫ...], Pl !-1-dցϪց-enT-ka
Ω [nm] raised flat sandy spot (use in es1 game) petite aire sabonneuse
surélevée (pour le jeu de es1) [√s 6].
√dց1 ### [see √dw1].
√dցm ### [see also √dցmn]
√dցm
dϪ ց+moR, Pl dϪց+no-!+nR Ω [nm] good-luck sign signe de bonne
fortune [e.g. slightly deformed livestock animal with extra horn or toe].
√dցmn [arguably √dցm or √ցm ; perhaps from prep d and Ϫ-¸+nϪ √¸m 1]
d+ցmϪn (or: d+ցmϪn)A-grm Ω [prep] beside, next to â côté de [syn:
e-des √ds 1] - with pronominal: 1Sg d+ցnϪn-1A-grm, 1Pl
d+ցnϪn-n+׹A-grm, 2MaSg d+ցnϪn-ђkA-grm, 3Sg d+ցnϪn-ђs
A-grm; ex with noun: d+ցnϪn+-h+nA-grm next to the house â
côté de la maison [arguably d+ցnϪn+-h+n].
√dցy [variant of √d¸ 2].
deց+yA-grm, Pl deց+y-!+nA-grm Ω [nm] tree sp. arbre sp. [ID:
Grewia bicolor, Tiliaceae].
√dցz 1 [cf. N √dցz]
-ђdց+z-T-ka [Imprt ђdցђzT-ka, LoImpfP -dϪցց+z-T-ka] Ω [intr] be
unhappy ê. mécontent.
Ϫ-d+ցϪzT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdց+z-].
udցϪzT-ka[xu...] Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdց+z-].
59
√dցz 2 [cf. N √dցz]
-ђdց+z-K-d [Imprt ђdցђzK-d, LoImpfP -dϪցց+z-K-d] Ω [intr] outdo
oneself, make a major effort s’efforcer sérieusement, appliquer tous ses
efforts.
ђddђցu z -+tK-d Ω [nf] major effort effort sérieux.
√d׹ 1a [DTF 1.239]
d+׹ Ω [prep] in, at dans, à [locative; pronounced dђ׹ before high vowel; in
some dialects (especially K) it reduces to dђ- before suffixes except 1Sg,
and therefore merges with pronominal forms of d ‘with’; see also irregular
cliticized -\d+I in frozen greeting nϪ-\d+I!-oJ+h-+d √1h 1 ‘how
are you?’] - with pronominal: 1Sg dђ׹-1 [all dialects], 3Sgdђ׹-ђs
T-ka = dђ-s K R, 1Pl d+ ׹-n+׹A-grm R.
√d׹ 1b [N √d׹ ; DTF 1.144-6; MGT 1.82 suggests original identity with dϪ׹ 2
‘also’]
-d+׹ Ω [definite-anaphoric suffix in demonstratives; very common in e.g.
d-1-hϪ-d+׹ ‘here’ √h 3, +n+IϪ-d+׹ √mt 3 ‘now’, Ϫ-x-en-d+׹
‘that (same) one’ √w 1].
√d׹ 2 [DTF 1.239]
dϪ׹A-grm T-ka = d+׹T-ka Ω [particle] also, too aussi.
√d׹ 3 (wd׹) [cf. perhaps N √d׹ « coller »]
-ђdd+׹-A-grm T-ka [Imprt ђddђ׹T-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫdd+׹-T-ka]
Ω [tr] drive out, chase away; run after (to catch up to) chasser (faire
fuir); suivre en courant (pour rattraper) [syn: √s¸ 1, √st׹ 1b].
udђ׹A-grm T-ka Ω [nf, vbln of -ђdd+׹-] .
t-Ϫ-wdђq-q (or: t-Ϫwdђq-q)T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-], Pl !-Ϫxdђ׹-enT-ka
= !-1-xdђ׹-enT-ka Ω [nf, vbln of -ђdd+׹-] chasing away fait
de chasser (faire fuir).
t-+-dϪ׹ϪA-grm T-ka, Pl !-1-dϪ׹1x-enT-ka Ω a) [nf, vbln of
-ђdd+׹-] running after (to catch up) fait de suivre en courant [T] Ω b)
[nf, vbln of -ђdd+׹-] chasing away fait de chasser (faire fuir) [A-grm].
√d׹ 4
-ђdu׹-A-grm T-ka = -+du׹- (or: -+do׹-) K-d R [Imprt udϪ׹A-grm K-d
R T-ka, LoImpfP -!-udϪ׹-A-grm K-d R T-ka] Ω [intr plus dative]
pay attention to, watch for; be wary of, try to avoid faire attention à; se
méfier de, essayer d’éviter [cf. √׹tI].
t-udϪq-qA-grm R T-ka, Pl !-udϪ׹-enT-ka Ω [nf, vbln of -ђdu׹-].
t-ђduq-qK-d Ω [nf, vbln of -ђdu׹-].
√d׹ 5a [cf. √d׹d׹ 1,2]
-ђdduqq+-tT-ka = -+dduqq+-tK-d R [Imprt du qqђ-!R T-ka,
LoImpfP -!-1dђqqu-!K-d R T-ka] Ω [tr] poke (with finger); point at
(sth) with finger donner une chiquenaude à; montrer (qch) du doigt.
60
-ђddђqq+-tA-grm [Imprt d+qq+-!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫd+qqϪ-!
A-grm] Ω [tr] [= -ђdduqq+-!].
Ϫ-dђqquR T-ka[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-dђqqu-!+nR T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of
-ђdduqq+-!].
+-dϪqquA-grm K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdduqq+-!].
t-+-du qq±-t-tR = t-ђ-duqq±-t-t T-ka = t-ђ-duqqe-t-tT-ka
= t-+-doqqe-t-tA-grm K-d, Pl !-1-duqqϪA-grm R T-ka
Ω [nf] (a) poke chiquenaude.
√d׹ 5b [cf. √d׹d׹ 1]
t-±ddeq-qA-grm, Pl !-1ddϪ׹A-grm[xt-±...] Ω [nf] armpit aisselle
[reduplicated variant under √d׹d׹ 1 below].
√d׹d׹ 1 [N √d׹ and √d׹d׹]
t-e-d+׹d+q-qIm K-d K-f R[x⍾t-+-] T-ka[x⍾t-+-]
= t-e-de׹deq-qT-md, Pl !-1-dђ׹dϪ׹Im K-f R T-ka
= !-1-de׹de׹-enT-md Ω [nf] armpit aisselle [unreduplicated
variant under √d׹ 5b above].
-ђddu׹d+׹-T-ka [Imprt du׹dђ׹T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1dђ׹du׹-T-ka]
Ω [tr] be tickled ê. chatouillé. Caus √s-d׹d׹.
√d׹d׹ 2 [either a semantic extension of √d׹d׹ 1, cf. also √d׹ 5a, or derived
from a term for male ostrich (N √d׹d׹)]
-ђddђ׹d+׹-K-d [Imprt d+׹d+׹K-d, LoImpfP -!-Ϫd+׹dϪ׹-K-d]
Ω [tr] constantly pick fights or start quarrels with (sb) provoquer
constamment des bagarres ou des querelles avec (qn).
Ϫ-dђ׹dђ׹K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђddђ׹d+׹-].
√d׹׹ [variant of √d׹׹ (and √d׹)]
Ϫ-d׹Ϫ׹A-grm[x⍾+-], Pl 1-d׹Ϫ׹-+nA-grm Ω [nm] mountain; stone
montagne, colline; pierre [cf. !-ђ-hun-! √hn 4, !-+-nϪsse √ms 3].
Ϫ-d׹Ϫ׹ђn⍾Ø-Io׹Ϫs Ω [place name, lit. “mountains of the Ifoghas
(clan)”] Adrar des Ifoghas [mountains of far north-eastern Mali].
t-Ϫd׹Ϫq-qA-grm Ω [nf] small hill; small stone petite colline; petite pierre.
√d׹m
t-Ϫ-d׹ђm-tK-d, Pl !-1-d׹ђn-enK-d Ω [nf] baobab tree baobab [ID:
Adansonia digitata; syn: √kds]
√d׹n [N √d׹n, cf. HassAr duqnu ; Songhay doon(u)]
t-Ϫ-dђ׹nu-t-tR T-md[x⍾t-ђ-], Pl !-1-dђ׹nu-!-enT-md
= !-1-dђ׹nϪT-ka Ω [nf] millet cream (beverage containing coarsely
ground millet, drunk as a snack between meals) crème de mil [syn: √d 9,
√dn 3, √sdt].
61
√d׹nցt [N √d׹n׹t]
-+d׹+֊׹+t-K-d T-ka = -d+׹+֊׹+t-A-grm [Imprt dђ׹ђ֊׹ђIA-grm
T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1d׹ђn׹1I-K-d T-ka = -!-1dђ׹ђ֊׹1I- A-grm]
Ω [intr] (milk, porridge) be full-strength (not diluted with water) (lait,
bouillie) ê. concentré (non dilué avec de l’eau) [opp: √dtt 2]. Caus
√s-d׹nցt.
Ϫ-xxØ-+d±׹+֊׹+t-+nA-grm Ω [nm+partpl] full-strength milk lait
concentré.
Ϫ-d׹ђ֊׹ђtA-grm K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+d׹+֊׹+I-].
√d׹t 1a [see variant √d׹t 1a; N √d׹t]
-ђd׹+t-A-grm K-d R [Imprt ђd׹ђIA-grm R, LoImpfP -dϪqq+I-A-grm
R] Ω [tr] paste, glue, stick (sth to sth else) afficher, coller (qch sur une
autre chose). Instr noun √s-d׹t.
Ϫ-d+׹ϪtA-grm R Ω [nm, vbln of -ђd׹+I-].
m-+d׹ϪtA-grm[xm-+...] K-d R, Pl n-+d׹ϪI-+nA-grm K-d R Ω [nm]
glue, paste colle [traditionally millet cake (tô) was used by blacksmiths
to glue hides; syn: √s-d׹t].
√d׹t 1b[see variant √d׹t 1b; N √d׹t]
-+ d׹Ϫt+-tK-d R = -d+׹Ϫt+-tA-grm = -d+׹ot+-tA-grm [Imprt
dђ׹uIђ-!A-grm R, LoImpfP -!-1d׹uIu-!K-d R =
-!-1dђ׹uI1-!A-grm] Ω a) [intr] (e.g. sheep) refuse to budge, resist
being pulled (mouton etc.) « s’incruster », refuser de bouger, résister
[K-d] Ω b) [intr] lie down and pretend to be asleep se coucher et faire
semblant de dormir [A-grm R] Ω c) [intr] lie low, avoid being seen se
blottir, éviter d’ê. vu [A-grm] [syn: see √bkm 1a].
Ϫ-d׹utuK-d R = Ϫ-dђ׹ut±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -+d׹ϪI+-!].
√d׹s [N √d׹s]
e-d+׹+sK-d T-ka, Pl 1-dђ׹s-ϪnT-ka Ω [nm] colostrum (first milk)
colostrum (premier lait) [from female animal in first day or two after
giving birth, often boiled into a paste and eaten; cf. √bts 2].
√d׹w(dәw) [<Ar √dәw]
+dd+׹wϪA-grm K-d T-md = +dd+әwϪT-ka, Pl +dd+әxϪ-!+nT-ka
Ω [nm] affront, offense, (uncalled-for) insult; impudent or outrageous
behavior offense, insulte; effronterie [cf. √dtt 1a] - phrase: 1-h-\e
+dd+׹xϪ he behaves outrageously towards him il a un comportement
offensant à son égard.
√d׹ynn(dәynn)
Ϫ-d+׹+ynϪnA-grm T-ka = Ϫ-d+ә+ynϪnT-ka = Ϫ-d+׹+ynonK-d, Pl
1-d+ә+ynϪn-+nA-grm T-ka Ω [nm] concave back (e.g. of person or
donkey) dos creux (de personne, d’âne, etc.)
√dh ### [for d-1-hϪ, d-1-henetc. see √d 5b].
62
√dh 1 [DTF 1.186-7 (fine sand); N √dh « colline »]
e-d+h±A-grm[x⍾+-] K-d R T-md = e-dђh±T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl
1-d+h-ϪnA-grm R T-md = 1-dђh1-!+nT-ka Ω a) [nm] fine sand
sable fin [K-d R T] [syn: √1bds, √1md 1b, √m11 1c, cf. √k1 4,
√t׹s 2; ‘hot sand’: √ss 2] Ω b) [nm] wet sandy area terrain
sablonneux mouillé [A-grm].
√dh 2 [N √d, DTF 1.137]
-ђdd+h-A-grm K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt ђddђhT-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫdd+h-K-d T-ka T-md] Ω [tr] pound (grain, in mortar, with
pestle) piler (céréales, dans un mortier, avec un pilon) [general term;
pounding of millet is done in several rounds separated by winnowing
and/or sifting; specific pounding techniques: √stI 2, √Ik 6, √¸tI¸tI,
√ssb, √stb, √bt׹ 2, √s׹n 1b, √nIs 3, √t׹ 2, √t׹nt׹ 1a; ‘mortar’:
√nd 5; ‘pestle’: √s׹n 1a; ‘crush (with stones)’ √zd 2]. Caus √s-dh or
√s-s-dh].
t-+-m-udђh-tR Ω [nf, Agent] woman who pounds (grain) pileuse
(femme qui pile les céréales).
udђhT-ka[xu...] A-grm R, Pl udhϪx-+nR T-ka = udh-Ϫn A-grm
Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdd+h-].
t-± dhϪw-tK-d Ω [nf, vbln of -ђdd+h-].
√dh 3 [variant of √d 9, perhaps crossed with √dh 3]
t-ђddϪ hR, Pl !-ђddϪh-!+nR Ω [nf] millet cream (beverage containing
coarsely ground millet, drunk as a snack between meals crème de mil
[esp. made by dry-cooking millet grains, then crushing them and mixing in
water or milk].
√dh 4 [N √dh]
-ђddђh+-tT-ka [Imprt d+h+-!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫd+hϪ-!T-ka] Ω a)
[intr] (e.g. Boscia beans, animal hide) be soaked (for hours or days) (pois
sauvages, peau, etc.) ê. trempé (pendant des heures ou des jours) Ω b) [tr]
soak (sth) at length tremper (qch) pendant longtemps.
Ϫ-dђh±T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђddђh+-!].
√dh¸(dhց) [see variant √hd¸; N √dbց; probable source of dialectal KS
add1h1¸¸1]
Ϫ-dhђ¸Im K-d T-ka Ts = Ϫ-dhђց A-grm[x⍾+-], Pl 1-dhђ¸-+nIm K-d
T-ka Ts Ω [nm] aardvark oryctérope [ID: Orycteropus afer; syn:
√1w1w 2].
√dh1 1 [N √dh1]
-ђdh+1-K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt ђdhђJA-grm T-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-dϪhh+J-T-ka] Ω [tr] help, provide assistance to aider, donner de
l’aide à [syn: √11 1].
+-m-Ϫ dhϪ1K-d R Ω [nm, Agent] helper, one who helps or assists qn qui
aide, secoureur, assistant.
63
t-Ϫ-dhђ1-tA-grm[x⍾t-+-] K-d T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-], Pl !-1-dhђJ-en
T-ka = !-1-dhϪJ A-grm Ω [nf] help, assistance aide.
√dh1 2 [variant of √hd1 2; N √d1]
Ϫ-dhϪ1 (or: ϪdhϪ1)A-grm[x⍾Ϫ-], Pl 1-dhϪJ-+nA-grm Ω [nm]
cheetah guépard.
√d-hn### [for d1-hensee d1 √d 5b].
√dhn 1 [<Ar √dhn ; N √dn]
-ђdh+n-A-grm T-ka [Imprt ђdhђnT-ka, LoImpfP -dϪhh+n-T-ka] Ω a)
[tr] grease, oil (skin, a surface) graisser, enduire (peau, surface) [cf.
√swy, √1bd 1, √ksy 1] Ω b) [intr] (surface, skin) be oiled, oily, greased
(surface, peau) ê. graissé, huileux.
Ϫ-dhђnA-grm[x⍾+-] T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdh+n-]
t-Ϫ-dhon-tA-grm K-d R T-md = t-Ϫ-dhun-tT-ka[x⍾t-ђ-], Pl
!-1-dhon-enR = !-1-dhun-enT-ka = !-1-dhϪnA-grm[x
⍾t-ђ-] Ω [nf] (animal) fat graisse (d’animal) [cf. √bsy, √sm 10].
√dhn 2 [N √dn]
t-Ϫ-dhϪn-tA-grm Gao Gnd K-d R T-ka[x⍾t-+-] T-md Ts, Pl
!-1-dhϪn-enR T-md Ts = !-1-dhϪnA-grm K-d T-ka T-md
Ω [nf] shrub sp. arbuste sp. [ID: Boscia senegalensis, has hard pea-like
seedsϪnsϪnthat can be soaked and cooked, fruits: √nsn, √mn 5,
√tbtb, e-k+nd+x].
√d¸ 1 (dց) [N √dց]
-ђd+¸-T-ka = -d+¸-K-d [Imprt ђdђ¸T-ka, LoImpfP -ђddϪ¸-T-ka
= -!-ђddϪ¸-K-d] Ω [tr] jab piquer. Instr nominal √s-d¸.
e-de¸R = e-deցA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђd+¸-].
t-e -de¸eR[x⍾t-+-] T-ka[x⍾t-+-], Pl !-1-d1¸R[x⍾t-ђ-] T-ka
Ω [nf] (a) jab (esp. with a spear); sharp pain (in side); puncture (e.g. in
leather) piqûre (surtout de lance); douleur aiguë (au flanc); piqûre (dans
une peau d’animal, etc.)
t-Ϫ -du¸eK-d, Pl t-±-du ¸¸K-d Ω [nf] [= !-e-de¸e].
t-e ddek-kR T-ka = t-±ddek-kA-grm[xt-±...], Pl !-1ddϪ¸R T-ka
= !-1-duցցA-grm Ω [nf] (a) jab (of sharp object), sting (of bee),
(medical) injection piqûre (d’objet pointu, d’abeille, de médecin)
[homonym ‘direction’ under √dk 2].
√d¸ 2 [see variant √dցy]
de¸e Gnd R T-ka T-md Ts, Pl de¸e-!+nR T-ka T-md Ts Ω [nm] tree sp.
arbre sp. [ID: Grewia bicolor, Tiliaceae; underside of leaf much lighter
than top; common only in the Gourma, but wood sold widely for clubs,
etc.; syn: √tws].
√d¸n [for verb see √s-d¸n ; N √dցn]
t-ђ-du¸+n-tT-ka, Pl !-1-du¸+n-enT-ka Ω [nf] (secret) signal (to sb)
signe (secret, dirigé à qn).
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√d¸ts (dցts) [see variants √¸¸ts, √¸dts ; N √dցtz]
+-d±¸t+sT-md = +-d±ցt+sA-grm, Pl 1-d1¸I+s-+nT-md
= 1-d1ցI+s-+nA-grm Ω [nm] hail(-stones) grêle.
√dk 1 [cf. √hn-s-dk]
-+dokϪ-T-ka [Imprt dukT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1duku-T-ka] Ω [intr] calm
down devenir calme, tranquille. Caus √s-dk 1.
Ϫ-dukT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+dokϪ-].
t-+-dϪk±-t-tT-ka, Pl !-1-dϪk1-!-enT-ka Ω a) [nf, vbln of
-+dokϪ-] Ω b) [nf] calm, relaxation calme, repos.
√dk 2a (wdk)[cf. √s-dk 2, √hn-s-dk ; perhaps from, or contaminated with,
*√d¸ (= *√dց) with k then generalizing from Sg, cf. N √d¸]
t-Ϫ-wdђk-k (or: t-Ϫwdђk-k)A-grm R T-ka[x⍾t-Ϫ...], Pl
!-1-xdђk-enA-grm R T-ka Ω a) [nf, vbln of -ђdd+k-] [R T] Ω b)
[nf] direction (of motion) direction, sens (d’un mouvement) [A-grm]
[see also under √dk 2b; syn: √s-d¸ 1b, √¸ 3, √h1 3c] - ex: 1-dk+J
!-Ϫxdђk-k!-ϪA-grm he took (= went off in) this direction il a
pris (= est parti dans) cette direction-ci.
t-e-ddek-kK-d Ω [nf] direction direction, sens [syn: √s-d¸ 1b].
√dk 2b (wdk) [perhaps denominative from ‘direction’ √dk 2a]
-ђdd+k-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt ђddђkT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫdd+k-T-ka]
Ω [tr, or intr plus locational] go and settle down (in an area), camp (for an
extended period) aller s’installer (dans une zone), faire un campement
(pendant une période de temps). Caus and Instr nominal √s-dk 2a,b.
udђk A-grm K-d, Pl udђk-+n A-grm = udkϪx-+n R Ω [nm, vbln of
-ђdd+k-].
t-Ϫ-wdђk-k (or: t-Ϫwdђk-k)R T-ka[x⍾t-Ϫ...], Pl !-1-xdђk-enR
T-ka Ω [nf, vbln of -ђdd+k-] [see also under √dk 2a].
√dk 3 [<Ful or Songhay]
deke R T-ka T-md = d±kϪA-grm, Pl deke-!+nR T-ka T-md
= d1kϪ-!+nA-grm Ω [nm] basket corbeille [types: √kb 3, √11y 2,
√tցs, √syh 1, √t׹m].
√dk 4 [variant of √¸k]
-ђddukk+-tA-grm [Imprt dukkђ-!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-1dukk1-!
A-grm] Ω [tr] fine, impose a fine on (sb) infliger une amende à (qn).
dukkeA-grm, Pl dukke-!+nA-grm Ω [nm, vbln] fine; act of fining
amende; fait d’infliger une amende.
√dk 5
Ϫ dkϪK-d[xϪ...] Ω [nm] bottom (of a container) fond (d’un récipient).
√dkd
dukϪddϪT-ka Ts, Pl dukϪddϪ-!+nT-ka Ts Ω [nm] bird sp. oiseau sp.
[ID: said by T speaker to have crest on nape, perhaps blue-faced mousebird
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(coliou huppé) Colius macrourus; however, Ts speaker suggests parrakeet,
Psittacula krameri].
√dkkm 1a [N √dkkm]
-+ dkϪk+m-K-d T-ka = -d+kϪk+m- A-grm [Imprt dђkukђnA-grm T-ka,
LoImpfP -!-1dkukun-T-ka = -!-1dђkuk1n-A-grm] Ω [intr]
sneak along or out; walk softly, noiselessly marcher ou sortir
furtivement; marcher doucement, sans faire de bruit. Caus √s-dkkm.
Ϫ-dkukђmK-d R T-ka = Ϫ-dђkukђmA-grm, Pl 1-dkukun-+nT-ka
Ω [nm, vbln of -+dkϪk+n-].
+-d+kϪk+mA-grm T-ka, Pl 1-d+kϪk+n-+nA-grm T-ka Ω a) [nm,
Agent] one who sneaks along qn qui marche furtivement Ω b) [nm] a
Tuareg group based near Léré (western Mali) une fraction touarègue vers
Léré.
√dk1 ### [variant of √tk1 ‘be higher’].
√dk1 1 [variant of √dk1].
-ђdk+1-A-grm [Imprt ђdkђJA-grm, LoImpfP -dϪkk+J-A-grm]
Ω [tr] pick up, gather, take (in hand) ramasser, prendre (dans la main).
Ϫ-d+kϪ1A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdk+J-].
√dk1 2 [N √dk1]
e-dekђ1A-grm K-d T-md T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-dukϪJA-grm T-ka T-md
Ω [nm] underside of hand (palm and fingers) dessous de la main (paume
et doigts).
-+ dok+1-K-d R T-ka = -ђddok+1-A-grm [Imprt dukђJA-grm K-d R
T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1dukuJ-K-d T-ka T-ka = -!-1duk1J-A-grm]
Ω a) [intr] (person, camel) have sore feet (after walking a lot) (personne,
chameau) avoir les pieds qui font mal (après avoir longtemps marché) [all
dialects] Ω b) [intr] be shoeless, have to walk barefoot manquer de
chaussures, ê. obligé de marcher pieds nus [A-grm]. Caus √s-dk1.
Ϫ-dukђ1A-grm K-d R T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+dok+J-].
√dk1k1 [variant of √k1k1 1 and √tk1k1]
Ϫ-dkђ1kђ1A-grm, Pl 1-dkђJkϪJA-grm Ω a) [nm] brain (as food or
object) cervelle [A-grm] Ω b) [nm] marrow moelle [A-grm].
t-Ϫ-dkђ1kђ1-tA-grm, Pl !-1-dkђJkϪJA-grm Ω [nf] [Dimin
< Ϫ-dkђJkђJ].
√dkmt [N √dkmt]
t-Ϫ-dђkmђt-tA-grm K-d R T-ka, Pl !-1-dђknϪIA-grm T-ka Ω a) [nf]
one of several small rings on an object through which a cord may be passed
to carry it un des petits anneaux sur un objet, par où l’on passe une corde
pour le porter [T] Ω b) [nf] outside corner (of e.g. a house) angle (de
maison etc.) [A-grm] Ω c) [nf] one of the four feet of a goatskin
(waterbag) une des pattes d’une peau de chèvre (= outre) [A-grm K-d]
[the feet can be tied into a knot, for hanging on a hook; drawing in DTF
1.189].
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√dkn [<Ar √dkk]
ђddђkkϪnK-d, Pl ђddђkkϪn-+nK-d Ω [nm] shop, store boutique [syn:
√btk (and √btց), √1xnt].
√dkt [N √dtk]
t-ђ -duktϪR T-ka = t-+ -doktϪK-d, Pl !-1-dukIϪx-enR T-ka
Ω [nf] ground millet (for eating as a snack or for millet cream) mil
écrasé (pour manger ou pour mettre dans la crème).
√dktmb [<KCh duu-kuIunbu]
dukђtumbuGnd] Ω [nm] fish sp. poisson sp. [sp. and term known by river
people; ID: Labeo senegalensis and L. coubie; syn: √d 11, cf. dђkuI+y].
√dkty [cf. du√d 5, dukђIunbu ; <KCh duu-koIey]
dђkut+yT-ka Ω [nm] fish sp. poisson sp. [ID: Labeo senegalensis].
√dksy
dϪkϪs±yϪGnd Ω [nm] fish sp. poisson sp. [ID: Distichodus brevipinnis;
syn: √d 13; apparently from a dialectal KCh cpd of daa(Distichodus)
and kos1ya(carp)].
√dky
-+dk+yy+-tK-d [Imprt dђkђyyђ-!K-d, LoImpfP -!-1dkђyy1-!K-d]
Ω [intr] (e.g. rice plants) be under surface of water; (sediments) settle (in
liquid) (plante de riz, etc.) ê. sous la surface de l’eau; (sédiments, dépôts)
se déposer (dans un liquide).
Ϫ-dkђyy±K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+dk+yy+-!].
√d1 1 [see also √hn-s-d1 ; N √d1]
-ђdd+1-A-grm K-d R T-ka T-md [Imprt ђddђJT-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫdd+J-K-d T-ka T-md] Ω [intr] play, have fun jouer, s’amuser
[cf. e-n-+sJ1 ‘game’ √s1 3].
+-m-u d+1R T-ka, Pl 1-n-ud+J-+nT-ka Ω [nm, Agent] player, one
who plays joueur, qn qui joue.
udђ1R Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdd+J-].
+dd+1A-grm[x+...] Im R[x+...] T-md[x+...] T-ka, Pl +dd+J-+nA-grm
Im R T-ka T-md Ω [nm] fun, game amusement, jeu - phrase: +¸
+dd+JT-md have fun! amuse-toi!
√d1 2a [N √d1]
-ђd+1-A-grm T-ka = -d+1-K-d T-md [Imprt ђdђJT-md, LoImpfP
-!-ђddϪJ-A-grm K-d T-md = -ђddϪJ-T-ka] Ω a) [intr] beg
mendier [A-grm K-d T] [cf. √¸ynn] Ω b) [intr] (hen) brood (sit on
eggs) (poule) couver [T] Ω c) [intr] (female animal) remain close to
newborn (animal femelle) rester près du nouveau-né [T].
e-m-+d+1A-grm K-d R T-ka, Pl 1-n+d+J-+nA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [nm,
Agent] beggar mendiant.
e-de1A-grm T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђd+J-].
67
t-Ϫ-m-ђd±1-tK-d T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] = t-Ϫ-m-+d±1-tA-grm, Pl
!-1-n-dϪJA-grm[x⍾t-ђ-] Ω [nf, vbln of -ђd+J-] begging
mendicité.
√d1 2b [see fused variant !-ђ-dJϪx √d1x]
t-ђdђ1Ϫ-xxTh, Pl !-ђdђJϪ-x-!enTh Ω [phrasal cpd nf, lit. “she
begs milk”] herb sp. with milky sap plante sp. à latex [ID: Euphorbia
hirta and E. forskalii, Euphorbiaceae; more variants under √x 1].
√d1 3 [N √d1]
dϪ1Ϫ-tA-grm Im K-d R T-ka (1Sg dϪ1Ϫ-t-+׹, 3MaPl dϪ1Ϫ-t-+n)
= -+ddϪ1+-tT-ka T-md [Imprt dϪJ+-!Im R T-ka T-md = d+J+-!
A-grm, ShImpf -+dϪJ+-!Im, LoImpfP -!-ϪdϪJϪ-!A-grm R T-ka
T-md] Ω [intr] be or become green or blue ê. ou devenir vert ou bleu.
dϪ1+-nT-ka = dϪ1e-nA-grm K K-d R Ω [partpl, MaSg] green, blue
vert, bleu - ex: eJJdϪJe-nA-grm green grass herbe verte.
dϪ1+-tT-ka = dϪ1e-tA-grm R Ω [partpl, FeSg] green, blue verte,
bleue.
dϪ1Ϫ-t-nenA-grm T-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] green, blue verts, bleus.
t-+ddϪ1+-t-tA-grm K-d T-ka, Pl !-+ddϪJ+-!-enT-ka Ω [nf]
greenness, blueness fait d’ê. vert ou bleu.
+-dϪ1ϪT-ka, Pl 1-dϪJϪ-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] a green or blue one un vert
ou un bleu.
t-+-dϪ1Ϫ-t-tT-ka, Pl !-1-dϪJϪ-!-enT-ka Ω [nf] a green or blue one
une verte ou bleue.
Ϫ-m+s-dϪ1ϪR, Pl 1-n+s-dϪJ-ϪnT-ka Ω [cpd nm] green (or blue) thing;
wearer of green chose verte (ou bleue); qn qui porte du vert.
√d1b [<Songhay]
de1buA-grm, Pl deJbu-!+nA-grm Ω [nm] fishhook hameçon [syn:
√ցցt 2].
√d1׹ 1
t-Ϫ-d+11Ϫq-qR T-ka[x⍾t-+-] T-md Ts, Pl !-1-d+JJϪ׹-enR T-ka
T-md Ts Ω [nf] cultivated beans (cow-peas) haricots (niébés) cultivés
[word used around Timbuktu; ID: Vigna unguiculata, grown in southern
Mali, hard peas sold in markets for cooking; syn: !-Ϫ-nsϪn-! √nsn].
t-Ϫ-d+11Ϫq-qђn⍾Ø-d+m-ϪnT-md Ω [cpd nf, lit. “... of gazelles”]
tall thin shrub sp. arbuste haut et mince sp. [uncommon term; ID: Senna
obtusifolia (= Cassia tora) according to GRGP; syn: cpd under √ht¸¸m].
√d1׹ 2 [N √d1׹]
Ϫ-d+1o׹K-d T-ka, Pl 1-dJϪ׹T-ka Ω [nm] muddy water (e.g. after
animals walk through) eau boueuse (après le passage des animaux, etc.)
68
√d1¸(d1ց) [N √d1ց]
-ђd1+¸-A-grm K-d T-ka = -ђd1+ց-A-grm [Imprt ђdJђ¸T-ka, LoImpfP
-dϪJJ+¸-T-ka] Ω [intr] make oneself pretty, adorn oneself
s’embellir, s’orner [cf. √s-hsk]. Caus √s-d1¸.
Ϫ-d+1Ϫ¸K-d R T-ka = Ϫ-d+1ϪցA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdJ+¸-].
Ϫ-d+1o¸R T-ka = Ϫ-d+1uցA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdJ+¸-].
√d11 1 [<Ar √d11]
ђddђ1±1T-ka = +dd+1±1A-grm K-d T-md, ђddђJ1J-+nT-ka = Pl
+dd+J1J-+nA-grm T-md Ω [nm] reason, cause (of sth) cause,
motif (de qch).
√d11 2 [see variant √11 6]
-ђd1+1-A-grm K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt ђdJђJT-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-dϪJJ+J-T-ka T-md] Ω [intr] dance danser [syn: √w1nkn, √w׹, cf.
√tkd 1].
d+11o1A-grm[xd+...] K-d R T-ka T-md, Pl d+JJoJ-+nA-grm T-ka
T-md Ω [nm] dance danse.
√d1w1 [<Fr de l’huile, probably via Songhay]
d±1w±1A-grm[xd±...] Im R T-ka[xd±...] T-md, Pl d1Jx1J-+nA-grm
T-ka T-md = d1Jx1J-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] cooking oil huile de cuisine
[syn: √zyt].
√d1x [contraction of phrasal cpd !-ђdђJϪ-xx from √d1 2b and √x 1].
t-ђ-d1ϪxGao Ω [nm] herb sp. with milky sap plante sp. à latex [ID:
probably variable, including erect Euphorbia hirta and prostrate E.
forskalii, Euphorbiaceae; for details see under √1׹ 1]
√dm 1 [N √dm]
±dђmA-grm[x±...] K-d R T-ka[x±...] T-md, Pl 1dnϪx-+nA-grm[x±...]
K-d R T-ka[x±...] T-md Ω [nm] face; sheet, page (of paper) visage;
page, feuille (de papier) - poss: 1Sg 1dђn-1nT-md - phrase:
oye-q-\q+y1+J1dђnђnn+ss1nϪ׹T-mdI leave you alone for
(the love of) God je te laisse tranquille pour (l’amour de) Dieu.
√dm 2a [probably based on the color of gazelles, √dm 2b]
d+mϪ-tA-grm (3MaSg d+mϪ-t, 1Pl n-ђdd+mϪ-t, 3MaPl d+mϪ-t-+n
A-grm) K-d T-ka (3MaSg d+mϪ-t, 1Sg d+mϪ-t-+׹T-ka) [Imprt
d+n+-!T-ka = d+nϪ-!A-grm, ShImpf -+dd+n+-!K-d, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫd+nϪ-!A-grm T-ka] Ω [intr] become light reddish brown
devenir brun clair teinté de rouge [cf. √bzw, √dt 5, √Iw 3, √׹w1 2].
d+me-nT-ka = d+me-nA-grm Ω [partpl, MaSg] light reddish brown
brun clair teinté de rouge.
d+me-tT-ka = d+me-tA-grm Ω [partpl, FeSg] light reddish brown
brun clair teinté de rouge.
69
d+mϪ-t-enA-grm T-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] light reddish brown brun clair
teinté de rouge.
t-+dd+m+-t-tT-ka Ω [nf] light reddish brown color couleur brun clair
teinté de rouge.
e-d+m± (or: ed+m±)A-grm[xe...] K-d T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-d+n1-!+n
A-grm[x⍾Ø-d+...] Ω [nm] light reddish brown animal animal brun
clair teinté de rouge [especially camel (A-grm T) or sheep (K-d); see also
√dm 2b below].
√dm 2b [for female see also √dmt ; N “edђm±”√dm« gazelle rufifrons ... »]
e-d+mIm K-d R T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md = e-d+mm Ts, Pl 1-d+n-ϪnIm R T-ka
T-md Ts Ω [nm] red-fronted gazelle gazelle à flancs roux [ID: Gazella
rufifrons, nowadays sometimes generalized to other gazelles; in parts of
Algeria the term may have covered G. cuvieri; cf. √nht 2, √¸t 5, √snkd,
√wsm].
t-e-d+m±-t-tA-grm R T-ka T-md = t-e-d+m±-tGnd, Pl
!-1-d+nϪ-!-enA-grm R T-ka T-md Ω [nf] female gazelle gazelle
femelle [used by some speakers for gazelles of either sex].
√dm 3 [for +-xϪdђn see √wdm].
+ցցϪdђmA-grm R T-ka T-md, Pl d+ցցϪdђnR Ω [nm] person, human
being personne, être humain [lit. “son of Adam”; Pl below; see also
+-xϪdђn √wdm]
d+ցցϪdђmT-ka T-md = ђdd+ցցϪdђmA-grm Ω [nmpl] humanity
(collective) l’humanité (collectif).
√dm 4a (wdm)[see also √dmdm 3; N √dm]
-ђdd+m-A-grm K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt ђddђnT-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫdd+n-A-grm T-ka T-md] Ω [intr] (liquid) drip (liquide)
goutter [cf. √db, √s-db].
udђmA-grm R T-ka[xu...] Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdd+n-].
eddϪmA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdd+n-].
t-Ϫ-wdђm-tT-ka Ω [nf, vbln of -ђdd+n-].
t-e ddϪm-tR T-ka[xt-e...] = t-eddem-tK-d, Pl !-1ddϪnK-d R[x
t-±...] T-ka[xt-±...] Ω [nf] drop (of liquid) goutte.
t-edd+m-tA-grm, Pl !-edd+n-enA-grm Ω [nf] [= !-eddϪn-!].
√dm 4b [N √dm]
-ђdum-T-ka [Imprt ђdunT-ka = udϪnT-ka, LoImpfP -!-udϪn-T-ka]
Ω [intr] (liquid, container) be drained or drunk to the last drop (liquide,
récipient) ê. vidé ou bu jusqu’à la dernière goutte [cf. √1mm 2, √skw 2,
√kty 2a]. Caus √s-dm.
t-ђdum-tT-ka, Pl !-udϪn-enT-ka Ω [nf, vbln of -ђdun-].
70
√dm 5 [sense from Songhay dun1, duna, but forms perhaps from √dm 6]
-+ddom+-tA-grm K-d R T-kaT-md [Imprt dunђ-!A-grm R T-ka T-md,
LoImpfP -!-1dunu-!K-d R T-ka T-md = -!-1dun1-!A-grm]
Ω [intr, tr] sow (e.g. millet seeds); plant and grow (e.g. grain) semer
(semis de mil, etc.); semer et cultiver (céréales etc.) [cf. √¸yk, √ItIt 1,
√nb1, √ws].
+-dϪmuA-grm R T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+ddon+-!].
t-+-dϪm±-t-tA-grm Ω [nf, vbln of -+ddon+-!].
+-dommA-grm K-d T-ka[x+-], Pl 1-donn-+nA-grm K-d T-ka
= 1-don-+nT-md Ω a) [nm, vbln of -+ddon+-!] Ω b) [in Pl also:]
seeds semences - phrase: +¸1-don-+nT-md do (= sow) the seeds
faire (= semer) les semis.
+-n+s-dϪmuR T-ka, Pl 1-nђs-dunϪR T-ka T-md Ω [nm, Agent] farmer
cultivateur.
√dm 6 [forms shared with √dm 5; N √dm]
-+ddom+-tA-grm K-d R T-ka [Imprt dunђ-!R A-grm T-ka T-md,
LoImpfP -!-1dunu-!K-d R T-ka T-md = -!-1dun1-!A-grm]
Ω [tr] drink (sth, like an animal); stick one’s mouth in (liquid, to drink)
boire (qch comme un animal); mettre la bouche dans (un liquide, pour le
boire).
+ -dϪmuK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+ddon+-!].
√dm 7 [see variant √dn ; DTF 1.200]
ђdd±m±K-d T-ka, Pl ђdd1n1-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] bazin (fine fabric for
boubous) bazin (tissu élégant pour les boubous).
√dmb [N “dђnbu” means « couscous »]
t-Ϫ-dђmbu-t-tR T-ka, Pl !-1-dђnbϪR T-ka[xt-ђ-] Ω a) [n] penis
pénis [T] [syn: see √zmby] Ω b) [n] tail queue [R] [cf. √1֊kw,
√smbd, √sw 1].
√dmbtk [see variant √dmbtky ; cf. Y dђndђn ‘see poorly in dim light’]
d+mb+tϪkuT-ka = d+mbϪ tϪkuR, Pl d+nb+IϪku-!+nT-ka Ω [nm]
inability to see in dim light, night blindness héméralopie.
-ђddђmb+ tϪk+-tK-d [Reslt -+dd1nb+IϪk+-!K-d, Imprt
dђnbђIukђ-!K-d, LoImpfP -!-1dђnbђIuku-!K-d]-ka Ω [intr]
be unable to see in dim light, have night blindness ê. héméralope.
Ϫ-dђmbђtukuT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђddђnb+IϪk+-!].
√dmbtky [variant of √dmbtk]
d+mb+tϪkuyA-grm Ω [nm] inability to see in dim light, night blindness
héméralopie.
√dmdm 1
-ђddђmd+m-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt d+nd+nA-grm T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫd+ndϪn- A-grm K-d T-ka] Ω [intr] (blade) be or become blunt
(lame) ê. ou devenir émoussé.
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Ϫ-dђmdђmA-grm K-d R T-ka T-md, Pl 1-dђnd1n-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbl
of -ђddђnd+n-].
Ϫ-dђmdϪmT-ka, Pl 1-dђndϪn-+nT-ka Ω blunt (blade) (lame) émoussé.
√dmdm 2 [see variants √dndm and √dmdn, cf. also √mdn 3; N √dmdm
« tremper la bouche ...» etc.]
-ђddђmd+m-T-ka [Imprt d+nd+nT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫd+ndϪn- T-ka]
Ω [intr] be or become mute ê. ou devenir muet [for A-grm see √dndm].
Ϫ-dђmdђmT-md, Pl 1-dђnd1n-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbl of -ђddђnd+n-].
t-+dd+md+m-tT-ka Ω [nf] muteness, being mute mutité.
Ϫ-dђmdϪmT-ka, Pl 1-dђndϪn-+nT-ka Ω [nm] mute (person)
(personne) muet(te).
√dmdm 3 [reduplication <√dm 4 ‘drip’]
ђddђmђddђmT-ka Ω [nm] light drizzle, a few drops of rain pluie très fine,
quelques gouttes de pluie [cf. √dbdb 1b, √hs 4].
√dmdn [variant of √dmdm 2 and √dndm]
-ђddђmd+n-T-ka [Imprt d+nd+nT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫd+ndϪn- T-ka]
Ω [intr] be or become mute ê. ou devenir muet.
Ϫ-dђmdϪnT-ka, Pl 1-dђndϪn-+nT-ka Ω [nm] mute (person); blunt
(blade) (personne) muet(te); (lame) émoussé.
√dm1 [N √dm1]
e-d+m+1R T-ka, Pl 1-d+n+J-+nR T-ka Ω [nm] sb’s usual cut (of a
slaughtered animal) la part habituelle de qn (un animal égorgé) [cf.
√¸dt 2].
√dmm 1
t-+-d+mϪmu-t-tA-grm K-d T-ka T-md R, Pl !-1-d+nϪnu-!-enT-ka
T-md = !-1-dnunϪR T-ka = !-1-dђnuna A-grm Ω a) [nf] nipple
mamelon [K-d T] [cf. √II] Ω b) [nf] sensitive spot (in the middle of a
wound) partie centrale (d’une plaie) [A-grm].
√dmm 2 [see variant √1mm 6]
t-ђ-du mum-tR T-ka = t-+-dumum-tT-md Ts, Pl !-1-dunun-enR
T-ka T-md Ts Ω [nf] tree sp. arbre sp. [ID: Diospyros mespiliformis,
Ebenaceae (ebony family); has a juicy, edible fruit with orange skin, black
seeds spit out].
+-dumumT-ka = ђ-du mumR, Pl 1-dunun-+nR T-ka Ω [nm] fruit of
!-+-dunun-! fruit de !-ђ-dunun-! [less common terms are
√In׹ 1, √1my, !-Ϫnђn-! √mm 1b, and √¸ndyn].
√dmndm [perhaps N √dmndm]
-+dm+nd+m+-tT-ka = -d+m+nd+m+-t A-grm [Imprt dђnђndђnђ-!
T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1dnђndђn1-!T-ka] Ω a) [tr] press oneself up
against (sth); (wind) blow continuously on (sth) s’appuyer contre (qch);
(vent) souffler constamment sur (qch) [T] Ω b) [tr] run after (sb who has
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just left, to catch up with him) courir pour rattraper (qn qui vient de
sortir) [A-grm].
Ϫ-dmђndђm± T—ka = Ϫ-dђmђndђm± A-grm Ω [nm, vbl of
-+dn+nd+n+-!].
√dmt 1 [N √dmt]
Ϫ-dmђtA-grm R[x⍾ђ-] T-ka[x⍾ђ-] T-md, Pl 1-dnђI-ϪnT-ka
= 1-dnϪI-+nA-grm[x⍾ђ-] K-d R T-ka T-md = ϪdnϪI-+nT-ka
Ω a) [nm] one side of chest (of body) un côté de la poitrine [all dialects]
[regular Pl 1-dnђI-Ϫn means ‘sides of chest’, irregular Pl 1-dnϪI-+n
means ‘(entire) chest’] Ω b) [nm] small dune petite dune [T-md].
t-Ϫ-dmђt-tA-grm K-d T-ka[xt-ђ-], Pl !-1-dnђI-enA-grm Ω a)
[nf] small dune petite dune [A-grm T-ka] Ω b) [nf] lower breast (meat
cut, with bones) poitrine inférieure (viande découpée, avec ses os) [K-d]
[from top of forelegs to ribs; DTF 1.203 with drawing].
√dmt 2 [N √dmt]
-ђddђm+t-T-ka [Imprt d+n+IT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫd+nϪI-T-ka]
Ω [intr] (calf) be tied by the head to cow’s front legs (while cow is being
milked) (veau) ê. attaché par la tête aux pattes de devant de la vache
(pendant qu’on la trait). Caus √s-dmt 2.
Ϫ-dђmђtT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђddђn+I-].
-ђddђmm+t-K-d [Imprt d+nn+IK-d, LoImpfP -!-Ϫd+nnϪI-K-d]
Ω [intr] [= -ђddђn+I-].
Ϫ-dђmmђtK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђddђnn+I-].
√dmt [irregular feminine of √dm 2b].
u-dђm±ttT-ka = u-dђm±t T-ka = +w-dђm±tt A-grm, Pl u-dnϪ!!T-ka
= u-dђn1!-+n T-ka = +x-dђn1!!-+n A-grm Ω [frozen cpd nm]
young male e-d+n gazelle faon, jeune gazelle mâle e-d+n.
t-u-dђm±t-tT-ka = t-+wdђm±tt A-grm, Pl !-u-dђn1!-enT-ka
= !-+xdђn1!!-en A-grm Ω [frozen cpd nf] young female e-d+n
gazelle jeune gazelle femelle e-d+n.
√dn ### [for -d1-n in demonstratives see √d 5]
√dn 1 [see also √mt-dn ; N √dn]
ϪdϪnA-grm[xϪ...] K-d T-md T-ka, Pl ϪdϪn-+nA-grm K-d T-ka T-md
Ω [nm] small intestine(s) intestin grêle.
ђbbϪnϪdϪn-+nT-ka = ϪbϪnϪdϪn-+nT-md Ω [cpd nm, lit.
“father of small intestine”] colon, big intestin côlon, gros intestin [syn:
√1my, cf. √b11ց].
ϪdϪnn⍾+-׹+ydT-ka Ω [cpd nm, lit. “... of goat kid”] immature pod of
Ϫ-hђkstree fruit non mûr de l’arbre Ϫ-hђks[uncommon cpd; ID:
Acacia tortilis spp. raddiana].
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√dn 2 [<Ar √dyn]
+dd±nA-grm[x+...] K-d T-md = ђdd±nT-md Ω [nm] religion, Islam
religion, islam.
√dn 3 [Songhay (KCh) doon]
do nR[xdo...], Pl don-!+nR Ω [nm] millet cream crème de mil
[beverage made with coarsely crushed millet grains; syn: √d 9, √d׹n,
√sdt].
√dn 4
Ϫ-dnuK-d T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-dn-ϪnT-ka Ω [nm] a warrior clan (tribe) of
the Gao and Kidal areas fraction guerrière de la zone de Gao et de Kidal.
√dn 5 [variant of √dm 7]
ђdd±n±A-grm, Pl ђdd1n1-!+nA-grm Ω [nm] bazin (fine fabric for
boubous) bazin (tissu élégant pour les boubous).
√dnd [cf. KCh dandaIa‘heap of garbage’]
+-dϪndϪA-grm K-d T-ka T-md, Pl 1-dϪnd-ϪnA-grm T-ka T-md Ω [nm]
pile of animal dung tas du fumier.
√dndm [variant of √dmdm 2]
-ђddђnd+m-A-grm [Imprt d+nd+nA-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫd+ndϪn-
A-grm] Ω [intr] be or become mute ê. ou devenir muet.
+-dϪndϪmA-grm, Pl 1-dϪndϪn-+nA-grm Ω [nm] mute (person)
(personne) muet(te).
t-Ϫ-dђndђm-tA-grm Ω [nf] muteness, being mute fait d’être muet.
√dnI [also in Songhay (e.g. KS den1u); DTF 1.206 “denfou” and “denba” for a
steamer covering on pots; N “denbu” glossed « couscous »]
d+nIuK-d[xd+...], Pl d+n1u-!+nK-d Ω [nm] couscous steamer
(earthenware, with large holes) couscoussier (marmite à vapeur, en terre
cuite, à grands trous) [cf. √1ksks, √Iwt].
√dnց [variant of √¸n¸ ; DTF 3.1324 √dnց ; N √nց « est, orient » suggests
connection with √myn¸ ‘east’]
dђnnђցA-grm Ω [prep] above, over au-dessus de [as in Tawellemmett] -
with pronominal: 1Sg dђnnђց-1A-grm, 2FePl dђnnђk-kn+!
A-grm, 3FePl dђnnђց-sn+!A-grm.
√dn׹
e-d+֊׹T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-d+֊׹-+nT-ka Ω [nm] lower slope of a dune
pente inférieure d’une dune [good place to have animals graze since the
shepherd can observe the entire herd].
√dn¸ [see variants J1n¸1 √1n¸ 2 and !-Ϫ-¸ђnd1-! √¸nd 1; probably
<Songhay d1n¸1, J1n¸1]
t-ђ-dђn¸±-t-tT-ka = t-+-d± n¸±-tGnd Ω [nf] zaban, woody
climbing vine whose fruits can be sucked zabanier (liane du fruit zaban)
[ID: Saba senegalensis, grows in southern and central Mali, fruits brought
north for sale in cities].
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dђn¸±T-ka, Pl dђn¸1-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] zaban fruit zaban (fruit).
√dnk ### [for Ϫ-dђ֊k1 see √dnky]
√dnk 1
-ђddu֊k+-tA-grm T-ka = -+ddu֊k+-tK-d [Imprt du֊kђ-!A-grm
K-dT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1dђ֊ku-!K-dT-ka = -!-Ϫd+֊kϪ-! A-grm]
Ω [intr] bend over (forward) s’incliner (en avant) [cf. √s-¸d 1].
Ϫ-dђ֊kuA-grm R T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђddu֊k+-!].
+-dϪ֊kuA-grm K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђddu֊k+-!].
√dnk 2
+-dϪ֊k±R T-ka, Pl 1-dϪ֊k1-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] strong full-grown donkey
âne adulte fort.
√dnky [N √dnky]
-ђddђ֊k+y-K-d T-ka [Imprt d+֊k+yT-ka = dђ֊kђyA-grm, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫd+֊kϪy-A-grm T-ka] Ω a) [tr] walk or run into, bump into; fall
into (pit) se heurter contre; tomber dans (un fossé) [K-d T] Ω b) [tr]
compel (sb) forcer, obliger (qn) [A-grm].
Ϫ-dђ֊kђy (or: ...k±)A-grm K-d T-ka[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-dђ֊k1y-+n A-grm
T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђddђ֊k+y-].
√dnn [N √dnn]
t-+-dϪnϪn-tT-ka T-md Ts = t-+-dϪnђn-tA-grm Gao Th, Pl
!-1-dϪnϪn-enT-md Ts = !-1-dunϪnA-grm T-ka T-md Th
Ω [nf] shrub or tree sp. of wet areas arbuste ou arbre sp. des lieux
humides [ID: Cordia sinensis].
+-dϪnϪnT-md, Pl 1-dϪnϪn-+nT-md Ω [nm] fruit of !-+-dϪnϪn-!
fruit de !-+-dϪnϪn-!.
√dnt [<Ar √dny, see also +ddunyϪ √dny]
ђdd±n+tT-ka = +dd±n+tA-grm K-d Im R T-md Ω [nmpl] people gens
[the usual term for this sense (whereas Y has Ϫ-׹+JϪk); for Sg ‘person’
see √wdm, cf. +ցցϪdђn √dm 3].
√dny [<Ar √dny ; historically related to +dd1n+! ; N ђddђne! √dnt « Ce
Bas Monde »]
+ddunyϪA-grm K-d T-md = ђddunyϪT-ka Ω a) [nf, no Pl] (the) world;
life (here on earth) (le) monde; la vie (de ce monde) [opp: √1xtt] Ω b)
[nmpl] people les gens [collective, less common than √dnt in this
sense].
cpd: +ցց+ddunyϪT-md Ω [cpd nm, lit. “son of ...”] human being être
humain.
√dt ### [for preposition d+I- or dђI- ‘with’ before pronominal, see √d 1; for
1dI1 see √dtw]
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√dt 1a [homonyms √dt 1b, √dt 5 ‘brown’; cf. √dhn ; N √dt, DTF 1.229]
-ђddђt+-tA-grm K-d R T-ka T-md [Reslt -ђddђI+-!K-d, Imprt
d+I+-!A-grm K-d T-ka T-md, ShImpf -+ dd+I+-! R (3MaPl
+dd+Ie-nR), LoImpfP -!-Ϫ d+IϪ-!A-grm K-d T-ka T-md]
Ω [intr] (animal) be plump, fatty; (wild grains) be rich (in nutrients)
(animal) ê. gras; (grains sauvages) ê. riche (en vitamines) [cf. √dI 2].
Caus √s-dt 1.
±-ddђte-nA-grm Ω [partpl, MaSg] plump gras.
t-ђddђte-tT-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] plump grasse.
ђddђt+-t-nenA-grm Ω [partpl, Pl] plump gras.
Ϫ-dђt±A-grm T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђddђI+-! ; see also under √dt 5].
t-+dd+t+-t-tA-grm Ω [nf] plumpness fait d’ê. gras [more common
homonym under √dt 5].
√dt 1b [homonyms √dt 1a, √dt 5 ‘brown’; cf. √dhn ; N √dt, DTF 1.229]
-ђddђt+-tT-ka [Imprt d+I+-!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫd+IϪ-!A-grm K-d
T-ka] Ω [intr] (sb) be upset (with sb), hold a grudge (against sb) (qn) ê.
fâché (avec qn), garder rancune (contre qn) [cf. √dkt 1, √ցts 1, √׹ 6,
√kyd].
√dt 2 [N √dt]
±detA-grm[x±...] Gao K-d[x±...] T-md T-ka[x±...], Pl 1deI-+n
A-grm[x±...] K-d T-ka T-md Ω [nm] below, bottom fond, partie
inférieure [cpd: see √h1 3a].
±detђn⍾t-+-se¸±-t-tT-ka Ω [cpd nm] bottom or underside of bed
fond ou dessous d’un lit.
√dt 3
t-Ϫ-dϪtϪ (or: t-ϪdϪtϪ)K-d T-ka T-md = t-+-dϪ tϪR, Pl
!-1-dϪI1x-enK-d R T-md = !-ϪdϪI1x-enT-ka Ω [nf] wooden
box covered with hide (for tea) boîte en bois couverte de peau (pour le
thé) [cf. √htn (and √tn 2), verb √std 1a].
√dt 4 [N √dt]
-ђdd+t-A-grm T-ka [Reslt -ђddϪ I- K-d, Imprt ђddђIT-ka, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫdd+I-T-ka] Ω [intr] be alive ê. vivant [for ‘dwell’ see √z׹ 1].
Caus √s-dt 2.
-ђdd+t-(+ -\ђdd-)T-ka Ω [intr] survive survivre.
±-ddϪt-+nA-grm K-d Ω [partpl, MaSg] alive, living vivant.
t-ђddϪt-+tT-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] alive, living vivante.
ђddϪt-nenA-grm Ω [partpl, Pl] alive, living vivant(e)s.
udђtK-d R Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdd+I-].
ђ-m-ud+tT-ka = +-m-ud+tA-grm Im R, Pl 1-n-ud+I-+nA-grm Im
T-ka Ω [nm] creature, living being (human or animal) créature, être
vivant (personne ou animal).
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t-ђ-m-udteT-ka = t-+-m-udteA-grm K K-d, Pl !-1-n-udIϪx-en
A-grm K-d T-ka Ω [nf] life, living, being alive; conditions of living
vie, fait d’ê. vivant; conditions de vie.
√dt 5a [homonyms √dt 1a-b; sense probably based on color of antelope
(√dt 5b); DTF 1.230 « alezan doré » (i.e. golden chestnut color]
d+tϪ-tA-grm R T-ka [Imprt d+I+-!R T-ka = dђIђ-! A-grm, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫd+IϪ-!A-grm R T-ka] Ω [intr] become dark brown devenir
brun foncé [shades of ‘brown’: √bzw, √bnw 2, √dm, √Iw 3, √׹w1
√׹ndw].
d+te-nA-grm Ω [partpl, MaSg] dark brown brun foncé.
d+te-tA-grm Ω [partpl, FeSg] dark brown brun foncé.
d+tϪ-t-ne-nA-grm Ω [partpl, Pl] dark brown brun foncé.
Ϫ-dђt± A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of d+IϪ-! ; see also under √dt 1a].
t-+dd+t+-t-tA-grm K-d T-ka, Pl !-+dd+I+-!-enT-ka Ω [nf] dark
brown color couleur brun foncé.
e-d+t±A-grm R[x⍾+-] T-ka = e-dђt±T-ka, Pl 1-d+I1-!+nR
= 1-dђI1-!+nT-ka = 1-d+I-ϪnA-grm T-ka Ω a) [nm] dark-
brown animal (esp. camel) animal (surtout chameau) brun foncé Ω b)
[nm] [specifically male antelope, see !-e-d+I1-!-!below].
t-e-d+t±-t-tGao, Pl !-1-d+IϪ-!-en Ω [nf] dark-brown female
animal animal femelle (surtout chameau) brun foncé [for more specific
sense see √dt 5b].
√dt 5b [N “edђt±” and TNEBF 272 (topi), DTF 1.230 (oryx)]
t-e-d+t±-t-tGao Gnd T-ka Ts = t-e-dђt±-t-tT-ka, Pl
!-1-d+IϪ-!-enGao T-ka Ts Ω [nf] large antelope sp. grande
antilope sp. [ID: variably the topi, Damaliscus lunatus korrigum or the
desert-dwelling oryx, Oryx dammah; cf. oI+¸ √t¸ 4].
√dt 6 [homonym (of Pl) √dt 7; cf. √dtw]
t-ϪdteA-grm[xt-Ϫ...] Im K-d T-ka, Pl !-ϪdI1x-enA-grm Im T-ka
Ω [nf] co-wife coépouse [relationship between two women married to
the same husband, usually raising their children in separate nuclear
families (called !-ϪknϪ in Niger); cf. !-ekne √kn 3].
√dt 7 [homonym (of Pl) √dt 6; DTF 1.230]
t-Ϫ dtϪK-f, Pl !-ϪdI1x-enK-f Ω [nf] young shoot of doum palm jeune
pousse de palmier doum [cf. √kI 4].
√dt 8 [N “adt±” etc. √dt]
Ϫ-dђt (or: Ϫ-d+t)A-grm[x⍾+-] K-d = Ϫ-dђtR[x⍾ђ-] T-ka[x⍾ђ-]
= ђ-dђtK[x⍾ђ-], Pl edI-ϪnA-grm[xe...] T-ka[xe...]
= 1-dI-ϪnK K-d = 1-d+I-Ϫn(or: 1-dђI-Ϫn)R Ω [nm] bruises
and cuts (on the bottom of the foot) gerçures et déchirures (sur le
dessous du pied).
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√dt 9 [cf. √dtdt 1; N √dt]
-o d+t-K-d T-ka [Imprt ϪdђIT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1dђI-T-ka] Ω [intr
plus dative] push or press down hard on (sth) appuyer sur (qch) en
pressant fortement [e.g. pushing down on the head of an animal].
±ddutK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -od+I-].
√dtb [cf. √dtb ; N √dtb has a different sense]
-ђddђtb+-tA-grm T-ka [Imprt d+Ib+-!A-grm T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫd+IbϪ-!A-grm T-ka] Ω a) [intr] gallop, sprint, run at full speed
galoper, courir à toute allure [K-d T] Ω b) [intr] be driven to exhaustion
(by hard work etc.) ê. épuisé (par le travail, etc.) Caus √s-dtb.
Ϫ-dђtb±A-grm K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђddђIb+-!].
t-e-d+ tb±-t-tR T-ka[x⍾t-+-], Pl !-1-dђIbϪR Ω [nf] full gallop,
full speed grand galop, vitesse maximum.
t-+-dϪtb±-t-tK-d Ω [nf] [= !-e-d+Ib1-!-!].
√dtdt 1 [homonyms √dtdt 2; Rdp of √dt 9; cf. Y d+Id+I ‘press (sb)’]
-ђddђtd+t-T-ka [Imprt d+Id+IT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫd+IdϪI-T-ka]
Ω a) [tr] press (sb), ask (sb) insistently (for a favor) presser (qn),
demander (un service) constamment à (qn) [T-ka] Ω b) [tr] reproach (sb)
strongly; menace (sb) verbally gronder (qn); menacer (qn) verbalement
[‘menace’: √s-mhd].
Ϫ-dђtdђtT-ka, Pl 1-dђId1I-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђddђId+I-].
√dtdt 2 [homonyms √dtdt 1]
-ђddђtd+t-A-grm [Imprt d+Id+IT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫd+IdϪI-
A-grm] Ω [tr] sew up (quickly and sloppily) coudre (grossièrement).
Ϫ-dђtdђtA-grm, Pl 1-dђIdϪIA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђddђId+I-].
√dtI 1a [homonym √dtI 1b; N √dtI]
e-d+t+IA-grm Gao K-d R T-ka T-md, Pl 1-d+I+1-+nT-md
= 1-dђI1-ϪnA-grm Gao K-d R T-ka Ω a) [nm] front tooth dent de
devant [all dialects] [syn √ktI 3; ‘tooth’: √sn 3] Ω b) [nm] strong bull
bœuf fort [T].
√dtI 1b[N √dtI, DTF 4.1582]
e-d+t+IA-grm K-d, Pl 1-dђI1-ϪnA-grm K-d Ω [nm] freed slave
esclave affranchi [A-grm K-d] [homonym √dtI 1a; cf. √׹w1 1, √ktI]
-ђddђtI+-t A-grm K-d [Imprt d+I1+-!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫd+I1Ϫ-!
A-grm] Ω [intr] (slave) be freed, emancipated (esclave) ê. affranchi [cf.
√׹w1 1]. Caus √s-dtI.
Ϫ-dђtI± A-grm K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђddђI1+-!].
e-n-+ddetI±T-ka = e-n-+dd+tIeA-grm, Pl 1-n-ђdduI1ϪT-ka
= 1-n-ђddђI1ϪA-grm Ω [nm] a freed slave (un) affranchi.
√dtց ### [see √dt¸ (and √¸td )]
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√dt׹ 1 [N √dt׹]
-ђdt+׹-T-ka [Imprt ђdIђ׹T-ka, LoImpfP -dϪII+׹-T-ka] Ω a) [tr]
adorn with ornaments orner [e.g. with brass ornaments] Ω b) [intr] be
adorned ê. orné.
dϪto׹ (or: dϪtu׹) K-d T-ka[xdϪ...] Ω [nm] brass; brass bowl carried by
camel-riders laiton; écuelle en laiton portée par les chameliers.
√dt׹ 2
dђtu׹ (or: d+to׹) K-d T-ka Ω [clause-initial particle] nearly presque,
faillir [cf. √hyd׹] - ex: dђIu׹ode-׹T-ka I nearly fell j’ai failli
tomber.
√dt׹1 [variant of √dt׹1 ; N √dt׹1]
-ђddђt׹+1-A-grm [Imprt dђI׹ђJA-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫd+I׹ϪJ-
A-grm] Ω [intr] be or become blind ê. ou devenir aveugle.
e-m-+ddet׹ђ1K-d = +-m-+ddet׹ђ1A-grm, Pl 1-n-ђdduI׹ϪJ
A-grm K-d Ω [nm, Agent] blind man (un) aveugle - phrase: Ϫ-JyϪd
n⍾+-n-+ddeI׹ђJA-grm, Pl 1-JyϪd-+nђn⍾Ø-n-ђdduI׹ϪJ
A-grm blind boy garçon aveugle.
t-+-m-+ddet׹ђ1-tA-grm, Pl !-1-n-ђdduI׹ϪJA-grm Ω [nf,
Agent] blind woman (une) aveugle.
t-+dd+t׹+1-tK-d = t-+dd+t׹ђ1-tA-grm Ω [nf] blindness cécité.
√dthn [N √dtn]
-ђdduth+n-A-grm T-ka = -+dduth+n-K-d [Imprt duIhђnA-grm
T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1dђIhun-T-ka = -!-Ϫd+IhϪn-A-grm T-ka]
Ω [tr] want (sth), wish to have (sth) désirer (qch), avoir envie de (qch).
Caus √s-dthn (simple tr ‘desire’ in some dialects). Caus √s-dthn.
Ϫ-duthђnT-ka[x⍾ђ-] A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdduIh+n-].
dethϪnA-grm[xde...] K-d R[xde...] T-ka, Pl deIhϪn-+nT-ka Ω [nm]
(a) wish, (a) desire désir, souhait - proverb: deIhϪn!-o1\-e
!-ђJϪT-ka having is better than wanting avoir vaut mieux que
désirer.
+ wdethϪnR Ω [cpd nm, lit. “son of ...”] one who wants (everything) qn
qui désire (tout).
√dt¸ (dtց) [see variant √¸td ; N √dtց]
-ђdt+¸-K-d R = -ђdt+ց-A-grm [Imprt ђdIђ¸K-d R = ђdIђցA-grm,
LoImpfP -dϪII+¸-K-d R = -dϪII+ց-A-grm] Ω [intr plus dative]
disappear from the view of (sb); (event) happen unbeknownst to (sb)
disparaître de la vue de (qn); (incident) avoir lieu à l’insu de (qn) - ex:
1-dIϪց-\Ϫ-sA-grm = 1-dIϪ¸-\Ϫ-sK-d it has happened
unbeknownst to him; he is unaware of it cela a eu lieu à son insu; il
l’ignore.
Ϫ-d+tϪ¸R = Ϫ-d+tϪցA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdI+¸-].
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√dtm 1 [N √dtm, DTF 1.232]
t-Ϫ-dtђm-tT-ka, Pl !-1-dIϪnK-d T-ka Ω [nf] fold in skin repli de la
peau [associated with well-fed pregnant women].
√dtm 2 [Y e-d+Ien ‘cool wind’]
e-d+temK-d T-ka T-md, Pl 1-d+Ien-+nT-ka T-md = 1-dIϪnT-ka
Ω [nm] cool wind vent frais.
√dtms [DTF 1.233 √dtms]
-+ dtϪm+s-K-d [Imprt dђIunђsK-d, LoImpfP -!-1dI1nus-K-d]
Ω [intr] smile sourire [syn: √kmzkmz , cf. √s-ktys].
Ϫ-dtumђsK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+dIϪn+s-].
t-e-d+temϪs-tK-d, Pl !-1-d+IenϪs-enK-d Ω [nf] (a) smile (un)
sourire.
√dtn¸
dђtђn¸± Gao = dђtђnց± Gao Ω [nm] large pestle with thick end (for fine
pounding of burrgrass) grand pilon épais de bout (pour piler le cram-
cram en poudre fine).
√dttm 1 [homonyms √dttm 2; N √dttm]
-+ dtϪt+m-K-d R T-ka [Imprt dђIuIђnR T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1dIuIun-
K-d R T-ka] Ω a) [intr] (thick liquid) form lines (e.g. running down a
wall) (liquide épais) couler en petites lignes (sur un mur etc.) [all
dialects] Ω b) [tr] (herder) have (sheep, goats) graze alternately on one
side then the other (of a valley between dune ridges) (berger) faire paître
(moutons, chèvres) d’un côté plus de l’autre, en alternance (dans une
vallée entre deux dunes). Caus √s-dttm.
Ϫ-dtutђmK-d R T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+ dIϪI+n-].
√dttm 2 [homonyms √dttm 1 adjusting for dialectal phonology]
-d+tϪt+m-A-grm [Imprt dђIuIђnA-grm, LoImpfP -!-1dIuIun-T-ka
= -!-1dIuI1n-A-grm] Ω [intr] croon (sing sentimentally)
chantonner (chansons sentimentales).
Ϫ-dђtutђmA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -+dIϪI+n-].
√dts 1 [N √dts]
dђtus-A-grm K-d T-ka = d+tusR [Imprt 1 dIϪsA-grm K-d R T-ka,
LoImpfP -!-1dIϪs-K-d T-ka = -!-Ϫd+IϪs-A-grm] Ω [intr] be
few, not much ê. en quantité infime, ê. peu, ê. peu nombreux. Caus
√s-dts 1.
dђtus-+nA-grm T-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] few, little (not much) infime,
peu nombreux.
dђtus-+tA-grm T-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] few, little (not much) infime,
peu nombreuse.
dђtus-nenA-grm T-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] few peu nombreux.
t-ђ-dtђseT-ka Ω [nf] fewness, being not much fait d’ê. peu ou peu
nombreux.
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√dts 2 [see also under √dts 3; N √dts]
Ϫ-d+tϪsA-grm Gao Gnd K-d R T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md Th Ts, Pl 1-d+IϪs-+n
T-md Ts 1-dђIs-ϪnA-grm K-d R Th T-ka T-md Ω [nm] shrub sp.
(bdellium tree) arbuste sp. [ID: Commiphora africana, Burseraceae
(similar to myrrh), source of bdellium resin √mt1xtburnt as incense;
fruit √bsn¸].
√dts 3
-ђdt+s-K-d [Imprt ђdIђsK-d, LoImpfP -dϪII+s-K-d] Ω [intr plus
prep d+׹] (sb) lunge at (sb) with a punch; (young camel) jump at and kick
(e.g. sheep) with front legs (qn) sauter vers (qn) pour lui donner un coup
de poing; (chamelon) sauter vers (un mouton, etc.) en lui donnant un coup
des pattes de devant [‘kick’: see √dys]. Cf. √s-dts 2.
Ϫ-d+tϪsK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdI+s-] [see also under √dts 2].
√dts [N √dtz]
Ϫ-dђt±s A-grm K-d T-ka[x⍾ђ-] = Ϫ-d+t±sIm R = Ϫ-d+t±h
y
K-f, Pl
1-dђI1s-+nT-ka = 1-dђIs-ϪnIm R = 1-dIϪs K-d T-ka[x⍾ђ-]
= 1-dђIϪs A-grm Ω a) [nm] tracks, footprints (human or animal)
traces (d’animal ou de personne) [A-grm K-d T] [cf. √k1 7b, √sm 1]
Ω b) [nm] camel tracks traces de chameau [K-d R] Ω c) [nm] scar
cicatrice [T].
√dtw [related to √dt 6; N √dtw]
-ђdt±w-T-ka [Imprt 1dIϪxT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1dIϪx-T-ka] Ω [intr]
become a co-wife devenir une coépouse - ex: !-ђdI1xT-ka she
became a co-wife elle est devenue une coépouse. Caus √s-dtw.
±dt±T-ka[x±...] Ω [nm] being a co-wife fait d’ê. coépouse.
-ђdt+w-K-d [Imprt ђdIђxK-d, LoImpfP -dϪII+x-K-d] Ω [tr] (co-
wives) share (a husband) (coépouses) avoir en commun (un mari).
Ϫ-d+tϪwK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdI+x-].
√ds 1a [homonyms √ds 1b-c, √ds 4; N √ds]
e-desT-ka, Pl 1-des-+nT-ka Ω [nm] part, portion (of sth) partie (de
qch) [see also under √ds 1b; cf. √¸bs, √zn, √stt, √st 3].
√ds 1b [homonyms √ds 1a,c, √ds 4l variant d+des √dds 1]
e-desGao K K-d R T-md Ω [prep in nominal form, followed by possessed or
dative noun, or a pronominal object or dative] beside, next to â côté de
[for A-grm see d+ցnϪn] - with pron: 1Sg e-des-\hϪ-h1K-d R T-md
= edes-1K-f = edes-1nK-d R; 3Sg e-des-ђnne!K-f; 1Pl
e-des-,hϪ-n+׹K-f R; 3MaPl e-de s-\hϪ-s+nK- f
= e-des-\hϪ-ss+nR - with noun: e-desy⍾+-h+nK-d next to
the house â côté de la maison.
se-desR T-ka Ω [adv phrase] to the side, separately à côté, à part.
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±des-Im Ω [prep] [= e-des] - with pron: 1Sg 1des-\Ϫ-h1Im; 3Sg
1des-\Ϫ-sIm.
t-e-des-tT-md Ω [nf, attested as composite prep with Instr s] - ex: s
!-e-des-!-1nT-md beside me à côté de moi.
√ds 1c [homonym under √ds 1a]
e-desT-ka, Pl 1-des-+nT-ka Ω [nm] troop, band (of fighters) troupe
(de guerriers).
√ds 2 [N √ds or √ds]
t-+-dϪs-tA-grm K-d T-ka T-md Ts, (rare) Pl !-1-dϪss-enTs Ω [nf]
mosquito(es) moustique(s) [Sg form used as collective, Pl often
unelicitable].
√ds 3 [cf. N √ds (cf. N √dz)]
-ђdd+s-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt ђddђsT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫdd+s-T-ka]
Ω a) [tr] weave (e.g. winnowing van, mat, thatch hut) tisser (van, natte,
côté d’une case en paille, etc.) [A-grm K-d] [cf. √1m 2 ‘braid rope’, √z 2]
Ω b) [intr, tr] play (e.g. cards, checkers); make a move (in a game) jouer
(aux cartes, aux dames, etc.); faire une manœuvre, une action (dans un jeu)
[A-grm K-d T] Ω c) [tr] string (beads) enfiler (des perles) [K-d T]. Cf.
√s-ds.
udђsT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdd+s-]
±ddusK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdd+s-]
t-eddes-tT-ka = t-eddϪs-tA-grm K-d R, Pl !-1ddϪs R[xt-±...]
K-d T-ka[xt-±...] = !-1ddϪs-en A-grm Ω a) [nf] a decisive move
(in a card or board game); (in plural) a card or board game (e.g. checkers)
action décisive (dans un jeu de cartes ou de table); (au pluriel:) jeu de
cartes ou de table (dames, etc.) - phrase: !-Ϫցց+-n!-1-ddϪs T-md
they play (checkers) ils jouent (aux dames) Ω b) [nf] an operation (in
math) opération (en maths) Ω c) [nf] act of deception acte de
tromperie [K-d].
√ds 4 [homonyms √ds 1; N √ds]
-ђd+s-T-ka [Imprt ђdђsT-ka, LoImpfP -!-ђddϪs-T-ka = ђddϪs-
T-ka] Ω a) [tr] tie (tent) down tightly on one side attacher (la tente)
fermement au sol d’un côté [due to rain or strong wind] Ω b) [intr] (tent)
be tied down tightly on one side (tente) ê. attaché fermement au sol d’un
côté. Instr nominal √s-ds.
e-desT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђd+s-].
√d-s ### [for Ϫ-d1-s ‘so, ...’ see √d 5a and √s 9]
√ds [cf. Rdp √dsds ; N √dz]
-ђdd+s-K-d T-ka [Imprt ђddђsT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫdd+s-T-ka] Ω a)
[tr] crush (sth); grind (grains, with stones or in a machine) écraser (qch);
moudre (des céréales, avec des pierres ou dans une machine) Ω b) [tr]
beat (e.g. a hide, to soften it) battre (par ex. une peau, pour l’amollir)
Ω c) [tr] crush the testicles of (male animal) écraser les testicules de
(animal mâle) [alternative to castration] Ω d) [intr] (male animal) be
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emasculated (with crushed testicles) (animal mâle) ê. émasculé (par
écrasement des testicules).
+-m-ud+s A-grm R = ђ-m-ud+s T-ka, Pl 1-n-ud+s-+nA-grm
Ω [nm] male animal whose testicles have been crushed animal mâle dont
les testicules ont été écrasés.
udђs K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdd+s-].
√dsds [Rdp <√ds]
-ђddђsd+s-A-grm T-ka[Imprt d+sd+sT-ka = dђsdђsA-grm,
LoImpfP -!-Ϫd+sdϪs-A-grm T-ka] Ω a) [tr] crush (with rapid
movements) écraser (avec des mouvements rapides) [T] Ω b) [intr]
grope along tâter [A-grm].
Ϫ-dђsdђsA-grm T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђddђsd+s-].
√dst [cf. Songhay dees1]
des+tT-ka T-md Gnd = +-des+tA-grm, Pl des+I-+nT-ka T-md
= 1-dusϪIA-grm Ω [nm] catfish sp. silure sp. [ID: Clarias
anguillaris, extended to Heterobranchus spp.].
√dt 1 [see also √dtt ; N √dt, DTF1.250-1]
dϪtϪA-grm R T-ka, Pl dϪ!Ϫ-!enA-grm Ω [nm] front (le) devant.
ђsdϪtϪA-grm R T-ka Ω [adv phrase] in the front; frontward par
devant; vers le devant.
d+׹dϪtϪ R Ω [adv phrase] in front devant.
dϪtA-grm K-d K-f T-md Ω [prep] in front of (sth); before (event) devant
(qch); avant (un événement) [opp: √d`r 1 and √dtt] - with pronominal:
1Sg dϪ!-1K-d K-f Ts = dϪ!-e׹T-ka, 1Pl dϪ!Ϫ-n+׹K-d T-md
= dϪ!-n+׹A-grm, 2MaSg dϪ!Ϫ-kK-d = dϪ!-ђkA-grm, 3Sg
dϪ!Ϫ-sK-d K-f T-ka T-md = dϪ!-ђsA-grm, 2MaPl dϪ!Ϫ-xx+n
= dϪ!-x+n A-grm, 2FePl dϪ!-ђkn+!A-grm, 3MaPl dϪ!Ϫ-ss+n
K-d = dϪ!-s+nA-grm, 3FePl dϪ!Ϫ-sn+! = dϪ!-ђsn+!A-grm;
with noun: dϪ!⍾+-h+nA-grm K-d in front of the house devant la
maison.
√dt 2 (d) [for related verb see √s-dt ; N √dt, DTF 1.140]
t-±dђtt (or: t-±dђt-t, or t-±dђ-t-t)A-grm K-d R T-ka[xt-±...]
T-md, Pl !-1dђ!!-enA-grm T-ka[xt-±...] = !-1dђ!-enR
Ω [nf] (the) truth (la) vérité - ex: ђk1e-׹!-1dђ!!x-ϪK-d I side
with (= agree with) this one (in a debate) je donne raison à celui-ci (dans
un débat).
+wt-±dђt-tR = +ցt-±dђttT-ka Ω [cpd nm, lit. “son of ...”]
truthful man homme qui dit la vérité.
w+1+tt-±dђt-tR = t+wt-±dђt-t Ω [cpd nm, lit. “daughter of ...”]
truthful woman femme qui dit la vérité.
e-m+s-dett±T-ka[x⍾+-\, Pl 1-n+s-de!!1-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] truthful
person personne véridique.
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√dtt [variant of √dt 1]
ђsdϪt+tK-d Ω [adv phrase] in the front; frontward par devant; vers le
devant.
√dw 1 (dց) [N √dw, DTF 1.221; MGT 1.82 derives d+ցց from *daw plus *w- of
nominal prefix with *ww → ցց]
dϪ wK-f R T-ka T-md = d+wwA-grm Ω [prep before noun] under sous
[optionally replaced by d+ցց √dց 2 before a vowel-initial noun]- ex: dϪx
⍾+-h+nK-d T-ka = d+xx⍾+-h+nA-grm under the house sous la
maison.
dϪ w-K-f T-ka T-md = dϪwϪ-Gao Im R = d+ww-A-grm = dђw-D
Ω [prep, this form used before pronominal suffix] under sous [dϪxϪ- is
reduced to dϪx- before 1Sg suffix] - exx: T-ka T-md 1Sg dϪx-1Im
K-f R T-ka T-md = d+xx-1A-grm, 2MaSg dϪx-ђkK-f T-ka
= dϪxϪ-kIm, 2FeSg dϪx-ђnT-ka, 3Sg dϪx-ђsK-f T-ka T-md
= d+xx-ђsA-grm = dϪxϪ-sGao Im R = dђx-ђsD, 1Pl dϪx-n+׹
T-ka T-md = d+xx-n+׹A-grm = dϪxϪ-n+׹K-f R = dϪxϪ-nn+׹
Im, 2MaPl dϪx-x+nT-ka = dϪxϪ-xx+nIm, 2FePl dϪx-kn+!T-ka
= dϪxϪ-kn+!Im, 3MaPl dϪx-s+nGao K-f T-ka = dϪxϪ-ss+nGao
K-f R = dђx-s+nD, 3FePl dϪx-sn+! T-ka = dϪxϪ-sn+!Im.
√dw 2 [N √dw, DTF 1.221]
-ђddђw+-tA-grm K-d T-md [Imprt d+x+-!K-d T-md = dђxђ-!A-grm,
LoImpfP -!-Ϫd+xϪ-!A-grm K-d T-md] Ω [intr] be joyful ê.
joyeux [syn: √h1y1y].
t-e-d+w±-t-tA-grm T-md, Pl !-1-d+x1-!-enT-md Ω [nf] joy
joie.
√dw 3a [N √dw ; MGT 7.151]
-+ddew-A-grm Im K-d R T-ka T-md [Imprt 1dϪxA-grm Im K-d T-ka
T-md, LoImpfP -!-1dϪx-A-grm Im T-ka T-md] Ω a) [intr plus prep
d] accompany, go with (sb) accompagner, aller avec (qn) [A-grm K-d R
T] - ex: +ddex-\dђ׹-1T-md = +ddex-\d+I-1A-grm he‘s (going)
with me il est (= va) avec moi; Ϫd1dϪx-+׹dϪbbϪ-n1nK-d I’ll
go with my father j’irai avec mon père Ω b) [intr plus prep d] get
married (to sb) épouser (qn) [Gao]. Caus √s-dw.
t-±dϪw-tT-ka[xt-±...] A-grm[xt-±...], Pl !-1dϪx-enT-ka[x
t-±...] Ω [nf, vbln of -+ddex-].
t-ђd±w-tK-d Ω [nf, vbln of -+ddex-].
√dw 3b
Ϫ-m-±d±A-grm Im T-ka[x⍾ђ-] T-md, Pl 1-n-1d1x-+nIm T-ka T-md
= 1-n-1dϪx-+nA-grm Ω [nm, Agent in form] friend ami.
84
-+m-ed+w-T-ka [Imprt n-Ϫd+xT-ka, ShImpf -+nϪd+x-T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫn-ϪdϪx-T-ka] Ω [intr] become friends devenir des amis, lier
amitié.
Ϫ-m-±dђwT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+n-ed+x-].
t-ђmm-±dђwϪT-ka, Pl !-ђnn-1dђxϪx-enT-ka Ω [nf] friendship
amitié.
√dw 4 [N √dw]
-o dwϪ-K-d R T-ka = -edwϪ-A-grm[3MaPl edw+-n] [Imprt ϪdђxA-grm
T-ka = Ϫdђx K-d R, MaPl Imprt Ϫdx-+!A-grm T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1dђxT-ka = -!-1dђxK-d R = -!-ϪdђxA-grm, 3Pl LoImpfP
-!-1dxђ-nR T-ka = -!-Ϫdxђ-nA-grm] Ω [intr] leave in mid-
afternoon (around 3-5 PM) partir en plein après-midi (vers 15-17 h.)
t-Ϫdw±-t-tA-grm K-d T-ka[xt-Ϫ...], Pl !-Ϫdx1-!-enK-d T-ka Ω a)
[nf, vbln of -odxϪ-] Ω b) [nf] mid-afternoon milieu de l’après-midi.
√dw 5
t-±dw±-t-t T-ka, Pl !-1dx-enT-ka[xt-±...] Ω [nf] four cords that hold
the waterskin which is lowered into a well les quatre cordes qui tiennent
la puisette [cf. cpd !-Ϫ-׹+yϪn+-¸Ϫ √׹y 3].
√dw 6 [variant of √ddw ; <Ar √dwy]
t-+dd+wϪ-t-tA-grm, Pl !-+dd+xϪ-!-enA-grm Ω a) [nf] soluble ink
(used by holy men and koranic students) encre soluble (utilisé par les
marabouts et par les élèves coraniques) [cf. Ϫ-nђddu√md 6] Ω b) [nf]
(modern) ink encre (moderne).
√dw 7 [N √dw]
-ђ d+w-K-d [Imprt ђdђxK-d, LoImpfP -!-ђddϪx-K-d] Ω [tr] soak (e.g.
corn) in water to soften it; soak (garment) for a long time tremper (du
maïs) dans l’eau pour l’amollir; faire tremper (vêtement) dans l’eau
pendant longtemps.
e-dewK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђd+x-].
√dw1 1a (dց1) [N √dw1]
-ђdw+1-A-grm K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt ђdxђJ A-grm K-d T-ka T-md,
LoImpfP -dϪցց+J-A-grm T-ka T-md] Ω [intr] mature, grow up,
become adult grandir, devenir adulte. Caus √s-dw1.
t-Ϫ-d+w1ϪA-grm K-d T-ka[x⍾t-+-], Pl !-1-dϪxJ1x-enT-ka
Ω [nf, vbln of -ђdx+J-]
Ϫ-d+wϪ1T-md, Pl 1-d+xϪJ-+nT-ka T-md K Ω [nm, vbln of
-ђdx+J-].
√dw1 1b
Ϫ-d+wϪ1K-d R T-md, Pl 1-dђxJ-ϪnT-md = 1-d+xϪJ-+nK-d R T-ka
T-md K = 1-dxϪJ-+nT-md Ω a) [nm] young billygoat (1-2 years old)
jeune bouc (1-2 ans) [T] [DTF 1.224] Ω b) [nm] castrated billygoat
bouc castré) [R] [castration makes animal grow more rapidly].
85
t-Ϫ-d+wϪ1-tA-grm T-md, Pl !-1-dђxJ-enT-md = !-1-d+xϪJ-en
T-md Ω [nf] young nanny-goat (6 months to 2 years old), not yet a
mother jeune chèvre (femelle, de 6 mois à 2 ans), qui n’a pas encore mis
bas.
√dw1 2a [see variant √dw1t ; <Ar √dw1]
+dd+w1-+t R T-ka, Pl +dd+xJ-+!-enR = ђddђxϪJT-ka = ђddђxђJ
T-ka Ω [nf] country pays.
ђddђw+1K-d, Pl ђddђx+J-+nK-d Ω [nf] country pays.
√dw1 2b
+dd+w1ϪR Ω [nm, no Pl] being blessed, gift from God (good fortune) fait
d’ê. béni, don de Dieu (chance).
√dw1t 1a [variant of √dw1 2a; <Ar √dw1]
+dd+w1+tA-grm K-d, Pl ђddђxђJ-+nA-grm Ω [nm] country pays.
√dw1t 1b [variant of √dw1 2b; DTF 1.224; <Ar √dw1]
+dd+w1+t K-d Ω [nm] being blessed, gift from God (good fortune) fait d’ê.
béni, don de Dieu (chance).
√dwn 1 [cf. HassAr -!-xannas-<Ar √Бns ; N √dwn].
-+dw+nn+-tA-grm K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt dђxђnnђ-!A-grm T-ka T-md,
LoImpfP -!-1dxђnn1-!-A-grm K-d T-ka] Ω [intr] converse, have a
conversation converser, parler [cf. √m¸td, √w1 10].
Ϫ-dwђnn±T-md = e-dw+nn±A-grm[x⍾+-], Pl 1-dxђnn1-!+n
T-md = e-dx+nn1-!+nA-grm Ω a) [nm, vbln of -+dx+nn+-!]
Ω b) [nm] conversation, talk conversation [cf. √1zmyt].
e-d+ w+nn±R T-ka[x⍾+-] = e-d+w+nneK-d, Pl 1-d+x+nn1-!+nR
= 1-d+x+nne-!+nK-d Ω [nm] conversation, talk causerie.
√dwn 2 [see variant √dyn]
t-e-d+ w+n-tR T-ka[x⍾t-+-] T-md, Pl !-1-d+x+n-enR T-ka T-md
Ω [nf] mat; wicker-like thatching, matting (hung in doorway etc. as
windbreak or for shade, or used to roof a hut or stall) natte; paillasson
(suspendu, par ex. dans une porte, pour son ombre ou pour parer le vent, ou
utilisé comme toit de case ou de hangar) [generally decorated; ‘mat’: see
√s1 4; ‘thatching’: √sbt 1, √swsw, √׹t 10, √ty 2b, √s-ty].
√dwn 3 [<Fr and Ar √dwn]
+dd±wϪnK-d Ω [nm] customs (office) douane.
ђdwϪ nK-d Ω [nm] [variant of +dd1xϪn in the following cpds].
udwϪ nK-d, Pl k+JђdxϪnK-d Ω [cpd nm] customs official douanier.
√dwt׹ [frozen cpd of √dw 1 and √wt׹ ‘yellow’]
e-d+wt+׹A-grm K-d R, Pl 1-d+xI+׹-+nA-grm R Ω [nm] Daouragh
(nomadic Tuareg clan) Daouragh (fraction de nomades touaregs)
[between Bourem and Kidal].
86
√dwy11
-+dw+y1+1-K-d T-ka [Imprt dђxђyJђJT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1dxђyJ1J-
T-ka] Ω [tr] be up on top (of sth) ê. posé en haut (sur qch). Caus
√s-dwy11.
Ϫ-dwђy1ђ1K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+dx+yJ+J-].
√dy ### [for udyϪx-+nsee √d 8].
√dy 1 [N √dy with different meaning]
-ђd+y-T-ka = -d+y-K-d [Imprt ђdђyT-ka, LoImpfP -ђddϪy-T-ka
= -!-ђddϪy-T-ka ] Ω [tr] build construire. Caus √s-dy.
e-deyK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdd+y-].
√dy 2 [N √dy]
ϪddϪyK-d T-ka[xϪ...], Pl ϪddϪy-+nT-ka Ω [nm] (the) worst, lowest, last
le pire, le plus bas, le dernier.
√dydy [see √tyty]
-ђddђyd+y-K-d T-ka [Imprt d+yd+yT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫd+ydϪy-
T-ka] Ω a) [tr] tamp down (sand, earth) damer (sable, terre) Ω b) [intr]
be tamped down ê. damé.
Ϫ-dђydђyK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђddђyd+y-].
√dyn ### [for !-e-d+y+n-! see √dwn 2]
√dyn 1 [N √dyn]
t-e-d+yneA-grm Gao Gnd Gos R T-ka[x⍾t-+-] T-md Ts = !-+-dϪyne
K-d, Pl !-1-dϪyn1x-en R T-ka Ts = !-1-d+yn1x-enA-grm Gos
Ω [nf] small leguminous tree sp. petit arbre légumineux sp. [ID:
Bauhinea rufescens, Leguminosae-Caesalpinaceae; curved black pod
e-s+n¸+I].
√dyn 2 [variant of √dwn 2]
t-e-d+y+n-tA-grm, Pl !-1-d+y+n-enA-grm = !-1-dyϪnA-grm
Ω [nf] mat; thatching (used as mat or hung over a doorway) natte;
paillasson (utilisé comme natte ou suspendu dans une porte) [generally
decorated].
√dys [N √dyz]
-ђdy+s-K-d T-ka [Imprt ђdyђsT-ka, LoImpfP -dϪyy+s-T-ka] Ω [tr]
kick, stomp on (with heel); lash out at (with foot) fouler (du pied, tu
talon); donner un coup de pied à [‘kick’ verbs: √bd׹, √dts 3, √׹bt 1,
√s-n׹bs (noun √n׹bs), √mnks].
Ϫ-d+yϪsK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdy+s-].
√dyw [N √dyw]
Ϫ-dyϪwT-ka, Pl 1-dyϪx-+nT-ka Ω [nf] herd of camels troupeau de
chameaux.
√dz
dϪz±Th Ω [nm] bush sp. buisson sp. [ID: Sida ovata, Malvaceae; long root
is made into a swatter to knock off fonio grains].
87
Ϫ-d+ցցϪ1ђndϪz± Ω [cpd nm, lit. “in-law of ...”] bush sp. buisson sp.
[ID: Sida cordifolia, Malvaceae].
√dzmbt
duz+mb+tA-grm T-ka Ω [nm] December décembre.
- d -
√d ### [for !-e!!see √t 2].
√d 1 [for VblN see √¸d1; N √d with dialectal difference in paradigm]
-odϪ-A-grm Im K-d R T-ka T-md [Imprt 1duIm K K-d R T-ka T-md = udu
A-grm, MaPl Imprt 1du-h+!T-ka = 1dux-+!R = 1dx-+!Im K
= ud-+!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-1du-K-d R T-ka = -!-udu-A-grm
(3MaPl LoImpfP !-udђ-nA-grm)] Ω a) [intr] fall down (to the
ground); (sun) set tomber (à terre); (soleil) se coucher [general word; cf.
√nd 3, √ttk, √׹ttd 1a, √׹tttw, √׹tzzw] - ex: !-odϪ!-ђ1ukk
T-mdthe sun set le soleil s’est couché Ω b) [intr] (merchant) take a
loss (on a transaction) (commerçant) subir une perte (dans un marché)
[A-grm] [syn: √txs].
t-ud±-t-tA-grm Ω [nf, vbln of -odϪ-, less common than e-¸+d+J].
t-± d u-t-tR, Pl !-1du-!-enR Ω [nf, vbln of -o d Ϫ-].
√d 2 [N √d]
ϪduA-grm[xϪ...] K-d R [xϪ...] T-ka[xϪ...]T-md, Pl Ϫdu-!+nA-grm
K-d T-ka T-md Ω a) [nm] wind; wind storm vent; orage de vent
[general terms, cf. √st¸ 2; cf. verbs √ts¸ 2, √nIt ; ‘storm’ √zmt,
√z-zt 2c] Ω b) [Pl only:] perfume, scent, odor parfum, odeur [K-d]
[cf. verb √ns¸].
Ϫduw-Ϫk+w+1-+nA-grm T-ka Ω a) [nm+partpl, lit. “black ...”] thick
sandstorm (with low visibility) vent de sable dense (avec peu de
visibilité) [T] [cf. √md1] Ω b) [nm+partpl] approaching storm (with dark
clouds) tempête qui s’approche (avec nuages noirs) [A-grm].
Ϫduw-Ϫ+t+׹-+nA-grm Ω a) [nm+partpl, lit. “yellow ...”] duststorm,
sandstorm vent de poussière, vent de sable [brownish, usually seen
approaching from a distance, resembling a whirlwind].
t-Ϫdu-t-tA-grm T-ka, Pl !-Ϫdu-!-enT-ka Ω a) [nf] light wind, breeze
vent léger, brise [T] Ω b) [nf] storm tempête [A-grm] [syn √zmt].
√db [related to √tb 4, cf. √dm 4; N “ђttђb”√db, likewise DTF 1.253]
-ђdub-T-ka = -+ d ub-K-d R = -+dob-T-ka [Imprt udϪbK-d R T-ka,
LoImpfP -!-udϪb-R T-ka -!-1dub-K-d T-ka] Ω [intr] (liquid)
drip out, pour out slowly (liquide) goutter, se verser lentement [cf.
√z-ztwtw]. Caus √s-db, cf. √s-n-s-db, √s-n-db.
-ђttub-A-grm Ω [= -ђdub-].
88
t-ђdub-tT-ka Ω [nf, vbln of -ђdub-].
t-udϪb-tA-grm T-ka, Pl !-udϪb-enT-ka Ω [nf, vbln of -+dob-].
t-udb±-t-tK-d Ω [nf] (a) drop goutte.
√dd ### [for -+!!ed- ‘(leather) be softened’ see √td 2]
√dd 1a [N √dd, DTF 1.256]
[Pl only:] !-1-ded-enK-d K-f T-ka T-md = ded-enA-grm[xde...] Im
R[xde...] T-ka[xde...] T-md = !-1-dod-enTh Ω [nf] women
femmes [suppletive Pl of !-Ϫ-n+!-! √mt 4]. Cf. verb √s-dd.
√dd 1b [possibly related to √1dd]
-ђtt+d-K-d [Imprt ђ!!ђd K-d, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ!!+d - K-d] Ω [intr]
(infant) suckle (bébé) téter [syn: √nks]. Caus √s-dd.
t-Ϫ-dђt-tK-d, Pl !-1-dudK-d Ω [nf] act of suckling tétée.
√dd 2 [N √dd, DTF 1.255]
+-dϪdA-grm[x+-], Pl 1-dђdx-ϪnA-grm Ω [nm] finger doigt [syn:
√skd 1].
+-dϪdR[x+-], Pl 1-dϪd-+nR Ω [nm] cheek, side of face joue, flanc de
la tête [cf. √¸z 1, √¸ms].
√dI 1a (tI) [N √dI]
-ђtt+I-K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ!!ђ1T-ka T-md, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ!!+1-T-ka]
Ω a) [tr] seize, hold, hold onto, keep (sth); host, keep (sb) as guest saisir,
garder, tenir (qch); loger (qn) [cf. √h1 3a] Ω b) [intr] (widow) be in
seclusion (after death of husband) (veuve) ê. en délai de viduité (après la
mort de son mari) [i.e. to verify that she is not pregnant with his child]
Ω c) [intr] (e.g. tools, gear) be adequate (for a task) (matériel, ustensiles)
ê. suffisant (pour une tâche) Ω d) [intr plus prep d+׹] aim at, target (sth,
sb, with gun) viser, cibler (qch, qn, avec un fusil) [K-d]. Cf. √s-dI 1,
√s-n-dI.
ђ-n-ud+IA-grm T-ka = +-n-ud+IR = ђ-n-udђIT-ka, Pl
1-n-ud+1-+nA-grm T-ka Ω [nm, Agent] holder celui qui tient
[e.g. man who takes care of the orphaned children of his brother].
udђIA-grm K-d T-ka[xu...] T-md, Pl ud1Ϫx-+nT-ka = udђ1-+n
A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ!!+1-].
udђIn±dђmT Ω [cpd nm] respectfulness (of others’ status) respect
(de l’honneur d’autrui) [important in self-control].
-+tw-+tt+I-T-ka = -t+w-+tt+I- A-grm [Imprt !ђx-ђ!!ђ1A-grm
T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1!x-ђ!!11-A-grm T-ka] Ω [intr, Pass] be held
ê. tenu.
Ϫ-tw-ђttϪIA-grm T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+!x-+!!+1-].
89
√dI 1b (tI) [frozen, irregular mediopassive]
-+nn-utt+I-K-d [Imprt n-u!!ђ1K-d, LoImpfP -!-1n-ђ!!u1-K-d]
Ω [intr plus prep d] (sb) be busy at (a task) (qn) ê. occupé par (une
tâche). Caus √s-n-dI.
Ϫ-n-uttђIK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+nn-u!!+1-].
t-+-n-otteI-tK-d Ω [nf] enjoyment of handling and touching plaisir
tactile - ex: Ø-h-\e!-+-n-o!!e1-!K-d he enjoys handling and
touching il éprouve du plaisir tactile.
√dI 2a (tI) [N √dI]
-ђtIϪ-A-grm T-ka [Imprt +!1A-grm T-ka, LoImpfP -dϪ11-A-grm
T-ka] Ω [intr] (liquid, grain) be poured, spilled, dumped (liquide,
céréales) ê. versé [cf. √n׹1] - ex: Ϫd+!1ђ-nA-grm they (MaPl) will
be spilled ils seront versés. Caus √s-dI 2.
t-e-d+IIeA-grm R T-ka[x⍾t-+-], Pl !-1-dђ11A-grm[x⍾t-ђ-]
T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] Ω [nf, vbln of -ђ!1Ϫ-] [see also under √dI 2b].
√dI 2b (tI) [see also under √dI 2a, above; N √dI]
t-e-d+IIeA-grm K-d R T-ka, Pl !-1-dђ11A-grm[x⍾t-+-] Ω a) [nf]
floodwaters (at annual high flood) inondation (à fleuve pendant la crue)
[R T] Ω b) [nf] bank, edge (of pond) berge, bord (d’une mare) [A-grm]
[syn: √ty 1, √Iy 2, √kmm 2, √s1m 5, verb √׹ms 2].
√dI 3 [N √dI]
t-ђ-duI-t K-d T-ka = t-+-duI-tA-grm Im R, Pl !-1-du11-enT-ka
= !-1-du1-enR A-grm Ω [nf] cotton (substance); wool; down (on
camel’s skin) coton (substance); laine; duvet (sur la peau du chameau)
[cf. also the less common √hb 4, e-Jes √1s 4].
t-+-duI-tђnhϪbu Ω [cpd nf] cotton coton [specifies ‘cotton’ as
opposed to other senses].
√dIs(tIs) ### [see √ndIs‘be folded’, Caus √s-ndIs]
√dIs (tIs) [N √dIs]
-ђtI+s-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ!1ђsT-ka, LoImpfP -dϪ11+s-A-grm
T-ka] Ω a) [intr] (udder, female) be full of milk (pis, femelle) ê.
plein(e) de lait [the usual sense] Ω b) [by extension:] [intr] (sb) be filthy
rich, be “loaded” (qn) ê. extrêmement riche, ê. pourri d’argent.
t-ђtIϪs-+tA-grm T-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] full of milk pleine de lait -
ex: !-+ss!-ђ!1Ϫs-+!A-grm T-ka a cow full of milk une vache
pleine de lait.
ђtIϪs-nenA-grm T-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] full of milk pleines de lait.
Ϫ -t IusK-d T-ka[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-!1us-+nT-ka Ω a) [nm, vbln of
-ђ!1+s-] Ω b) [nm] udder full of milk pis plein de lait.
√dց1 ### [see √dw1].
√dցz ### [see √dցz]
90
√d׹ [variant of √d׹׹ (and √d׹׹)]
Ϫ-dϪ׹Im[x⍾+-] K-d K-f R[x⍾+-] T-md, Pl 1-dϪ׹-+nIm K-d K-f R
T-md Ω a) [nm] mountain, hill; stone, boulder montagne, colline;
pierre [Im K R T-md] [for cpd see √kz 1; cf. √hn 4, √ms 3, √s1 6] Ω b)
[nm] north nord [Im] [syn: Ϫ-1+JJϪ √I1 2a].
t-ϪdϪq-q (or: t-Ϫ-dϪq-q)K-d T-md, Pl !-ϪdϪ׹-enT-md
= !-1-dϪ׹-enK-d Ω [nf] small hill; small stone petite colline;
petite pierre.
√d׹׹ [see variants √d׹ and √d׹׹ ; N √d׹׹ and √dtt, DTF 1.234 √dtt]
Ϫ-d׹Ϫ׹T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-d׹Ϫ׹-+nT-ka Ω a) [nm] mountain; stone
montagne, colline; pierre [cf. √hn 4, √ms 3] Ω b) [nm] Adrar des
Ifoghas Adrar des Ifoghas [mountains east of Kidal].
t-Ϫ-d׹Ϫq-qK-d T-ka, Pl !-1-d׹Ϫ׹-enT-ka Ω a) [nf] small hill; small
stone petite colline; petite pierre Ω b) [nf] Tamashek dialect of the
Adrar (and Kidal) parler tamachek de l’Adrar (et de Kidal).
√d׹t 1a [variant of √d׹t 1a; N √d׹t]
-ђd׹+t-T-ka [Imprt ђd׹ђIT-ka, LoImpfP -dϪqq+I-T-ka] Ω [tr] paste,
glue, stick (sth to sth else) afficher, coller (qch sur autre chose) - ex:
ђd׹+I-+׹!-+-kϪIde1+J⍾!-+-׹+sϪn-!T-ka I stuck the
piece of paper on the (wall of the) house j’ai affiché la feuille de papier à
(au mur de) la maison. Instr noun √s-d׹t.
Ϫ-d+׹ϪtT-ka, Pl 1-d+׹ϪI-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђd׹+I-].
m-+d׹ϪtT-ka, Pl n-+d׹ϪI-+nT-ka Ω [nm] glue, paste colle
[traditionally millet cake (tô) was used by blacksmiths to glue hides; syn:
√s-d׹t].
√d׹t 1b[variant of √d׹t 1b; N √d׹t]
-+d׹Ϫt+-tT-ka [Imprt dђ׹1Iђ-!T-ka = dђ׹uIђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1d׹1I1-!T-ka = -!-1d׹uIu-!T-ka] Ω [intr] (e.g. sheep)
refuse to budge, resist being pulled (mouton etc.) refuser de bouger,
résister.
Ϫ-d׹±t±T-ka = Ϫ-d׹utuT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+d׹ϪI+-!].
√dh 1 [N √d ; EPPB 87]
-odhϪ-A-grm Im R T-ka T-md [Imprt ϪdhA-grm Im R T-ka T-md, MaPl
Imprt Ϫdh-+!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-1dh-R T-ka T-md =-!-Ϫdh-
A-grm = -!-ϪdhϪ-A-grm] Ω a) [tr] fold (e.g. mat); bend (e.g. an arm,
with forearm and upper arm together) plier (natte, etc.); plier (un bras,
etc.) [cf. √s-ndIs, √kmnkm] Ω b) [intr] be folded; (e.g. arm) be bent
se plier; (un bras, etc.) ê. plié.
±dhK-d R T-ka[x±...], Pl 1dhђ-!+nR T-ka = 1dh1-!+nR Ω [nm,
vbln of -odhϪ-].
t-Ϫ-dh±-t-tA-grm[x⍾t-+-...], Pl !-1-dђhhA-grm Ω [nf, vbln of
-odhϪ-].
91
√dh 2 [N √d]
t-Ϫ-dhu-t-tA-grm K-d T-ka, Pl !-1-dhu-!-enA-grm T-ka Ω [nf]
ring (on finger) anneau (de doigt), bague [cpd under √׹n 1c; syn: √zb].
±n⍾t-ђ -d hu-t-enK-d Ω [cpd nm] ring finger annulaire [syn
√׹n 1c, cf. √skd 1].
√dhn
t-Ϫ-dhϪn-tK-d, Pl !-1-dhϪn-enK-d Ω [nm] ideal woman femme
idéale [cf. √knkn 4, opp: √skmt]
√d¸ 1 [related by metathesis to verb √¸d 3; N √dց]
t-±d¸±-t-tK-d, Pl !-1d¸1-!-enK-d Ω [nf] (a) rap on the nape coup
à la nuque.
√d¸ 2 [variant of √¸d 2; DTF 1.263ff. √d¸]
-ђ d +¸-K-d [Imprt ђdђ¸K-d, LoImpfP -!-ђddϪ¸-K-d] Ω [intr] (troop
of fighters) go off to war (troupe de guerriers) partir en guerre.
e-de¸K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђd+¸-].
√d¸¸ ### [for ‘be terrified, flee’ see √¸dd ]
√dkd [N √dkd]
-ђdk+d-T-ka [Imprt ђdkђdT-ka, LoImpfP -dϪkk+d-T-ka] Ω [tr]
describe (sth), estimate (time, distance) décrire (qch), estimer (temps,
distance).
ђddђkud K-d T-ka Ω [nm] description; estimate description, estimation -
phrase: ђddђkudђnX approximately X environ X - ex: ¸e-׹
ђddђkudђnk+IϪd+ssϪ׹+!-+nK-d I spent approximately four
hours (there) j’y ai passé environ quatre heures.
√dk1 [see variants √tk1, √k1 15; N √k1 or √dk1 ; MGT 1.45 √tk1]
-ђtk+1-Im K K-d K-f R [Imprt ђ!kђJK K-f R, LoImpfP -d Ϫ kk+J-K
K-d K-f R T-md] Ω [tr] pick up, gather, take (in hand) ramasser,
prendre (dans la main). Caus √s-s-dk1.
Ϫ-d+kϪ1Im K K-d K-f R Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ!k+J-].
t-Ϫ-dђ kke1-tK-d R T-md, Pl !-1-dђkkeJ-enT-md Ω [nf] handful
(e.g. of sugar); handful or mouthful (of food) poignée (de sucre, etc.);
poignée ou bouchée (de nourriture) [cf. !-eJJeq-q √1׹ 1, !-e-heq-q
√h׹ 4].
√dkt 1(tkt) [cf. √1xt, √1hm; N √dkt].
-ђddukt+-tT-ka = -+ddukt+-t K-d R [Imprt dukIђ-!K-d R T-ka,
LoImpfP -!-1dђkIu-!K-d R T-ka] Ω [tr] become angry at (sb); have
a grudge against (sb) se fâcher contre (qn); avoir une antipathie envers
(qn) [cf. √dt 1b, √ցts 1, √׹ 6].
-ђddђkt+-tA-grm [Imprt dђkIђ-!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫd+kIϪ-!
A-grm] Ω [tr] [= -ђddukI+-!].
92
Ϫ-dђktuA-grm R T-ka[x⍾ђ-] Ω [nm, vbln of -ђddukI+-! and of
-ђddђkI+-!].
ђddђktuK-d] Ω [nm] animosity, grudge antipathie, rancune.
Ϫ-tkђt (or: Ϫ-tk+t)R T-ka[x⍾ђ-] T-md = Ϫ-dkђt (or: Ϫ-dk+t)
A-grm[x⍾+-] K-d K-f T-md, Pl 1-!kђI-+nR T-ka T-md
= 1-dkђI-+nA-grm T-md Ω [nm] anger colère [cf. √1hm, √1xt 1]
- poss: 1Sg Ϫ-!kђI-1nR - phrase: 1-h-\e⍾ђ-!kђI-n+n+׹
A-grm T-ka he is angry at us il est fâché contre nous; 1-¸¸+s-\!
⍾+-dkђIK-d he got angry il s’est fâché. Cf. phrase under √kI 2b].
√dkt 2 [N √dkt, DTF 1.270 √tkt]
-ђdk+t-K-d T-ka [Imprt ђdkђIT-ka, LoImpfP -dϪkk+I-T-ka] Ω a)
[tr] fill remplir [T (rare)] [cf. √dny] Ω b) [intr] be full ê. plein,
rempli [K-d] Ω c) [intr] suffer diabetes; be obese avoir le diabète; ê
obèse [T] Ω d) [intr] be pregnant ê. enceinte [K-d].
Ϫ-dkotT-ka[x⍾+-] Ω a) [nm] stuffing, filling rembourrage [T] Ω b)
[nm] being full fait d’ê. plein [K-d] Ω c) [nm] diabetes; obesity
diabète; obésité [T] Ω d) [nm] pregnancy grossesse [K-d].
√d1 ### [see √dw1 ; for !-Ϫ-n+dϪJ-! ‘sandstorm’ see √md1].
√d1׹ ### [see √d1׹]
√d1m [<Ar. √ᾩ1m]
-ђd1+m-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt ђdJђnT-ka T-md, LoImpfP -dϪJJ+n-
T-ka] Ω [tr] treat unjustly, do harm to (sb) porter tort à, maltraiter (qn).
t-Ϫ-d1ђm-tA-grm K-d R T-ka[xt-ђ-] T-md, Pl !-1-dђJn-enT-md
= !-1-dJђn-enR T-ka Ω [nf] oppression, unjust treatment
injustice, oppression.
√d1nd1
e-d+1+nd+1Gao Ω [nm] very fine dust poussière très fine [cf. √b׹1 1,
√b1׹ 1, √sk 9].
√d1y [N √d1y]
Ϫ-d+1oyA-grm T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md, Pl 1-dJϪyA-grm K-d T-ka[x⍾ђ-]
T-md Ω [nm] (sb’s) lip; rim (of well, etc.) lèvre; bord (de puits, etc.)
√d1y1y [related to √d1y ; Y dђJђyJђy‘(lip) hang down’]
-+d1+y1+y-K-d R T-ka = -d+1+y1+y-A-grm [Imprt dђJђyJђyA-grm
T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1dJђyJ1y-A-grm T-ka] Ω [intr] (sth) hang down,
dangle in the air (objet) ê. suspendu, osciller dans l’air [syn: √ktyty,
√b1y1y].
Ϫ-d1ђy1ϪyT-ka = Ϫ-d1ђy1ђy (or: ...1±) R = Ϫ-dђ1ђy1ђy (or: ...1±)
A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -+dJ+yJ+y-].
√dmn [<Ar √dmn]
+dd+mϪnϪK-d T-ka, Pl +dd+nϪnϪ-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] guarantee, bail
caution.
93
-ђdm+n-K-d T-ka [Imprt ђdnђnT-ka, LoImpfP -dϪnn+n-T-ka] Ω [tr]
guarantee (sth), bail out (prisoner) garantir (qch); payer la caution de
(prisonnier).
√dn 1 [N √dn]
-ђd+n-A-grm T-ka = -d+n-K-d [Imprt ђdђnA-grm T-ka, MaPl Imprt
ђdђn-+!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-ђddϪn-A-grm T-ka = -ђddϪn-T-ka]
Ω a) [intr] graze, go to pasture paître, aller au pâturage Ω b) [tr] have
(herd) graze, take (herd) to pasture faire paître (un troupeau), mener
(troupeau) au pâturage [cf. √nIt, √nbt (and √nbbt), √nIIt, √1¸w 2,
√׹tI 2, √s-nI]. Caus of Recip √s-m-dn 2, cf. noun √s-dn 2.
Ϫ-m-+dϪnIm K-d T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md, Pl 1-n-+dϪn-+nIm K-d T-ka
T-md Ω [nm, Agent] shepherd berger.
+-m-ϪdϪnA-grm Im, Pl 1-n-ϪdϪn-+nA-grm Im Ω [nm, Agent]
shepherd, herder berger.
t-Ϫ-m-ђd±n-t (or: t-Ϫ-m-+d±n-t)A-grm K-d R[x⍾t-ђ-] T-ka[x
⍾t-ђ-], Pl !-1-n-dϪnA-grm[x⍾t-ђ-] K-d T-ka
= !-1-n-dϪn1x-en R Ω [nf, vbln of -ђd+n-].
Ϫ-m-+donA-grm K-d T-ka, Pl 1-n-dϪnK-d T-ka[x⍾ђ-] = 1-n-ђdϪn
A-grm Ω a) [nm] grass (green or dry), fodder herbe (verte ou sèche),
fourrage Ω b) [nm] pasture pâturage.
√dn 2a [N √dn ; MGT 6.27]
-ђd±n-A-grm T-ka = -+d±n-Im R [Imprt 1dϪnR T-ka = ђdd1nA-grm,
LoImpfP -!-1dϪn-R T-ka] Ω [intr] be counted ê. compté [cf. √xsb
(and √1᭢sb)]. Caus √s-dn 1.
t-±dϪn-tT-ka[xt-±...] Ω [nf, vbln of -ђd1n-].
-+m-od+n-T-ka = -+mm-od+n-A-grm [Imprt n-udђnT-ka = n-ђdђn
A-grm, LoImpfP -!-1n-udun-T-ka = -!-Ϫn-ϪdϪn-A-grm]
Ω [intr, passive] be numerous, abundant ê. nombreux, abondant - exx:
+n-od+nT-ka it is abundant c’est abondant; k+JϪ+n-od+nT-ka
it was abundant c’était abondant.
+-m-Ϫd±nA-grm K-d T-ka, Pl 1-n-Ϫd1n-+nA-grm T-ka Ω [nm]
amount, number (of items); counting (numbers), arithmetic quantité,
nombre (d’unités); fait de compter (des numéros), mathématique [cf. 1ke!
√kt 3].
t-ђ -d ±n-tK-d, Pl !-1-dϪn-enK-d Ω [nm] census, stock-taking
recensement.
√dn 2b [N √dn]
-od+n-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt ϪdђnK-d T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1dђn-K-d
T-ka] Ω a) [tr] be missing (sth), need (sth), feel a physical need (to sleep,
urinate, etc.) manquer de (qch), avoir besoin de (qch), sentir un besoin
corporel (de dormir, d’uriner, etc.) [A-grm T] - ex: odϪn-+׹e-d ђs
T-ka K A-grm I need some sleep (= I am drowsy) j’ai besoin de dormir
94
(= j’ai sommeil). Ω b) [tr] check (herd, to see that all animals are present];
inventory (merchandise) contrôler (son troupeau, pour vérifier que tous
les animaux sont là); faire l’inventaire de (marchandises) [K-d T] Ω c) [tr]
feel (pity, for sb) éprouver (de la pitié pour qn) [A-grm K] [object is
!-+-hϪn1n-! √hnn 2 ‘pity’] - ex: !-odϪn-\Ϫ-h1!-+-hϪn1n-!
K A-grm she pities me elle a pitié de moi. Cf. √s-dn.
-od+n-(+ -\± n)A-grm T-ka Ω [tr] be missing (sth), need (sth)
manquer de (qch), avoir besoin de (qch) - ex: odϪn-ђ׹-\1n!-e׹se
1y-+!T-ka I am missing one sheep il me manque un mouton.
±ddunK-d R T-ka = ϪddunA-grm, Pl 1ddun-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of
-od+n-].
√dny [derivative √s-dny ; N √dny]
-ђdn+y-A-grm K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt ђdnђyA-grm T-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-dϪnn+y-A-grm T-ka T-md] Ω a) [tr] fill remplir [cf. √dkt] Ω b)
[intr] be full ê. plein, rempli. Caus √s-dny, Caus of Mediop
√s-m-dny.
Ϫ-d+nϪyA-grm K-d R Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdn+y-].
Ϫ-dnuyT-ka[x⍾ђ-] Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdn+y-].
√dt 1 [for prenominal form, and variants, see √dtt, cf. also √dIt 2; N √dIt]
dϪtϪT-ka = d Ϫ tϪF Ω [n] rear arrière [opp: √dt 1].
ђsdϪtϪT-ka = ђ sd ϪtϪR Ω [adv phrase] in back, in the rear à
l’arrière.
dϪtϪ-A-grm K-f R T-ka T-md Ω [prep, form used before pronominal
ending] behind; (less often:) after derrière; (moins fréquemment:) après
[syn: √dIt 2; for ‘after’ see also √sm 5; opp: √dt 1] - with pronominals:
T-ka T-md 1Sg dϪI-1A-grm Gao Im K-f T-ka T-md Ts = dϪI-e׹
T-ka, 2MaSg dϪIϪ-kA-grm T-md, 2FeSg dϪIϪ-nA-grm T-md, 3Sg
dϪIϪ-sA-grm Im K-f T-md, 1Pl dϪIϪ-n+׹Gao T-md
= dϪIϪ-nn+׹A-grm, 2MaPl dϪIϪ-xx+nA-grm Gao T-md, 2FePl
dϪIϪ-kn+!A-grm T-md, 3MaPl dϪIϪ-ss+nA-grm Gao R
T-md, 3FePl dϪIϪ-sn+!A-grm T-md.
√dt 2 [N √dt]
Ϫ-d+t (or: Ϫ-dђt)A-grm[x⍾+-] K K-d R T-ka T-md, Pl 1-dϪI-+n
A-grm K K-d R T-ka T-md Ω [nm] foot, leg pied, jambe [near-syn
√s-k1 2b; parts: √¸s 5 (heel), √bk1 2, √s-kk1, √tIt, !-ђ-nђJJe
√m11 1a] - poss: 1Sg Ϫ-d ђI-1nK-d R T-ka.
I+1⍾+-d+tT-ka Ω [adv phrase] on foot à pied.
ђs⍾Ø-dϪt-+nA-grm K-d Ω [adv phrase] on foot à pied.
Ϫ-d+tn⍾+-¸tewT-ka T-md Ω [cpd nm, lit. “... of river”] branch,
tributary of river affluent d’un fleuve.
95
√dt 3 [N √dt]
-od+t-Im K-d [Imprt ϪdђI Im K-d, LoImpfP -!-1dђI- Im K-d] Ω [tr]
soak (hide) in tanning solution; immerse (e.g. sb’s head, in water)
tremper (peau) dans du tannin; immerger (par ex. la tête de qn dans
l’eau) [verb‘tan’: √s-I1 2].
±ddutIm K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -od+I-].
t-Ϫd+t-t (or: t-Ϫdђt-t)A-grm Im K-d R T-ka[xt-Ϫ...], Pl !-Ϫd+I-en
T-ka = !-ϪdI1x-enK-d Ω a) [nf, vbln of -od+I-] Ω b) [nf] tanning
solution tannin (liquide) [made with pods of Acacia nilotica
(Ϫ-hђ¸¸ϪI)] Ω c) [nf] dyes (for clothing) colorants (pour les habits)
[K-d].
√dt 4 [N √dt]
e-detK-d[x⍾+-] T-ka Ω [nm] excrement excréments [used with verb
√¸ 1; syn: √kk 5, cf. Ϫ-s+bϪku √sbk] - ex: ¸e-׹e-deIK-d I
defecated j’ai déféqué.
√dt 5 [variant of √dtt 1 (√1t, √1tt)]
-ђddђttϪ-R [Imprt d+IIR, LoImpfP -!-Ϫd+IIϪ-R] Ω [tr] tease, play
mischievous tricks on (sb) taquiner, jouer un tour à (qn).
-+ d d uttϪ-R Ω [= -ђddђIIϪ-].
+ddettϪ(reported for outlying dialects) Ω [nm] (sb’s) restlessness; mischief,
youthful wildness; serious problem (that causes worry) agitation
(psychologique, de qn); exubérance de jeunesse; problème grave (qui
donne du souci).
√dtb ### [for ‘trap’ see √ndtb]
√dtb [cf. √dtb ; <English drive, driver]
-ђddђtb+-tA-grm [Imprt d+Ib+-!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫd+IbϪ-!
A-grm] Ω [tr] drive (motor vehicle) conduire (voiture) [cf. √s-s1].
Ϫ-dђtb±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђddђIb+-!].
√dtdt 1
-ђddђtd+t-R [Imprt d+Id+IR, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ d +Id ϪI-R] Ω [intr]
(engine) be revved up (while car is stopped) (moteur) s’emballer
(pendant que la voiture est arrêtée).
Ϫ-dђtdђtR Ω [nm, vbln of -ђddђId+I-].
√dtdt 2
Ϫ-d+tdutK-d Ω [nm] lace filigrane [anything light and threadlike].
√dt׹1 [see variant √dt׹1 ; N √dt׹1]
d+t׹Ϫ1-R T-ka [Imprt d+I׹+JR T-ka T-md, LoImpfP -!-Ϫd+I׹ϪJ-R
T-ka] Ω [intr] be or become blind ê. ou devenir aveugle.
d+t׹Ϫ1-+nT-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] blind aveugle - ex: +-hϪJђs
d+I׹ϪJ-+nT-ka a blind man un aveugle.
d+t׹Ϫ1-+tT-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] blind aveugle.
d+t׹Ϫ1-nenT-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] blind aveugles.
96
e-m-+ddet׹ђ1Im = e-m-+ddet׹+1K-f, Pl 1-n-ђdduI׹ϪJIm K- f
Ω [nm] blind man (un) aveugle.
t-+dd+t׹+1-tT-ka T-md = t-+dd+t׹ђ1-tA-grm Ω [nf] blindness
cécité.
Ϫ-d+t׹Ϫ1 (or: Ϫ-dђt׹Ϫ1)R T-ka T-md[x⍾+-], Pl 1-d+I׹ϪJ-+nR
T-ka Ω [nm] blind man (un) aveugle.
√dtk [k could be from *k or *¸/ց]
t-Ϫ-d+tok-kK-d Ω [nm, Sg only] nonsense, lies sottises, mensonges
[syn: √hndtt].
√dtn [N √dtn]
-ђdt+n-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt ђdIђnA-grm T-ka, LoImpfP -dϪII+n-
A-grm T-ka] Ω a) [tr] twist (e.g. string, macaroni) between fingers
tordre (corde, macaroni, etc.) entre les doigts [K-d T] Ω b) [tr] make
(hide) smooth and soft rendre (une peau) souple [A-grm] [cf. √sm 5,
√td 2].
Ϫ-d+tϪnA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdI+n-].
√dtndt [N √dtndt¸
e-d+t+nd+tK-d T-ka, Pl 1-d+I+nd+I-+nT-ka Ω a) [nm] narrow
passage (e.g. through burrgrass) passage étroit (au milieu du cram-cram,
etc.) [T-ka] Ω b) [nm] snuff (sth used to cause sneezing) prise (qch
utilisé pour provoquer un éternuement).
√dtt 1a [see variants √dt 5 (including verb) and √1tt ; <Ar √dtt (perhaps also
the source of √tt 2)]
+dd+totϪIm R T-md = ђddђto tϪK-d = +ddђtotϪA-grm Ω [nm
(T-md also nf)] (sb’s) restlessness; mischief, youthful wildness; serious
problem (that causes worry) agitation (psychologique, de qn);
exubérance de jeunesse; problème grave (qui donne du souci) [cf. √d׹w] -
ex: 1-h-\e+dd+IoIϪT-mdhe is restlessly anxious il se trouve
dans un état d’agitation psychologique. Cf. √s-dtt 1.
√dtt 1b
-ђddђt+t-A-grm [Imprt d+I+IA-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫd+IϪI-A-grm]
Ω [tr] be in need, be impoverished ê. dans le besoin, ê. appauvri [cf.
√1׹w]. Caus √s-dtt 1.
e-m-+dd+t+tT-ka Ω [nm] needy person nécessiteux
e-m-+ddett+tK-d Ω [nm] needy person nécessiteux
t-+dd+t+t-tA-grm Ω [nf] being needy état d’ê. dans le besoin
√dtt 2 [opp: √d׹n׹t]
-+dtϪt+-tT-ka [Imprt dђIuIђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1dIuIu-!T-ka]
Ω [intr] (milk, tea, porridge) be diluted with water (lait, thé, bouillie) ê.
dilué avec de l’eau. Caus √s-dtt 2.
-ђdt+t-A-grm [Imprt ђdIђIA-grm, LoImpfP -dϪII+I-A-grm]
Ω [intr] [= -+dIϪI+-!]
97
Ϫ-d+tϪtA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdI+I-].
[Pl only:] ±-dtϪt-+nA-grm K-d R T-ka[x⍾ђ-] Ω [nmpl] beverage made
by mixing milk and water boisson avec du lait et de l’eau mélangés [cf.
√z11 2, √׹t 9, √syn׹].
√dttց ### [see Caus √s-dttց]
√dts
Ϫ-dtђsK-d R, Pl 1-dђIs-ϪnR Ω [nm] a disease (of hands and feet)
maladie (des mains et des pieds).
√dtt [for variants, and pronominal combinations, see √dt 1 and √dIt 2; cf. N
√dIt]
dϪtϪtA-grm Ω [n] rear arrière [opp: dϪ!Ϫ].
ђsdϪtϪtA-grm K-d Ω [adv phrase] in back, in the rear à l’arrière.
ђsdϪt+tK-d Ω [adv phrase] in back, in the rear à l’arrière.
dϪt+tA-grm K-f R T-ka Ω [prep, form used before noun] behind; after
derrière; après - ex: dϪI+!⍾+-h+nA-grm behind the house
derrière la maison; dϪI+!+-nudGao after the prayer après la
prière.
√dt-y11
+d+t-Ϫy1u1T-ka = +d+t-Ϫy1Ϫ1T-ka = Ϫ-d+t-+y1Ϫ1K-d, Pl
1-d+I-ϪyJϪJ-+nT-ka Ω [nm] sand-plover pluvier pâtre [ID:
Charadrius pecuarius ; uncommon word, interpreted by some speakers as
a cpd “foot-guinea fowl”].
√dtz [N √dtz]
-ђdt+z-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt ђdIђzA-grm T-ka, LoImpfP -dϪII+z-
A-grm T-ka] Ω a) [tr] mix (earth) with a little water (for bricks) pétrir
(du banco) avec un peu d’eau (pour fabriquer des briques) [cf. √twy]
Ω b) [tr] add sauce to (cooked grain) mettre la sauce sur (céréales cuites)
Ω c) [intr] (meal, cooked grain) be served with sauce (repas, céréales
cuites) ê. servi avec de la sauce.
Ϫ-d+tϪzA-grm T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdI+z-].
Ϫ-dtђz (or: Ϫ-dt+z)A-grm[x⍾+-] Im K-d R T-ka T-md, Pl 1-dђIz-Ϫn
A-grm Im K-d R T-ka T-md Ω [nm] sauce (served on e.g. rice, often
including meat) sauce (souvent avec de la viande, servie sur du riz etc.) -
poss: 1Sg Ϫ-dIђz-1nT-ka.
√ds ### [for -ђ!sϪ- ‘laugh’ see √dz]
√ds 1 (ts) [N √ds].
-ђtt+s-A-grm K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt ђ!!ђsA-grm T-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫ!!+s-A-grm K-d T-ka] Ω [intr] sleep dormir [‘doze’:
√ndm 1]. See √s-ds 2.
+-m-udђsR Ω [nm, Agent] sleeper dormeur.
+-m-ϪttϪsIm, Pl 1-n-Ϫ!!Ϫs-+nIm Ω [nm, Agent] sleeper
dormeur.
98
edђsA-grm K-d R[xe...] T-ka[xe...] T-md, Pl e!sϪx-+nR T-ka[x
e...] Ω [nm, vbln] sleep, sleeping sommeil, fait de dormir [for phrase
see √1׹d 1].
√ds 2 [N √ds]
-ђd+s-A-grm T-ka = -d+s-K-d T-md [Imprt ђdђsA-grm T-ka T-md,
LoImpfP -ђddϪs-T-ka T-md = -!-ђddϪs-A-grm K-d T-ka] Ω [tr]
touch toucher [prefixal derivatives below based on geminated stem
variant]. Cf. √mds.
e-desA-grm K-d T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-des-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of
-ђd+s-].
-+tw-+dd+s-T-ka [Imprt !ђx-ђddђsT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1!x-ђdd1s-
T-ka] Ω [intr, Pass] be touched ê. touché.
Ϫ-tw-ђddϪsT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+!x-+dd+s-].
-+nm-+dd+s-T-ka [Imprt nђn-ђddђsT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1nn-ђdd1s-
T-ka] Ω [intr, Recip] touch each other, abut se toucher l’un l’autre, ê.
contigu(s).
Ϫ-nm-ђddϪsT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+nn-+dd+s-].
√dw [N √dw and DTF 1.280 « gerboise »; TNEBF 273 ‘gerbil’]
e-d + wwK-d K-f R T-ka[x⍾+-] Ts = e-d+wGnd Im R T-md = e-dђw±
Gao = e-d+wA-grm[x⍾+-], Pl 1-d+x-ϪnA-grm Gao Im K-d K-f R
T-ka T-md Ts Ω b) [nm] jerboa gerboise [ID: Jaculus jaculus, mouse-
like rodent with long tail; occasionally extended to gerbil, see √kt 2].
t-e-d+ww±-t-tR, Pl !-1-d+xxϪ-!-enR Ω [nf] [female of e-d + xx].
√dw1(dց1, d1) [cf. √1ws 1; N √dw1 ; MGT 7.109]
Ϫ-d+ցցϪ1A-grm Im K-d R T-ka T-md, Pl 1-dђxJ-Ϫn (or: 1-duJ-Ϫn)
A-grm Im K-d R T-ka T-md = 1-d+ցցϪJ-+n A-grm Ω [nm] father-in-
law; son-in-law beau-père; beau-fils - poss: 1Sg Ϫ-d+ցցϪJ-1nA-grm
T-md (Pl 1-d ђxJ-Ϫn-1nT-md).
Ϫ-d+ցցϪ1ђnt-+-IukkT-md Ω [cpd nm, lit. “... of the sun”]
hammerkop (bird) ombrette [rare term; ID: Scopus umbretta, so-called
since it doesn’t look up].
Ϫ-d+ցցϪ1ђndϪz± Ω [cpd nm, see under dϪz1].
t-Ϫ-d+ցցϪ1-tA-grm T-ka T-md, Pl !-1-dђxJ-enT-md
= !-1-duJ-enA-grm T-ka = !-1-d+ցցϪJ-en A-grm Ω [nf]
mother-in-law; daughter-in-law belle-mère; belle-fille - poss: 1Sg
!-Ϫ-d+ցցϪJ-!-1nT-md, Pl !-1-dђxJ-1n-1nT-md.
-ђddu1+-tT-ka = -ђddo1+-tA-grm = -+ d d o1+-tR [Imprt duJђ-!
A-grm R T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1duJ1-! A-grm = -!-1duJu-!R T-ka]
Ω [intr] become an in-law devenir un beau-parent. Caus √s-dw1.
+ -d Ϫ1uR Ω [nm, vbln of -ђdduJ+-!].
99
ђddu1uT-ka = ђddu1±A-grm Ω [nm] in-law-hood, being an in-law
qualité de beau-parent.
t-ђddu1Ϫ (or: t-ђddђw1Ϫ) K-d T-ka Ω [nf] in-law-hood, being an in-law
qualité de beau-parent.
√dz(ts) [N √dz ; MGT 7.109 <*√dsh]
-ђtsϪ- (or: -ђtsϪ-) A-grm Im K-d R T-ka T-md [Imprt +!s (or: +!s)
A-grm Im K-d R T-ka T-md, LoImpfP -dϪzz-A-grm Im K-d T-ka
T-md] Ω [intr] laugh rire [cf. √ksks] - ex: 1-!sϪ-\d-ђkR he
laughed at you il a ri de toi; x+InϪdØ-+!s A-grm he won’t
laugh il ne va pas rire. Caus √s-ts 3.
t-Ϫ-dђzzϪA-grm[x⍾t-ђ-] K-d R T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] T-md Ω [nf, vbln]
laugh, laughter (le) rire.
- e -
√e ### [phonetic form of any prefix 1- before pharyngealized C or {t׹x᭢},
in T-ka and some other dialects; applies e.g. to 3MaSg verbal prefix 1-
and to nominal MaPl 1-]
√e 1 [DTF 1.147]
e K-d R T-md Ω [Future morpheme in negative and other non-clause-initial
contexts, used in the dialects indicated; after Neg x+I pronounced he ;
other dialects have nϪd √md 1 or nϪI √mt 1; in simple positive clauses
the Future morpheme is Ϫd and variants] - ex: x+I-\!e!-ђxђ!-+d
T-md you-Sg won’t hit him tu ne le frapperas pas.
√e 2 [for A-grm variant -\± see √± 1b]
-\eK-d T-ka T-md Ω [3MaSg object suffix allomorph after vowel-final
verbs, cf. -\!√t 4] - ex: !-+֊׹-\eT-ka she killed him elle l’a tué.
√e 3 [N √±, DTF 2.693-4]
eA-grm K-d R T-ka Ω [dative preposition before noun beginning in
consonant; cf. allomorph y before vowel-initial noun; replaced by -\hϪ-
or -\Ϫ- in dative pronominal clitics].
√e 4
-e-A-grm K-d R T-ka Ω [suffix on numerals (feminine counterpart
-+!-e-), and arguably part of some prepositions, before a pronominal
suffix; arguably related to Dative e ] - example with numeral and
pronominal: 1Pl ђ!!Ϫn-e-nn+׹A-grm = +!!Ϫn-e-n+׹K-d R we-
Ma are eight nous-Ma sommes huit (feminine ђ!!Ϫn-+!-e-n+׹
K-d); 3MaPl ђ!!Ϫn-e-ss+nA-grm; 3FePl ђ!!Ϫn-e-sn+!A-grm.
100
√e 5 [variant of ed √d 7, perhaps reduced from e-d+ցց ‘place’; DTF 2.692-3]
e K-d T-ka Ω [indefinite locational, e.g. in ‘I don’t know where ...’] - ex: xђI
ђssen-+׹e!-ђkkϪK-d T-ka I don’t know where she went je ne
sais pas où elle est allée.
- I -
√I ### [for -+11o- ‘(day) break’ see √Iw 2; for VblN u11 ‘flowing’ and noun
!-u11-!-! ‘diarrhoea’ see √Iy].
√I 1 [N √I (Pl “±Iattan”)]
+IϪA-grm[x+...] Gao K-d R[x+...] T-ka T-md, (rare) Pl +1Ϫ-!+nA-grm
R Ω [nm] light (e.g. of flashlight or of a distant fire), point of light (seen
in the distance) lumière (d’une torche, d’un feu lointain etc.), point
lumineux (vu au loin) [cf. √nt 4].
√I 2 [cf. √sI 1; N √I ; MGT 7.138].
-oIϪ-A-grm K-d R T-ka [Imprt 11uK-d R T-ka = Ϫ1uA-grm = u1Ϫ
A-grm = Ϫ1A-grm, MaPl Imprt 1-1u-h+!T-ka = u1-+!A-grm
= 1-1ux-+!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-11u-A-grm K-d R T-ka] Ω a) [tr]
be better than ê. meilleur que [all dialects] Ω b) [tr] (sb) be up to (a
challenge) (qn) ê. au niveau pour relever (un défi) [see proverb under
!-Ϫ-I+xJϪ √tw1 2; f. √nyI (and variant √nII), √s-I 1 ‘prefer’] - ex:
!-Ϫ-n+!!Ϫn-!!-o1Ϫ!-+-k+IϪke!-!A-grm T-ka death is
better than dishonor la mort vaut mieux que le déshonneur.
t-uI±-t-tA-grm, Pl !-u1Ϫ-!enA-grm = !-u11-!enA-grm Ω [nf,
vbln] superiority, being better; highest quality supériorité, fait d’ê.
meilleur; la meilleure qualité [homonym ‘diarrhoea’ √Iy 1].
t-ϪI±-t-tA-grm, Pl !-Ϫ11-!enA-grm Ω [nf] [=!-u11-!-!].
t-± Iu-t-tK-d R Ω [nf] [=!-u11-!-!] - phrase: !-11u-!-!-n+n+׹
K-d the best of us (= Prophet Muhammad) le meilleur de nous (= le
Prophète).
√I 3 [N √I]
t-e I±-t-tK-d R T-ka[xt-e...] = t-±I±-t-tA-grm, Pl !-e11-!-en
R T-ka = !-111-!-enA-grm Ω [nf] shroud linceul.
√I 4 [N √I]
t-uIIA-grm[xtu...] R[xtu...], Pl !-u11+-!enA-grm Ω [nf] being
inflated fait d’ê. gonflé [cf. √kI 2a].
t-u I-tK-d T-ka[xt-u...], Pl !-u1-!-enT-ka Ω [nf] act of inflating; air
in pump fait de gonfler; air dans une pompe.
√I 5 [N √I]
eIIA-grm[xe...] K-d R[xe...] T-ka[xe...], Pl e11Ϫx-+nR T-ka
= e11+-!+nA-grm Ω [nm] shelter; windbreak abri; paravent.
101
√Ibtyt
I+btϪy+tA-grm T-ka Ω [nm] February février.
√Id ### [for !-e-1ede see √Idy]
√Id 1 [N √Id]
ђ-IudT-ka = ђ-IuddT = +-IuddA-grm[x+-] Im T-ka[xe...]R, Pl
1-1Ϫdd-+nA-grm Im T-ka[xe...]R T-ka T-md Ω [nm] knee; bend
(in river) genou; coude (de fleuve).
√Id 2 [N √Id]
-ђII+d-A-grm K T-ka[xe...]R T-ka [Imprt ђ11ђdT-ka, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫ11+d-T-ka] Ω [tr, with additional dative] lend (sth to sb) prêter
(qch à qn) - ex: ђ11+d-+׹-\Ϫ-s!-eJ+q-qT-ka I lent him a knife
je lui ai prêté un couteau. Caus √s-Id 1.
+-n-u I+dR Ω [nm, Agent] lender prêteur.
uIђdR Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ11+d-].
eIIϪdA-grm K-d T-ka[xe...], Pl e11Ϫd-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of
-ђ11+d-].
√Id 3 [N √Id]
IϪdA-grm[xIϪ...] K-d T-ka[xIϪ...] Ω [nm] thirst soif [no plural].
-ђIIud-A-grm T-ka = -+IIud-K-d R [Imprt 11ϪdK-d T-ka = u1ad
A-grm R, LoImpfP -!-11Ϫd-K-d T-ka = -!-u1ad-A-grm R]
Ω [intr] be thirsty avoir soif. Caus √s-Id 2.
t-uIIϪt-tA-grm Ω [nf] being thirsty fait d’avoir soif.
√Id 4 [N √Id]
t-ϪI±d-+tT-ka, Pl !-Ϫ11d-+!-enT-ka Ω a) [nf] dark discoloration on
hides décoloration noirâtre sur les peaux [T-ka] [due to moisture, cannot
be washed out] Ω b) [nf] red ochre used to dye hides ocre rouge utilisée
comme colorant des peaux [K-d] Ω c) [by extension:] [nf] sth impossible
to get rid of chose dont on ne peut arriver à se débarrasser.
√IdId [see variant √IdwIdw]
t-Ϫ-I+doI+ do-t-tGao Gnd Gos K-d T-ka[x⍾t-+-] Ts, Pl
!-1-1+do1+do-!-enGos T-ka Ts = !-1-1du1ђdϪT-ka Ω [nf]
grass sp. graminée sp. [ID: Tragus racemosus, specimens seen; ID:
confirmed UPWTA 2.371 (“tafado fodo”)].
√Id׹n [N √Id׹n]
Ϫ-I+d+ ׹ϪnR T-ka = Ϫ-I+d+׹ϪnA-grm = e-I+d+ ׹+nK-d, Pl
1-1+d+׹Ϫn-+nR A-grm T-ka Ω [nm] fat surrounding stomach (of
animal) caillot, graisse qui entoure l’estomac (d’un animal) [placed
inside Ϫ-׹ђJJen√׹1m 3 and cooked].
102
√Id1 [DTF 1.304 (sandal)]
t-e-I+de1-tK-d R T-ka T-md = t-e-Iђde1-tT-md, Pl
!-1-1+deJ-enK-d R T-ka T-md = !-1-1ђdeJ-enT Ω [nf] shoe
(any kind) (toute) chaussure [cf. √Ik1, √s1 2a, √sbt 3].
√IdwIdw [variant of √IdId]
t-Ϫ-I+d+wI+d+w-+tA-grm, Pl !-1-1+d+x1+d+x-enA-grm Ω [nf]
grass sp. graminée sp. [ID: Tragus racemosus].
√Idy [N √Idy]
-+Ied+y-Im K-d R T-ka = -+IIed+y-A-grm [Imprt 1Ϫd+yIm R T-ka
= 11dђyA-grm R, ShImpf -+1Ϫd+y-Im K-d R, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫ1ϪdϪy-A-grm Im R T-ka = -!-111d1y-K-d] Ω [intr] (e.g.
donkey) have cuts on skin (due to carrying loads) (âne etc.) avoir des
plaies (dues aux fardeaux portés). Caus √s-Idy.
Ϫ-I±dђy (or: ...d±) Im R T-ka, Pl 1-11dђy-+n T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of
-+1ed+y-].
t-e-IedeA-grm K-d T-ka, Pl !-1-1Ϫd1x-enA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [nf,
vbln of -+1ed+y-].
√Id ### [see also √s-Id 1]
√Id [N √Id ; MGT 5.122 √yId ]
e-I+dIm K[x⍾+-] K-d K-f R T-ka T-md = Ϫ-I+dA-grm[x⍾+-], Pl
Ϫ1+d-+nT-ka T-md = Ϫ1d-+nK-d R[xϪ...] = e1d-Ϫn A-grm[x
e...] = Ϫ1d-ϪnIm = Ϫ1d-ϪnK-f = 1-1d-ϪnK Ω [nm, functioning
as num] thousand mille - ex: e-1+dn+-xϪdђnK-d K-f one
thousand persons mille personnes.
ђss±nϪI+d-+nT-ka T-md = ђss±neId-ϪnA-grm = ђss±n
ϪId -+nK-d Ω [num] two thousand deux mille.
√Id1 [<Ar √Id1]
-ђIIђdd+1-K-d [Imprt 1+dd+JK-d, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ1+ddϪJ-K-d]
Ω [tr] welcome, give a good reception to (sb) who comes in accueillir
(qn) qui entre - phrase (greeting): !-+111dd+J-+dK-d welcome!
bienvenue!
Ϫ-Iђddђ1K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ11ђdd+J-].
√Id1ws
t-e-I+d+1w+s-tK-d, Pl !-1-1+d+Jx+s-enK-d Ω [nm] lip of vulva
lèvre de la vulve.
√Idndn
-+Id+nd+n-K-d T-ka [Imprt 1ђdђndђnT-ka, LoImpfP -!-11dђnd1n-
K-d T-ka] Ω [intr] be of irritable or grouchy disposition ê. de
tempérament nerveux ou irascible.
Ϫ-IdђndϪnT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+1d+nd+n-].
Ϫ-I+d+ndϪnT-ka, Pl 1-1+d+ndϪn-+nT-ka Ω [nm] irritable one qn de
tempérament nerveux.
103
√IdtIdt [TNEBF 195]
-+Id+tI+d+t-K-d [Imprt 1ђdђI1ђdђIK-d, LoImpfP
-!-11dђI1ђd1I-K-d] Ω [intr] (rice grains) bubble over, move
around actively (in boiling water); (decaying corpse or carcass) let out pus
all over (grains de riz) déborder, bouger rapidement (dans de l’eau qui
bout); (cadavre ou carcasse en décomposition) couler de partout.
Ϫ-IdђtIђdђtK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+1d+I1+d+I-].
√Ids [see variant √Ids ; N √Ids or √Iցs]
Ϫ-Iђd±s (or: Ϫ-I+d±s)A-grm[x⍾+-] K-d[x⍾+-] R[x⍾+-] T-ka[x
⍾ђ-], Pl 1-1dϪsR[x⍾ђ-] T-ka[x⍾ђ-] = 1-1ђdϪsA-grm[x⍾ђ-]
Ω [nm] hammer marteau.
√Ids [variant of √Ids]
Ϫ-I+d±sT Ω [nm] hammer marteau.
√II [N √II]
e-I+IIA-grm Im K-d K-f R[x⍾+-] T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md, Pl 1-1+1-Ϫn
A-grm Im K-f R T-ka T-md Ω a) [nm] teat, breast nipple (of woman or
man) sein (de femme ou d’homme) [widespread] [Sg denotes one side of
chest only; cf. √xII] Ω b) [by extension, rarely:] [nm] fruit of
Ϫ-k+J+11Ϫtree fruit de l’arbre Ϫ-k+J+11Ϫ [T].
t-Ϫ-IuIu-t-tT = t-Ϫ-Iђ Iu-t-tR T-ka[x⍾t-+-], Pl
!-1-1u1u-!-enT = !-1-1ђ1u-!-enR T-ka Ω [nf] teat, breast
(of woman) mamelle, sein (de femme) [cf. !-+-d+nϪnu-!-!
√dmm 1].
√IIt ### [see also √nIIt ‘(animals) graze’]
√IIt [N √IIt]
-ђIIuII+t+-tT-ka = -+IIuII+t+-t K K-d R [Imprt 1u11ђIђ-!R
T-ka, LoImpfP -!-11ђ11ђIu-!K-d R T-ka] Ω [tr] scrub (garment);
wring (e.g. cloth) in one’s hand; rub (e.g. one’s face, with sth); rub (branch,
to remove bark) nettoyer en frottant; essorer (tissu etc.) à la main, frotter
(son visage, etc., avec qch); frotter (branche d’arbre, pour enlever l’écorce)
[cf. √ks 2, √mms 1b, √nn׹ 2, √s-m-st׹].
-I+II+t+-t A-grm [Imprt 1ђ11ђIђ-!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-11ђ11ђI1-!
A-grm] Ω [= -ђ11u11+I+-!].
Ϫ-IђIIђtuA-grm K-d R T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ11u11+I+-!].
-+n-I+II+t+-tK-d [Imprt n-ђ1ђ11ђIђ-!K-d, LoImpfP
-!-1n-1ђ11ђIu-!K-d] Ω [intr plus prep d] (sb) try to get a wrestling
hold on (sb at the beginning of a squabble) (qn) essayer de bien saisir
(qn au début d’une bagarre).
Ϫ-n-IђIIђtuK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+n-1+11+I+-!].
104
√Iց [N √Iց ê. découvert, se révéler », DTF 1.308]
-ђIIuցցϪ-T-ka = -+ IIuցցϪ-K-d R [Imprt 1uցցK-d R T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-11ђցցu-K-d T-ka] Ω a) [intr] (part) become loose, become
separated (from larger whole); (e.g. lid) be blown off container (by air
pressure) (partie) se détacher (d’un tout); (couvercle etc.) ê. enlevé de
son récipient (par la pression de l’air) [T] Ω b) [intr] (muscles) be strained
(by carrying excessive weights) (muscles) ê. déchirés (par le portage de
fardeaux trop lourds) [K-d T] [cf. DTF 1,308] Ω c) [intr] (sb) be unable to
get a screw to engage in its hole (qn) ne pas réussir à introduire une vis
dans son trou [T]. Caus √s-Iց.
-ђIIђցցϪ-A-grm [Imprt 1+ցցA-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ1+ցցu-A-grm]
Ω [intr] (muscles) be strained (by carrying excessive weights) (muscles)
ê. déchirés (par le portage de fardeaux trop lourds).
Ϫ-IuցցA-grm K-d R T-ka[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-1uցց-ϪnT-ka
= 1-1ђցցu-!+nR Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ11uցցϪ-].
√Iցց ### [see √I¸¸]
√Iցtm [N √Iցtm]
Ϫ-IђցցђtumT-ka, Pl 1-1ђցցђ!un-+nT-ka Ω a) [nm] solid block of
wood (from trunk of large tree) bloc de bois (du tronc d’un arbre) Ω b)
[nm] stocky, solidly built person costaud, personne solide.
√I׹ 1 [cf. √It׹ 2; N √I׹]
-ђIIuqq+-tA-grm T-ka = -+IIuqq+-tK-d T-md [Imprt 1uqqђ-!
A-grm T-ka T-md, LoImpfP -!-11ђqqu-!K-d T-ka T-md
= -!-11uqq1-!A-grm] Ω a) [intr] run; (animal) break away, bolt
courir; (animal) se libérer et fuir [A-grm T] [cf. √bd 1] Ω b) [intr]
(plant) sprout; (plante) sprout (plante) pousser [A-grm T] Ω c) [intr]
(egg) hatch (œuf) éclore [A-grm T]. Caus √s-I׹.
Ϫ-IђqquT-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-1ђqqu-!+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of
-ђ11uqq+-!].
+-IϪqquA-grm K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ11uqq+-!].
t-ђ-Iuqq±-t-tK-d T-ka, Pl !-1-1uqqaT-ka Ω [nf, vbln of
-ђ11uqq+-!].
t-+-IϪqqu-t-tT-ka, Pl !-1-1Ϫqqu-!-enT-ka Ω [nf] sprout, young
plant; young sapling (of tree) pousse, jeune plante; jeune arbre.
t-+-Ioqq±-t-t (or: t-+-Iuqq±-t-t)A-grm T-ka, Pl !-1-1uqqa
A-grm T-ka Ω a) [nf, vbln of -ђ11uqq+-!] [T] Ω b) [nf] sprout,
young plant; young sapling (of tree) b) pousse, jeune plante; jeune arbre
[A-grm].
+ -IoqqR T-ka T-md, Pl 1-1uqqϪR T-ka Ω [nm] thinly vegetated ground
(not much good for grazing) terrain couvert d’une maigre végétation
(pâturage pauvre).
105
√I׹ 2 [see variant √I׹t ; N “tϪI+׹+t” √I׹t]
t-ϪI׹Ϫ-t-tA-grm[xt-Ϫ...]T-ka[xt-Ϫ...] = t-ϪI+׹-+tK-f T-ka
T-md = t-ϪIe׹-+tIm = t-Ϫ IϪ׹-+tK-d R[xt-Ϫ...], (rare) Pl
!-Ϫ1׹Ϫ-!-enA-grm T-ka = !-Ϫ1Ϫ׹-+!-enR = !-Ϫ1e׹-+!-en
Im Ω [nf] rice riz.
t-ϪI׹-+tn⍾ђ-¸dϪdT-ka = t-ϪI׹Ϫ-t-tn⍾ђ-ցdϪdA-grm
= t-ϪIϪ׹-+tt-Ϫn⍾ђ-ցdϪdR Ω [cpd nf, lit. “rice of birds”]
wild rice sp. riz sauvage sp. [ID: mainly Oryza barthii, an annual with
small roots, cf. √bw 2].
√I׹ 3 [cf. N √I׹]
t-eI+q-qT-ka[xt-e...] = t-±I+q-qK-d, Pl !-e1׹-enT-ka[x
t-e...] = !-11׹-enK-d Ω [nf] ganglion (on body or in meat); watery
lump ganglion (dans le corps ou dans la viande); grosseur remplie d’eau.
√I׹ 4 [N √I׹]
[Pl only:] ±-I+qq-ϪnK-d Ω [nmpl] shared traits, resemblance
caractéristiques communes, ressemblance.
-+n-I+qqϪ-K-d [Imprt n-ђ1ђqqK-d, LoImpfP -!-1n-1ђqq1-K-d]
Ω [intr plus prep d] resemble (sth), share traits with (sth, sb) ressembler
à (qch), avoir des caractéristiques en commun avec (qch, qn) - ex:
Ø-+n-11+qqϪ-\dђI-1K-d he resembles me il me ressemble. Caus
√s-n-I׹.
Ϫ-n-IђqqK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+n-1+qqϪ-].
√I׹I׹ [cf. perhaps Y !-e-1+11+q ‘burned roots used for tent poles etc.’]
e-I+׹I+׹T-ka Ω [nm] herb sp. plante sp. [described as having fruits like
those of Ϫ-bђցցoIn⍾+-kJ1, but plant taller].
t-e-I+׹I+q-qT-ka[x⍾t-+-], !-1-1+׹1+׹-enT-ka Ω [nf] stem (and
flowers) of plant (all parts above ground) tige (et fleurs) d’une plante
(toutes les parties au dessus du sol).
√I׹s [N √I׹s]
+-IϪ׹±sK-d T-ka, Pl 1-1u׹ϪsK-d T-ka Ω [nm] member of Ifoghas tribe
(Adrar region) membre de la fraction des Ifoghas (de l’Adrar).
√I׹t 1 [possibly related to √I׹t 2, cf. √I׹ 1,2; N √I׹t]
e-I+׹+tT-ka[x⍾+-] Ts, Pl 1-1+׹+!-+nT-ka = 1-1׹Ϫ!Ts Ω [nm]
green stage of e-k+n+y plant état vert de la plante e-k+n+y [long-
leafed fodder plant for sheep; ID: Blepharis linariifolia].
Ϫ-I+׹otT-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-1׹Ϫ!T-ka[x⍾ђ-] Ω [nm] dry tree trunk
without branches; tree stump; large log tronc d’arbre sec sans branches;
souche d’arbre; grand bois [cf. √I¸].
√I׹t 2 [variant of √I׹ 2 with final ! treated as part of stem]
t-ϪI+׹+tTs, Pl !-Ϫ1+׹+!-+nTs Ω [nm] rice riz.
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√I׹w
I+qq+wTh, Pl 1+qq+x-!+nTh = 1-1+qq+x-+nTh Ω [nm] leguminous
herb sp. plante légumineuse sp. [ ID: one or more Crotalaria spp. such
as C. podocarpa and C. cylindrocarpa, Leguminosae-Papilionaceae].
√Ihm [<Ar √Ihm, also in Songhay etc.]
-ђIh+m-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ1hђnA-grm T-ka, LoImpfP -1Ϫhh+n-
A-grm T-ka] Ω [tr] understand comprendre [syn: √¸th 1]. Caus
√s-Ihm.
Ϫ-I+hϪmA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ1h+n-].
-+tw-+Ih+m-T-ka = -t+w-+Ih+m-A-grm [Imprt !ђx-ђ1hђnA-grm
T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1!x-ђ1h1n-A-grm] Ω [intr, Passive] be
understood ê. compris.
Ϫ-tw-ђIhђmA-grm = Ϫ-tw-ђIhϪmT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of
-+!x-+1h+n-].
-ђnn-ђIh+m-T-ka [Imprt n-+1h+nT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫn-+1hϪn-
T-ka] Ω [intr, Recip] understand each other se comprendre
mutuellement.
Ϫ-n-ђIhϪmT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђnn-ђ1h+n-].
-+nm-+Ih+m-A-grm [Imprt nђn-ђ1hђnA-grm, LoImpfP
-!-1nn-ђ1h1n-A-grm] Ω [intr, Recip] understand each other se
comprendre mutuellement.
Ϫ-nm-ђIhђm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђnn-ђ1h+n-].
√I¸(Iց) [DTF 1.309]
t-Ϫ -I+¸ϪK-d R T-ka[x⍾t-+-] T-md = t-Ϫ-I+ցϪA-grm, Pl
!-1-1ђ¸x-enK-d T-ka T-md = !-1-1ђցx-enA-grm Ω [nf] tree
trunk; base (e.g. of electric fan) tronc d’arbre; base ou pied (d’un
ventilateur électrique, par ex.) [cf. √I׹t].
Ϫ-I+ցϪA-grm, Pl 1-1ђցx-ϪnA-grm Ω [nm] [= !-Ϫ-1+¸Ϫ]
√I¸¸ [N √Iցց]
Ϫ-I+¸Ϫ¸T-ka K-f R = Ϫ-I+ցϪցA-grm Gao = Ϫ-Iђ ¸¸Ϫ¸K-d, Pl
1-1+¸Ϫ¸-+nK-f R T-ka = 1-1+ցϪց-+nA-grm = 1-1ђ¸¸Ϫ¸-+n
K-d = 1-1u¸Ϫ¸T-ka Ω a) [nm] thorny acacia tree sp. acacia épineux
sp. [A-grm K K-d] [ID: Acacia tortilis spp. raddiana, syn: √hks (and
variants), !-e-s+׹eI-! √s׹t 5a] Ω b) [nm] old (but living) acacia
tree Ϫ-hђks acacia Ϫ-hђks vieux (mais encore vivant) [T] Ω c) [nm]
tall, spreading acacia tree (foliage not dense enough for good shade)
acacia sp. à feuillage élevé et éparpillé (insuffisament dense pour donner
de bon ombre) [T] [main reference is to A. tortilis and A. senegal].
√I¸1¸1
-+I¸+1¸+1-K-d R [Imprt 1ђ¸ђJ¸ђJ-R, LoImpfP -!-11¸ђJ¸1J-R]
Ω [intr] (fire) flame, flare up (feu) s’enflammer, flamber.
107
Ϫ-I¸ђ1¸ђ1K-d R, Pl 1-1¸ђJ¸1J-+nR Ω [nm, vbln of -+1¸+J¸+J-].
√Ik 1
Iu kkR T-ka T-md Ω [noun, used as quantifier] all; entirely tout, tous;
complètement [dialectal syn: √׹td, √k1 13; cf. hϪk ‘each’ √hk 1].
√Ik 2 [N √Ik]
t-Ϫ-IђkkϪA-grm K-d T-md T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-], Pl !-1-1ђkx-enA-grm
T-ka T-md = !-1-1ђkkϪx-enT-ka Ω a) [nf] body corps [K-d T]
[opp: 1-n-Ϫn √m 4 ‘soul’; syn: √׹s 2a, √ky 4] Ω b) [nf] (inanimate)
body, corpse corps (inanimé), cadavre [A-grm].
√Ik 3 [EPPB 194]
t-ђ-Iukk (or: t-ђ-Iuk-k)T-ka = t-+-Iukk (or: t-+-Iuk-k)A-grm[x
t-+-] Im K-d R T-md, (rare) Pl !-1-1ukk-enA-grm T-ka
= !-1-1uk-enR Ω [nf] sun soleil.
√Ik 4 [cf. HassAr √Ikk ‘(God) extricate (sb from harm)’]
-ђIIђkkϪ-K-d [Imprt 1ukkK-d, LoImpfP -!-11ђkku-K-d] Ω [tr, with
reflexive obj] save oneself (from danger) se tirer d’affaire, se sauver
(d’un danger) [object is a possessed form of 1-n-Ϫn √m 4; verb-stem
paradigm from this speaker is a mix of types (medial short versus full
vowel)] - ex: 1-11ђkkϪ1-n-Ϫn-ne!K-d he saved himself il s’est
sauvé.
Ϫ-IђkkK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ11ђkkϪ-].
√Ik 5 [variant of √Iyk ; for -ђ11ђkkϪ- see √Ik 4]
-ђII±kkϪ-R [Imprt 11kkR, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ1+kkϪ-R] Ω [intr] (e.g.
baggage) be searched through (bagages, etc.) ê. fouillé. Caus √s-Ik.
Ϫ-I± kkR Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ111kϪ-].
√Ik 6 [cf. N √bk, √Ik ; DTF 1.312]
-ђIIukk+-tT-ka = -+IIukk+-tK-d R [Imprt 1ukkђ-!R T-ka,
LoImpfP -!-11ђkku-!K-d R T-ka] Ω a) [tr] pound (unshelled rice) in
mortar to remove +-bobbϪI(outer coverings) piler (le riz paddy) dans
un mortier pour enlever +-bobbϪI (la bale) [this is the first pounding; cf.
√dh 2] Ω b) [tr] pound (millet ears) in mortar to separate grains from ear
piler (les épis de mil) dans un mortier pour détacher les grains de l’épi
[for other ‘pound’ terms see √dh 2].
Ϫ-IђkkuT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ11ukk+-!].
-ђIIђkk+-t A-grm [Imprt 1ђkkђ-! A-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ1+kkϪ-!
A-grm] Ω [= -ђ11ukk+-!].
+-IϪkkuA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ11ukk+-!].
√Ik 7
IϪkuA-grm, Pl 1Ϫku-!+nA-grm Ω [nm] plant whose leaves are used in
fakou-hoy sauce plante dont les feuilles sont utilisées dans la sauce
fakou-hoy [ID: Corchorus spp., see √Ik-hy, √hy 4]
108
√Ik 8 [variant of √kI 3]
I+kk!T-ka Ω [interj; Intensifier for √n׹ ‘kill’, variant of k+11! - phrase:
+֊׹-\e1+kk!T-ka kill him dead! tue-le!
√IkIk 1 [N √IkIk]
t-ђ-IϪ kIϪk-kR T = t-+-IϪkIϪk-kT-ka T-md, Pl !-1-1Ϫk1Ϫk-en
T-ka T-md Ω a) [nf] wing aile [R T] [cf. √Itw] Ω b) [nf] breast cut
(of bird) poitrine d’oiseau (viande) [T].
√IkIk 2 [cf. N √IkIk « léger »]
t-Ϫ-I+kI+kϪ-t-tT-ka[x⍾t-+-], Pl !-1-1+k1+kϪ-!-enT-ka
Ω [nf] small silver bead for necklace petite perle en argent pour collier.
√Ik-hy [see √Ik 7; <Songhay]
I+ko-hoyy T-ka Ω [nm] herb sp. used in green sauce plante sp. utilisée
dans la sauce verte [no Pl; ID: see √hy 4].
√Ik1 [see also √Id1 ; DTF 1.313]
e-I+ke1A-grm K K-d T-ka, Pl 1-1ђkJ-ϪnA-grm K T-ka Ω a) [nm]
shoes, sandals chaussures, sandales [A-grm K] [syn: √Id1, cf. √sbt 3,
verb √s1 2a] Ω b) [nm] old, worn-out shoes or sandals chaussures ou
sandales vieilles et usées [K-d R T].
√Ikn
+ցցuI+kϪn±T-ka Ts, Pl +ցցu1+kϪn1-!+nTs Ω [frozen cpd nm, lit.
“son of U...(personal name)”] agama lizard (common diurnal house lizard)
margouillat (lézard) [ especially the male; ID: Agama agama, male has
red head, common in towns; perhaps also other Agama spp. of the desert;
partial syn: √mdydt, √bցnցn].
√IknIk [variant √kInkI 2]
t-e-I+k+nI+k-kT-ka[x⍾t-+-] T-md, Pl !-1-1+k+n1+k-enT-ka[x
⍾t-ђ-] T-md Ω [nf] bark of oIђ1tree écorce de l’arbre oIђ1 [ID:
Acacia seyal; syn: !-u֊֊Ϫ-!-! √֊ 2; bits of bark mixed with water kept
in new goatskin waterbags for several days to strengthen the hide].
√Ikt 1 [see variant √Iktt ; N √Iktt]
+-Iuk+te (or: +Iuk+te)R T-md Ts, Pl 1-1uk+Ie-!+nTs
= +1ukђIe-!+nT = 1-1uk+I-ϪnR Ω [nm] francolin (partridge-
like bird) francolin [ID: mainly Francolinus coqui].
√Ikt 2 [see variant √Iktw ; N √Ikt]
e-I+kteT-ka, Pl 1-1+kIe-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] old no-good horse, jade, nag
vieux cheval inutile, haridelle, rosse.
√Ikt 3 [<Ar √Ikt]
-ђIIђkk+t-K-d [Imprt 1+kk+IK-d, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ1+kkϪI-K-d]
Ω [intr] think (over), reflect penser, réfléchir.
Ϫ-IђkkђtK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ11ђkk+I-].
109
√Ikt 4 [N √Ikt]
-+IIukk+t-K-d [Imprt 1ukkђIK-d, LoImpfP -!-11ђkkuI-K-d]
Ω [intr] (e.g. evil deed, criminal) be exposed (crime, criminel, etc.) ê.
démasqué.
Ϫ-IukkђtK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+11ukk+I-].
√Iktt [variant of √Ikt 1 (plurals indistinguishable); N √Iktt]
+-Iuk+tetA-grm Gao Gnd K-d T-ka, Pl 1-1uk+Ie!-+nA-grm Gao T-ka
Ω [nm] francolin (partridge-like bird) francolin [ID: mainly Francolinus
coqui].
√Iktw [variant of √Ikt 2; DTF 1.314]
e-I+ kt+wK-d, Pl 1-1+kI+x-+nK-d Ω [nm] old no-good horse, jade
vieux cheval inutile, haridelle.
√I1 1 [N √I1, DTF 1.319-20]
I+1A-grm K-d R T-ka Ω [prep, form used before noun] on, against sur,
contre - ex: 1+J⍾+-h+nA-grm on the house sur la maison.
I+1T-ka Ω [conjunction] because ... parce que ... [reduced from 1+J
Ϫ-\s or the like, see below].
I+11Ϫ-T-ka T-md Ω [prep, form used before pronominal ending] on sur
[cf. √¸n¸] - with pronominal: T-ka T-md 1Sg I+11-±, 1Pl
1+JJϪ-n+׹, 2MaSg 1+JJϪ-k, 2FeSg 1+JJϪ-n, 2MaPl
1+JJϪ-xx+n, 2FePl 1+JJϪ-kn+!, 3Sg 1+JJϪ-s, 3MaPl
1+JJϪ-ss+n, 3FePl 1+JJϪ-sn+!.
Ϫ-w-ϪI+1T-md Ω [conjunction] the reason why ...; because ... la cause
pour laquelle ...; parce que ... .
f+1Ϫ-\sA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [conjunction] because ... parce que ... [cf.
√d 7].- ex: 1+JϪ-\s-\dØ-osϪ A-grm because he came parce
qu’il est venu.
mϪ-I+1 A-grm T-ka T-md Ω [interrog adv] why? pourquoi?
Ϫ-I+ 1 K-d T-ka Ω a) [conjunction] because ... parce que ... [T] Ω b)
[conjunction] if ...; when ... si ...; lorsque ... [K-d] [syn: Ϫ¸ud √¸d 1] -
ex: Ϫ-1+J-\h1Ø-+bϪ,!-ђ¸ђ-n-\Ϫ-h1Ϫ-n+bϪJ
Ø-oJϪ׹-+nK-d if I die, please make for me a nice burial si je meurs,
s’il te plaît, fais-moi un bon enterrement.
√I1 2a [homonyms √I1 2b; perhaps related to √I1 1; N √I1, DTF 1.319]
Ϫ-I+11Ϫ (or: ϪI+11Ϫ)A-grm K-d R T-ka T-md, Pl Ϫ1+JJϪ-!+nT-ka
Ω [nm] north nord [perhaps ‘north’ equated with ‘top’ (√I1 2b) with
reference to the Adrar mountains in the north; syn: √¸zy, √msn 3; cf.
√d׹].
sϪ-I+11ϪA-grm T-md Ω [adv phrase] northward vers le nord.
+ցց⍾+-I+11ϪR T-ka, Pl k+J⍾+-1+JJϪT-ka Ω a) [cpd nm, lit.
“son/people of ...”] northerner homme du nord, nordiste Ω b) [Sg only:]
[nm] north wind vent du nord.
110
-+ IIu11Ϫ-R [Imprt 1uJJR, ShImpf -ђ11uJJ-R, LoImpfP
-!-11ђJJu-R] Ω [intr] go north aller au nord [cf. √¸zy ;
homonyms √I1 12].
Ϫ-Iu11 Ω [nm, vbln of -+11uJJϪ-].
√I1 2b
Ϫ-I+11ϪT-ka T-md = Ϫ-I+11ϪA-grm K-d R, Pl 1-1+JJϪ-!+nA-grm
Ω [nm] top, upper part (of sth) partie supérieure, (le) dessus (de qch)
[distinguished in T but not elsewhere by accent from ‘north’ √I1 2a; cf.
√skd 1a, √tkt] - ex: Ϫ-1+JJϪn⍾+-h+nT-ka [nm] the top
(= ceiling) of the tent le haut (= plafond) de la tente.
sϪ-I+11ϪIm Ω [adv phrase] on top en haut.
√I1 3a [homonyms √I1 3b,4,5; N √I1]
-ђI+1-A-grm Im T-ka = -I+1-K-d T-md [Imprt ђ1ђJA-grm Im T-ka
T-md, LoImpfP -!-ђ11ϪJ-A-grm Im K-d T-ka T-md = -ђ11ϪJ-
T-ka] Ω [intr or tr] leave, depart from (a place) quitter, partir de (un
lieu) [often with directional suffixes]
-ђI+1- (+ -\ђdd) Ω [tr] come from, leave (a place, coming this way)
venir de, quitter (un lieu, en venant vers ici).
-ђI+1- (+ -\±n) Ω [tr] depart, leave (here, going away) quitter, partir de
(ici, en s’éloignant).
e-Ie1A-grm K-d T-ka[x⍾+-] Ω [nm,vbln of -ђ1+J-].
√I1 3b [homonyms √I1 3a,4,5]
-ђI+1-Im [Imprt ђ1ђJIm, LoImpfP -!-ђ11ϪJ-Im] Ω [intr] (dry
riverbed) be filled with water (oued) ê. plein d’eau [DTF 1.315
« déborder »].
e-Ie1Im A-grm Ω a) [nm,vbln of -ђ1+J-] Ω b) [nm] current (of water)
courant (d’eau) [syn: √mnn].
√I1 4 [homonyms √I1 3,5; N and DTF 1.321 √I1, MGT 1.75]
-ђI+1-T-ka = -I+1- [Imprt ђ1ђJT-ka, LoImpfP -!-ђ11ϪJ-T-ka
= -ђ11ϪJ-T-ka] Ω [intr] (house etc.) be roofed, be covered by a roof
(maison etc.) avoir un toit. Caus √s-I1 1a, Instr nominal √s-I1 1b.
e-Ie1T-ka[x⍾+-] Ω [nm,vbln of -ђ1+J-].
√I1 5 [homonyms √I1 3,4; perhaps related to √I1 6]
-ђI+1-Im [Imprt ђ1ђJIm, LoImpfP -!-ђ11ϪJ-Im] Ω [intr] (waterskin)
be torn (outre) ê. déchiré(e).
e-Ie1Im Ω [nm,vbln of -ђ1+J-].
√I1 6 (I1w) [perhaps related to √I1w 2; Y !-Ϫ1JϪ, Pl !-Ϫ1JϪx-en ‘half (of
peanut etc.)’]
-ђI1Ϫ-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ1JuK-d T-ka, LoImpfP -11JJu-T-ka]
Ω a) [intr] (peanut, heart, etc.) to be split into its natural halves
(d’arachide, cœur, etc.) ê. divisé dans ses moitiés naturelles [A-grm T]
[cf. √Ist 1] Ω b) [tr] split (peanut, heart, etc.) in half diviser (arachide,
111
cœur, etc.) en deux moitiés Ω c) [intr] (e.g. stomach,waterskin) burst
open; (sb) become obese (ventre, outre, etc.) exploser; (qn) devenir
obèse [A-grm].
t-Ϫ-Iђ11Ϫw-tT-ka, Pl !-1-1ђJJϪx-enT-ka Ω [nf, vbln of
-ђ1JϪ-].
t-Ϫ-I1u-t-tT-ka[x⍾t-ђ-], Pl !-1-1Ju-!-en T-ka Ω [nf] natural
half (of a peanut, a heart, etc.) moitié naturelle (d’une arachide, d’un
cœur, etc.) [DTF 1.316].
√I1 7 [see variants under √I1n]
+-Io 11R T-ka T-md, Pl 1-1oJJ-ϪnR T-ka T-md Ω [nm] Fula (man)
(homme) peul.
t-+-Io 11±-t-tR T-ka, Pl !-1-1oJJ1-!-enR T-ka
= !-1-1oJJϪ-!-enR Ω [nf] Fula (woman); Fulfulde language
(femme) peule; langue peule.
√I1 8 [N √I1, DTF 1.320 (masculine)]
t-Ϫ-Iu1-tT-ka[x⍾t-+-] = t-ϪIo1-t (or: t-Ϫ-Io1-t)K-d R[x
t-Ϫ...], Pl !-Ϫ1oJ-enR = !-1-1uJK-d R T-ka Ω [nf] either or two
forked wooden poles planted in the ground at a well, each with holes
drilled in both forks un des deux bois fourchusd’un puits, dont les
fourches sont trouées [a smaller stick √s׹tkn, inserted in these holes, runs
horizontally between the two poles and is connected to the pulley that
lowers the ropes and the waterbag; ‘pulley’: √ktkt 5].
√I1 9 [N √I1]
t-e-Ie1-tA-grm[x⍾t-+-] K-d T-ka[x⍾t-+-], Pl !-1-1eJ-en
A-grm K-d T-ka Ω a) [nf] coin or other small piece of metal pièce de
monnaie ou autre peetit morceau de métal [A-grm] Ω b) [nf] round piece
of metal used as a patch on e.g. broken pots rondelle de métal utilisée
pour rapiécer les marmites cassées, etc. [T] Ω c) [nf] piece of metal
morceau de métal [K-d] Ω d) [nf] knife (in poor condition) couteau
(en mauvais état) [K-d].
√I1 10 [<Fr, see related form √1b1]
Ie11uA-grm T-ka, Pl 1eJJu-!+nA-grm T-ka Ω [nm] shovel pelle [cf.
√ks1, √s-1tI].
√I1 11a [N √I1]
t-+-IϪ1ϪA-grm K-d T-ka, Pl !-1-1ϪJ1x-enA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [nf]
makeshift hut (for a short stay) case simple montée pour un court séjour.
√I1 11b
t-ϪIu1eA-grm, Pl !-1-1uJϪx-enA-grm Ω [nf] canopy (for open-
backed vehicles) bâche (de voiture).
√I1 12 [N √I1, DTF 1.322]
-ђIIu11Ϫ-R T-ka = -+IIu11Ϫ-K K-d[Imprt 1uJJK R T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-11ђJJu-K R T-ka] Ω [tr or intr, plus prep 1+J] rely on, count on
(sb or sth, to do or fix sth) compter sur (qn ou qch, par ex. pour faire ou
régler qch) [homonym under √I1 2a] - ex:
112
1-11uJJϪ-\h1n-\1+JJϪ-sђssђ׹ђJ-ђnne!T-ka he entrusted
his work to him il lui a confié son travail. Caus √s-I1 3.
Ϫ-Iu 11K-dR Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ11uJJϪ-].
-ђIIђ11Ϫ-A-grm[Imprt 1+JJuA-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ1+JJu-A-grm]
Ω [tr or intr, plus prep 1+J] rely on, count on (sb, sth) compter sur (qn,
qch). Caus √s-I1 3.
Ϫ-Iђ11± A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ11ђJJϪ-].
Ie11ϪA-grm R[xIe...] K[xIe...] K-dT-ka[xIe...] Ω [nm] reliance (on
sb or sth) fait de compter (sur qc ou qch).
√I1 13 [N √I1]
-o I+1-K-dR T-ka T-md [Imprt Ϫ1ђJR T-ka T-md, MaPl Imprt Ϫ1J-+!
T = Ϫ1ђJ-+!A-grm T-ka, LoImpfP -!-11ђJ-K-dR T-ka T-md
= -!-Ϫ1+J-A-grm] Ω [intr] (hide) be tanned (peau) ê. tannée. Caus
√s-I1 2.
oI+1-+nT-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] tanned (hide) (peau) tanné.
oIϪ1-+nK-d Ω [partpl, MaSg] tanned (hide) (peau) tanné.
±IIu1R Ω [nm, vbln of -o1+J-].
t-± I1ϪK-dT-ka[xt-±...] Ω [nf, vbln of -o1+J-].
√I1d [variant of √I1dd ; Y Ϫ-1+JJ+do‘padding for donkey load’]
Ϫ-Iђ11ђdϪA-grm, Pl 1-1ђJJђdϪA-grm Ω [nm] type of padded saddle
sorte de selle rembourrée.
t-Ϫ-Iђ11ђdϪA-grm, Pl !-1-1ђJJђdaA-grm Ω [nf] type of padded
saddle sorte de selle rembourrée.
√I1dd [see variant √I1d ; DTF 1.323 √I1dd with drawing]
t-Ϫ-Iђ11ђdђt-tK-dT-ka T-md, Pl !-1-1ђJJђdϪdK-dT-ka T-md
Ω [nf] type of padded saddle sorte de selle ouatinée.
√I1h1h
Ϫ-I+1+h1+hK-f, Pl 1-1+J+hJ+h-+nK-f Ω [nm] bush sp. buisson sp.
[ID: Datura spp., Solanaceae; has narcotic properties; syn: √1mkyky].
√I1k
+-IϪ1kϪT-ka, Pl 1-1ϪJk-ϪnT-ka Ω [nm] wooden stick with curved tip
used in native hockey-like game bâton au bout recourbé, utilisé dans un
jeu traditionnel qui ressemble au hockey [syn: √skw 3; cf. e-n-+xe!
√wt 1b].
√I1n [see variants under √I1 7]
Ϫ-Iu1ϪnA-grm K-d, Pl 1-1uJϪn-+nA-grm Ω [nm] Fula man homme
peul [ethnic group mainly near river, specialists in cattle herding].
t-Ϫ-Iu1Ϫn-tA-grm, Pl !-1-1uJϪn-enA-grm Ω [nm] Fula woman
femme peule.
113
√I1nkd [syn: see √z1b ; N √I1nkd]
-+I1+֊k+d-K-dT-ka [Imprt 1ђJђ֊kђdT-ka, LoImpfP -!-11Jђ֊k1d-
T-ka] Ω a) [intr] (skin, surface, outer layer) come off, slide off, be lifted
off (peau, surface, couche extérieure) s’enlever, se détacher [K-d T-ka]
[cf. √In׹ 1, √Itnkn, etc.] Ω b) [intr] slide glisser [T-ka] [cf. √z1b]
Ω c) [intr] be rude, behave badly ê. impoli, agir d’une mauvaise façon
[T-ka] [cf. √Its , √bdt 1]. Caus √s-I1nkd.
Ϫ-I1ђ֊kϪdT-ka = Ϫ-I1ђ֊kђd K-dT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of
-+1J+֊k+d-].
√I1ns [see variant √I1ns ; DTF 1.326; Y !-ђ-1Jђ֊׹es-! ‘hoof’]
t-Ϫ-I1ђns±-t-tT-ka T-md, Pl !-1-1Jђns1-!-enT
= !-1-1Jђns1x-enT-ka Ω [nf] hoof sabot.
√I1ns [variant of √I1ns]
t-Ϫ-I1ђns±-t-tA-grm, Pl T-ka = !-1-1JђnsϪA-grm Ω [nf] hoof
sabot.
√I1s [N √I1s]
-ђI1+s-K-dT-ka [Imprt ђ1JђsT-ka, LoImpfP -1ϪJJ+s-T-ka] Ω [tr]
trust (sb) avoir confiance en (qn).
t-Ϫ-I1ђs-tK-dT-ka, Pl !-1-1ђJJϪsT-ka Ω [nf] trust, confidence
confiance.
-ђnn-ђI1+s-K-d [Imprt n-+1J+sK-d, LoImpfP -!-Ϫn-+1JϪs-K-d]
Ω [tr, Recip] trust each other avoir confiance l’un en l’autre.
Ϫ-n-ђI1ђsK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђnn-ђ1J+s-].
√I1s1s [cf. N √I1z1z and DTF 1.325 √I1h1h with floral senses]
-+I1+s1+s-T-ka [Imprt 1ђJђsJђsT-ka, LoImpfP -!-11JђsJ1s-
T-ka] Ω [tr] leave (part of pony-tail in hair) unbraided laisser (une
partie d’une touffe de cheveux) non tressée.
Ϫ-I1ђs1ђs Ω [nm, vbln of -+1J+sJ+s-].
t-Ϫ-I+1+s1Ϫs-tT-ka Ω [nf] a female hairdo with, on each side, a ball of
hair whose upper part is unbraided coiffure féminine avec, de chaque
côté, une boule de cheveux dont la partie supérieure n’est pas tressée.
√I1t
Io1+tK-dT-ka[xIo...], Pl 1oJ+!-+nK-dT-ka Ω a) [nm] (one’s)
rightful portion la part obligatoire (de qn) [T-ka] [refers to customary
apportionment of slaughtered carcass, e.g. the head of a sheep is normally
reserved for blacksmiths] Ω b) [nm] (any) portion part [K-d].
√I1t׹ [cf. √I1ts ; N √I1t׹]
Iђ1tђ׹T-ka = Iђ1tϪ׹-K-d = -ђIIђ1t+׹-A-grm [Imprt 1ђJ!ђ׹
A-grm T-ka = 1+J!+׹ K-d, LoImpfP -!-11ђJ!u׹-K-dT-ka
= -!-Ϫ1+J!Ϫ׹-A-grm] Ω [intr] (object) become flat and wide
(objet) devenir plat et large [Reslt stem 1+J!Ϫ׹ ; for ‘flat ground’ see
√¸dh 2].
114
Iђ1t+׹-+nA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] flat and wide (object)
(objet) plat et large.
Iђ1t+׹-+tA-grm Ω [partpl, FeSg] flat and wide (object) plate et large.
Iђ1tϪ ׹-nenK-d T-ka = Iђ1to׹-nenT-ka = Iђ1t+׹-nenA-grm
Ω [partpl, Pl] flat and wide plats et larges.
t-+II+1t+q-q T-ka = t-ђIIђ1t+q-q A-grm K-d Ω [nf] flatness fait
d.ê. plat, platitude.
Ϫ-Iђ1tϪ׹K-d, Pl 1-1ђJ!Ϫ׹-+nK-d Ω [nm] sb with a straight torso and a
flat chest qn dont le torse est droit et la poitrine plate.
√I1ts [cf. √I1t׹, DTF 1.330]
-ђIIђ1t+s-A-grm [Imprt 1ђJ!ђsA-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ1+J!Ϫs-
A-grm] Ω [intr] (e.g. metal) be flat, be flattened (fer etc.) devenir plat,
ê. aplati. Caus √s-I1ts.
t-ђIIђ1tђs-tA-grm Ω [nf] flatness fait d’ê. plat.
t-+II+1t+sK-d Ω [nf] flatness fait d’ê. plat - ex: !-+11+J!+sђn
!-+-kobϪK-d the flat side of a saber le plat d’un sabre.
√I1w ### [see also √I1 6]
√I1w 1 [cf. Rdp √I1wI1w, also √m1w 1; Y 1ђJђxxђ-! ‘flash’]
-+I1+ww+-tK-dT-ka = -I+1+ww+-tA-grm [Imprt 1ђJђxxђ-!A-grm
T-ka, LoImpfP -!-11Jђxx1-!-A-grm T-ka = -!-11ђJђxx1-!-
A-grm] Ω [intr] (light) flash (once) (lumière) s’éclairer (une fois).
Ϫ-I1ђww±T-ka = Ϫ-Iђ1ђww±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -+1J+xx+-!].
√I1w 2 [perhaps related to √I1 6]
t-+-IϪ 1wϪ-t-tGao, Pl !-1-1ϪJxϪ-!-enGao Ω [nf] door (half of
double door) battant de porte [syn: √׹I׹I].
√I1wI1w [Rdp of √I1w 1]
-+I1+wI+1+w-T-ka [Imprt 1ђJђx1ђJђxT-ka, LoImpfP
-!-11Jђx1ђJ1x-T-ka] Ω [intr] (light) flicker, glimmer, flash on and
off (lumière) clignoter.
Ϫ-I1ђwIђ1ђw (or: ...1u)T-ka, Pl 1-1Jђx1ђJ1x-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln
of -+1J+x1+J+x-].
√I1zd
+-Iђ1ezђdTh, Pl 1-1ђJezђd-+nTh Ω [nm] bush sp. buisson sp. [ID:
Chrozophora brocchiana, syn: √It׹ 3].
√Im [<Songhay]
IemϪA-grm T-ka T-md, Pl 1enϪ-!+nA-grm T-md Ω [nm] earthenware
charcoal-burning oven with three prongs on top to hold the cooking pot
foyer en terre fonctionnant au charbon de bois, muni en son sommet de
trois supports pour tenir la marmite.
√Imb 1 [see variant √xmb ; <Songhay -1unba]
IombϪT-ka Ω [cpd final after ‘father’ or ‘mother’; cf. √¸1 6 (√¸1y)]
115
ђnnϪIombϪT-ka = +nnϪIombϪR, Pl ϪnnϪ1onbϪ-!enR Ω [nf]
stepmother; mother’s co-wife belle-mère (nouvelle épouse du père),
marâtre; coépouse de la mère. Poss: 1Sg ϪnnϪ-n1n1onbϪ.
mϪIђmbϪA-grm Ω [nf] stepmother; mother’s co-wife belle-mère
(nouvelle épouse du père), marâtre; coépouse de la mère.
ђbbϪIombϪT-ka = ϪbbϪIombϪIm R, Pl ϪbbϪ1onbϪ-!+nR
Ω [nm] stepfather beau-père (nouveau mari de la mère) - poss: 1Sg
ϪbbϪ-n1n1onbϪ.
√Imb 2 [<Songhay 1unbu]
-+IIumb+-tGao [Imprt 1unbђ-!Gao, LoImpfP -!-11ђnbu-!Gao]
Ω [intr] become rotten pourrir [syn: √tkh].
+-IϪmbuGao Ω [nm, vbln of -+11unb+-!].
√In [N √In]
Iђn±A-grm[xIђ...] Ω [nm] bush or shrub sp. buisson ou arbuste sp. [ID:
response to photo of Solanum incanum, Solanaceae, fruits said to be used
in depilating hides; syn: √1ym 2 (√1m 5); AASAI 81 cites “feni” etc. from
the literature, denoting Ricinus, see below].
t-Ϫ-Inu-t-tK-f, Pl !-1-1nu-!-enK-f Ω [nf] shrub sp. ricin
(arbuste) [ID: Ricinus communis, Euphorbiaceae, often planted in towns as
a house shrub; AASAI 81 “taIn±t”].
√Inb ### [see √Imb]
√Ind ### [see √Indy]
√Indd¸ [variant of √In¸dd]
Ϫ-I+nd+do¸K Ω [nm] old waterskin vieille outre en peau.
√Inds [N √Inds and √Inds]
e-I+ ndesGao Ω [nm] being half-siblings fait d’ê. des demi-frères [same
mother or same father; with verb √¸ 1] - ex: n-ђ¸Ϫe-1+ndesGao we
are half-siblings nous sommes demi-frères.
√Indy (Ind)[DTF 1.331]
t-Ϫ-Iђnd±-t-tK-d, Pl !-1-1ђndђy-enK-d = !-1-1ђnd1-!-enK-d
Ω [nf] glans penis gland du pénis.
√Inց [widespread in Malian languages (with 1 or p)]
Io֊ցeT-ka[xIo...] = Io֊ց±T-ka Ω [nm] act of blurting out a fond
memory (that occurs while eating, esp. as a guest) fait de parler
brusquement d’un souvenir favori (qui revient lorsqu’on mange, surtout
quand on est l’invité de qn) [used as object of verb √¸ 1 ‘do, make’; syn:
√snt 3].
√Inցt
t-Ϫ-Iђ֊ցotϪ (or: ...ցutϪ)A-grm K-d R T-ka T-md = t-Ϫ-Iu֊ցotϪ
T-md, Pl !-1-1ђ֊ցoIϪx-enR T-ka = !-1-1ђ֊ցuIϪA-grm T-ka
Ω [nf] baobab fruit and its grains; flour made from this fruit fruit de
baobab et ses graines (« pain de singe »); farine de ce fruit [ID: Adansonia
116
digitata, large tree of southern Mali, flour sold in the north; tree √kds or
√d׹s].
√In׹ 1
t-e -I+֊׹eR T-ka, Pl !-1-1Ϫ֊׹1x-enR T-ka Ω a) [nf] infected skin on
a sore peau infectée sur un bouton ou une plaie [R T-ka] Ω b) [nf] fruit
of !-+-dunun-!tree fruit de l’arbre !-+-dunun-! [T-md]
[uncommon, cf.√dmm 2].
t-+-IϪ֊׹eT-ka, Pl !-1-1Ϫ֊׹1x-enT-ka Ω [nf] blackish “envelope” on
sorghum grains « enveloppe » noirâtre des grains de sorgho.
-ђIIђ֊׹Ϫ-R [Imprt 1+֊׹R, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ1+֊׹Ϫ-R] Ω [intr] (e.g.
scab) start to peel off (at edge) (croûte etc.) commencer à se desquamer
(au bord) [cf. √Itnkn, √I1nkd, etc., and √z1b].
Ϫ-Iђ֊׹R Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ11ђ֊׹Ϫ-].
√In׹ 2
[Pl only:] t-±-I±nϪ׹A-grm K-d T-ka Ω [nfpl] Tifinagh, traditional Tuareg
writing system tifinagh, écriture traditionnelle touarègue - ex:
1-kϪ!!+b!-1-11nϪ׹T-ka he writes in Tifinagh il écrit en
tifinagh.
√In׹In׹ [Y 1ђnђ׹nђ׹ ‘blink’; see also √s-wn׹, √s-wn׹wn׹]
-+In+׹I+n+׹-T-ka = -I+n+׹I+n+׹-A-grm [Imprt 1ђnђ׹1ђnђ׹
T-ka, LoImpfP -!-11nђ׹1ђn1׹-T-ka] Ω a) [intr] (eye) blink (œil)
cligner [T] [syn: √sI1, √nz¸, √s-wn׹] Ω b) [intr] (sb) keep blinking
(due to eye trouble) (qn) cligner de l’œil continuellement (à cause d’une
maladie oculaire) [A-grm]. Caus √s-In׹In׹.
Ϫ-Inђ׹Iђnђ׹R = Ϫ-Iђnђ׹Iђnђ׹A-grm, Pl 1-1nђ׹1ђn1׹-+nR
Ω [nm, vbln of -+1n+׹1+n+׹-].
√In¸dd [see variant √Indd¸]
Ϫ-I+n¸+dodK Ω [nm] old waterskin vieille outre en peau.
√Ink
-+In+kk+-tK-d [Imprt 1ђnђkkђ-!K-d, LoImpfP -!-11nђkk1-!K-d]
Ω [intr] make a sound, make a peep produire un son [often negated] - ex:
x+IØ-+1n+kk+-! K-d he didn’t make a peep (= was silent) il n’a
pas émis un son (= s’est tu).
√Inkym [variant of √skmyn, cf. √z1byn]
t-Ϫ-I+֊k+yϪmu-t-tA-grm K-d, Pl !-1-1ђ֊kђyunϪA-grm Ω [nf]
mussel shell (for scraping pots) coquille de moule (pour racler les
marmites).
√Ins
-I+n+ss+-t A-grm[Imprt 1ђnђssђ-! A-grm, LoImpfP -!-11nђss1-!
A-grm] Ω [intr] (e.g. watermelon) be broken open (pastèque, etc.) ê.
cassée (= ouverte). Caus √s-Ins.
Ϫ-Iђnђss± A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -1+n+ss+-!-].
117
√Inst [variant of √Ist 1; see √s-Inst ; N √Inzt]
-I+nsϪt+-tA-grm [Imprt 1ђnsuIђ-!A-grm, LoImpfP
-!-11ђnsuI1-!A-grm] Ω [intr] (e.g. piece of wood) be split open
(un bois, etc.) se fendre [cf. √Itk, √Its 2]. Caus √s-Inst.
Ϫ-Iђnsut±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -1+nsϪI+-!].
√Int׹ ### [see √s-Int׹]
√Intt [<Fr]
Iunet+tA-grm T-ka T-md, Pl 1une!+I-+nA-grm T-ka T-md Ω [nm]
window fenêtre [syn: √t׹ 3].
√Inz [N √Inz]
-ђIn+z-A-grm K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt ђ1nђzA-grm T-ka, LoImpfP
-1Ϫnn+z-A-grm T-ka] Ω a) [tr] reduce (a price, an amount)
diminuer (un prix, une quantité) [syn √s-dts 1, √1kns ; opp:
√s-wd 2] Ω b) [intr] become smaller, (price) go down (quantité, prix)
diminuer, devenir moindre.
Ϫ-I+nϪzA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ1n+z-].
Ϫ-InuzA-grm T-ka[x⍾ђ-] Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ1n+z-].
√It ### [for !-ђ-1ђIIe see √Itt]
√It 1a [related to √Itw 1; Y 1+II+-! ‘fly’; DTF 1.355 √Itt]
-ђIIutt+-tT-ka[ = -+IIutt+-tIm K-d R T-md [Imprt 1uIIђ-!Im
K-d T-ka T-md, LoImpfP -!-11ђIIu-!Im T-ka T-md] Ω [intr] fly
(away) s’envoler [cf. √ցd 1a, √1y 5]. Caus √s-It 2.
Ϫ-IђttuT-ka[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-1ђIIu-!+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of
-ђ11uII+-!].
+-IϪttuR Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ11uII+-!].
√It 1b [variant of √Itw 1; DTF 1.337 (of garment, etc.)]
Ϫ-IђttT-ka[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-1IϪx-+nT-ka Ω [nm] (bird’s) wing aile
(d’oiseau).
√It 2 [MGT 1.65, 7.49; DTF 1.335]
-ђII+t-A-grm K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt ђ11ђIA-grm T-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫ11+I-A-grm T-ka] Ω a) [tr] hide (sth), put out of sight cacher
(qch), poser hors de la vue [cf. √n¸t 1, √bkm 1a, √tw1 2] Ω b) [intr]
hide (oneself), stay out of sight se cacher, rester hors de vue.
uIђtA-grm K-d T-ka, Pl u1IϪx-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ11+I-].
√It 3 [homonym under √Itt 1; cf. Songhay 1aIIu]
t-ђ-IђtteA-grm K-d R T-ka T-md, Pl !-1-1ђIIϪx-enK-d R T-ka
T-md Ω [nf] open space, empty lot (cleared, suitable for building)
espace ouvert, terrain vide (défriché, où on pourrait construire).
118
√It 4 [homonyms √It 5; N √It]
-ђI+t-A-grm T-ka = -I+t-K-d [Imprt ђ1ђIA-grm T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-ђ11ϪI-A-grm T-ka = -ђ11ϪI-T-ka] Ω [intr] rent (sth) louer
(qch), prendre en location [renter is subject]. Caus √s-It 3.
e-IetA-grm, Pl 1-1eI-+nA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ1+I-].
t-e-Iet-tA-grm K-d T-ka[x⍾t-+-], Pl !-1-1eI-enA-grm T-ka
Ω [nf, vbln of -ђ1+I-].
t-+ -Iet-tR, Pl !-1-1eI-enR Ω [nf] rental location.
√It 5 [perhaps a cross of √It 4 and Fr (un) ouvrier]
-ђ I+t-K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ1ђIT-ka, LoImpfP -!-ђ11ϪI-T-ka] Ω [intr]
employ (sb) embaucher, employer (qn) [‘work’: √s׹1 1, √xdm].
Ϫ-n-+IϪtT-ka, Pl 1-n-+1ϪI-+nT-ka Ω [nm, Agent] employer
employeur, patron.
Ϫ-n-ђIetT-ka, Pl 1-n-ђ1eI-+nT-ka Ω [nm, Agentive] employee
employé.
t-e Iet-tK-d Ω [nf, vbln of -ђ1+I-].
√It 6 [N √It]
t-ђ-I±t-t (or: t-ђ-Iet-t)A-grm R T-ka = t-+ -Iet-tK-d, Pl
!-1-11IA-grm K-d R T-ka Ω [nf] word mot.
√It 7 [N √It]
ϪIetA-grm[xϪ...] K-d T-ka, Pl Ϫ1eI-+nA-grm K-d T-ka Ω a) [nm]
grass sp. graminée sp. [A-grm T-md] [ID: Sporobolus helvolus (ID:
from UPWTA 2.358 “afer”); term also recorded in Niger for this sp. as
well as for S. festivus and S. spicatus] Ω b) [nm] tall, annual hollow-
stemmed swamp plant plante annuelle sp., haute, à tige creuse, des mares
[K-d] [description suggests a tall sedge] Ω c) [nm] shrub sp. arbuste sp.
[T-ka, uncommon sense].
√It 8 [DTF 1.339]
t-+-IoteA-grm K = t-ђ-IuteT-ka = t-Ϫ-Iote (or: t-Ϫ-Iute)K-d
R T-ka, Pl !-1-1oIϪx-enA-grm K K-d R T-ka Ω [nf] small skin
sore on head or body petit bouton sur la peau de la tête ou du corps
[causes itching; thought to produced by dirtiness or bad drinking water;
may be related to scalp disease or to syphilis].
√It 9 [N √It ; EPPB 193]
t-eIIϪt-tA-grm K-d R T-ka, Pl !-e1I-enA-grm[x⍾t-e...] R T-ka[x
⍾t-e...] = !-11I-enK-d Ω [nf] hobbles (rope used to temporarily
hobble an animal by tying its legs) entraves (cordes pour entraver un
animal) [cf. √ktI 1, √sb¸ 1a-b, √ktd 1]
√Itd [cf. √Ittd ; N √Itd]
-ђIt+d-T-ka [Imprt ђ1IђdT-ka, LoImpfP -1ϪII+d-T-ka] Ω a) [intr]
(animal) graze, browse (animal) brouter, paître [K-d T] Ω b) [tr] (sb)
gather (e.g. fruits) (qn) cueillir (fruits, etc.) [A-grm] [cf. √md 2].
119
Ϫ-I+tϪdA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ1I+d-].
t-Ϫ-I+tdeA-grm K-d R T-ka, Pl !-1-1ϪId1x-enR T-ka
= !-1-1ђIdϪR Ω [nf, vbln of -ђ1I+d-].
√Itd 1 [N √Itd]
-ђIt+d-A-grm Im K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ1IђdA-grm T-ka, LoImpfP
-1ϪII+d-A-grm T-ka] Ω a) [tr] sweep (ground) balayer (terrain)
[A-grm Im T] [cf. √s-sd¸] Ω b) [tr] (woman) spurn, refuse to see (male
suitor) (femme) rejeter, refuser de recevoir (un amant) [K]. Caus
√s-Itd.
Ϫ-I+tϪdA-grm Im K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ1I+d-].
√Itd 2 [<Ar √Itd]
-ђIt+d-Hm K-d [Imprt ђ1IђdK-d, LoImpfP -1ϪII+d-K-d] Ω a) [intr
plus prep 1+J] (sth) be required of (sb) (qch) ê. obligatoire à (qn) - ex:
1-1IϪd-\1+JJ-1dђցJu-׹K-d I’m required to go je suis obligé
d’y aller Ω b) [tr plus prep 1+J] required (action, of sb) obliger (un
acte, à qn) - ex: ђ1I+d-+׹-\1+JJϪ-sϪ-\d1-ցJuK-d I obligated
him to go je l’ai obligé à y aller.
Iђtђd K-d[xIђ...], Pl 1ђIђd-+nK-d Ω [nm] duty obligation [syn: see
√hs1 1a].
√ItIt 1 [cf. Songhay (KS) 1aaI1 ‘field’, (KCh) 1aI1 ‘do farm work’]
-ђIIђtI+t-K-d T-ka [Imprt 1+I1+IT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ1+I1ϪI-
T-ka] Ω [tr] do farm work (mainly weeding) cultiver (surtout
désherber) [used sporadically around K] [syn: √¸yk, √׹th 1, cf. √dm 5].
Ϫ-IђtIђtT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ11ђI1+I-].
√ItIt 2 [N √ItIt with different sense]
-ђIIђtI+t-K-d T-ka [Imprt 1+I1+IT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ1+I1ϪI-
T-ka] Ω a) [tr] undo (braid) défaire (tresses) Ω b) [intr] (braid, twined
rope) become undone (tresse, corde tressée) se défaire.
Ϫ-IђtIђtK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ11ђI1+I-].
√ItIt 3 [variant of √ItIt ; <Songhay (KS 1oI1o!o and 1o!o1oIo, DjCh
1ѐ!ѐkѐIѐ)]
t-Ϫ-I+tI+tu-t-tA-grm, Pl !-1-1ђI1ђIϪA-grm Ω [nf] carp (fish)
carpe.
√ItIz [N √ItIt]
Ϫ-I+tI+zoTs, Pl Ϫ-1+I1+z-ϪnTs Ω a) [nm] herb sp. plante sp. [ID:
Crotalaria sp(p)., Leguminosae-Papilionaceae; cf. “aIatIat” FS 168
(and DTF 1.342) for C. saharae in Hoggar (this sp. is recorded in far
northern Mali)] Ω b) [nm] grass sp. graminée sp. [said to resemble
√Iz 2, on edges of dunes] .
120
√It׹ 1 [N √It׹]
-ђIt+׹-A-grm K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt ђ1Iђ׹A-grm T-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-1ϪII+׹-A-grm T-ka T-md] Ω [intr] be crooked, uneven; be tilted,
lean to one side ê. tordu, inégal; ê. penché, se pencher vers un côté [cf.
√1¸w 1, √ktmby, √׹yn 2].
±-ItϪ׹-+nT-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] crooked tordu.
t-ђItϪ׹-+tT-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] crooked tordue.
ђItϪ׹-nenT-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] crooked tordus.
uItϪ׹A-grm[xu...] Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ1I+׹-].
Ϫ-Itu׹T-ka[x⍾ђ-] A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ1I+׹-].
Iђttu׹ (or: I+tto׹) K-d Ω [nm] crookedness fait d’ê. tordu.
√It׹ 2 [cf. √I׹ 1, √Itnցy ; Y 1oI+k! ‘flee!’ (interj used in games)]
-ђIIut׹+-tT-ka = -+IIut׹+-tR T-md[Imprt 1uI׹ђ-!T-ka T-md,
LoImpfP -!-11ђI׹u-!T-ka T-md] Ω [intr] leave hastily, retreat
(from danger) partir à la hâte, se retirer (d’un danger) [cf. √bd 1].
Ϫ-Iђt׹uT-ka[x⍾ђ-] Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ11uI׹+-!].
√It׹ 3 [N √It׹]
+-IϪt+qqA-grm K-d R T-ka Th Ts = +-IϪt+qqT-ka T-md
= +-Io t+qqϪGao, Pl 1-1ϪI+qq-+nR T-md Ts = 1-1uIђqq-Ϫn
K-d T-ka = 1-1uIϪqqA-grm T-ka Ω [nm] small bush sp. petit
buisson sp. [ID: Chrozophora brocchiana, Euphorbiaceae, useful in
stabilizing dunes, said to have dark oily grains; term said to apply also to a
second sp.; fruit √b11׹s ; UPWTA “afaraq” C. brocchiana for Mali
Arabic; “afarako” recorded for C. brocchiana in Niger Tamajak; syn:
√I1zd].
√It׹t׹ [cf. N √It׹« ê. tordu »]
t-Ϫ-I+t+׹t+׹Ϫ-t-tA-grm T-ka T-md Ts = t-Ϫ-I+t+ ׹tϪq-qGnd R,
Pl !-1-1+I+׹I+׹Ϫ-!-enA-grm T-ka T-md Ts
= !-1-1+I+׹IϪ׹-enR Ω [nf] low, dense shrub sp. arbuste dense
sp. [ID: Piliostigma reticulatum, may also extend to P. thonningii].
t-Ϫ-I+t+׹t+׹Ϫ-t-tn⍾+-¸eIA-grm Ω [cpd n, lit. “... of dune”]
[ID: P. thonningii, cf.√kdցw and √׹tzz].
Ϫ-I+t+׹t+׹Gao = Ϫ-I+t+׹t+׹ϪT-ka, Pl 1-1+I+׹I+׹Ϫ-!+nT-ka
Ω [nm] [= !-Ϫ-1+I+׹I+׹Ϫ-!-!].
√It׹s [N √It׹s]
e-I+t׹+sA-grm[x⍾+-] Gao K-d T-md Ts, Pl 1-1+I׹+s-+nA-grm Gao
K-d T-md Ts Ω [nm] tortoise tortue [ID: esp. the giant terrestrial
tortoise Geochelone (= Testudo) sulcata, the shell of which is used as a
container; cf. √kyn].
121
√It¸ 1(Itց) [N √Itց]
Ϫ-I+tϪ¸Im K-d K-f T-ka T-md = Ϫ-I+tϪցA-grm, Pl 1-1ђI¸-ϪnIm
K-d K-f T-ka T-md = 1-1ђIց-ϪnA-grm Ω a) [nm] animal pen (made
with thorny branches) clôture, parc à animaux (fait avec des branches
épineuses) [A-grm Im T] [cf. √bw 1, √׹1d 1a] Ω b) [nm] garden or field
enclosed by a wall or fence jardin ou champ entouré d’un mur ou d’une
clôture [K] [cf. √׹1 4].
√It¸ 2 [see Rdp √It¸It¸ ; N √Itց]
-+It+¸¸+-tK-d T-ka[Imprt 1ђIђ¸¸ђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-11Iђ¸¸1-!T-ka] Ω a) [intr] (e.g. rabbit) be flushed out, emerge
from hiding (lièvre etc.) ê. levé, sortir de sa cachette [T-ka] Ω b) [intr]
(heart) beat (cœur) battre [K-d] [cf. √It¸It¸].
Ϫ-Itђ¸¸±K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+1I+¸¸+-!].
√It¸It¸ [Rdp <√It¸ 2]
-+It+¸I+t+¸-K-d T-ka[Imprt 1ђIђ¸1ђIђ¸T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-11Iђ¸1ђI1¸-T-ka] Ω [intr] (heart) throb, beat heavily (cœur)
battre, battre fort.
Ϫ-Itђ¸Iђtђ¸ Ω [nm, vbln of -+1I+¸1+I+¸-].
√It¸¸ms [variant of √It¸¸ms]
t-Ϫ-Iђt¸±¸ђmsϪT-ka Ω [nf] [= !-Ϫ-1ђI¸1¸ђnsϪ].
√It¸¸ms [see variant √It¸¸ms]
t-Ϫ-Iђt¸±¸ђms ϪR T-md T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-], Pl !-1-1ђI¸1¸ђnsϪx-enR
T-ka Ω [nf] gecko lizard gecko [ID: for T-ka includes the nocturnal
house geckos in towns; for R, more precisely a large gecko sp. with big
eyes, common in trees; cf. √mt׹t׹ (and √mt1t׹), √mskt].
√Itk 1a [homonyms √Itk 1b-c; N √Itk, DTF 1.346]
t-Ϫ-Iђtk±-t-tT-ka, Pl !-1-1ђIkT-ka Ω cow dung bouse de vache
[syn: √t׹ 1b].
√Itk 1b[homonyms √Itk 1a,c; DTF 1.346 (dried tree bark)]
t-Ϫ-Iђtk±-t-tA-grm R[x⍾t-ђ-] T-ka, Pl !-1-1ђIk1-!-enA-grm
= !-1-1ђIkA-grm T-ka = !-1-1ђIkϪR Ω [nf] sth dried; dried
meat (esp. gazelle meat) qch de séché; viande séchée (surtout de
gazelle).
t-Ϫ-Iђtk±-t-tђn⍾Ø-s-ϪnA-grm T-ka Ω [cpd nf] dried meat
viande séchée [pounded and served with liquid butter].
√Itk 1c [homonyms √Itk 1a-b; DTF 1.346]
t-Ϫ-Iђtk±-t-tK-d T-ka Ts, Pl !-1-1ђIkT-ka Ω [nf] piece of plant
wrapped around ewe’s teats (along with some smeared-on excrement) to
discourage suckling partie de plante enroulée autour des mamelles d’une
brebis (avec des excréments) pour dégoûter de la tétée [from a vine
Leptadenia hastata (T), or a sapling of Maerua crassifolia (K-d, cf.
DN86)].
122
√Itkk [N √Itkk]
Iђtkђk-K-d R T-ka [Imprt 1+Ik+kK-d R T-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ1+IkϪk-
R T-ka = -!-11ђIkuk-K-d] Ω [intr] be fragile (thin, delicate, and
lightweight) ê. fragile (mince, délicat, et léger) [said of hides, paper].
Iђtkђ k-+nK-d R T-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] fragile fragile.
Iђtkђ k-+tR T-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] fragile fragile.
Iђtkђk-nenR T-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] fragile fragiles.
t-+II+tk+k-kR T-ka = t-ђIIђtkђk-kK-d Ω [nf] fragility, lightness
fragilité, légèreté.
√Itktk [N √Itktk]
-+It+kt+k-K-d T-ka = -I+t+kt+k-A-grm [Imprt 1ђIђkIђkA-grm
T-ka, LoImpfP -!-11IђkI1k-K-d T-ka = -!-11ђIђkI1k-A-grm]
Ω [intr] (e.g. insect, lizard) make a rustling noise (insecte, lézard, etc.)
faire un bruissement, faire un petit bruit.
Ϫ-Itђ ktϪkK-d T-ka = Ϫ-IђtђktђkA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of
-+1I+kI+k-].
√Itks 1
e-I+ tk+sK-d, Pl 1-1+Ik+s-+nK-d Ω [nm] insignificant person, a
“nobody” personne sans importance [pejorative].
√Itks 2
t-Ϫ-Iђtkђs-tT-ka T-md = t-e-I+tk+s-tA-grm T-ka, Pl
!-1-1ђIkђs-enT-ka = !-1-1+Ik+s-enA-grm Ω a) [nf] herb
sp. plante sp. [ID: Alysicarpus ovalifolius, specimen collected in T] Ω b)
[nf] fodder foin.
√Itkt [see also √Itk ; N √Itkk]
e-I+tketA-grm[x⍾+-] K-d K-f T-ka T-md, Pl 1-1+Ike!-+nA-grm
K-f T-ka T-md Ω [nm] (broad) leaf, tree leaf feuille (large), feuille
d’arbre [cf.√1 6].
e-I+tketђn⍾t-ђ-mђzzuk-kA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [cpd nm, lit. “... of
the ear”] broad part of ear (including earlobe) pavillon de l’oreille (y
compris le lobe) [√mz¸ 1a].
√Itn 1 [N √Itn]
-ђIt+n-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ1IђnA-grm T-ka, LoImpfP -1ϪII+n-
A-grm T-ka] Ω a) [tr] select, choose choisir, sélectionner [A-grm K-d
T] - ex: ђ1Iђn¸eI⍾ђ-׹nϪbT-ka take your pick (= choose one)
among the ballpoint pens! fais ton choix parmi les stylos! Ω b) [intr] be
chosen; be of fine quality ê. choisi; ê. de bonne qualité [K-d T].
±-It+n-+nT-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] fine, excellent de choix, excellent.
±-ItϪ n-+nK-d Ω [partpl, MaSg] fine, excellent de choix, excellent.
t-ђIt+n-+tT-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] fine, excellent excellente - ex:
+JәϪdϪ!-ђ1I+n-+!T-ka a fine custom une coutume excellente.
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ђIt+n-nenT-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] fine, excellent excellents.
ђItϪ n-nenK-d Ω [partpl, Pl] fine, excellent excellents.
Ϫ-I+tϪnA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ1I+n-].
e-IetђnK-d Ω [nm] the best one le meilleur.
-+tw-+It+n-T-ka = -t+w-+It+n-A-grm [Imprt !ђx-ђ1IђnA-grm,
LoImpfP -!-1!ђx-ђ1I1n-A-grm] Ω [intr, Pass] be chosen (by sb)
ê. choisi (par qn).
Ϫ-tw-ђItђnT-ka = Ϫ-tђw-ђItϪnA-grm = Ϫ-tw-ђItϪnT-ka
Ω [nm, vbln of -+!x-+1I+n-].
-ђnn-ђIt+n-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt n-+1I+nA-grm T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫn-+1IϪn-A-grm T-ka = -!-1n-ђ1I1n-K-d] Ω [intr, Pass]
be chosen; be the best (in a competition) ê. choisi; ê. le meilleur (dans
une compétition). Caus √s-n-Itn.
Ϫ-n-ђItђn A-grm T-ka = Ϫ-n-ђItϪnT-ka, Pl 1-n-ђ1IϪn-+nT-ka
Ω [nm, vbln of -ђnn-ђ1I+n-].
n-eItϪnA-grm[xn-e...] K-d, Pl n-e1IϪn-+nA-grm Ω [nm] being
chosen fait d’ê. choisi.
√Itn 2 [see variant √1Itn ; <Fr fourneau via HassAr. and other lgs]
IђtnuT = IutneT-ka[xIu...], Pl 1ђInu-!+nT = 1uIne-!+nT-ka
Ω [nm] burner, stove, oven foyer (de cuisine), fourneau [syn: √1mzmt].
√ItnIt [N √ItnIt ; cf. Songhay 1111I1]
e-I+t+nI+tR K-d T-ka[x⍾+-] = e-I+t+nI+tA-grm T-md, Pl
1-1+I+n1+I-+nA-grm R T-ka T-md Ω [nm] stirring stick for milk
bâton pour remuer le lait.
-+It+nIϪt+-tK-d R T-ka = -I+t+nIϪt+-tA-grm[Imprt
1ђIђn1uIђ-!A-grm K-d R T-ka, LoImpfP -!-11Iђn1uIu-!
A-grm K-d R T-ka = -!-11Iђn1uI1-!A-grm] Ω [tr] stir (milk) with
a stick remuer (le lait) avec un bâton.
Ϫ-ItђnIutuK-d R T-ka = Ϫ-ItђnIut±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of
-+1I+n1ϪI+-!].
√Itnցy [variant of √btn¸y (and perhaps √Itn¸y); cf. √Itnkw, √It׹ 2]
-+It+֊ցϪy+-tR = -I+t+֊ցϪy+-tA-grm [Imprt 1ђIђ֊ցuyђ-!A-grm
R, LoImpfP -!-11Iђ֊ցuyu-!R = -!-11ђIђ֊ցuy1-!A-grm]
Ω [intr] get up and leave abruptly, stomp out (angrily) se lever et sortir
brusquement, sortir en colère.
Ϫ-Itђ֊ցuyuR = Ϫ-Iђtђ֊ցuy±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of
-+1I+֊ցϪy+-!].
√Itn¸y [variant of √btn¸y (and √Itnցy); cf. √Itnkw, √It׹ 2]
-+It+n¸Ϫy+-tK-d [Imprt 1ђIђn¸uyђ-!K-d, LoImpfP
-!-11Iђn¸uy1-!K-d] Ω [intr] jump up and run away se lever d’un
bond et sortir.
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Ϫ-Itђn¸±y±K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+1I+n¸Ϫy+-!] [K-d informant seems
to waver between u and ± vowels in verb and VblN because of the y].
√Itnk ### [see √Itnkw]
√Itnk [related to √Itnkw, see also √Itnkn ; cf. N √Itnk(w)]
t-Ϫ-Itђ֊kϪA-grm[x⍾t-ђ-] T-ka = t-Ϫ-Itђ֊keK-d R T-md, Pl
!-1-1Iђ֊kϪx-enA-grm K-d R T = !-1-1Iђ֊kϪA-grm[x
⍾t-ђ-] Ω a) [nf] (tree) bark écorce (d’arbre) [A-grm T-ka T-md] [cf.
√֊ 2, √kkb, 1 √IknIk ; ‘skin’ √1m 1] Ω b) [nf] dry tree bark in
segments after cracking écorce sèche fissurée [K-d].
√Itnkn [also variants with √Itnkw ; N √Itnk, √Itnkw and variants]
-+It+֊k+n-T-ka [Imprt 1ђIђ֊kђnT-ka, LoImpfP -!-11Iђ֊k1n-
T-ka] Ω [intr] (skin, tree bark) peel off (peau, écorce) se dégager, peler
[cf. √In׹ 1, √I1nkd, √z1b]. Caus √s-Itnkn.
Ϫ-Itђ֊kϪnT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+1I+֊k+n-].
√Itnkw [related to √Itnk, see also √Itnkn ; N √Itnkw and √Itnky]
-+It+֊k+w-A-grm K-d R [Imprt 1ђIђ֊kђxA-grm R, LoImpfP
-!-11Ie֊k1x-A-grm R] Ω [intr] (skin, tree bark) peel off (peau,
écorce) se dégager, peler. Caus √s-Itnkw.
-+It+֊k+w- (+ -\±n) A-grm T-md Ω [intr plus optional prep 1+J] get
away from (sb), leave (sb) in peace s’éloigner de (qn), laisser tranquille -
ex: 1ђIђ֊kђx-\1n-\1+JJ-1A-grm T-md get away from me! (= get
lost!) dégage-toi de moi! (= fiche le camp!)
Ϫ-Itђ֊kђw (or: ...ku) A-grm K-d R Ω [nm, vbln of -+1I+֊k+x-].
√Itns [<Fr]
ItϪnsK-d R[xItϪns]
t-Ϫ-ItϪns±-t-tT-ka = !-+1IϪns1-!-!A-grm R Ω [nf] French
language langue française [cf. √kIt].
ItϪܚsA-grm K-d Ω [nf] France la France.
√Itt 1 [N √Itt, DTF 1.354 ]
I+tot- (or: Iђtut-)A-grm K-d R T-ka [arguably [Imprt 11IϪIA-grm K-d
R T-ka, LoImpfP -!-11IϪI-A-grm K-d T-ka] Ω a) [intr] be useful;
become highly valued; be a useful and respected citizen (hard worker,
philanthropist, etc.) ê. utile; ê. apprécié; ê. un bon citoyen et respecté
comme tel (faire du bon travail, ê. un philanthrope, etc.) [all dialects] Ω b)
[intr] (field, building plot) be widened; (herd) grow in size (terrain)
s’élargir; (troupeau) croître, s’aggrandir [K-d]. Caus √s-Itt.
I+tot-+nA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] useful, beneficial utile.
I+tot-+tA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] useful, beneficial utile.
I+tot-nenA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] useful, beneficial utiles.
I+totIm, Pl 1+IoI-+nIm Ω [nm] useful person personne utile.
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t-ђ-IђtteIm T-ka, Pl !-1-1ђIIϪx-enT-ka Ω [nf, vbln of 1+IoI-]
[homonym under √It 3].
t-ђ-It+te A-grm Ω [nf] [= !-ђ-1ђIIe].
√Itt 2 [N √Itt]
Ϫ -ItϪtK-d T-ka, Pl 1-1IϪI-+nT-ka Ω a) [nm] film on top of milk or
porridge pellicule sur le lait ou la bouillie [T-ka] Ω b) [nm] cream (on
top of milk) crème sur le lait [K-d].
√Ittd [cf. √Itd]
-+ItϪt+d-T-ka [Imprt 1ђIuIђdT-ka, LoImpfP -!-11IuIud-T-ka]
Ω [intr] (animal) graze voraciously; (sb) eat constantly (animal) brouter
avec voracité; (qn) manger constamment.
Ϫ-ItutђdT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+1IϪI+d-].
√Its 1 [N √Its]
t-Ϫ-I+tϪs-tA-grm K-d T-ka[x⍾t-+-], Pl !-1-1+IϪs-enA-grm
T-ka = !-1-1ђIs-enT-ka Ω [nf] flint silex [cf. √s-¸t 1, 1sxϪ
√sw 2, √Iss 2, √nId 1a].
√Its 2 [N √Its]
-ђIt+s-K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ1IђsT-ka, LoImpfP -1ϪII+s-T-ka] Ω a)
[tr] cut (sth) forcefully (esp. cut in two crosswise, with vertical chopping
motion using a sharp blade) couper (qch) avec force (surtout couper en
deux d’un coup vertical avec une lame bien affilée) [K-d T-ka] [syn: see
√nkd 1a] Ω b) [tr] trip (sb) faire trébucher (qn) [T-ka].
Ϫ-I+tϪsT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ1I+s-].
Ϫ-IђtsT-ka[x⍾ђ-] Ω [nm] cut-off piece morceau coupé.
e-IetђsK-d T-ka, Pl 1-1eIђs-+nT-ka Ω a) [nm] (cut) chunk, cube (e.g.
of sugar) morceau (coupé, de sucre, etc.) [T-ka] [cf. √1sIt] Ω b) [nm]
piece of cut wood morceau de bois coupé [K-d].
ђssuk+tw-Ϫn⍾Ø-Ietђs-+nT-ka Ω [cpd nm] sugar cube or chunk
morceau de sucre.
t-Ϫ-Iђts±-t-tK-d, Pl !-1-1ђIs1-!-enK-d Ω a) [nm] small piece
petit morceau [of anything] Ω b) [nm] small piece of liver (token
portion for sb who does not get a larger meat portion) petit morceau de
foie (donné à qn qui est exclu d’une part plus grande de la viande).
√Its 3 [perhaps a variant of √Ittd]
-+ItϪt+s-A-grm [Imprt 1ђIuIђsA-grm, LoImpfP -!-11IuI1s-
A-grm] Ω [intr] (e.g. livestock) wander, move around (in random
direction) (bétail etc.) errer, se balader [cf. √mhs].
Ϫ-ItutђsA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -+1IϪI+s-].
√Its [N √Its]
-+It+ss+-tT-ka [Imprt 1ђIђssђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-11Iђss1-!
T-ka] Ω [intr] be ill-behaved, rude ê. impoli [cf. √z1b, √bdt 1; means
‘crazy’ in Tawellemmett].
126
Ϫ-Itђss±T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+1I+ss+-!].
e-n-+II+tess±T-ka Ω [nm, Agent] ill-behaved person (un) impoli.
√Itssn [Y 1ђIsђssђ-! ‘coarse’]
-ђIIђts+ss+n-A-grm T-ka [Imprt 1+Is+ss+nT-ka = 1ђIsђssђn
A-grm R, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ1+Is+ssϪn-R T-ka = -!-11ђIsђss1n-
A-grm] Ω a) [intr] (e.g. hide) be coarse (une peau, etc.) ê. rugueux [R
T] Ω b) [intr] (e.g. fruit) start to come apart (fruit etc.) commencer à se
désagréger [A-grm] Ω c) [intr] (sb) begin to deteriorate mentally (qn)
commencer à déteriorer mentalement [A-grm]. Caus √s-Itssn.
±-IIђts+ss+n-+nT-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] - ex: e-J+n
1-11ђIs+ss+n-+nT-ka coarse (rugged) hide cuir (peau) rugueux.
Ϫ-IђtsђssђnA-grm T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ11ђIs+ss+n-].
√Itt [variant of √Itw 1]
Ϫ-ItutA-grm[x⍾+-], Pl 1-1Iu!-+nA-grm Ω [nf] (bird’s) wing aile
(d’oiseau) [cf. √IkIk].
√Ittkm
Ϫ-I+tt+komGao Ω [nf] swarm of grasshopper larvae essaim de larves de
criquets [syn: √ցydtm].
√Ittm [variant of √Ittmn ; <Fr porte-monnaie]
I+tt+mϪT-ka = IђttђmϪK-d, Pl 1+I!+nϪ-!+nT-ka = 1ђI!ђnϪ-!+n
K-d Ω [nm] wallet portefeuille.
√Ittmn [see variant √Ittm ; <Fr porte-monnaie]
I+tt+mϪn±A-grm R T-ka T-md, Pl 1+I!+nϪn1-!+nA-grm T-ka T-md
Ω [nm] wallet portefeuille.
√Ittt [N √Ittt, DTF 1.359 √Ittt]
Ϫ-I+tt+ttϪGnd K-d R T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md Ts = Ϫ-I+tt+ttϪ A-grm
= Ϫ-I+tt+ttϪGao Im, Pl 1-1+I!+!!Ϫ-!+nT = 1-1+I!+!!-Ϫn
R K-d T-ka T-md Ts = 1-1+I!+!!-ϪnA-grm = 1-1+I!+!!-ϪnIm
Ω [nm] bat (mammal) chauve-souris.
√Itty [N √Itty]
e-I+tt+yT-ka, Pl 1-1+I!+y-+nT-ka Ω [nm] old mat vieille natte
(usée) [cf. √dwn 2].
√Itw 1 [see variant √It 1b ‘(to) fly’, cf. also √Itt ; N √Itw, DTF 1.336]
Ϫ-Itew (or: ϪItew)K-d R[x⍾+-] T-md, Pl Ϫ1Iex-+nT = 1-1Iex-+n
K-d R Ω [nf] (bird’s) wing aile (d’oiseau) [syn: √Itt, √IkIk].
t-Ϫ Itew-tK-d K-f, Pl !-Ϫ1Iex-enK-d K-f Ω [nf] (bird’s) wing aile
(d’oiseau).
t-ϪItewIm, Pl !-Ϫ1Iex-enIm Ω [nf] (bird’s) wing aile (d’oiseau).
√Itw 2
t-Ϫ-I+tϪw-tK-d K-f, Pl !-1-1ђIx-enK-d K-f Ω a) [nm] forest forêt
Ω b) [nm] animals’ drinking trough made with hides and sticks
127
abreuvoir pour animaux construit en peaux et en bâtons [cf. √Iyd,
√1knIt].
√Itws [N √Itws]
-+ItϪw+s-T-ka [Imprt 1ђI1xђsT-ka, LoImpfP -!-11I1x1s-T-ka]
Ω [intr] be joyful, mirthful; show joy (in one’s facial expression) ê.
joyeux; montrer de la joie (sur son visage).
Ϫ-It±wђsT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+1IϪx+s-].
√Itwy [N √Itwy]
t-e-I+tw+y-tT-ka, Pl !-1-1+Ix+y-enT-ka Ω [nf] metal ornament on
forehead of horse ornement en métal sur le front d’un cheval.
√Ity [N √Ity]
-ђIt+y-T-ka [Imprt ђ1IђyT-ka, LoImpfP -1ϪII+y-T-ka] Ω [tr, or
intr plus dative] feel (e.g. pain, presentiment) sentir (douleur,
pressentiment, etc.)
-oIt+y-A-grm K-d R [Imprt Ϫ1Iђy A-grm R, LoImpfP -!-11Iђy-R
A-grm = -!-Ϫ1I+y-K-d] Ω [= -ђ1I+y-].
Ϫ-I+tϪyA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ1I+y- (or: -o1I+y-)].
Iђt±A-grm[xIђ...] Ω [nm, vbln of -o1I+y-]
±It± (or: ...tђy)R[x±...] T-ka[x±...] Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ1I+y-].
ђIIђtuy-+tT-ka, Pl ђ11ђIuy-+!-enT-ka Ω [nf, vbln of -ђ1I+y-].
-ђnn-ђIt+y-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt n-+1I+yT-ka = n-ђ1IђyA-grm
K-d, LoImpfP -!-Ϫn-+1IϪy-A-grm T-ka = -!-1n-ђ1Iuy-K-d]
Ω a) [intr plus prep d+׹] become aware of (sth) se rendre compte de
(qch) [A-grm T-ka] Ω b) [intr plus dative] have a vague idea of avoir
une idée vague de [K-d].
Ϫ-n-ђItϪyT-ka = Ϫ-n-ђItђyA-grm K-d Ω [nm, vbln of
-ђnn-ђ1I+y-].
√Is 1 [N √Is]
ђ-IusA-grm[xђ-] T-ka = ђ-IussT-md = +-Ius K-d = +-Iuss Im R[x
+-] T-md = +-Iuss Im, Pl 1-1Ϫss-+nA-grm Im K-d R T-ka T-md
Ω a) [nm] hand, arm main, bras [main sense] Ω b) [nm] trunk (of
elephant) trompe (d’éléphant) - poss (of Sg) - 2Sg +-1uss-ђnn+k
T-md = ђ-1us-ђnn+kA-grm T-ka - poss (of Pl): 2Sg
1-1Ϫss-+n-n+kA-grm T-md.
√Is 2 [cf. KS 1as !]
I+ss!T-ka Ω [interj, at end of negative clause] (not) at all! (pas) du tout!
[local form; cf. 1+xx! √Iw 4, √bd 1 (and √bdn 1)].
√Is 3 [perhaps related to √Ist 2]
t-Ϫ-I+sso-t-tTh, Pl !-1-1ђssϪTh Ω [nf] grass sp. graminée sp.
[ID: Panicum anabaptistum, Gramineae, at edge of pond at Th; grains
edible].
128
√Is 4 [N √Is]
-ђI+s-T-ka = -I+s-K-d [Imprt ђ1ђsT-ka, LoImpfP -ђ11Ϫs-T-ka]
Ω a) [tr] complement (sth), add more to (sth), do (sth) additional faire le
complément de (qch), ajouter à (qch), faire (qch) en plus [T-ka] [cf.
√s-wd] Ω b) [tr] develop (project, country) développer (un projet, un
pays) [K-d].
e-IesT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ1+s-].
t-e -Ies-tGao K-d, Pl !-1-1es-enGao Ω [nf] complement; sth
added for free as a bonus complément; surplus qu’on ajoute
gratuitement.
√Is׹ [N √Is׹]
t-e-I+ s+q-qGao, Pl !-1-1+s+׹-enGao Ω [nf] a) isolated plant in an
otherwise barren place plante isolée dans un endroit sans autre
végétation Ω [nf] b) fissure, gap; small area in between (two things)
fissure, brèche; petit espace (entre deux objets) [e.g. bare path dividing a
grass field].
√Isk [N √Isk]
Ϫ-Iђsko (or: Ϫ-I+sko)A-grm K-d R[x⍾ђ-] T-ka[x⍾ђ-], Pl
1-1ђsko-!+nT-ka = 1-1ђskϪA-grm R Ω a) [nm] transition from
cold to hot season période de transition entre la saison froide et la saison
chaude [K-d R T] [around March, when desert vegetation begins to dry, so
nomads bring herds back toward the river or wells] Ω b) [nm] beginning
of rainy season début de la saison des pluies [A-grm] [around May-June,
before vegetation recovers from dry season].
√Is1 [ <Ar √Is1, also the source of √nIs1]
-ђIs+1-K-d [Imprt ђ1sђJK-d, LoImpfP -1Ϫss+J-K-d] Ω [tr] divide
(e.g. house) into sections or compartments subdiviser, diviser (maison,
etc.) en compartiments.
Ϫ-I+sϪ1K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ1s+J-].
-ђnn-ђIs+1-K-d [Imprt n-+1s+JK-d, LoImpfP -!-Ϫn-+1sϪJ-K-d]
Ω [intr, Pass] (e.g. house) be divided into sections or compartments
(maison, etc.) ê. subdivisé en compartiments [see √nIs1].
Ϫ-n-ђIsђ1K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђnn-ђ1s+J-].
√Ist 1a [<Ar √Ist ; N √Ist and √Ist]
-ђIIuss+t-T-ka [Imprt 1ussђIT-ka, LoImpfP -!-11ђssuI-T-ka]
Ω [intr] (writing) be clear, legible (écriture) ê. clair, lisible.
Ϫ-IussђtT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ11uss+I-].
√Ist 1b
-ђIIђss+t-K-d [Imprt 1+ss+IK-d, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ1+ssϪI-K-d]
Ω [intr or tr] translate traduire.
Ϫ-IђssђtK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ11ђss+I-].
129
√Ist 2 [DTF 1.367 √Ist (masculine form, for Fagonia bruguieri)]
t-Ϫ-Iђ ssot-tK-d K-f T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] T-md, Pl !-1-1ђssoI-enK-d
K-f = !-1-1ђssϪIT-ka Ω a) [nf] thorny herb sp. plante épineuse sp.
[T K] [ID: Fagonia sp., Zygophyllaceae, specimen collected near T; F.
glutinosa var. glutinosa and F. indica are the two spp. recorded in northern
Mali] Ω b) [nf] savior (one who helps sb out of a difficult situation)
sauveur (personne qui tire qn d’une affaire difficile) [T] Ω c) [nf]
obstacle in road) obstacle sur le chemin [Ts].
√Iss 1 [N √Iss ; opp: √zk, √zy]
Iђsus-T-ka T-md = I+sus-A-grm K-d K-f R [Imprt 11sϪsA-grm K-d R
T-ka T-md, LoImpfP -!-11sϪs-A-grm K-d R T-ka T-md] Ω [intr]
(sb, sth) be or become light (in weight); (sb) be alert, quick to act (qn,
qch) ê. ou devenir léger; (qn) ê. toujours alerte, dynamique, rapide à agir.
Caus √s-Iss.
Iђsus-+nT-ka T-md = I+sus-+nA-grm Im K-d K-f R Ω [partpl,
MaSg] light, lightweight léger.
Iђsus-+tT-ka = I+sus-+tA-grm Im R Ω [partpl, FeSg] light,
lightweight légère.
I+sus-nenA-grm Im R Ω [partpl, Pl] light, lightweight légers, légères.
t-ђ-IђsseA-grm Im K-d T-ka Ω [nf] lightness (in weight) légèreté.
√Iss 2 [N √Iss]
t-Ϫ-I+sϪs-tA-grm K-d T-ka[x⍾t-+-], Pl !-1-1+sϪs-enA-grm
T-ka Ω a) [nf] fire-drill (for making a fire with flint and kindling)
briquet traditionnel (pour faire du feu avec un silex et des brindilles) [T]
[cf. √Its 1, √nId 1a] Ω b) [nf] splint (for a broken bone) éclisse [all
dialects] Ω c) [nf] patch (for repairing a garment) pièce (pour rapiécer
un vêtement) [A-grm].
√Ist 1 [cf. √Inst ; N √Ist]
-ђIIђssϪt+-tT-ka T-md = -+IIu s s Ϫt+-tR [Imprt 1ђssuIђ-!R
T-ka T-md, LoImpfP -!-11ђssuIu-!R T-ka T-md] Ω [intr] be split
(lengthwise or along grain) se fendre (en long, ou dans le sens de la
fibre) [cf. √Itk, √I1 6; ‘cut’: see √nkd]. Caus √s-Ist.
Ϫ-IђssutuR T-ka = Ϫ-Iђss±t±T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of
-ђ11ђssϪI+-!].
-+ Is Ϫt+-tK-d [Imprt 1ђsuIђ-!K-d, LoImpfP -!-11suIu-!K-d]
Ω [intr] be split (lengthwise or along grain) se fendre (en long, ou dans
le sens de la fibre).
Ϫ-IsutuK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+1sϪI+-!].
√Ist 2
t-Ϫ-Iђssot-tA-grm,!-1-1ђssoI-enA-grm = !-1-1ђssaIA-grm
Ω [nf] golden opportunity, one’s big chance bonne occasion, aubaine.
√It ### [for Ϫ1!1 see √Ity].
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√It 1 [N √It]
-+IotϪ-A-grm K-d R T-ka [Imprt 1u!A-grm R T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-11u!u-K-d R T-ka = -!-Ϫ1Ϫ!u-A-grm] Ω [intr] fail; fail to
make a profit (in a transaction); get nothing, fail to get one’s share
échouer; ne rien gagner (dans une opération commerciale); ne pas
obtenir sa part - ex: +1o!e-׹d+׹+-!ϪyyT-ka I didn’t make any
money on (buying and selling) the tea je n’ai rien gagné dans (l’achat et
la vente) du thé.
Ϫ-IutA-grm R T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+1o!Ϫ-].
t-+-IϪt±-t-tA-grm K-d R T-ka, Pl !-1-1u!Ϫx-enR
= !-1-1Ϫ!1-!-enA-grm R T-ka = !-1-1u!ϪR = !-1-1u!!
A-grm Ω [nf, vbln of -+1o!Ϫ-].
√It 2 [<Fr pot, potée, via e.g. Songhay po!1]
Iot±A-grm[xIo...], 1o!1-!+nA-grm Ω [nm] water tankard pot à eau
[syn: kϪIϪ √kt 5].
t-+-Iot±-t-tR T-md, Pl !-1-1o!1-!-enR T Ω [nf] water tankard
pot à eau.
√It 3 (Ity) [cf. N √Itw]
Ϫ-It± (or: Ϫ-Itђy)T-ka[x⍾ђ-] T-md, Pl 1-1!ђy-+nT-ka T-md
Ω [nm] children’s bird trap made with animal hairs piège à oiseaux
fabriqué avec des poils d’animal - poss: 1Sg Ϫ1!1-n-1nT-ka.
√ItIt [see variant √ItIt ; <Songhay (KS 1oI1o!o and 1o!o1oIo, DjCh
1ѐ!ѐkѐIѐ)]
t-Ϫ-IђtIђtϪ-t-tT-ka = t-Ϫ-IђtIђtu-t-tT-ka
= t-Ϫ-I+tI+to-t-tR, Pl !-1-1ђ!1ђIu-!enT-ka
= !-1-1ђ!1ђIϪR T-ka Ω [nf] small carp (fish) petite carpe.
√ItIt [N √ItIt]
-ђIIђtI+t-K-d T-ka [Imprt 1+!1+!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ1+!1Ϫ!-
T-ka = -!-11ђ!1u!-K-d] Ω [intr] (e.g. chick, fledgeling bird) flop
around, struggle to fly; flutter (wings) (poussin, oisillon) se débattre en
essayant de s’envoler; voleter, battre (des ailes).
Ϫ-IђtIђtK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ11ђ!1+!-].
√It׹ [N √It׹]
-ђIt+׹-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ1!ђ׹A-grm T-ka, LoImpfP -1Ϫ!!+׹-
A-grm T-ka] Ω [tr] lay out (e.g. mattress) étaler, étendre (matelas etc.)
Caus √s-It׹ 1a, Instr nominal √s-It׹ 1b.
Ϫ-I+tϪ׹A-grm K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ1!+׹-].
t-Ϫ-Itђ q-qT-ka[x⍾t-ђ-], Pl !-1-1!ђ׹-enT-ka = !-1-1ђ!!Ϫ׹
T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ1!+׹-]
-ђnn-ђIt+׹-Hm [Imprt n-+1!+׹Hm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫn-+1!Ϫ׹-K-d]
Ω [intr] be a guest at someone’s home ê. l’hôte (reçu) chez qn. Caus
√s-n-It׹.
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+-n-ϪItϪ׹A-grm Im K-d T-ka, Pl 1-n-Ϫ1!Ϫ׹-+nA-grm Im T-ka
Ω [nm] guest (at sb’s home) hôte (reçu chez qn) [syn: √m¸t 1].
Ϫ-n-ђItђ׹Hm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђnn-ђ1!+׹-].
√Itk
-ђIt+k-A-grm K-d [Imprt ђ1!ђkA-grm, LoImpfP -1Ϫ!!+k-A-grm]
Ω [tr] split (wood, lengthwise, with axe) fendre (le bois, avec une hache)
[syn: √Inst, √Ist 1; ‘cut’: √nkd 1a].
Ϫ-I+tϪkA-grm K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ1!+k-].
+-n-ϪItϪkA-grm, Pl 1-n-Ϫ1!Ϫk-+nA-grm Ω [nm, Agent] one who
splits wood celui qui fend le bois.
√It1 1 [N √It1 with different sense]
-ђIt+1-K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ1!ђJT-ka, LoImpfP -1Ϫ!!+J-T-ka] Ω a)
[tr] put down poser [T-ka] [not very common, see √s-ns] Ω b) [intr]
be put down ê. posé [T-ka] Ω c) [intr] toss (water from tankard) jeter
(de l’eau d’un pot) [K-d].
Ϫ-I+tϪ1T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ1!+J-].
√It1 2 [<Ar √It1 ‘wick’, cf. KCh 11!1Ja ; N √It1]
t-e-I+te1-tA-grm K-d R T-ka T-md, Pl !-1-1!ђJJA-grm K-d T-ka
= !-1-1ђ!J-enR Ω [nf] lamp; flashlight lampe; torche.
t-e-I+te1-tђnbђttonT [cpd nf] oil lamp lampe à pétrole.
t-e-I+te1-tђnµ±1-t+nT [c pd nf] flashlight torche [now often
called by the French word; see also √1mb].
t-e-I+te1-tt-ϪnϪm-ϪnA-grm [cpd nf, lit. “... of water”] oil or
diesel lamp lampe-tempête (à pétrole ou à gasoil).
√Itn [N √Itn]
-ђIt+n-A-grm[Imprt ђ1!ђnA-grm, LoImpfP -1Ϫ!!+n-A-grm]
Ω [tr] climb (stairs, tree), climb on top of (house) grimper (escalier,
arbre), monter sur (maison) [cf. √s-kk1, √bd1 2].
Ϫ-I+tϪnA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ1!+n-].
√Itttt [Y 1ђ!ђI!ђI]
-+It+tt+t-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt 1ђ!ђI!ђIA-grm T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-11!ђI!1I-T-ka = -!-11ђ!ђI!1I-A-grm] Ω a) [intr] (sb)
froth at the mouth (qn) écumer, avoir de l’écume à la bouche [T] Ω b)
[intr] (porridge, sauce) splatter out during cooking (bouillie, sauce)
crépiter pendant la cuisson [T] Ω c) [intr] (e.g. grains) be scattered here
and there (after being dropped) (grains, etc.) s’éparpiller (après ê.
tombés) [K-d] [cf. √ws] Ω d) [intr] (milk being curdled) form lumps
(lait en train de cailler) former des boulettes [A-grm] Ω e) [intr] (sb) be
filthy rich, be loaded (qn) ê. extrêmement riche [T] Ω f) [intr] (male
camel) bellow with a sputtering sound (chameau mâle) blatérer en
crachotant [T].
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Ϫ-ItђttϪtT-ka = Ϫ-ItђttђtK-d = Ϫ-IђtђttђtA-grm Ω [nm,
vbln of -+1!+I!+I-].
√Its [N √Its]
t-e-I+t+s-tT-ka, Pl !-1-1+!+s-enT-ka Ω [nf] small area on a
surface (skin, paper, sand) petite zone sur une surface (peau, papier,
sable).
√Its [perhaps N √Itz, with different sense]
-ђIt+s-T-ka [Imprt ђ1!ђsT-ka, LoImpfP -1Ϫ!!+s-T-ka] Ω a) [tr]
spread (e.g. news) répandre (des nouvelles, etc.) [syn: √nIs] Ω b) [tr]
(e.g. news) be spread (nouvelles etc.) se répandre.
Ϫ-I+tϪsT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ1!+s-].
√Itw ### [see √1It, √s-Itw]
√Ity 1(It) [cf. N √Itw]
Ϫ-It± (or: Ϫ-Itђy)T-ka[x⍾ђ-] T-md, Pl 1-1!ђy-+nT-ka T-md
Ω [nm] children’s bird trap made with animal hairs piège à oiseaux
fabriqué avec des poils d’animal [cf. √ndtb, √mdy] - poss: 1Sg
Ϫ1!1-n-1nT.
√Ity 2 [N √Ity]
-ђIt+y-K-d [Imprt ђ1!ђyK-d, LoImpfP -1Ϫ!!+y-K-d] Ω [tr]
dismantle (tent, hut) défaire (tente, case).
Ϫ-I+tϪyK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ1!+y-].
√Itzn [“aItazzan” (Zilla spinosa) for Algeria FS 146; DTF 1.373 (Zilla
macroptera)]
t-Ϫ-ItђzzђnϪK-f, Pl !-1-1!ђzzђnϪx-enK-f Ω [nf] herb sp. plante
sp. [ID: Zilla spinosa, Cruciferae; not listed for Mali in CPVM, but K-f
informant recognizes photo of it].
√Iw ### [for 11ђx see -o1Ϫ-√I 2 ‘be better than’]
√Iw 1 [N √Iw]
e-IewA-grm[x⍾+-] Im K-d K-f R[x⍾+-] T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md, Pl
1-1ex-+nA-grm Im K-d K-f R T-ka T-md Ω [nm] fire feu [cf.
√ms 9, √hs 1, √¸¸ 5, √t¸¸ 2].
√Iw 2 (I) [N √Iw or √I (PerfP “aIIaw” and “yaIIo”); DTF 1.297; MGT
7.158, DTF 1.297-8 (3MaSg PerfP “±eIIo”)]
-+ IIo-K-d K-f R T-ka T-md [Imprt 11ϪxK-d R T-ka, LoImpfP -!-11Ϫx-
K-d R T-ka T-md] Ω a) [intr] (day) break (jour) poindre [indicates time
when morning prayer may be performed; invariable 3Sg subject] Ω b) [tr]
(day) break on (sb) (jour) poindre pour (qn) [invariable 3Sg subject].
-+IIew-A-grm Im R [Imprt 11ϪxA-grm Im R, LoImpfP -!-11Ϫx-
A-grm Im R] Ω [= -+ 11o-].
t-±IϪw-tA-grm K-d K-f T-md T-ka[x⍾t-±...], Pl !-11Ϫx-enA-grm
T-ka[x⍾t-±...] T-md Ω [nf] daybreak, early morning (pre-dawn to
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around 8 AM) point du jour, matin de bonne heure (depuis avant l’aube
jusque vers 8 h.) [cf. +-׹oIϪ √׹t 2a, √¸d1st].
t-Ϫ II+w-tK-d, Pl !-Ϫ11+x-enK-d Ω [nf] ray of sunlight (e.g. through
gap in foliage) rayon de soleil (par ex. à travers une brèche dans le
feuillage) [cf. √s11 2, √ztt].
√Iw 3 [perhaps related to √Iw 2; N √Iw « roux », DTF 1.334 « gris pigeon avec
ventre blanc »]
-+IIew+-tT-ka [Imprt 1Ϫx+-!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ1ϪxϪ-!T-ka]
Ω [intr] (person, animal) be dark grey brown (personne, animal) ê. brun
grisâtre foncé [mainly of donkeys; other brownish shades: √bnw 2, √bzw,
√dt 5, √dm 2a, √׹w1 2].
IϪw+-nT-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] dark grey brown brun grisâtre foncé.
IϪw+-tT-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] dark grey brown brun grisâtre foncé.
IϪwϪ-t-nenT-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] dark grey brown brun grisâtres foncé.
IϪwϪ-tA-grm K-d R [Imprt 11xђ-!A-grm = 1Ϫx+-!K-d R, ShImpf
-+11Ϫx+-!K-d R, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ1ϪxϪ-!A-grm K-d R] Ω a) [intr]
(goat) be greyish (chèvre) ê. grisâtre [A-grm] Ω b) [intr] (goat, cow) be
brown and black (chèvre, vache) ê. brun et noire [R].
IϪ we-nK-d = IϪwe-nA-grm Ω [partpl, MaSg] greyish grisâtre.
IϪwe-tA-grm Ω [partpl, FeSg] greyish grisâtre.
IϪwϪ-t-nen A-grm K-d Ω [partpl, Pl] greyish grisâtres.
t-+IIϪw+-t-tA-grm K-d R T-ka, Pl !-+11Ϫx+-!-enT-ka Ω a) [nf]
being dark grey brown fait d’ê. brun grisâtre foncé [R T] Ω b) [nf]
being greyish fait d’ê. grisâtre [A-grm].
+-IϪwϪA-grm T-ka, 1-1Ϫx-+nA-grm T-ka Ω [nm] a greyish or grey-
brown one (un) grisâtre ou couleur brun grisâtre.
Ϫ -I±wϪK-d, Pl 1-11xϪ-!+nK-d Ω [nm] [= +-1ϪxϪ].
√Iw 4 [N √Iw, DTF 1.334 “Io”]
I+ww!K-d T-ka = I+w!K K-d Ω [interj] entirely; (not) at all! tout à fait;
(pas) du tout! [clause-final; cf. √bd 1 (and variant √bdn 1), also √Is 2].
√Iwt [<Ar √Iwt]
-ђIIђww+t-K-d [Imprt 1+xx+IK-d, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ1+xxϪI-K-d]
Ω [tr] steam (couscous lumps) in a steamer placed over a pot with boiling
water cuire (des boulettes de couscous) à la vapeur dans un couscoussier
posé sur une marmite d’eau bouillante [cf. √1ksks, √dnI].
Ϫ-Iђ wwϪtK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ11ђxx+I-].
√Iy 1 [N √Iy ; MGT 1.65, 7.93 <*√wIy ; EPPB 187]
-ђII+y-A-grm K-d R T-ka [Imprt ђ11ђyA-grm T-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫ11+y- A-grm T-ka] Ω a) [tr] pour (liquid, into recipient) verser
(liquide, dans un récipient) [A-grm K-d T] Ω b) [intr] (liquid) be poured
(into recipient) (liquide) ê. versé (dans un récipient) [A-grm K-d T]
Ω c) [intr] (liquid) leak, dribble out (from waterskin) (liquide) suinter,
couler par gouttes (d’une outre) [K-d] Ω d) [tr] (woman) serve (milk, with
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a ladle) (femme) servir (du lait, avec une louche) [K-d] Ω e) [intr] have
diarrhoea avoir la diarrhée [R T] [in this sense, often Reslt -ђ11Ϫy-].
Caus √s-Iy.
uI± (or: uIђy)A-grm K-d R[xu...] T-ka, Pl u1ђy-+nR Ω a) [nm, vbln
of -ђ11+y-] [A-grm] Ω b) [nm] diarrhoea diarrhée [R].
t-u I±-t-tK-d T-ka, Pl !-u11-!-en T-ka = !-u1ђy-en T-ka Ω [nf]
diarrhoea diarrhée [homonym ‘superiority’ √I 2].
t-eIIϪy-t A-grm, Pl !-e11Ϫy-enA-grm Ω [nf] diarrhoea diarrhée.
-ђnn-uII+y-T-ka = -+nn-uII+y-A-grm [Imprt n-u11ђyA-grm
T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1n-ђ11uy-T-ka = -!-Ϫn-+11Ϫy-A-grm]
Ω a) [intr, Pass] (tea) be poured back and forth between kettle and cup
(thé) ê. transvasé plusieurs fois entre la théière et un verre Ω b) [intr,
Pass] (objects in a sequential order, e.g. pages of unbound manuscript)
become disordered, jumbled together in the wrong order (objets
ordonnés, par ex. les pages d’un document non relié) devenir désordonnés,
ê. jetés ensemble dans le désordre. Caus √s-n-Iy.
Ϫ-n-uIIђy (or: ...I±)T-ka = Ϫ-n-uIђy (or: ...I±)A-grm Ω [nm, vbln
of -ђnn-u11+y-] - poss: 1Sg Ϫ-n-u11ђy-1nT-ka
= Ϫ-n-u111-n1nT-ka.
-ђnn-ђII+y-K-d [Imprt n-+11+yK-d, LoImpfP -!-Ϫn+11Ϫy-K-d]
Ω [= -ђnn-u11+y-].
Ϫ-n-ђIIђy (or: ...I±)K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђnn-ђ11+y-]
√Iy 2
e-I+yyA-grm[x⍾+-] K-d T-ka, Pl 1-1+yy-+nA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [nm]
bank, side (of river); rim (of glass or bowl); side (of sth) rive (du fleuve);
bord (d’un verre, d’une tasse); côté, flanc (de qch) [syn: √dI 2b].
√Iyd
e -I+ydR T-ka|x⍾+-] T-md, Pl 1-1+yd-+nT-ka = 1-1+yd-ϪnR T
Ω [nm] drinking trough made of half of an old gas drum (barrel)
abreuvoir fabriqué avec la moitié d’un vieux fût à pétrole [originally
made of wood; other troughs: √Itw 2, √1knIt ; gas drums: √1bty,
√btցn, √nց1yt].
√Iyk [see variant under √Ik 5; N √Iyk]
-ђIIђykϪ-Im R T-ka [Imprt 1+ykIm R T-ka, ShImpf -+11+yk-R,
LoImpfP -!-Ϫ1+ykϪ-Im R T-ka] Ω [intr] be searched through ê.
fouillé. Caus √s-Iyk.
Ϫ-Iђyk (or: Ϫ-I±k)A-grm R T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ11ђykϪ-].
√Iykm [variant of !-1yϪkon √ykm]
I±yϪkomA-grm Th = I±yϪkumGos, Pl 11yϪkon-+nA-grm Th
= 11yϪkun-!+nGos Ω a) herb sp. toxic to goats and calves plante
sp. toxique pour les chèvres et les veaux [A-grm Th] [ID: Cienfuegosia
digitata, Malvaceae] Ω b) [nm] plant sp. of shallow water plante sp.
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d’eau peu profonde [Gos] [ID: specimen was Sphenoclea zeylanica,
Sphenocleaceae].
√Iyt׹ [see variant √hyt׹]
t-e-I+yt+q-qT-ka Ts, Pl !-1-1+y!+׹-enT-ka Ts Ω a) [nf] plant sp.
plante sp. [T] [unidentified] Ω b) [nf] small bare spot flanked by
vegetation petit lieu ouvert flanqué par de la végétation [Ts].
√Iz 1 [N √Iz]
-ђII+z- A-grm T-ka [Imprt ђ11ђzA-grm T-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ11+z-
A-grm] Ω [tr] chew, chomp on (e.g. meat, dates, kola nuts, millet grains)
croquer, mastiquer, mâcher (viande, dattes, cola, grains de mil, etc.) [cf.
√ktw 1].
uIђzA-grm T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ11+z-].
√Iz 2 (Izw) [N √Iz]
Ϫ-I+zoA-grm Gnd K-d K-f R[x⍾+-] T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md Ts = Ϫ-I+z+w
Gao, Pl 1-1ђzx-ϪnK-d K-f R T-ka T-md Ts = 1-1ђzϪA-grm
Ω [nm] markouba (desert grass sp.) markouba (graminée sp. du désert)
[ID: Panicum turgidum, Gramineae, grows in sand e.g. around Gao and T,
tough culms used in lightweight thatching; cf. √׹md 2].
√Iz 3 [N √Iz]
t-Ϫ-IђzzϪGao, Pl !-1-1ђzzϪx-enGao Ω [nf] layer of old dried urine
and dirt around the anus of a female animal (camel, ewe) urine séchée
mélangée avec des saletés autour de l’anus d’un animal femelle (chamelle,
brebis).
√Izz
Ϫ-I+z+zϪA-grm Gao, Pl 1-1+z+z-ϪnA-grm Gao Ω [nm] honey badger,
ratel ratel (mammifère) [ID: Mellivora capensis; syn (or variant):
Ϫ-k+z+zϪ √kzz].
√Izt
Ϫ-IuzϪtT-ka, Pl Ϫ-1uzϪI-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] usefulness, benefit utilité,
avantage.
- ց -
[note: many words with ց have dialectal variants with ¸, and those stems recorded
with both variants have a primary listing in this dictionary under ¸]
√ց ### [for -ђցϪ- ‘do, make’ see √¸ 1; for Ø-+ցցe-n ‘many’ see √¸t 1].
√ց 1 [see preconsonantal variants +x√w 2 and u √u 1; N √ց ; MGT 7.93
derives from *aw plus initial *w of stem]
+ցցA-grm Gao K-d T-ka T-md Ω [nm, cpd initial only, before vowel] - cpd
(X= any NP): +ցցX the son of X le fils de X [can be used for MaSg of
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any collective in k+J √k1 3; syn: see √tt 1, cf. √t 6, √1yd ; female
counterpart x+J+! √w1t and variants].
+ցցϪdђm Ω [cpd] son of Adam (= human) fils d’Adam (= être humain)
[see also +-xϪdђn √wdm]
d+ցցK-d T-ka = ђdd+ցցA-grm Ω [nmpl, used only as cpd initial in
collective sense] - cpd (X= any NP): d+ցցX (all) the sons of X
(l’ensemble de) les fils d’X [female counterpart s+!! √st 1; for d see
Pl √d 4].
+ցGao Ω [nm, cpd initial only, before consonant] [= +ցց].
d+ ցGao Ω [nmpl] [Pl or collective of +ց]
√ց 2 [see variant √ցw 1; Y Ϫցցu (said to be of recent Malian provenance)]
ϪցցuA-grm[xϪ...] Im[xϪ...] R T-ka[xϪ...], Pl Ϫցցu-!+nA-grm T-ka
Ω [nm] griot griot [a caste specializing in singing the ancestral lines of
nobles, a common West African institution].
t-Ϫցցu-t-tA-grm T-ka, Pl !-Ϫցցu-!-enA-grm T-ka Ω [nm] female
griot griotte.
√ց 3 [apparently related to √¸ 1]
+ցu Ω [part of a cpd reported for eastern dialects; see under !-ϪIsђ!-!
√tsd]
√ցb [<KCh ցubaor ցubaցuba]
ցubϪ Gnd = ցubϪT-ka, Pl ցubϪ-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] laughing dove
tourterelle maillée [ID: Streptopilia senegalensis, perhaps also other
similar spp.; cf. √dbt 1b].
√ցbbn [variant of √kbb1].
-ց+b+bb+n+-tA-grm [Imprt ցђbђbbђnђ-! A-grm, LoImpfP
-!-1ցђbђbbђn1-!A-grm] Ω [tr] hug, give a bearhug to (sb);
embrace (e.g. a new job) enthusiastically embrasser (qn) des deux bras;
se lancer dans (un nouveau travail, etc.) avec enthousiasme.
Ϫ-ցebђbbђn±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ց+b+bb+n+-!].
√ցbt ### [for !-e-ց+b+I-!see √¸bt].
√ց-by1 ### [for +ցb1y+JJosee √by1]
√ցd 1a [N √ցd ; MGT 7.93]
-ђցց+d-A-grm Im K-d K-f R T-ka [Imprt ђցցђdA-grm Im T-ka T-md,
LoImpfP -!-Ϫցց+d-A-grm Im K-f T-ka] Ω a) [intr] jump sauter,
bondir [A-grm T] [cf. √ndt 1a, √tkd 1] Ω b) [tr] jump on (sb, sth)
sauter, sauter sur (qn, qch) [T] Ω c) [intr] fly away s’envoler [A-grm
K K-d] [syn: √It 1a]. Caus √s-ցd.
ђցցђdt-Ϫ-tsђt-tR Ω [phrasal cpd, lit. “jump/fly (over) droppings”]
bird sp. oiseau sp. [ID: probably the rufous scrub-robin Cercotrichas
galactotes, said to make short jumps; contains √tsd ].
uցђdR Ω [nm, vbln of -ђցց+d-].
137
ђ-m-uց+dT-ka, Pl 1-n-uց+d-+nT-ka Ω [nm, Agent] jumper
sauteur, qn qui saute [see also under √ցd 1b]
t-eցցet-tIm K-d T-ka[xt-e ...] = t-e ցցϪt-tR = t-±ցցet-tA-grm
= t-±ցցϪt-tK-f, Pl !-1ցցϪdA-grm Im R[xt-±...] T-ka[x
t-±...] Ω [nf] (a) jump saut.
√ցd 1b [see variant √ցdn]
+-m-ϪցցϪdA-grm, Pl 1-nϪցցϪd-+nA-grm Ω [nm] grasshopper, locust
criquet, sauterelle [cf. √s׹11, √sw1 2].
ђ-m-uց+dT-ka, Pl 1-n-uց+d-+nT-ka Ω [nm, Agent] grasshopper
sauterelle [see also under √ցd 1a].
√ցdցd
t-Ϫ-ցduցђt-tK-d Ts, Pl !-1-ցduցђd-enK-d Ts Ω [nf] small dark
insect (beetle?) sp. petit insecte (coléoptère?) sp. de couleur foncée [can
eat old tent skins].
√ցdցt ### [see √ցdցd]
√ցdh (ցdhw) ### [see √¸dh]
√ցd1 ### [see √¸d1]
√ցd1st ### [for Ϫ-ցdђJse! ‘morning’ see √¸d1st]
√ցdn [variant of √ցd 1b]
+-ցod+nT-ka, Pl 1-ցod+n-+nT-ka Ω [nm] grasshopper sauterelle.
√ցd ### [for VblN ϪցցϪd see √wd 1; for eցϪd ‘herb sp.’ see √¸d 1a]
√ցdd### [for e-ց+ded ‘bird’ see √¸dd 1; for -ђցցђd+d- ‘fear’ see
√¸dd 2]
√ցdd 1 [see variant √kd 1; onomatopoeic, cf. N √ցdց]
t-Ϫ-ցdut-tT-md, Pl !-1-ցdud-enT-md Ω [nf] sandgrouse sp.
ganga sp. [ID: Pterocles exustus, sand-colored, squawks in flight; cf.
!-Ϫ-b+IIu-!-!√bt 4].
√ցdt ### [for !-Ϫ-ցdu!-!see √ցdd].
√ցI ### [for -ђցցϪ1-see √wI].
√ցI [perhaps a variant of √nցI]
+-ցo IϪK-d Ω [nm] Arab woman’s hairstyle with large ball on top coiffure
des femmes arabes avec une touffe au sommet.
√ց-Ikn ### [for +ցցu1+kϪn1 see √Ikn].
√ցց 1 [probably related to √ցyցy ; for !-Ϫ-¸1¸1-!-! ‘dune’ see √¸¸ 4]
t-Ϫ-ց±ց±-t-tA-grm Ω [nf] disputation, verbal disagreement dispute.
√ցց 2
ցoցϪIm T-ka, Pl ցoցϪ-!+nIm T-ka Ω [nm] crest (of rooster) crête (de
coq) [syn: √zցzց, √sց1]
138
√ցց1 [possibly related to √¸¸1 1,2]
t-e-ց+ցց+1-tA-grm, Pl !-1-ց+ցց+J-enA-grm Ω [nf] woman’s
headband (for holding hair down) bandeau de femme (pour attacher les
cheveux) [made with horsehairs; cf. √nցI].
√ցցt ### [for ‘sterile’ see √¸¸t]
√ցցt 1 [perhaps a mutation of √kwt 1a; cf. Y k+ցց+I ‘insult’, N √kwt]
-ђցցђցց+t-A-grm T-ka T-md [Imprt ց+ցց+IA-grm T-ka T-md,
LoImpfP -!-Ϫց+ցցϪI-A-grm T-ka T-md] Ω [tr] insult insulter
[syn: √kwt 1a, √k1w1w, √tbd, √st 2, cf. noun !-e!!eI-! √tt 1a].
t-Ϫ-ցђ ցցet-tK-d R T-ka T-md, Pl !-1-ցђցցϪIA-grm K-d R T-ka
T-md Ω [nf, vbl] insult insulte, injure [chiefly in Pl].
√ցցt 2 [<KCh ցaցaI1]
t-e-ց+ց+t±-t-tT-ka = t-+-ց+ց+t±-t-tT-md, Pl
!-1-ց+ց+I1-!-enT-ka T-md Ω [nf] hook hameçon [syn: √d1b].
√ց׹ ### [for VblN ϪցցϪ׹ see √w׹]
√ց׹y [regional word, perhaps directly from Songhay]
ց+׹+yT-md Gnd Ω [nm] giant catfish sp. silure géant sp. [rare word known
by old-timers near the river; ID: Arius gigas, now possibly extinct].
√ցk [variant of √kk 3].
e -ց+kkGnd Ω [nm] spur-winged goose canard armé [ID: Plectropterus
gambensis].
√ց1 ### [for -ђցJϪ- ‘go’ see √¸1 1; for VblN ϪցցϪJ see √w1 6 ‘watch over’; for
LoImpfP -ђցցϪJ- see √w1 4 ‘turn around’; for +-ցoJϪ ‘stepson’ see
√¸1 6; for !-e-ց+JJ+-!-! ‘colocynth (melon)’ see √¸1 4a]
√ց1 1 [<Ful via Songhay, but cf. √׹1 4]
ց+11eR T-md, Pl ց+JJe-!+nR T-md Ω [nm] walled courtyard (of a
housing compound) cour (d’une concession) entourée d’un mur [cf.
√cc].
√ց1 2 [perhaps originally related to √w1 6; N √w1]
t-ϪցցϪ1-tA-grm[xt-Ϫ...] K-d T-ka[xt-Ϫ...], Pl !-ϪցցϪJ-enA-grm
K-d T-ka Ω [nf] brideprice dot (offerte par le marié à la famille de la
mariée) [cf. √tt 1b].
√ց1 3 [N √ց1]
-ђցցђ1+-tA-grm [Imprt ց+J+-!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫց+JϪ-!
A-grm] Ω [intr] move on (to a new camp) décamper, déménager (vers
un nouveau campement) [cf. -+honϪ- √hn 3a].
t-Ϫց1eA-grm[xt-Ϫ...] Ω [nm, vbln of -ђցցђJ+-!].
k+1t-Ϫց1eA-grm Ω [cpd nm] transhumants transhumants.
√ց1 4 [N √ց1 « sud »]
Ϫ-ց+1ϪA-grm Im K-d K-f Ω a) [nm] southeast (down the Niger R.) sud-est
(en aval du fleuve Niger) [A-grm] Ω b) [nm] south sud [A-grm Im K-d
K] [syn: √¸s 1].
139
t-±kϪw-tn⍾+-ց+1ϪK-d Ω [cpd nf] voyage south; annual caravan
from northern Mali to Douentza (or Burkina) to buy grain voyage vers le
sud; caravane annuelle du nord du Mali vers Douentza (ou vers le Burkina)
pour acheter des céréales [traditionally around May-June].
√ց1 5 [<Fr galon]
ց+ 1ϪK-d[xց+...] T-ka, Pl ց+JϪ-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] rank (in army) grade
(dans l’armée).
√ց1ցd [N √ց1ցd]
-+ ց1Ϫց+d -K-d T-ka [Imprt ցђJuցђdT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1ցJuցudT-ka]
Ω [intr] walk easily, slowly, and nonchalantly marcher à l’aise,
lentement et avec nonchalance.
Ϫ-ց1uցђd K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+ցJϪց+d-].
√ց1ց1 [slightly pejorative terms, from HassAr ցaaJ ‘he said’]
Ϫ-ցђ 1ցϪ1 K-d T-ka, Pl 1-ցђJցϪJ-+nK-d T-ka Ω [nm] (local male) Arab
Arabe (mâle de la zone) [cf. √tb 1].
t-Ϫ-ցђ 1ցϪ1-tK-d T-ka, Pl !-1-ցђJցϪJ-enK-d T-ka Ω [nf] (a local
female) Arab; Hassaniya Arabic Arabe (de la zone); langue arabe
hassaniya.
√ց1ցt [probably <Songhay]
ցϪ1ցutteT-ka T-md = ցϪ1ցuteGnd, Pl ցϪJցu!!e-!+nT-md
= ցϪJցu!!e-!enT-md Ω [nm] marabou stork marabout (échassier)
[ID: Leptoptilus crumeniferous].
√ց11 ### [see √¸11 1,2]
√ց1nցd
ցђ11ђ֊ցђd K-d Ω a) [nm] worm or bug that twists its head when held ver
ou insecte qui agite sa tête quand on le tient Ω b) [nm] yes-person (says
yes to everyone) béni-oui-oui.
√ց1nց1 [variant of √ցnց1]
t-Ϫ-ց1ђ֊ց±1ђ-t-tT-md, Pl !-1-ցJђ֊ց1Jђ-!-enT-md Ω [nf]
[= √ցnց1].
√ց1w ### [for !-Ϫ-ցђJJϪx-! see √¸1 1]
√ց1y ### [see √¸1 6]
√ցm 1 [possibly related to KS ցane ‘between’]
ցϪm±T-ka = ցϪm± R T-md, Pl ցϪn1-!+nT-ka = ցϪn1-!+nR T-md
Ω [nm] limit, boundary (e.g. of field) frontière, limite (d’un champ etc.)
[syn: √ht 8, cf. √mk 4, √1xdd, √ty 1].
ց+moA-grm[xց+...], Pl ց+no-!+nA-grm Ω [nm] middle, center (of a
field) milieu, centre (de champ).
√ցm 2 [cf. Songhay ցun]
-ђցցumm+-tT-ka = -+ցցumm+-tR [Imprt ցunnђ-!R T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1ցђnnu-!R T-ka] Ω [intr] (sb) cover oneself, be covered (e.g.
with a coat or blanket) (qn) se couvrir, ê. couvert (d’un manteau, d’une
140
couverture, etc.) [cf. √s-kmbs, √btmbk, √bkmbk, √btm 3]. Caus
√s-ցm.
Ϫ-ցђmmuT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђցցunn+-!].
-ђցցђmm+-tA-grm [Imprt ցђnnђ-!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫց+nnϪ-!
A-grm] Ω [= -ђցցunn+-!].
+-ցϪmmuA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђցցђnn+-!].
√ցm 3 [cf. perhaps N √ցm« taon (des bœufs) »]
t-Ϫցցђm-tA-grm, Pl !-Ϫցցђn-enA-grm Ω [nf] paper wasp, mud-
dauber guêpe maçonne [syn √ssw׹ 2, !-ess1-!-! √s 3,
!-e-zђbbenb+I-! √zbmbt].
√ցm 4 [N √ցm]
-+ցցum-K-d [Imprt uցցϪnK-d, LoImpfP -!-uցցϪn-K-d] Ω [tr] be in
love with (sb) ê. amoureux de (qn).
t-uցցђmϪK-d Ω [nf] being in love amour (état).
√ցmb ### [for +-ցϪnbϪsee √¸mb 1].
√ցmցm #### [for !-Ϫ-ցђnցђn-! ‘breakfast’ see √¸m¸m]
√ցmsd
t-+-ց+mϪ s s et -t Gao Ω [nf] rope for tying a load on donkey’s haunch to
its tail (so the load doesn’t lurch forward) corde qui attache un
chargement placé sur la croupe d’un âne à sa queue (pour empêcher que le
chargement se déplace en avant).
√ցmt׹
-ց+m+tt+׹-A-grm [Imprt ցђnђ!!ђ׹A-grm, LoImpfP -!-1ցђnђ!!1׹-
A-grm] Ω [intr] (e.g. tree in wind) become bent; sway to side (un arbre
au vent, etc.) se tordre; tituber [A-grm].
Ϫ-ցђmђttђ׹A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ց+n+!!+׹-].
√ցmy [means ‘look for’ in Niger (cf. √m׹); N √ցmy]
-ђցm+y-T-ka [Imprt ђցnђyT-ka, LoImpfP -ցϪnn+y-T-ka] Ω [tr] test
(sb) mettre (qn) à l’épreuve [e.g. testing a fortune-teller].
Ϫ-ց+mϪyT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђցn+y-].
√ցn ### [for VblN ϪցցϪn and LoImpfP -ђցցϪn- see √wn 2 ‘go up’; for !-uցnϪ
‘silhouette’ see √¸n 6; for eց+n in yes/no questions see √¸n 5 (cf.
√¸m 3)].
√ցn [perhaps related to √¸m 3 and √¸n 5; N √ցn« choix, ...»]
Ϫ ցnϪGao[xϪ...] K K-d R[xϪ...] T-ka[xϪ...], Pl ϪցnϪ-!+nK K-d R T-ka
Ω a) [nm] what sb wants, object of sb’s desire ce qu’on veut, objet du
désir (de qn) [R T] Ω b) [nm] custom, traditional practice; traditional
values coutume, pratique coutumière; valeurs traditionnelles [K] [cf.
√1s1].
√ցnd 1 [<Songhay ցondo, ֊ցondo]
t-+-ցo ndo-tGnd Ω [nf] fish sp. with hard scales poisson sp. à écailles
dures [sp. now very rare, term known to old-timers along river; ID:
141
Polypterus spp., esp. P. senegalus; descriptive syn: !-Ϫss+J-!n
Ϫn-Ϫn√s1 2].
√ցnd 2 [<Songhay ցond1]
t-+-ցond±-t-tA-grm, Pl !-1-ցond1-!-enA-grm Ω [nf] snake
(general term) serpent (terme générique) [local term; syn: √s1 5].
√ցndIty [<Fr]
ց+nd+Iot+yA-grm, Pl ց+nd+1oI+y-!+nA-grm Ω [nm] government
forestry and wildlife agent agent des Eaux et Forêts [syn: √zIt (and
√zzIt)].
√ցndy [<Songhay ցundey]
ցund+yyA-grm T-ka = ցund+yyR[xցu...] Ω [nm] rice dish with sauce
cooked in riz au gras (mets) [syn: √stnt].
√ցnց1 [see variant √ց1nց1]
t-Ϫ-ցђ֊ց±1ђ-t-tT-ka = t-Ϫ-ցђ֊ցђ1±-t-tTs, Pl
!-1-ցђ֊ց1Jђ-!-enT-ka = !-1-ցђ֊ցђJ1-!-enTs Ω [nf]
leguminous herb sp. (said to cause bloating of stomachs of grazing
animals) plante légumineuse sp. (on dit qu’elle provoque des
météorisations chez les ruminants) [ID: Indigofera aspera (= I. tenella),
collected at T, cf. Niger Arabic “tiginglite” reported for I. senegalensis;
syn: √¸d 1a; cf. √m1¸y and !-Ϫ-Jђցց1-!-! √1ց 2].
√ցnցn [N √ցnցn]
t-Ϫ-ցђnnђցђn-tK-d T-ka Ω [nf] secret speech code langage secret [Pig
Latin-like register, with a particular consonant inserted into each syllable].
√ցnցt [Y Ϫ-k+֊ց+IϪ ‘boar (Fr sanglier)’]
Ϫ-ց+֊ց+tϪA-grm Gao GndIm K-d T-ka T-md Ts, Pl 1-ց+֊ց+IϪ-!+n
Gao K-d T-ka T-md Ts = 1-ց+֊ց+I-ϪnA-grm Im Ω [nm] warthog
phacochère [ID: Phacochoerus aethiopicus ; cf. √zybt].
t-Ϫ-ց+֊ց+tϪ-t-tT-md, Pl !-1-ց+֊ց+IϪ-!-enT-ka Ω [nf] female
warthog phacochère femelle.
√ցn¸ms [see variant √¸ndms ; <KCh ցan¸1 ‘bush’ plus a regional
onomatopoeic term for ‘cat’]
ց+n¸±musT-ka Ω [nm] wild cat chat sauvage [ID: mainly the sand cat,
Felis margarita ; syn: see √bwn].
√ցnn
ցunu nuGnd = ցununuT-ka Ω [nm] a weed of rice fields mauvaise herbe
des rizières [word known along river].
√ցnw ### [see √¸nw].
√ցny [<Songhay ցoney]
t-+-ցo nϪy-tGnd T-md, Pl !-1-ցonϪy-enT-md Ω [nf] eel-like fish sp.
poisson sp. qui ressemble à l’anguille [term known to river people] [sp.
and term uncommon; ID: Gymnarchus niloticus].
142
√ցt### [see √¸t .; for prep ց+I ‘between’ see √¸t 1; for LoImpfP
-ђցցϪI- see √wt 2a].
√ցt 1 [cf. N √ց1d]
-+ցցot+-tA-grm Im K-d R T-ka [Imprt ցuIђ-!A-grm R T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1ցuIu-!K-d R T-ka = -!-ϪցϪIϪ-!A-grm] Ω a) [intr] go into
a trance, become possessed by a spirit (in a rite of an ecstatic religious
brotherhood) entrer en transe; devenir possédé par un diable (dans un rite
de confrérie extatique) [A-grm R T] Ω b) [intr] become delirious, giddy
entrer en délire [K-d] Ω c) [intr] become crazy, go nuts devenir fou
[Im].
Ø-+ցցo te-nK-d T-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] - ex: ed1Ø-+ցցoIe-nT-ka
rabid dog chien atteint de la rage [for K-d: ‘frisky, excitable dog’].
t-+ցցote-tT-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg].
+ցցot+-t-nenT-ka Ω [partpl, Pl].
+-m-+ցցϪtuA-grm K-d T-ka, Pl 1-n-ђցցuIϪA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [nm,
Agent] one who goes into ecstatic trances qn qui entre en transe.
+-ցϪtuA-grm K-d R T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+ցցoI+-!].
+-m+s-ցϪtuR, Pl 1-nђs-ցuIϪR Ω [nm] one in a trance qn qui est en
extase (transe).
t-+-ցϪtu-t-tT-ka, Pl !-1-ցϪIu-!-enT-ka Ω [nf] delirium, trance;
rabid state (of animal) délire, transe; rage (d’un animal) [cf. √wns 1].
√ցt 2 [N √ցt]
uցϪtT-ka[xu...] Ω [nm, in certain expressions, often with dative
complement] future goal, what one is determined to accomplish objectif
futur, ce qu’on s’efforce à accomplir avec détermination - exx: x+I
!-ђJe-duցϪIe!-1¸Ϫx-!-ђnne!T-ka you-Sg are not really
determined to do it tu n’es pas vraiment pas décidé à le faire;
ђkIђs-\Ϫ-suցϪIT-ka strive for it! (= don’t give up!) efforce-toi
de le faire!
√ցt 3 [regional word, also in Songhay etc.]
ցotoA-grm[xցo...] K-d R T-ka[xցo...] T-md, Pl ցoIo-!+nA-grm R
T-ka T-md Ω [nm] kola nut (chewed) noix de cola (à croquer) [ID: nuts
imported, from tree Cola nitida and perhaps C. acuminata, chewed (and
given as small gifts to guests) among southern Malians and to some extent
among Songhay, but of little interest to northern Tuaregs; cf. verb √Iz 1].
√ցt 4
ց+tϪT-ka[xց+...], Pl ց+IϪ-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] indigo indigo [dye made
(in Niger etc.) from plant Indigofera tinctoria, Papilionaceae; cf. √b1b1 3,
√sn 5, √1ms 2].
√ցt 5
ցo ttR T-ka[xցo...] T-md, Pl ցoIIϪx-+nR T-md Ω [nm] anus; rear end
(of sb) cul, anus; (le) derrière (de qn) [syn: √z 3, √ms׹t¸ ; Y
equivalents: !-ђ-xϪnus-!, !-ђ-sђnbu! (cf. √smbd, N √snbd)].
143
√ցt 6 [variant of √¸th 2; N √ցt]
+-ցottA-grm[x+-], Pl 1-ցoII-+nA-grm Ω [nm] castrated animal
(esp. goat) animal (surtout bouc) castré.
√ցt 7 [variant of √h¸t]
t-ђ-ցցϪt-tGao Ω [nf] acacia tree sp. acacia épineux sp. [ID: Acacia
nilotica, long straight pods sold in markerts as a medicine and for tanning
hides].
√ցtd 1 [perhaps N √ցtd]
-ђցt+d-A-grm [Imprt ђցIђdA-grm, LoImpfP -ցϪII+d-A-grm] Ω [tr]
hold up, delay (sb) retarder (qn).
Ϫ-ց+tϪdA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђցI+d-].
√ցtd 2 [<Fr]
ց+td±K-d[xց+...], Pl ց+Id1-!+nK-d Ω [nm] military policeman
garde (militaire) [cf. √µ1s, √zndtm]
√ցtd [perhaps a specialized variant of √¸td ‘gnaw on’]
-ђցt+d-T-ka [Imprt ђցI+d T-ka, LoImpfP -ցϪII+d- T-ka] Ω [tr] accuse
accuser.
√ցtI ### [see √¸tI 1,2].
√ցtIn [see variant √ցtInd]
ցђtuIђnϪTh, Pl ցђIu1ђnϪ-!+nTh Ω [nm] erect herb sp. plante à port
érigé sp. [ID: Senna obtusifolia (formerly Cassia tora), Leguminosae-
Caesalpinaceae].
√ցtInd [variant of √ցtIn]
ցђtuIђndϪTh, Pl ցђIu1ђndϪ-!+nTh Ω [nm] [= ցђIu1ђnϪ].
√ցtIs [N √ցtIs]
Ϫ-ց+ tI±sK-f, Pl 1-ցђI1ϪsK-f Ω [nm] grass sp. graminée sp. [ID:
Stipagrostis vulnerans (= Aristida pungens)]
√ցtց ### [see √¸t¸]
√ցtցm ### [see √¸t¸m]
√ցtցt ### [see √¸t¸t]
√ցtցt 1 [dialectal homonyms √¸t¸t 1a-b]
-ђցցђtց+t-T-ka [Imprt ց+Iց+IT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫց+IցϪI-T-ka]
Ω [tr] stir up (dying fire) attiser (un feu mourant).
Ϫ-ցђtցђtT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђցցђIց+I-].
√ցtցt 2
-+ ցtϪց+t-K-d R [Imprt ցђIuցђIR, LoImpfP -!-1ցIuցuI-R]
Ω [intr] walk or move slowly; (e.g. one sheep) lag (behind others), be a
laggard marcher ou aller lentement; (un mouton, etc.) traîner (derrière les
autres) [syn: √ցttd ; cf. √¸11 1a].
Ϫ-ցtuցђtK-d R Ω [nm, vbln of -+ցIϪց+I-].
144
√ցtցt 3 [see also ђ-¸1I¸1I √¸t¸t 1b]
ђ-ցetցetA-grm K-d, Pl 1-ցђIցϪI-+nA-grm Ω [nm] section, flap (of
tent) pan (d’une tente).
√ցtk ### [see √¸tk 2]
√ցtk(ցtց)
t-ђցցutђk-kT-ka T-md Ts, Pl !-ђցցuIђk-enT-ka T-md Ts
= !-ђցցuIђց-enT-md Ω [nf] small grass sp. petite graminée sp.
[ID: Leptothrium senegalense and perhaps some other grasses; for this sp.
UPWTA 2.277 gives a different Tam term “ainguiem” but does give a
related Berberism “tigurit” for Mauritanian Hassaniya, cf. DHF 2.217
which identifies this as Latipes senegalensis (old term for Leptothrium)].
√ցtm1 ### [see √¸tm1]
√ցtmm ### [see √¸tmm]
√ցtt ### [see √¸tt 1, cf. √ցtցt]
√ցttd
-ց+tϪt+d-A-grm [Imprt ցђIuIђdA-grm, LoImpfP -!-1ցђIuI1d-
A-grm] Ω [intr] lag behind (others) se traîner (derrière les autres) [syn:
√ցtցt 2, cf. √¸11 1].
Ϫ-ցђtutђdA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ց+IϪI+d-].
√ցtts [N √ցtts]
-+ ցtϪt+s-R T-ka T-md [Imprt ցђIuIђsR T-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-!-1ցIuIus-R T-ka T-md] Ω [intr] sing chanter [cf. √nzm, √nzt,
√sh׹, √s-wy 1a].
e-m-+ցtetђsT-ka, Pl 1-n-ђցIuIђsT-ka Ω [nm, Agent] singer
chanteur.
Ϫ-ցtutђsR T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+ցIϪI+s-].
√ցts ### [see √s-ցts, √¸ts 3]
√ցtsmm ### [see √¸tsmm]
√ցtsmy [variant of √¸tsmm]
Ϫ-ցu tsumm+yGao = Ϫ-ցђtsђmmϪyA-grm = Ϫ-ց+tsђm+yTs, Pl
1-ցђIsђnnϪy-+nA-grm = 1-ց+Isђn+y-+nTs Ω [nm] tree sp.
with edible red berries arbre sp. à baies rouges comestibles [ID: Grewia
villosa, Tiliaceae (broad, leathery leaves); DN86 “aցђtsђmm±” identified
as G. flavescens; other Grewia’s are √d¸ 2, √nIn, and √tkd ].
Ϫ-ցђtsђmm±Th, Pl 1-ցђIsђnn-ϪnTh Ω [nm] tree sp. with edible red
berries arbre sp. à baies rouges comestibles Ω [nm]
[= Ϫ-ցuIsunn+y] .
√ցts 1 [N √ցts and √ցtsk]
ց+tsϪK-d[xց+...] Ω [nm] evil eye, evil tongue (source of misfortune)
mauvais œil, mauvaise langue (cause de malheur) - ex: 1-¸I+x-\!
ց+IsϪK-d the evil eye got him le mauvais œil l’a eu.
145
t-Ϫց+ts-+tK-d Ω [nm] evil gossip, well-hidden ill will mauvaise langue,
rancune cachée [cf. √dt 1b, √dkt 1, √׹ 6, √kyd] - ex: !-+xx+d-\!
!-Ϫց+Is-+!K-d evil gossip has struck at him la mauvaise langue l’a
atteint.
√ցts 2 [<Songhay (KS ցaIs1)]
ց+ts±T-ka[xց+...] = ց+ts±R[xց+...], Pl ց+Is1-!+nR T-ka Ω [nm]
coarsely crushed millet grains (eaten as a snack) grains de mil
légèrement écrasés (mangés comme friandise).
√ցtt [see also ¸+I+! √¸tt ‘desert wasteland’]
ց+t+tA-grm[xց+...] Ω [nm] (canine) rabies rage (des chiens).
√ցtwy [DTF 1.486]
t-e-ց+tw+y-tR, Pl !-1-ց+Ix+y-enR Ω [nf] decorative saddlebag
sacoche de selle décorative [cf. √syh 2].
√ցty ### [for lizard Ϫ-ց+I+yyϪ see √¸ty 2]
√ցtzց1
t-Ϫ-ցђtz±ցϪ1-tGao Ω [nf] acacia tree sp. acacia sp. [ID: Acacia
kamerunsensis (= A. erythrocalyx = A. pennata), cf.
!-+-׹+Jzђbb+y-!].
√ցs ### [for LoImpfP -ђցցϪs- see √ws 3a]
√ցs [<Songhay ցoso]
ց+ s oR T-ka[xց+...] T-md, Pl ց+so-!+nR T-ka Ω [nm] dish made by
boiling millet grains and then pounding them in a mortar mets préparé en
bouillant des grains de mil et en les pilant ensuite.
√ցsy ### [for plant name Ϫ-ց+s+y see √¸sy]
√ցt ### [for !-eցցe!-! ‘a jump’ see √ցd ; for -ђց+!- ‘be many’ see √¸t 1;
for LoImpfP -ђցցϪ!- see √wt 1-2]
√ցttsd [variant of ђցցђd!-Ϫ-Ise!-! etc. √tsd]
+ցցutϪtsђt-tTs, Pl +ցցu!ϪIsђd-enTs Ω [frozen cpd nm] scrub-
robin merle spp. [arguably still a cpd +ցցu...; ID: Cercotrichas
podobe].
√ցw 1 [see variant √ցw ; Y Ϫցցu (but said to be of recent Malian provenance)]
Ϫցց±wK-f, Pl Ϫցց1x-+nK-f Ω [nm] griot griot.
√ցw 2 [see variant √ցwցw]
ցϪ wϪR[xցϪ...] = ցϪwϪK-d[xցϪ] Ω [nm] Gao (city) Gao (ville).
√ցwds [probably <HassAr]
-ђցցђwd+s-T-ka[Imprt ց+xd+sT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫց+xdϪs-T-ka]
Ω [intr] (people) form large congregations (e.g. at end of dry season,
around wells) (gens) vivre ensemble en grandes agglomérations (par ex.
à la fin de la saison sèche, autour des puits) [uncommon word].
Ϫ-ցђwdђsT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђցցђxd+s-].
√ցwցw [archaic variant of √ցw 2]
ց+ wց+wK-d[xց+] Ω [nm] Gao (city) Gao (ville).
146
√ցw׹
e-ց+w+׹Gao, Pl 1-ց+x+׹-+nGao Ω [nm] ganglion ganglion.
√ցy ### [for VblN ϪցցϪy see √wy‘convey’; see also √mցy]
√ցy 1 [probably related to √wy ‘convey’; N √wy, DTF 3.1472]
t-ϪցցϪy-tA-grm[xt-Ϫ...] K-d T-ka[xt-Ϫ...], Pl !-ϪցցϪy-enK-d
T-ka = !-ϪցցϪyy-enA-grm Ω [nf] group (of friends), team groupe
(d’amis), compagnie, équipe.
√ցy 2
Ϫ-ց+yϪA-grm R, Pl 1-ց+yϪ-!+nA-grm = 1-ց+y-ϪnR Ω [nm] pit (e.g.
of date); seed (of melon) noyau (de datte etc.), graine (de pastèque) [see
also homonym under √¸y 2; cf. √kb 2].
√ցy 3 [perhaps related to √¸y 1 ‘tie’, but cf. DTF 1.419]
+-m-uց+yA-grm K-d R T-md = ђ-muց+yT-ka, Pl 1-n-uց+y-+nA-grm
R T-ka T-md Ω a) [nm] weak camel (emaciated or old) chameau faible
(maigre ou vieux) [T] [similar pejorative sense DTF 1.419] Ω b) [nm]
male camel, almost full-grown (e.g. 3 years old) chameau mâle, presque
adulte (vers 3 ans) [K-d T] Ω c) [nm] young male camel that is tied up (to
reduce its suckling) chameau mâle qu’on attache (pour diminuer sa tétée)
[A-grm].
t-+-m-uց+y-tK-d T-md = t-ђ-m-uց+y-tT-ka, Pl !-1-n-uց+y-en
T-ka T-md Ω [nf, female equivalent of +-n-uց+y].
√ցy 4 [<Songhay ցoy]
ցo yR Ω [nm] work travail [syn: √s׹1 1, √xdm].
-+ցցuyy+-tR [Imprt ցuyyђ-!R, LoImpfP -!-1ցցђyyu-!R] Ω [intr]
work, be at work travailler, ê. au travail.
+-ցϪyyuK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+ցցuyy+-!].
+-m+s-ցϪyyuK-d, Pl 1-nђs-ցuyyϪK-d Ω [nm, Agent] worker
ouvrier.
√ցy 5 [variant of √¸ 4]
t-e-ց+yA-grm, Pl !-1-ցђyyA-grm[x⍾t-ђ-] Ω [nf] storage area (esp.
in corner of tent) lieu pour garder les bagages (surtout un coin de la
tente) [cf. √tmk].
√ցyb
±nցo ybϪGao Ω [cpd nm] ostrich autruche [ID: Struthio camelus; syn:
√nh1 3, male also √t׹ 1].
√ցydtm
t-Ϫ-ց+ydot+m-+tGao Ω [nf] swarm of grasshopper larvae essaim de
larves de criquets [syn: √Ittkm].
√ցyցy [cf. √ցց 1]
t-e-ց+yց+y-tK-d, Pl !-1-ց+yց+y-enK-d Ω [nf] trembling (due to
anger, sickness, convulsive laughter) tremblement (dû à la colère, à une
maladie, au rire) - ex: !-ђ֊kϪI-\dђ-s+n⍾!-+-ց+yց+y-!K-d
147
they’re in an angry quarrel (shaking fists) ils sont en train de se quereller
avec colère (en gesticulant avec leurs poings).
√ցyk ### [see √¸yk]
√ցyt [<KS ցooI1‘young palm shoot’]
ցoyt±T-md, Pl ցoyI1-!+nT-md Ω [nm] hard fruit (nut) of doum palm
noix de doum [rare word; segments of nut can be sucked; cf. √kI 4,
√kk 4].
√ցys ### [for +-ցϪyђssee √¸ys].
√ցz ### [for !-1-ցђzz ‘nephews’ see √¸s 2a,b]
√ցzm ### [for lizard term Ϫ-ցђzzϪn see √¸zm (see also √ցzm, below)]
√ցzm 1 [N √ցzm]
ցozmϪA-grm K-d T-ka T-md, Pl ցoznϪ-!+nA-grm K-d T-ka T-md
Ω [nm] fighting knife with 3-pointed handle worn in sheath on forearm
couteau de lutte dont le manche a trois pointes, porté dans un fourreau
sur l’avant-bras [cf. ђzzђnxϪ√znw].
√ցzm 2 [DN86 √ցzm ; arguably segmentable as +ցցozn1]
±n+ցցozm±T-ka Ω [cpd nm] name of a well nom d’un puits.
k+1±n+ցցozm±T-ka Ω [cpd nm] a Tuareg clan (e.g. at Ber near T)
fraction touarègue (vers Ber, etc.)
√ցztm ### [for lizard term Ϫ-ցђzz+I+n see √¸ztm]
√ցz ### [for +-ցezz ‘cheek’ see √¸z 1]
√ց-z ### [for +ցցeze see √z 4]
√ցzm [variant of √¸ztm (√¸zm, √ցztm)]
Ϫ-ցђzzϪmT-md Ω [nm] mid-sized lizard sp. that whips its tail fouette-
queue (lézard) [ID: Uromastix spp.].
√ցztm [variant of √¸ztm (√¸zm, √ցzm)]
Ϫ-ցђz z + tϪmGao, Pl 1-ցђzz+IϪn-+n Gao Ω [nm] mid-sized lizard sp.
that whips its tail fouette-queue (lézard) [ID: Uromastix spp.].
- ׹/q -
[note: qq is the normal geminated counterpart of ׹ ; some Arabic loanwords have
ungeminated q, which is alphabetized as though ׹]
√׹ ### [for !-eqq1!-! see √׹d 4a]
√׹ 1
-+׹ Ω [1Sg subject suffix on verbs; combines with preceding stem-final ...Ϫto
form ...e-׹and with preceding ...uto form ...o-׹ (arguably phonemic
/...u-׹/); the ׹ combines with a following ! or k of an object suffix to
form q-\q] - exx: +֊׹e-q-\q+nT-md (</+֊׹Ϫ-+׹-\k+m/) I killed
148
you-FeSg je t’ai tuée; +֊׹e-q-\q+! T-md (</+֊׹Ϫ-+׹-t+t/) I
killed her je l’ai tuée.
-e׹ Ω [variant 1Sg possessor suffix with vowel-final inalienable noun, varying
with zero suffix, chiefly in T-ka].
-e׹ Ω [variant 1Sg suffix after vowel-final preposition, varying with -1 ;
arguably /-+׹/ with contraction of the two vowels to e, chiefly in T-ka].
√׹ 2 [N √׹t]
t-Ϫ-׹Ϫ-t-tA-grm[x⍾t-+-] Im K-f R T-ka[x⍾t-+-] T-md Ω [nf] goat
(esp. nanny-goat) chèvre (surtout femelle) [suppletive Pl uJJ1 √1 7].
t-Ϫ-׹Ϫ-t-tn⍾+-toցց A-grm = ...n+-to¸¸ Gnd Ts Ω [cpd nm, lit.
“... of the bush”] small antelope sp. petite antilope sp. [ID: described as
horned, inhabits rocks near forests, about the size of e-d+n √dm 2b].
t-Ϫ-׹Ϫ-t-tnϪm-ϪnA-grm K-d R T-ka Ω [cpd nm, lit. “... of water”]
river bird sp. oiseau sp. du fleuve [ID: applied variously to the jacana
Actophilornis africana (A-grm), which walks on water lilies; or the black-
winged stilt Himantopus himantopus (R), a long-legged wader].
√׹ 3 [homonym of perfective √׹ 5; cf. DTF 4.1683 (« venger »)]
-oqqϪ-T-ka [Imprt ϪqqT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1qq-T-ka] Ω [intr plus
dative] dissuade, advise against, discourage (sb from an action or
substance) déconseiller, dissuader (qn d’une action ou d’une substance) -
ex: oqqe-׹-\Ϫ-k1+J!-ϪbϪT-ka I advise you-Sg against
(smoking) tobacco je te déconseille (de fumer) le tabac.
±qq (or: eqq) R[x±...], Pl 1qq1-!+nR Ω [nm, vbln of -oqqϪ-].
t-±qq±-t-t (or: t-eqq±-t-t)R T-ka[xt-±...], Pl !-1qq1-!-enR
T-ka Ω [nf, vbln of -oqqϪ-] [homonym !-1qq1!-! with different
plural, see √׹d 4].
√׹ 4 (׹t) [N √׹y]
t-e׹ђ-t-t (or: t-e׹ђt-t)T-ka[xt-e...], Pl !-e׹-!-en (or:
!-e׹!-en)T-ka Ω [nf] one of the small strings (of hide) that attach the
hoop to the waterskin that draws water in a well une des petites cordes
(en peau) qui attachent le cerceau à la puisette [hoop: √׹y 3].
√׹ 5 [see variant √׹׹ 2; N √׹w (dialectally “ђqqђw” or “ђqqu”), DTF 2.945]
-ђqqu-T-ka [Imprt 1qquT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1qqu-T-ka] Ω [intr] have
the dry heaves, gag (choke) while trying to vomit avoir des haut-le-cœur,
s’étrangler en essayant de vomir [syn: √yy].
-o qqϪ-R [Imprt 1 qquR =Ϫ qqR, LoImpfP -!-1qqu-R] Ω [intr]
[= -ђqqu- ; homonym of perfective √׹ 3].
t-±qqu-t-t (or: t-e...)T-ka[xt-±...], Pl !-1qqu-!-enT-ka Ω [nf,
vbln of -ђqqu- or -oqqϪ-].
√׹ 6 [DTF 4.1685]
e ׹ϪK-d T-ka[xe...] Ω [nm] grudge; revenge rancune; vengeance [cf.
√dt 1, √dkt 1, √ցts 1, √kyd].
149
√׹b 1 [N √׹b]
-ђqqubb+-tT-ka = -+qqubb+-tK-d R [Imprt ׹u bbђ-!R T-ka T-md
= qubbђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1׹ђbbu-!K-d T-ka] Ω [tr] gulp, take
a large gulp of (liquid); fill one’s mouth (with liquid, without necessarily
swallowing) avaler une gorgée de (liquide); remplir la bouche (de
liquide, sans forcément l’avaler).
Ϫ-׹ђbbuT-ka[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-׹ђbbu-!+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of
-ђqqubb+-!].
-ђqqђbb+-tA-grm [Imprt q+bb+-!A-grm = ׹+bb+-!A-grm, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫ׹+bbϪ-!A-grm] Ω [= -ђqqђbb+-!].
+-׹ϪbbuA-grm K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђqqubb+-! and variants].
t-ђ-׹ubbe-t-tK-d T-ka = t-+-׹ubbe-t-tA-grm R, Pl !-1-׹ubbϪ
K-d T-ka = !-1-׹ђbbϪA-grm Ω [nf] (a) gulp gorgée, fait d’avaler.
√׹b 2 [N √׹b]
e-׹+bbT-ka[x⍾+-] A-grm, Pl 1-׹+bb-+n A-grm T-ka Ω [nm] eye
socket (bone) orbite oculaire (os).
√׹b 3 [related irregularly to verb √׹bb 2; N √׹b and DTF 4.1687 √tb « mors »]
Ϫ-׹+bϪA-grm R T-ka, Pl 1-׹+b-ϪnA-grm K-d R = 1-׹+bϪ-!+nT-ka
Ω a) [nm] (horse’s) bridle bride (de cheval) [A-grm R] Ω b) [nm]
(horse’s) mouth bit mors (de cheval) [K-d(Pl only) T].
√׹b 4
ђqqђbuGao Ω [nm] malaise, long-lasting physical or emotional discomfort
malaise physique ou psychologique qui dure longtemps.
√׹bb 1a [N √׹bb]
Ϫ-׹+bobA-grm K-d T-ka T-md, Pl 1-׹bϪbK-d T-ka T-md = 1-׹ђbϪb
A-grm Ω [nm] hole in tree trunk; recession (cavity) in cliff face or wall
trou dans un tronc d’arbre; niche (fracture horizontale) dans une falaise
ou dans un mur - cpd: see under √kwkw 2.
k+1⍾+-׹+bobT-ka Ω [cpd nmpl] [a small Kal Ansar clan near
Goundam]
√׹bb 1b[homonyms √׹bb 2]
-ђ׹b+b-T-ka [Imprt ђ׹bђbT-ka, LoImpfP -׹Ϫbb+b-T-ka] Ω [intr] be
immobilized, jammed; be firmly held, be pinched (in a hole or between two
objects) ê. immobilisé; ê. fermement retenu, ê. serré (dans un trou ou
entre deux objets).
Ϫ-׹+bϪbT-ka[x⍾+-] Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹b+b-].
√׹bb 2 [homonyms √׹bb 1b; related to √׹b 3]
-ђ׹b+b-A-grm [Imprt ђ׹bђbA-grm, LoImpfP -׹Ϫbb+b-A-grm]
Ω [intr] bridle (a horse) mettre la bride à (un cheval).
Ϫ-׹+bϪbA-grm[x⍾+-] Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹b+b-].
150
√׹bb 3 (әbb) [source unclear, but ә suggests dialectal Arabic]
-+ ׹b+b+-tR = -+әb+b+-tT-ka [Imprt ׹ђbђbђ-!R = әђbђbђ-!
T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1׹bђb1-!R = -!-1әbђb1-!T-ka] Ω [intr]
wail, cry out in pain crier de douleur.
Ϫ-׹bђb±R Ω [nm, vbln of -+׹b+b+-!].
t-Ϫ-әbђb±-t-tT-ka, Pl !-1-әbђbϪT-ka Ω [nf, vbln of
-+әb+b+-!].
√׹bd(әbd) [for related noun see √1әbd ; <Ar √әbd ; N √׹bd]
-ђ׹b+d-A-grm K-d R T-md = -ђәb+d-T-ka [Imprt ђ׹bђdA-grm T-md
= ђәbђdT-ka, LoImpfP -׹Ϫbb+d-A-grm T-md = -әϪbb+d-T-ka]
Ω a) [tr] worship; implore (God) adorer; implorer (Dieu) [all dialects]
[cf. √md 3] Ω b) [tr] constantly insult (sb) insulter (qn) constamment
[K-d] [perhaps by antonymic inversion].
Ϫ-׹+bϪdA-grm R Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹b+d-].
√qb1 [consistent q instead of ׹ ; for related noun see √1qb1 ; <Ar √qb1]
-ђqb+1-A-grm K-d R T-ka T-md [Imprt ђqbђJA-grm K-d R T-ka T-md,
LoImpfP -qϪbb+J-A-grm R T-ka T-md] Ω [tr, intr] consent to,
approve; accept, agree consentir à, donner son approbation à; consentir,
ê. d’accord [syn: √td 1].
Ϫ-q+bϪ1A-grm K-d R Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹b+J-].
√׹bt 1 [same forms under √׹bt 2; N √׹bt]
-ђ׹b+t-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ׹bђIA-grm T-ka, LoImpfP -׹Ϫbb+I-
A-grm T-ka] Ω a) [tr] kick (with heel or hind leg), kick out at donner
une ruade à, frapper (du talon ou de la patte de derrière) [‘kick’: see √dys]
Ω b) [tr] (rider) push foot down on (neck of camel) (chamelier) appuyer
avec son pied sur (le cou d’un chameau) [K-d] [signal to camel to kneel
down, or to get up after kneeling] - ex: ђ׹bϪI-+׹eIIn⍾ђ-nnђs
K-d I’m pushing my foot down on the neck of the camel j’appuie du
pied sur le cou du chameau.
Ϫ-׹+bϪtA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹b+I-].
t-Ϫ -׹+btϪR T-ka[x⍾t-+-], Pl !-1-׹ϪbI1x-enR Ω [nf, vbln of
-ђ׹b+I-].
t-Ϫ-׹ђbbet-tA-grm K-d T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-], Pl !-1-׹ђbbϪIA-grm K-d
T-ka Ω [nf] (a) kick (with heel or hind leg) coup (du talon ou de la
patte de derrière).
√׹bt 2 [DN86 √׹bt]
-ђ׹b+t-T-ka [Imprt ђ׹bђIT-ka, LoImpfP -׹Ϫbb+I-T-ka] Ω [intr]
(e.g. cow) refuse to give more milk (to calf) (vache etc.) refuser de
donner davantage de lait (à son veau).
Ϫ-׹+bϪtT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹b+I-].
t-Ϫ-׹+bϪt-tA-grm K-d T-ka T-md, Pl !-1-׹+bϪI-enA-grm T-ka
T-md Ω [nf] milk-giving animal (kept at home, does not go to pasture
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with herd) animal laitier (reste à la maison, ne va pas au pâturage avec le
troupeau) [cf. √s-׹t 4].
√׹bt 3a [see variant √׹bs ; cf. √kbt 2]
-+ ׹bϪt+-tR T-ka = -׹+bϪt+-tA-grm [Imprt ׹ђbuIђ-!A-grm R
T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1׹buIu-!R T-ka = -!-1׹ђbuI1-!A-grm]
Ω a) [intr] pull in one’s stomach faire rentrer son ventre [A-grm] [syn:
√s-׹nss] Ω b) [intr] (pit, ditch) become deep, deeper; (side of body,
grinding mortar) be hollowed out, concave (trou, fossé) devenir (plus)
profond; (flanc du corps, mortier) ê. creux [A-grm R T]. Caus √s-׹bt.
Ϫ-׹butuR T-ka = Ϫ-׹ђbut±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -+׹bϪI+-!].
√׹bt 3b
Ϫ-׹+ bbetK-d, Pl 1-׹+bbeI-+nK-d Ω [nm] midriff bulge, fatty area
above hips graisse au-dessus des hanches.
t-±-׹+bet-tK-d Ω [nf] act of carrying infant over one’s hip (at midriff)
fait de porter un enfant sur la hanche. Cf. verb √s-׹bt.
√׹bs [variant of √׹bt 3a; N √׹bs and DTF 4.1691]
-+׹bϪs+-tT-ka [Imprt ׹ђbusђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1׹busu-!T-ka]
Ω [intr] (pit, ditch) become deep, deeper; (side of body, grinding mortar)
be hollowed out, concave (trou, fossé) devenir (plus) profond; (flanc du
corps, mortier) ê. creux.
Ϫ-׹busuT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+׹bϪs+-!].
√׹bydy (әbydy) [<HassAr]
+әb+yd±yϪT-ka, Pl +әb+yd1yϪ-!enT-ka Ω [nf] Arab-style camel
saddle with raised edges on all four sides of rider selle de chameau de
type arabe avec bords relevés aux quatre côtés [more saddles: see √hys].
t-+-׹b+yd±yϪ-t-tK-d, Pl !-1-׹b+yd1yϪ-!-enK-d Ω [nf]
[= +әb+yd1yϪ].
√׹d 1 [N √׹d]
-o׹+d-A-grm K-d T-ka T-md [ImprtϪ׹ђdA-grm K-d R T-ka T-md,
LoImpfP -!-1׹ђd-K-d R T-ka T-md = -!-Ϫ׹+d-A-grm] Ω a)
[intr] (sth) be or become straight; (sb) be direct, straightforward, honest
(qch) ê. ou devenir droit; (qn) ê. direct, simple, honnête Ω b) [intr] head
for (sth), go straight, take the correct route aller droit, prendre le bon
chemin Ω c) [tr] straighten (sth) rendre (qch) droit Ω d) [tr] guide (sb)
to a location guider (qn) à un lieu.
-o׹+d-T-md [Imprt1׹ϪdT-md, LoImpfP -!-1׹Ϫd-T-md] Ω [intr]
[= -o׹+d-, different imperfectives].
Ø-o׹Ϫd-+nA-grm K-d T-ka T-md Ω [partpl, MaSg] straight, honest
droit, honnête - ex: +-hϪJђsØ-o׹Ϫd-+nT-md [nm] a
straightforward man un homme droit.
t-o׹Ϫd-+tA-grm Ω [partpl, FeSg] straight, honest droite, honnête.
o׹Ϫd-nenA-grm Ω [partpl, Pl] straight, honest droits, honnêtes.
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±qqudA-grm K-d R T-ka[x±...], Pl 1qqud-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of
-o׹+d-].
√׹d 2 [DTF 4.1694 “tatda”]
Ϫ ׹dϪK-d T-ka[xϪ...] T-md Ts[xϪ...], Pl Ϫ׹dϪ-!+nT-ka T-md Ts
= 1-׹dϪx-+nK-d Ω [nm] wild cat sp. chat sauvage sp. [ID: Felis
sp., chiefly the serval cat F. serval].
t-Ϫ׹dϪIm, Pl !-Ϫ׹d1x-enIm Ω [nf] wild cat sp. (sand cat) chat
sauvage sp. [ID: Felis margarita].
t-Ϫ׹dϪ-t-tT-ka[xt-Ϫ...], Pl !-Ϫ׹dϪ-!-enT-ka Ω [nf] female wild
cat chatte sauvage.
√׹d 3 [N √׹d]
t-+-׹odϪT-ka T-md = t-Ϫ -׹udϪGao Ts = t-+ -׹udϪK-d, Pl
!-1-׹odϪx-enT-ka = !-1-׹udϪx-en K-d Ts Ω [nf] sedge sp.
cypéracée sp. [ID: perhaps a Cyperus sp., Cyperaceae].
√׹d 4a [N √׹d ; EPPB 217 with connection √zd 3 ‘ashes’]
-ђqq+d-A-grm [Imprt ђqqђdA-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫqq+d-A-grm] Ω a)
[intr] be burned ê. brûlé [A-grm] [cf. √s-k 3, √t׹ 1a; ‘hot’: √ks 2;
‘ashes’: √zd 3] Ω b) [tr] cauterize (skin, with red-hot knife or metal rod);
brand (animal, with hot metal) cautériser (la peau, avec un couteau ou
une barre de métal chauffé); marquer (un animal) à feu [A-grm T] [cf.
√sw1 1] Ω c) [intr] be cauterized (with red-hot metal) ê. cautérisé (par
du métal chauffé au rouge) [A-grm K-d T]. Caus √s-׹d ‘burn’.
u׹ђdR Ω [nm, vbln of -ђqq+d-].
eqqϪdR Ω [nm, vbln of -ђqq+d-] [see also under √׹d 4b].
t-±qq±t-t (or: t-e...)K-d R T-ka[xt-±...], Pl !-1qqϪdA-grm[x
t-±...] T-ka Ω [nf] cauterizing mark marque de cautérisation
[homonym !-1qq1-!-! √׹ 3].
√׹d 4b
eqqϪdA-grm[xe...], Pl eqqϪd-+nA-grm Ω [nm] forest fire, large fire in
the bush grand feu de brousse [see also under √׹d 4a; cf. √t׹ 1].
√׹d׹dy [variant of √׹dy׹dy]
t-Ϫ-׹de׹ђd±-t-tT-ka, Pl !-1-׹de׹ђdђy-enT-ka Ω [nf] white
wagtail (bird) bergeronnette grise (oiseau) [ID: Motacilla alba].
√әd1 [Ar √әd1]
-ђәd+1-T-ka = -ђ׹d+1-K-d [Imprt ђәdђJT-ka, LoImpfP -әϪdd+J-
T-ka] Ω [intr] be honest, upright, of good character ê. honnête, sérieux,
de bon caractère.
+-m-ϪәdϪ1T-ka Ω [nm, Agent] honest, upright person personne
honnête, de bon caractère.
Ϫ-ә+dϪ1T-ka = Ϫ-׹+dϪ1K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђәd+J-].
153
√qdm [related to noun √tqdm ; <Ar √qdm]
-ђqqђdd+m-K-d [Imprt q+dd+nK-d, LoImpfP -!-Ϫq+ddϪn-K-d]
Ω [intr] (sb) be civilized, modern, progressive (qn) ê. moderne, évolué,
éveillé [applied to westernized, educated persons; opp: √zbk].
Ϫ-qђddђmK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђqqђdd+n-].
√׹dt [<Ar √׹dt ; N √׹dt]
-ђ׹d+t-A-grm T-ka T-md [Imprt ђ׹d+IA-grm T-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-׹Ϫdd+I-A-grm T-ka T-md] Ω a) [tr] betray (sb), let (sb) down (e.g.
by missing a rendez-vous or doing sloppy work) trahir (qn, par ex. en
manquant un rendez-vous ou en faisant un travail négligé) Ω b) [tr] sneak
up on, surprise, startle (sb) s’approcher de (qn) furtivement, surprendre.
t-Ϫ-׹dђt-tA-grm[x⍾t-+-] K-d R T-ka, Pl !-1-׹dђI-enK-d R[x
⍾t-ђ-] = !-1-׹ђddϪIA-grm T-ka Ω [nf, vbln of -ђ׹d+I-]
betrayal trahison.
√׹dtn(qdtn)
q+d+t+nT-ka = ׹+ddϪt+nT-ka, Pl q+d+I+n-+nT-ka Ω [nm] black-
headed plover pluvier à tête noire [uncommon word; ID: Vanellus tectus;
more common syn: √׹tn׹twn].
√׹dty
t-Ϫ-׹d+ttey-tT-ka, Pl !-1-׹dђIIϪyT-ka Ω [nf] sth that one
expected to get (but didn’t) chose qu’on s’attendait à obtenir (en vain)
[cf. √s-t¸m, √1I׹s].
+׹d+tt+yT-ka, Pl +׹d+II+y-+nT-ka Ω [nm] [= !-Ϫ-׹d+IIey-!].
√׹dy׹dy [see variant √׹d׹dy]
t-Ϫ-׹dђy׹ђd±-t-tT-ka, Pl !-1-׹dђy׹ђdђy-enT-ka Ω [nf] white
wagtail (bird) bergeronnette grise (oiseau) [ID: Motacilla alba,
sometimes follows sheep; similar sp.:√11 5].
√׹I 1 [N √׹I]
e-׹+IIA-grm Im R[x⍾+-] T-ka T-md = e-׹+IK K-d T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl
1-׹+1Ϫx-+nA-grm Im K R T-md Ω a) [nm] head (body part); onset,
first part, onset (of sth) tête (du corps); début, première partie (de qch)
[cf. √1׹I] Ω b) [nm] head (unit of bovine cattle) tête (unité de bétail
bovin) [for sheep/goats see √׹s 4] Ω c) [nm] [in idiom with verb √¸tw
‘get’] - ex: !-ђ¸I+xe-׹+1-ђnne!K-d she gave birth (= was freed
of her pregnancy) elle a accouché (= a été libérée de son état de
grossesse).
±n⍾+-׹+Im+11-+nT-md Ω [cpd nm, lit. “of white head”] plant sp.
plante sp. [uncommon term; ID variable: shrub Guiera senegalensis;
syn: k+Ik+Ie-׹+1 √ktkt 1a, √sbt 2; herbs Heliotropium spp.,
Boraginaceae].
154
√׹I 2 (әI) [for related noun see √1׹I ; <Ar √әIw]
-ђ ׹IϪ-K-d R T-md = -ђәIϪ-T-ka [Imprt ђ׹1uK-d R T-md = ђә1u
T-ka, MaPl Imprt ђә1u-h+!T-ka, LoImpfP -׹111u-K-d R T-md
= -ә111u-T-ka] Ω a) [intr + dative, or intr + prep 1+J] have mercy
(on) avoir miséricorde (pour) [K-d R T] Ω b) [intr plus prep 1+J] be
convinced (= won over) by ê. convaincu par (qn) [T].
e-׹+II±R Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹1Ϫ-].
√׹I 3 [related to HassAr !ax1u, KCh !aa1e, etc.]
t-+׹Io R T-ka, Pl !-+׹1o-!+nT-ka = !-+׹1o-!enR T-ka Ω [usually
nf] woman’s wrap (garment) pagne de femme [syn: !-Ϫ-s-ђ¸bђs-!
√s-¸bs, cf. √bs 1].
√׹I 4 [N √׹I]
-ђ׹+I-T-ka = -׹+I-K-d [Imprt ђ׹ђ1K-d T-ka, LoImpfP -ђqqϪ1-
T-ka = -!-ђqqϪ1-K-d T-ka] Ω a) [intr] be frustrated (by sth); be
pestered, importuned (by sb) ê. ennuyé, frustré (par qch); ê. embêté,
importuné (par qn) [T-ka] Ω b) [intr] be sick and tired of (sth, sb) en
avoir marre de (qn, qch) [K-d]. Caus √s-׹I.
e-׹eIK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹+1-].
t-+-׹ϪIϪT-ka, Pl !-1-׹Ϫ11x-enT-ka Ω [nf] frustration ennui.
t-+qqϪI-+tK-d Ω [nf] state of being pestered or sick and tired état d’ê.
importuné ou d’en avoir marre.
√׹Id [N √׹Id]
t-e-׹+I+ddeK-d R T-ka, Pl !-1-׹+1+ddϪx-enR
= !-1-׹+1+ddϪ-!enR = !-1-׹1ђddT-ka Ω [nf] first-born (of
woman or female animal) enfant premier-né (d’une femme, d’un animal
femelle).
√qIqI
±nqϪIqϪIK Ω [cpd nm] door (half of double door) battant de porte
[syn: √I1w 2].
√׹I1 [see noun √s-׹I1 ; <Ar √qI1]
-ђ׹I+1-K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ׹1ђJT-ka, LoImpfP -׹Ϫ11+J-T-ka] Ω [tr]
lock (sth with key or padlock) boucler (fermer à clé ou avec un cadenas)
[cf. √ht 2 ‘shut’, √syt].
Ϫ-׹+IϪ1T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹1+J-].
√׹It 1 [N √׹It (onion bread)]
t-Ϫ-׹Iђt-t (or: t-Ϫ׹Iђt-t)R[x⍾t-ђ-] T-ka[xt-Ϫ...] T-md, Pl
!-1-׹1ђI-enR T-md Ts = !-Ϫ׹1ђI-enT-ka Ω a) [nf] cultivated
onion oignon cultivé [R T] [ID: Allium cepa, Alliaceae; syn: √1bs1]
Ω b) [nf] dried onions oignons séchés [A-grm K-d] [likewise DTF
4.1701].
155
√׹It 2
Ϫ-׹Iet (or: Ϫ׹Iet)K-d[x⍾+-], Pl Ϫ׹1eI-+nK-d Ω [nm] (defensive)
trench fossé (ouvrage défensif).
√׹ցd ### [see √׹wd]
√׹ց1 ### [see √׹w1]
√׹ցs ### [see √׹ws]
√׹׹ 1a [N √׹׹]
-ђqq+׹- T-ka [Imprt ђqqђ׹ T-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫqq+׹- T-ka] Ω [intr]
thunder tonner [syn: √¸¸ 2].
eqqϪ׹ (or: ±qqϪ׹)T-ka, Pl eqqϪ׹-+nT-ka Ω [nm] thunder tonnerre.
√׹׹ 1b [N √׹׹]
-ђ qq+׹- K-d [Imprt ђqqђ׹ K-d, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ qq+׹- K-d] Ω a) [intr] (fire)
spread rapidly (feu, incendie) se disperser rapidement Ω b) [intr] (herd
of sheep or goats) flee (troupeau de petit bétail) fuir [no vbln elicitable in
either sense].
√׹׹ 2 [variant of √׹ 5]
-ђqqu׹- A-grm [Imprt uqqϪ׹A-grm, LoImpfP -!-uqqϪ׹-A-grm
= -!-ϪqqϪ׹-A-grm] Ω [intr] have the dry heaves, gag (choke) while
trying to vomit avoir des haut-le-cœur, s’étrangler en essayant de vomir
[cf. √yy].
t-uqqϪq-qA-grm, Pl !-uqqϪ׹-enA-grm Ω [nf, vbln of -ђqqu׹-].
√׹׹ 3 [cf. N √׹׹]
t-+-׹Ϫ׹±-t-tK-d R T-ka, Pl !-1-׹u׹K-d R T-ka Ω a) [nf] dried clayey
soil terrain argileux séché [hard to walk on with bare feet] [R T] [cf.
√׹t׹t 1] Ω b) [nf] vertical crevice (in cliff) fissure verticale (dans une
falaise) [K-d].
√׹׹d
e-׹e qqϪdR T-ka, Pl 1-׹eqqϪd-+nT-ka Ω [nm] act of stretching out
one’s arms (on getting up) fait d’étirer les bras (en se levant) [used both
in Sg and Pl, as subject of √¸tw ‘take’ with person as object] - phrases:
1-¸I+x-\!⍾+-׹eqqϪdR he stretched out il s’est étiré;
ђ¸I+x-+n-\Ϫ-h1⍾Ø-׹eqqϪd-+nT-ka I stretched out je me
suis étiré. Cf. verb √s-׹׹d.
√׹׹1 [√m-׹׹1 perhaps a mutation from √m-s-׹1, cf. √׹1 1; contrast √m׹׹1]
-+m-׹Ϫ׹+1-K-d [Imprt n-ђ׹u׹ђJK-d, LoImpfP -!-1n-׹u׹uJ-K-d]
Ω [intr] (e.g. job) be started over again (tâche, etc.) ê. recommencé(e) de
nouveau.
Ϫ-m-׹u׹ђ1K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+n-׹Ϫ׹+J-].
√׹׹n [N √׹׹n]
t-e-׹+׹+n-tK-d, Pl !-1-׹+׹+n-enK-d Ω [nf] stalk (of millet) tige
(de mil).
156
t-e-׹Ϫ׹+n-tA-grm, Pl !-1-׹Ϫ׹+n-enA-grm Ω [nf] grain spike, ear
(of millet) épi (de mil) [syn: √¸n 4].
√׹h ### [occasional metathesis of certain forms of √h׹ 3]
√׹h1 [see variant √h׹1 ; N √׹1]
t-Ϫ-׹hђ1-tA-grm Gao Gnd Gos R T-ka T-md Ts, Pl !-1-׹hђJ-enR
T-ka T-md Ts = !-1-׹hϪJ-enA-grm = !-1-׹hϪJT-ka[x⍾t-ђ-]
Gos Ω [nf] balsam-spurge, shrub sp. with milky latex euphorbe (arbuste
sp.) [ID: Euphorbia balsamifera, Euphorbiaceae].
√׹1 ### [for !-ђ-׹uJe ‘brownness’ see √׹w1 2; for Ϫ-׹J1 see √׹1y 1b]
√׹1 1 [cf. √m׹׹1 and √׹׹1 ; N √׹1]
-ђqq+1-A-grm Im K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt ђqqђJA-grm T-ka T-md,
LoImpfP -!-Ϫqq+J-A-grm T-ka] Ω a) [intr plus dative] wait (for sb)
attendre (qn) [all dialects] - ex: n-ђqqϪJ-\Ϫ-k Im we’re waiting for
you-Sg nous t’attendons Ω b) [copula or inchoative verb] be, become
être, devenir [all dialects] [often Reslt -ђqqϪJ- in this sense; can
replace √ms 1 ‘be’ in some contexts] Ω c) [tr, or intr plus prep d+׹] be or
go into water; fall into a well se trouver ou entrer dans l’eau; tomber
dans un puits [all dialects] - ex: 1-qq+Jd+׹ϪnuA-grm T-md
= 1-qq+JϪnuK-dhe fell into the well il est tombé dans le puits
Ω d) [intr, tr] go back (sw) retourner (qq part) [all dialects] [in this sense,
usually with directional clitic, see below; see also idiom under √w1y 2]
Ω e) [tr] (young child) begin (walking) (petit enfant) commencer à
(marcher) [K-d] [see ex under !-ekJe √k1 7a]. Caus √s-׹1 1, cf.
√s-m-s-׹1.
-ђqq+1-(+ -\ђdd) A-grm T-md Ω [intr] come back (here) revenir,
rentrer (ici) [for ‘come’ see √s 5].
-ђqq+1-(+ -\±n) A-grm Ω [intr] go back (there) retourner (là).
u׹ђ1A-grm K-d T-ka Ω a) [nm, vbln of -ђqq+J-] return retour [A-grm
K-d T-ka] - ex: 1-knϪ-\ddu׹ђJT-ka it’s really back here il est
vraiment de retour ici Ω b) [nm, vbln] waiting attente [K-d].
ђ-m-u׹+1T-ka = +-m-u׹ђ1A-grm = +-m-u ׹+1K-d R, Pl
1-n-u׹+J-+nR T-ka = 1-n-u׹ђJ-+nA-grm Ω a) [nm, Agent]
returnee; person or animal that is anxious to return (e.g. home) celui qui
revient; personne ou animal qui a envie de retourner (chez soi, etc.) [A-grm
R T] Ω b) [nm] stuffing (in Ϫ-׹ђJJen) farce (dans Ϫ-׹ђJJen) [T]
Ω c) [nm] sand that has fallen back into a well sable qui est rentré dans
un puits [K-d T] Ω d) [nm] male camel (in rut) chameau mâle (en rut)
[T].
t-+-m-u׹+1-tK-d Ω [nm] annual migration back to wells (at onset of rainy
season) migration annuelle de retour aux puits (au début de la saison des
pluies).
157
√׹1 2 [cf. √td 2 and √thm ; N √׹1 ; MGT 7.150]
-ђ׹±1-A-grm T-ka = -+ ׹±1-R = -ђ ׹e1-K = -+׹e1-K K-d [Imprt
1׹ϪJK-d R T-ka T-md, LoImpfP -!-1׹ϪJ-K-d T-ka T-md
= -!-1׹1J-A-grm] Ω [intr] believe (a proposition, a future event)
croire (un propos, un événement à l’avenir) [cf. √xyz 1a].
t-+-׹±1-tA-grm K-d R T-md = t-+-׹e1-tT-ka, Pl !-1-׹1J-enR
T-md = !-+-׹eJ-enT-ka = !-u׹ϪJ-enA-grm Ω [nf, vbln]
thinking, belief pensée, croyance.
√׹1 3a [N √׹1]
Ϫ-׹±1A-grm Gao[x⍾+-] Im K[x⍾+-] K-d R[x⍾ђ-] T-ka[x⍾ђ-] T-md,
Pl 1-׹1J-+nT-md = 1-׹ϪJJ-+nA-grm Gao Im K-d R T-ka Ω a)
[nm] right (hand, side) (main, côté) droit(e) [opp: √s1¸ 1] Ω b) [nm]
elbow span (length measure from elbow to fingertip) coudée, mesure de
longueur (du coude aux bouts des ongles) [cf. √tds 1, √¸ndI] Ω c) [nm]
part (of a herd) partie (d’un troupeau) [K-d].
+-IusswϪn⍾ђ-׹±1A-grm T-md Ω [cpd nm] right hand main
droite.
√׹1 3b [related to √t׹1 2]
t-Ϫ-׹ђ11ђ-t-tT-ka, Pl !-1-׹ђJJђ-!-enT-ka Ω [nf] (a) pace (as
measure) pas (mesure) [measured by taking one stride].
√׹1 4 [N √׹1]
+-׹Ϫ11ϪA-grm K-d T-ka T-md, Pl 1-׹ϪJJ-ϪnA-grm K-d T-ka T-md
Ω a) [nm] fence around field clôture autour d’un champ [A-grm T]
Ω b) [nm] wall enclosing courtyard of a housing compound mur autour
de la cour d’une concession [A-grm] [cf. √cc, √ց1 1, √It¸ 1, √1xyt].
√׹1 5 [cf. √׹1w׹1w]
e -׹+1eK-d Ω [nm] coarsely ground millet grains forming sediment at bottom
of “millet cream” beverage grains de mil grossièrement écrasés qui se
déposent au fond de la crème de mil [cf. √׹1w׹1w, √׹s 2b, √ks 10].
√׹1b 1 [homonyms √׹1b 2; N √׹1b « glouglouter, ... »]
-+׹1+bb+-tT-ka [Imprt ׹ђJђbbђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1׹Jђbb1-!
T-ka] Ω [intr] (place) be well-watered (lieu) ê. bien pourvu d’eau.
Ϫ-׹1ђbb±T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+׹J+bb+-!].
√׹1b 2 [homonyms √׹1b 1; N √׹1b]
-+׹1+bb+-tA-grm R [Imprt ׹ђJђbbђ-!A-grm R, LoImpfP
-!-1׹ђJђbb1-!A-grm R] Ω [intr] (musician) give the beat, beat the
measure, beat drums (musicien) battre la mesure, battre les tambours.
Ϫ-׹ђ1ђbb±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -+׹J+bb+-!].
Ϫ-׹+1+bbϪA-grm K-d R T-ka[x+-...], Pl 1-׹+J+bbϪ-!+nT-ka
= 1-׹+J+bb-ϪnA-grm K-d R Ω [nm] large tomtom (whose skin can
be moistened); inverted calabash placed over a large bowl containing some
water (used as a tomtom) grand tam-tam (dont on mouille la peau);
158
calebasse renversée sur un grand récipient qui contient de l’eau (utilisée
comme tam-tam) [syn: see √s¸1].
√׹1b 3 [Ar √׹1b]
-ђ׹1+b-K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ׹JђbT-ka, LoImpfP -׹ϪJJ+b-T-ka] Ω [tr]
(sb) be stronger than; defeat; (crisis) overwhelm (sb) (qn) ê. plus fort
que; battre, vaincre; (crise) terrasser (qn).
Ϫ-׹+1ϪbK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹J+b-].
√׹1bmb(׹1bmbn) [<Songhay (KCh !aaJ1bonbo֊, !aցaJ1bonbon)]
t-+׹+1±bomboT-md = t-+׹+1±bombonT-ka = t-+׹+1±b+mboGnd R
= tϪ1±bombonA-grm, Pl !-+׹+J1bonbon-!+nT-ka
= !-+׹+J1bonbon-+nT-ka = !ϪJ1bonbon-+nA-grm
= !-+׹+J1b+nbo-!enR Ω [nf] puffer fish poisson-globe [ID:
Tetraodon lineatus (= T. fahaka)].
√׹1d 1a [obscurely related to √׹1y ; Y ђ-׹ђJ1 ‘small pen or shelter’ (Pl 1-׹uJϪ
or 1-׹uJϪy), cf. N √׹1y]
Ϫ-׹+1ϪdR T-ka[x+-...], Pl 1-׹+JϪd-+nR = 1-׹ђJd-ϪnT-ka Ω [nm]
animal pen made with thorny branches; (any) enclosed area or pen
enclos pour animaux construit avec des branches épineuses; (tout) enclos
[cf. √It¸ 1].
√׹1d 1b
-ђ׹1+d-T-ka [Imprt ђ׹JђdT-ka, LoImpfP -׹ϪJJ+d-T-ka] Ω [tr]
surround encercler [cf. √׹1y].
√׹1I [N √׹1I]
-ђ׹1+I-K-d R T-ka [Imprt ђ׹Jђ1R T-ka, LoImpfP -׹ϪJJ+1-R T-ka]
Ω [tr] keep, be entrusted with (e.g. money or herd) for (absent owner)
garder (de l’argent, un troupeau, etc.) pour (son propriétaire absent).
Caus √s-׹1I.
Ϫ-׹+1ϪIK-d R T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹J+1-].
t-Ϫ-׹1ђI-tK-d Ω [nf, vbln of -ђ׹J+1-].
t-Ϫ-׹1±I-tT-ka[x⍾t-ђ-], Pl !-1-׹ђJJϪ1T-ka Ω [nf] sth entrusted
(to sb) qch confié (à qn).
t-Ϫ-׹+1±I-tK-d Ω [nf] sth entrusted (to sb) qch confié (à qn).
√׹1ց ### [see √׹1¸]
√׹1׹
-+׹1+qq+-tK-d T-ka [Imprt ׹ђJђqqђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1׹Jђqq1-!
T-ka] Ω [intr] (liquid) make swishing noise (as in a container being
shaken) (liquide) faire un bruissement (comme dans un récipient qu’on
secoue).
Ϫ-׹1ђqq±K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+׹J+qq+-!].
159
√׹1׹1 1 [cf. perhaps N √׹1׹1 « avoir l’esprit troublé ...»]
-+ ׹1Ϫ׹+1-K-d R T-ka [Imprt ׹ђJu׹ђJT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1׹Ju׹uJ-
T-ka] Ω [intr] (liquid) gurgle (in sb’s belly) (liquide) gargouiller (dans
le ventre de qn).
Ϫ-׹1u׹ђ1K-d R T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+׹JϪ׹+J-].
√׹1׹1 2 [variant of √׹11 2a; for verb see √s-׹1׹1]
Ϫ-׹ђ1׹ђ1K-d Ω [nm] force-feeding (for fattening) faire manger ou boire
de force (pour rendre gras).
√׹1¸ (׹1ց) [N √׹1ց]
t-+ -׹Ϫ1¸eGnd K-d R T-ka T-md = t-+-׹Ϫ1ցeA-grm, Pl
!-1-׹ϪJ¸1x-enR T-ka T-md = !-1-׹ϪJց1x-enA-grm Ω [nf]
vulture sp. charognard (vautour) sp. [ID: most likely the Egyptian
vulture Neophron percnopterus, cf. √btky, √¸dt].
√׹11 1
[Pl only] ±-׹+1Ϫ1-+nR T-ka T-md Ω [nmpl] woman’s garment including a
veil melouf, vêtement de femme avec voile incorporé [syn: √s-׹ns].
√׹11 2a [see √׹1׹1 2 and verb √s-׹1׹1]
Ϫ-׹+1+1ϪT-ka, Pl 1-׹+J+JϪ-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] getting fattened (woman)
fait de devenir grasse (femme) [often object of verb √¸ 1; refers to the
traditional practice of fattening high-caste women] - exx: !-ђ¸Ϫ
Ϫ-׹+J+JϪT-ka she is being fattened elle s’engraisse; ђ¸Ϫ-n-\Ϫ-s
Ϫ-׹+J+JϪT-ka they are fattening her ils l’engraissent.
√׹11 2b[perhaps a variant of √1׹1y (<Ar)]
Ϫ-׹+1+1ϪA-grm Im, Pl 1-׹+J+J-ϪnIm = 1-׹+J+J-ϪnA-grm Ω [nm]
water kettle (e.g. for toilet) bouilloire (de toilette etc.) [syn: √1m׹tz].
√׹11 3 [cf. √z׹ 1; N √׹11]
-ђ׹1+1-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ׹JђJA-grm T-ka, LoImpfP -׹ϪJJ+J-
A-grm T-ka] Ω [intr] be long-lasting or eternal; be stable, consistent;
continue too long durer, ê. éternel; ê. continu, ne pas changer; trop durer
[cf. √z׹ 1] - ex. with clausal complement: ђ׹JђJ!-e-s+sen
⍾+-xxT-ka drink milk consistently! bois du lait régulièrement!
Ϫ-׹+1Ϫ1T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹J+J-].
Ϫ-׹1u1T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹J+J-].
±׹1u1R, Pl 1׹JuJ-+nR Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹J+J-].
t-ђ-׹1ђ1Ϫ (or: t-+-׹...)A-grm, Pl !-1-׹ђJJϪJA-grm Ω [nf, vbln of
-ђ׹J+J-].
u׹1e1 (or: o׹1e1)T-ka[xu...] A-grm = u׹1Ϫ1T-ka[xu...], Pl
u׹JeJ-+nT-ka Ω a) [nm, vbln of -ђ׹J+J-] Ω b) [nm] eternity
éternité.
Ϫ-m-+ ׹1o1K-d Ω [nm] eternity éternité.
t-Ϫ-׹1ђ1-tK-d Ω [nm] enduring state or situation état persistant.
160
√׹11 4a [perhaps an offshoot of √׹11 3]
׹ђ1u1-T-ka = ׹+ 1u1-K-d = ׹ђ11u1-A-grm = ׹+11u1-R [Imprt
1׹JϪJA-grm K-d R T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1׹JϪJ-K-d R T-ka
= -!-1׹J1J-A-grm] Ω [intr] be wearing worn-out clothes, be in need
of new clothes porter des habits usés, avoir besoin d’habits neufs.
t-ђ׹ђ11eA-grm Ω [nf, vbln of ׹ђJuJ-].
׹ђ11ђ1A-grm[x׹ђ...] K-d R[x׹ђ...] T-ka[x׹ђ...] Ω [nm] being in need
of clothes état d’avoir besoin d’habits.
√׹11 4b
׹ђ11ђ1nϪm-ϪnT-ka Ω [phrasal nm, lit. “lack of water”] pied kingfisher
martin-pêcheur pie [ID: Ceryle rudis, black and white, strictly riverine]
[rare, probably a mutation of √׹11n ; cf. √¸I11]
√׹11 5 [N √׹11]
t-ђ-׹1ђ1±-t-tT-ka = t-ђ-׹1ђ1e-t-tA-grm K-d T-md
= t-+-׹1ђ 1e-t-tR, Pl !-1-׹JђJϪA-grm K-d R T-ka T-md
Ω [nf] women’s cries of joy (ululation) youyous (cris de joie des
femmes). For verb see √s-׹11.
√׹11 6 [N √׹11]
Ϫ-׹1Ϫ1 (or: Ϫ׹1Ϫ1)A-grm[xϪ], Pl 1-׹JϪJ-+nA-grm Ω a) [nm] large
(wooden or metal) bowl for animals to drink in abreuvoir pour animaux
en forme d’écuelle (en bois ou en métal) [cf. √1wt] Ω b) [nm] large bowl
(for group eating) grande écuelle (pour manger en groupe) [cf. √zw 2,
√ks 5] Ω c) [nm] [name of a district (arrondissement) near T].
√׹11n
׹ђ1ђ1+nT-ka Ω [nm] kingfisher martin-pêcheur [ID: mainly Ceryle rudis
(black and white, riverine), but would apply to any other spp. in the area;
cf. ׹ђJJђJnϪn-Ϫn under √׹11 4b, and √¸I11].
׹ђ1ђ1+nn⍾+-¸eIT-ka Ω [cpd nm, lit. “of dune”] osprey balbuzard
pêcheur [uncommon compound; ID: Pandion haliaetus].
√׹11y ### [see √m׹11y]
√׹1m 1a [homonym √׹1m 1b; N √׹1m]
t-Ϫ-׹1Ϫm-tR T-ka, Pl !-1-׹JϪn-enR T-ka Ω [nf] lower jaw (on one
side) mâchoire inférieure (d’un côté) [used in Pl to mean ‘(entire) lower
jaw’; cf. √׹ms ; children play with animal jaws as toy camels; cf. √׹ms 1].
√׹1m 1b[homonym √׹1m 1b; N √׹1m]
Ϫ -׹1ϪmK-d R[x⍾+-] T-ka, Pl 1-׹JϪn-+nK-d R T-ka Ω [nm] adult male
camel (not very old) chameau adulte mâle (qui n’est pas très vieux).
t-Ϫ-׹1Ϫm-tA-grm[xt-+-] K-d R T-ka, Pl !-1-׹JϪn-enA-grm K-d
T-ka Ω [nf] female mount camel; adult female camel (not yet a mother)
chamelle de monture; chamelle adulte (qui n’a pas encore mis bas).
161
√׹1m 2
e-׹+1+mTs, Pl 1-׹+J+n-+nTs Ω [nm] common mouse souris
commune [ID: e.g. Mus sp.; elsewhere mice are usually not distinguished
from gerbils, cf. √kt 2].
√׹1m 3 [N √׹1m]
Ϫ-׹ђ11emA-grm K-d T-ka T-md, Pl 1-׹ђJJϪnA-grm T-ka T-md
= 1-׹ђJJen-+nK-d Ω [nm] large extra stomach of cud-chewing
animals (abomasum) caillette, grand estomac supplémentaire des
ruminants [said to be called !-+zzϪ farther east; syn: cpd under √m׹t 1a;
cf. √kInkI 1, √Id׹n].
√׹1m 4
-+qqu11+m+-tK-d [Imprt ׹uJJђnђ-!K-d, LoImpfP -!-1׹ђJJђnu-!
K-d] Ω [tr] wear (garment) porter (vêtement) [attested only with
negation] - ex: x+IØ-+qquJJ+n+-!!-1kђs-! K-d he isn’t
wearing even a rag (= is stark naked) il ne porte même pas un chiffon
(= il est complètement nu).
√׹1n׹1 [Y ׹ђJђ֊׹uJђ-! ‘drink up last dregs of millet cream’]
-+׹1+֊׹Ϫ1+-tK-d R T-ka = -׹+1+֊׹Ϫ1+-tA-grm [Imprt
׹ђJђ֊׹1Jђ-!T-ka = ׹ђJђ֊׹uJђ-!A-grm R, LoImpfP
-!-1׹Jђ֊׹1J1-!T-ka = -!-1׹Jђ֊׹uJu-!K-d R
= -!-1׹Jђ֊׹uJ1-!A-grm] Ω a) [tr] stir up (sediment in liquid, e.g.
grain bits in millet cream) remuer (sédiments ou dépôts dans un liquide,
par ex. les grains dans la crème de mil) [K-d R T] [cf. √׹1w׹1w] Ω b)
[intr] shake one’s head secouer sa tête [A-grm].
Ϫ-׹1ђ֊׹u1uK-d = Ϫ-׹1ђ֊׹±1±T-ka = Ϫ-׹1ђ֊׹u1±A-grm, Pl
Ϫ-׹Jђ֊׹eJ1-!+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+׹J+֊׹ϪJ+-!].
t-Ϫ-׹+1+֊׹+1Ϫ-t-tR T-ka = t-+-׹1+֊׹+1Ϫ-t-tT-ka
= t-+-׹1+֊׹ђ1ђ-t-tT-md Ω a) [nf] sediment (stirred up in a
liquid) sédiments, dépôts (dans un liquide) [R T] Ω b) [nf] a medication
for bronchitis made with sugar and gum arabic remède pour la bronchite
préparé avec du sucre et de la gomme arabique [T].
√׹1s 1 [for related noun see √1׹1s ; <Ar √x1s ]
-ђ׹1+s-K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt ђ׹JђsT-ka T-md, LoImpfP -׹ϪJJ+s-
T-ka T-md] Ω a) [intr] (sb) be safe and sound, unharmed, spared (by
God) (qn) ê. sauf, survivre, ê. sauvé ou épargné (par Dieu) [K T] Ω b)
[tr] (God) save, spared (sb) (Dieu) sauver, épargner (qn) [K-d].
Ϫ-׹+1ϪsA-grm K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹J+s-; homonym under √׹1s 2].
√׹1s 2 [homonym √׹1s 1]
Ϫ-׹+1ϪsR T-ka[x+-...] T-md, Pl 1-׹+JϪs-+nR T-ka T-md = 1-׹uJϪs
T-md Ω [nm] green stage of burrgrass x+zzϪ¸ état vert du cram-cram
x+zzϪ¸ (graminée) [ID: Cenchrus biflorus].
t-Ϫ-׹+1Ϫs-tK-d Ω [nf] plant sp. plante sp. [unidentified].
162
√׹1w׹1w [Y !-Ϫ-׹+JϪx׹+JϪx-! ‘sth made hastily (meal, medication,
etc.)’]
t-Ϫ-׹+1Ϫw׹+1Ϫw-tA-grm K-d R T-ka, Pl !-1-׹+JϪx׹+JϪx-enA-grm
R T-ka Ω a) [nf] cool compress (made with wet sand, for sb with a fever)
cataplasme (fait avec du sable mouillé, pour rafraîchir un fiévreux) [T]
Ω b) [nf] grain sediments remaining after drinking millet cream, mixed
with a little water (to drink) dépôts de grains qui restent de la crème de
mil, mélangés avec un peu d’eau (pour boire) [A-grm] [cf. √׹1 5,
√׹1֊׹1] Ω c) [nf] sediments (in water) sédiments, dépôts (dans l’eau)
[K-d].
√׹1y 1a [homonyms √׹1y 1b; see Rdp √׹1y׹1y ; obscurely related to
√׹1d ; cf. √m׹11y ; N √׹1y]
-ђ׹1+y-A-grm Im K K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ׹JђyA-grm T-ka, LoImpfP
-׹ϪJJ+y-A-grm T-ka] Ω [tr] surround, encircle; go around (obstacle);
be around, in the vicinity of encercler; contourner (un obstacle); se
trouver autour de, aux alentours de [cf. √ty 2a, √ktkt]. Caus √s-׹1y.
Ϫ-׹+1ϪyA-grm Im K-d T-ka[x+-...] Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹J+y-] act of
going around fait de contourner.
√׹1y 1b[homonyms √׹1y 1a]
-ђ׹1+y-A-grm Im K K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ׹JђyA-grm T-ka, LoImpfP
-׹ϪJJ+y-A-grm T-ka] Ω [tr] (bull, male camel, hippo, giraffe) cover,
impregnate (female animal) (bœuf, chameau, hippo, girafe) couvrir (une
femelle) [by straddling; for sheep & goats see √s¸ 1].
Ϫ-׹1± (or: Ϫ-׹1ђy)A-grm[x⍾+-...] T-ka, Pl 1-׹Jђy-+n T-ka Ω [nm,
vbln of -ђ׹J+y-] act of impregnating (cow) fait de couvrir (vache)
[homonym √׹1y 2].
t-Ϫ׹1±-t-tA-grm K-d Ω [nf] [= Ϫ-׹J1].
√׹1y 2 [homonym √׹1y 1b]
Ϫ-׹1± (or: Ϫ-׹1ђy)K-d Ω [nm, Sg only] germs (microbes, carrying disease)
germes (de maladie) - ex: e-xxϪyϪ-׹J1K-d he’s carrying germs
il porte des germes.
√׹1y׹1y [Rdp <√׹1y 1a]
-+׹1+y׹+1+y-K-d [Imprt ׹ђJђy׹ђJђyK-d, LoImpfP !-1׹Jђy׹ђJ1y-
K-d] Ω [intr] spin, rotate, turn continuously tournoyer, pivoter [syn:
√ktkt 3].
Ϫ-׹1ђy׹ђ1ђyK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+׹J+y׹+J+y-].
√׹1zby 1a
-ђqqђ1z+bb+y-K-d [Imprt ׹ђJzђbbђyK-d, LoImpfP
-!-1׹ђJzђbb1y-K-d] Ω [intr] (sb) be tight-fisted, be impossible to
get anything from (qn) ê. pingre.
Ϫ-׹ђ1zђbbђyK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђqqђJz+bb+y-].
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Ϫ-׹+1z+bbϪyK-d Ω [nm] one who is impossible to get anything from
qn dont on ne peut rien obtenir du fait de son avarice.
√׹1zby 1b
t-+-׹+1zђ bb+y-tGao Gnd T-ka =t-Ϫ-׹ђ1zђbb+y-tT-ka T-md =
t-Ϫ-׹ђ1zђbbϪy-tA-grm Th Ts, Pl !-1-׹ђJzђbb+y-enT-ka
T-md =!-1-׹ђJzђbbϪy-en A-grm Ts Ω a) [nf] acacia tree sp.
forming impenetrable thickets acacia sp. qui constitue des fourrés
impénétrables [all dialects] [ID: Acacia kamarunensis (= A. pennata)
(collected at T and Th), perhaps also A. ataxacantha and other dense
thorny scrub; equated with busu √bs 2 by a Gnd speaker] Ω b) [nf]
impenetrable thicket in dry riverbed (oued) fourré impénétrable au fonds
d’un oued [A-grm].
√׹m ### [for -ђqq1nϪ-etc. ‘sit’ see √׹ym].
√׹m 1 [N √׹m]
t-Ϫ׹mϪ (or: t-Ϫ-׹ma)A-grm[x⍾t-+-] K-d T-ka[xt-Ϫ...] T-md, Pl
!-Ϫ׹n1x-enA-grm K-d T-ka T-md Ω [nf] thigh, upper leg (above
knee) cuisse, partie supérieure de la jambe (au-dessus du genou).
√׹m 2a (׹mw)[N √׹m]
-ђ ׹mϪ-K-d R T-ka [Imprt ђ׹nuA-grm K-d R T-ka, MaPl Imprt ђ׹nux-+!
R T-ka = ђ׹nu-h+!T-ka = +׹n-+!A-grm, LoImpfP -׹1nnu-K-d
R T-ka = -׹ϪnnϪ-A-grm] Ω [intr] decorate one’s hands with henna
se décorer les mains avec du henné. Cf. √s-׹m 1a-b.
e-׹+mm±K-D Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹nϪ-].
t-Ϫ-׹ђmmϪw-tT-ka, Pl !-1-׹ђnnϪx-enT-ka Ω [nf, vbln of
-ђ׹nϪ-].
√׹m 2b
t-e-n-+׹m±-t-tK K-d T-ka[x⍾t-+-], Pl !-1-n-+׹n1-!-enT-ka
Ω [nf] dye (for women’s makeup) colorant (pour maquillage féminin)
[cf. √stk 3].
√׹m 3
-+qqum-Gao [Imprt +qqun (or: ђqqun)Gao, LoImpfP -!-1qunu-!
Gao] Ω [intr] ferment fermenter [said especially of the meal
e-¸+yn+s].
±qqumGao Ω [nm, vbln of -+qqun-].
√әm 3 [<Ar √әmm]
-ђәәђmmϪ-T-ka [Imprt ә+nnT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫә+nnϪ-T-ka] Ω a)
[intr] be widespread, be all over the place; (e.g. news) spread through the
land ê. partout, ê. répandu; (nouvelles etc.) se répandre partout dans la
terre Ω b) [tr] spread (sth) over an area; populate (area) with (sth)
répandre (qch) dans une zone; peupler (une zone) avec (qch) - ex:
ђәәђnne-׹+-kϪJJs1-n-ђ׹!-Ϫn T-ka I populated the land
with trees j’ai peuplé la terre d’arbres.
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√׹md 1 [N √׹md]
Ϫ-׹ђmdT-md = e-׹+mdA-grm[x+-...] T-md, Pl 1-׹ђnd-ϪnA-grm K-d
R T-md Ω [nm] tweezers, pincers tenailles, pinces [usually Pl; the rare
Sg is perhaps back-formed; denotes blacksmith’s pincers, or a small
instrument for removing splinters; cf. √s-kdm].
√׹md 2 [N √׹md]
Ϫ-׹ђ mmudK-d K-f, Pl 1-׹ђnnud-+nK-f Ω a) [nm] grass sp. graminée
sp. [K-f] [ID: Stipagrostis (= Aristida) plumosa, Gramineae; confirmed FS
203; cf. 1-k+Id-ϪnnϪJJϪ׹ √ktd 3] Ω b) [nm] young shoots of
Ϫ-1+zo grass (sucked) jeunes pousses de la graminée Ϫ-1+zo (sucées)
[K-d].
√׹mm
Ϫ-׹mumT-ka[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-׹nun-+nK-f Ω [nm] meager milk (from
female animal near the end of nursing period, before weaning) faible
lactation (d’un animal femelle vers la fin de la période de lactation, avant le
sevrage).
-ђ׹m+m-T-ka [Imprt ђ׹nђnT-ka, LoImpfP -׹Ϫnn+n-T-ka] Ω [intr]
(female animal) give meager milk (near end of nursing period) (animal
femelle) donner peu de lait (vers la fin de la période de lactation).
Ϫ-׹+mϪmT-ka, Pl 1-׹+nϪn-+nT-ka Ω [nm] recently weaned child or
animal enfant ou animal récemment sevré.
√׹mn [N √׹mn]
Ϫ-׹ђmmђnK-d R, Pl 1-׹ђnnђn-+nR Ω [nm] termite mound termitière
[such mounds are common in the Gourma].
√׹mt 1 (әmt) [see also noun √1׹mt (√1әmt); <Ar √әmt]
-ђ׹m+t-K-d R T-md = -ђәm+t-T-ka [Imprt ђ׹n+IT-md = ђәn+I
T-ka, LoImpfP -׹Ϫnn+I-T-md = -әϪnn+I-T-ka] Ω a) [intr] (e.g.
house) be well-furnished (maison etc.) ê. bien équipée [T] Ω b) [intr]
(well) be heavily used (puits) ê. très fréquenté [T] Ω c) [tr] (people)
make regular use of, frequent (a well or place) (gens) fréquenter (un
puits ou un lieu) [T] Ω d) [intr] be rich ê. riche [K-d].
Ϫ-׹+mϪtK-d R = Ϫ-ә+mϪtT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹n+I-].
√׹mt 2 [N √׹mt]
Ϫ-׹mђtGao, Pl 1-׹nђI-+nGao Ω [nf] elbow coude.
t-Ϫ-׹mђt-tA-grm Im K-d R T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] T-md, Pl !-1-׹nђI-enIm
R T-md = !-1-׹ђnI-enT-ka = !-1-׹ђnnϪIA-grm T-ka Ω a) [nf]
elbow coude [all dialects] [cf. √׹1 3a] Ω b) [nf] inner corner coin
(interne) [K-d R] Ω c) [nf] musical number, piece of music morceau de
musique [K-d R] [esp. music of Timbuktu-area griots]. Verb √s-׹mt.
t-e-׹+met-tK-d T-ka Ω [nf] sitting up while leaning on one elbow fait
de se redresser en s’appuyant sur un coude.
[Pl only] t-±-׹ђ mmϪtGao K-d Ω [nfpl] holding hands on hips (with elbows
extended) while walking façon de marcher avec en posant les mains sur
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les hanches [typical gait of elegant Touareg women] - ex: 1-¸Ϫ
!-1-׹ђnnϪIK-d he walks with his hands on his hips il marche avec
les mains sur les hanches.
√׹mt 3 [<Ar √әmt ; N √׹mt]
-ђqqђmm+t-K-d [Imprt ׹+nn+IK-d, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ׹+nnϪI-K-d]
Ω [tr] put (tea kettle) up on fire poser (théière) sur le feu.
Ϫ-׹ђmmђtK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђqqђnn+I-].
√׹ms 1 [N √׹ms « dent molaire »]
t-Ϫ-׹mђs-tA-grm[xt-+-...], Pl !-1-׹ђnϪsA-grm Ω [nf] jaw
mâchoire [syn: √׹1m 1a].
√׹ms 2 [TNEBF 130 ‘cover’]
-ђ׹m+s-K-d [Imprt ђ׹nђsK-d, LoImpfP -׹Ϫnn+s-K-d] Ω a) [tr] be
right at the edge of (e.g. river) se trouver au bord même de (un fleuve,
etc.) [cf. √s1m 5; ‘edge’: √dI 2b, √Iy 2] Ω b) [tr] drink directly from,
put one’s mouth right into (waterskin) boire directement de, mettre sa
bouche directement dans (une outre).
Ϫ-׹+mϪsK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹n+s-].
√׹mw ### [see √׹m 2]
√׹n 1a [N √׹n ; MGT 1.65 <*√w׹n]
-ђqq+n-A-grm K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt ђqqђnA-grm T-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫqq+n-A-grm K-d T-ka T-md] Ω [tr] tie up (e.g. waterbag); tie
(sth to sth else); rig up (tent); set (trap); build (house) attacher (une
outre, etc.); dresser, ériger (une tente); tendre (piège); construire (maison)
[cf. √kts 1a, √ktd 1, √¸y 1, √mdy (set trap)] - phrase: 1-qqϪn
e-׹+1-1nA-grm T-ka it (= problem) has tied up my head
(= bewildered me); I have lost my bearings il (= problème) a attaché ma
tête (= m’a troublé); je suis désorienté [similar “tie-head” expressions in
Songhay etc.]. Caus √s-s-׹n, cf. √s-׹n 1.
u׹ђnA-grm K-d T-ka T-md, Pl u׹nϪx-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of
-ђqq+n-; see also in √׹n 1b, below].
ђ-m-u׹ђnT-ka = +-m-u׹ђnK-d, Pl 1-n-u׹ђn-+nK-d T-ka Ω a) [nm]
animal (e.g. ox) that pulls ropes to draw water at a well bête de somme
(un bœuf, par ex.) qui tire les cordes pour puiser [K-d T-ka] Ω b) [nm]
large well (requiring a pulley) grand puits (qui exige une poulie) [K-d].
√׹n 1b
u׹ђnA-grm K-d T-ka T-md, Pl u׹n-Ϫn(or: o׹n-Ϫn)R[xu...] T-ka T-md
= u׹ђn-+nA-grm Ω [nm, for many speakers only in Pl] ornaments
(worn on head etc.) parures [see also in √׹n 1a].
u׹n-Ϫnn⍾+-׹+IT-md Ω [cpd nmpl] head ornaments parures de tête.
√׹n 1c
t-+qq+nA-grm[xt-+...] K-d R[xt-+...] T-ka, Pl !-+qq+n-enA-grm
R Ω a) [nf] tying fait d’attacher [all dialects] [chiefly as cpd initial, as in
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the expressions below; see also under √׹n 3] Ω b) [nf] scheduled date,
time limit, deadline délai [R].
t-ђqqђnT-ka[xt-ђ...], Pl !-ђqqђn-enT-ka Ω a) [nf] tying fait
d’attacher [chiefly in cpds below] Ω b) [nf] scheduled date, time limit,
deadline délai [syn: √tz1].
t-+qq+nt-±-dhu-t-enT-ka Ω [cpd nf, lit. “attachment (= putting on)
of rings”] ring finger (doigt) annulaire [syn √dh 2, cf. √skd 1].
t-+qq+nn⍾+-׹+IIA-grm = t-ђqqђnn⍾+-׹+I T-ka Ω [cpd nf,
lit. “... of head”] bewilderment, not knowing what to do; disorientation,
losing one’s bearings (in the bush) confusion, indécision; désorientation
(en brousse) [√׹I 1].
√׹n 1d
Ϫ-׹ϪnA-grm Im K-d R[x⍾+-] T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-׹un-ϪnA-grm Im K-d
R T-ka Ω a) [nm] rope (used to draw water from well, or tied to cow’s
horns) corde (pour la puisette, ou attachée aux cornes d’une vache) [T]
[cf. e-Iex1 √tw 2; ‘segment’: √s-w1 1b] Ω b) [nm] rope corde
[A-grm Im K-d] [general word; syn: √ktI 2].
t-Ϫ-׹Ϫn-tA-grm K-d T-ka, Pl !-1-׹un-enA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [nf] thin
cord (of sheep- or goatskin, often decorated) corde mince (en peau,
souvent ornée) [esp for camel’s nose-ring; cf. !-+-kϪJϪ-!-! √k1 10].
√׹n 2 (׹nw) [for related noun see √1׹n ; <Ar √׹ny]
-ђ׹nϪ-A-grm K-d R T-ka [Imprt ђ׹nuA-grm K-d R T-ka, MaPl Imprt
ђ׹nu-h+!T-ka, LoImpfP -׹1nnu-K-d R T-ka = -׹ϪnnϪ- A-grm
= -׹Ϫnn- A-grm] Ω a) [intr with optional prep 1+J] have enough (to
live on), not need anything; be independent of (sb) avoir suffisament
(pour vivre), n’avoir besoin de rien; ne pas dépendre de (qn) [K-d R T] -
ex: 1-׹nϪ-\1+JJ-1T-ka he doesn’t need anything from me il n’a
besoin de rien de moi Ω b) [tr] be of use for servir à, ê. utile pour
[A-grm] - ex: xђI1-׹nϪh+I+! it’s good for nothing, it’s no use il
ne sert à rien.
e-׹+nn±K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹nϪ-] usefulness, value utilité,
valeur.
t-Ϫ-׹ђnnϪw-tA-grm T-ka = t-+-׹ђ nnϪw-tR Ω [nf, vbln of
-ђ׹nϪ-] [= e-׹+nn1].
√׹n 3 [N √׹n <Ar √әny]
Ϫ-׹+nϪA-grm K K-d T-ka, Pl 1-׹+nϪ-!+nA-grm K K-d T-ka Ω [nm]
suffering, hardship souffrance, misère.
√׹n 4 [N √׹n]
t-e׹neT-ka, Pl !-Ϫ׹n1x-enT-ka Ω [nf] strong taste (leaving an
aftertaste) goût fort (qui laisse un arrière-goût) [cf. √mb].
167
√׹nb [N √׹nb with Punic etymology, DTF 4.1740]
Ϫ-׹ђn±bT-ka = Ϫ-׹+n±bA-grm K-d R[x⍾+-], Pl 1-׹nϪbA-grm[x
⍾ђ-] K-d R[x⍾ђ-] T-ka Ω [nm] ballpoint pen (bic); (any) writing
instrument stylo (bic); (tout) instrument pour écrire.
t-Ϫ-׹ђn±b-tT-ka = t-Ϫ-׹+n±b-tK-d, Pl !-1-׹nϪbT-ka Ω a) [nf]
[T-ka] [= Ϫ-׹ђn1b] Ω b) [nf] native flute flûte du pays [K-d T-ka].
√׹ndw
׹+ndϪwT-ka [Imprt ׹+nd+xT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ׹+ndϪx-T-ka]
Ω [intr] (sheep etc.) be blackish (brown) (moutons, etc.) ê. (brun)
noirâtre [other brownish shades: see √dt 5].
׹+ndϪw-+nT-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] blackish (brown) (brun) noirâtre.
׹+ndϪw-+tT-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] blackish noirâtre.
׹+ndϪw-nenT-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] blackish noirâtres.
t-Ϫ-׹+nd+w-tT-ka Ω [nf] blackish color couleur noirâtre.
Ϫ-׹ђndϪwT-ka, Pl 1-׹ђndϪx-+nT-ka Ω [nm] blackish one un de
couleur noirâtre.
√׹n׹n ### [see √s-׹n׹n]
√׹nns [N √׹nns]
-+׹n+nn+s-K-d T-ka [Imprt ׹ђnђnnђsT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1׹nђnn1s-
T-ka] Ω [intr] groan, moan gémir [more common syn: √hnI].
Ϫ-׹nђnnϪsT-ka = Ϫ-׹nђnnђsK-d Ω [nm,vbln of -+׹n+nn+s-].
√׹ns [for related noun see √s-׹ns ; N √׹ns]
-ђ׹n+s-K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ׹nђsT-ka, LoImpfP -׹Ϫnn+s-T-ka] Ω [intr
or tr] (woman) put on veil, run (string) through her veil (so it can be
tightened) (femme) se mettre le voile, passer (une cordelette) dans le
voile (pour pouvoir le serrer).
Ϫ-׹+nϪsK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹n+s-].
√׹nsns [variant of √׹wsws, cf. √׹ws 2, √׹wws]
-+׹n+sn+s-K-d [Imprt ׹ђnђsnђsK-d, LoImpfP -!-1׹nђsn1s-K-d]
Ω [intr] (dog) yelp (chien) glapir.
√׹nss ### [see √s-׹nss ; N √׹nss]
√׹t ### [for Ϫ-׹+IIϪ ‘animal miscarriage’ see √׹ty]
√׹t 1 [N “׹ut” √׹t, DTF 4.1765]
׹ot (or: ׹ut)A-grm K-d R T-ka T-md = ׹ottT-ka = wu tK Ω a) [prep]
chez, at the home of, in the presence of chez, auprès de Ω b) [prep]
according to, in the opinion of selon, de l’avis de [cf. √xyz 1a, √¸z]
Ω c) [prep] from ... (to/until ...) depuis ... (jusqu’à ...) [paired with hϪI
√ht 1 ‘to/until’] - with pron: 1Sg ׹oI-1K-d R T-ka = ׹oI-e׹R
T-ka, 1Pl ׹oI-n+׹, 2MaSg ׹oI-ђk, 2FeSg ׹oI-ђn, 3Sg
׹oI-ђs, 2MaPl ׹oI-x+n, 2FePl ׹oI-kn+!T-ka = ׹oI-ђkn+!
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A-grm, 3MaPl ׹oI-s+n, 3FePl ׹oI-sn+!K-d T-md = ׹oI-ђsn+!
A-grm.
√׹t 2a [homonyms √׹t 2b; <Ar √qtБ ; N √׹t]
-ђ׹tϪ-A-grm T-ka T-md [Imprt ђ׹ђIK-d T-md Ts = ђ׹ђIA-grm T-ka
T-md (with 3MaSg object +׹I-\eK-d T-ka), MaPl Imprt +׹I-+!
A-grm K-d T-ka T-md Ts, LoImpfP -׹ϪII-K-d T-ka T-md
= -׹ϪIIϪ-A-grm] Ω [intr or tr] read; study, go to school lire;
étudier, aller à l’école [cf. √׹wd 2, √1md]. Caus √s-׹t 3 ‘teach’.
e-m-+׹+ttT-ka = e-m-+׹+ tR, Pl 1-n-+׹I-ϪnT-ka Ω [nm, Agent]
reader; pupil, student lecteur; élève, étudiant [R T] - poss: 1Sg
e-n-+׹+II-1nT-ka.
t-e-׹+teA-grm[x⍾t-+-] K-d T-ka, Pl !-1-׹ђIIK-d Ω [nf, vbln]
study, reading; education, training étude, lecture; éducation, formation.
√׹t 2b [cf. √m׹t ; <Ar √qtБ ; N √׹t]
-ђ׹tϪ-A-grm T-ka T-md [Imprt ђ׹ђIK-d T-md Ts = ђ׹ђIA-grm T-ka
T-md (with 3MaSg object +׹I-\eK-d T-ka), MaPl Imprt +׹I-+!
A-grm K-d T-ka T-md Ts, LoImpfP -׹ϪII-K-d T-ka T-md
= -׹ϪIIϪ-A-grm] Ω [tr, often with directional clitic] summon, call
(sb) appeler, convoquer (qn). Caus √s-׹t 1 ‘shout’.
-ђ׹tϪ-(+ -\ђdd) Ω [tr] call (sb to come) appeler (qn à venir) - ex:
1-׹I-\e-\dT-md he called him il l’a appelé.
e-m-+׹+ttT-ka = e-m-+׹+ tR, Pl 1-n-+׹I-ϪnT-ka Ω [nm] time
for prayer just before dawn heure de la prière juste avant l’aube [R] -
phrase: s⍾+-n-+׹+IR before dawn (at prayer time) avant l’aube (à
l’heure de la prière).
t-e-׹+teA-grm[x⍾t-+-] K-d T-ka, Pl !-1-׹ђIIK-d Ω a) [nf, vbln]
study, reading; education, training étude, lecture; éducation, formation
Ω b) [nf, vbln] call, shout (to sb distant); call to prayer appel, cri (adressé
à qn qui est loin); appel à la prière.
+-׹otϪA-grm Im K-d T-ka T-md, Pl 1-׹oI-ϪnA-grm Im K-d T-ka T-md
Ω a) [nm] call (to prayer); blessing, religious rite appel (à la prière);
bénédiction, rite religieux [K-d T] - phrase: 1-x+!+-׹oIϪT-md he
(= muezzin) made the call to prayer il (= le muezzin) fit l’appel à la
prière Ω b) [nm] pre-dawn (when the rooster crows, around 4 AM)
moment qui précède l’aube (quand le coq crie, vers 4 h.) [all dialects]
[cf. √Iw 2].
e-׹ђt±Im T-ka = e-׹+ t±R, Pl 1-׹+I-ϪnR = 1-׹ђI-ϪnT-ka Ω [nm]
(a) shout (un) cri.
t-e-׹+t±-t-tA-grm K-d R, !-1-׹+IϪ-!-enA-grm K-d R Ω a) [nm]
shout (un) cri [A-grm K-d] [syn: !-+-׹uyye-!-! √׹y 1] Ω b) [nm]
soft cry cri faible [R] [cf. DTF 4.1764-5].
169
√׹t 2c
-+nm-+׹tϪ-T-ka [Imprt nђn-ђ׹ђIIT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1nn-ђ׹I1-
T-ka = -!-1nn-ђ׹Iu-T-ka] Ω [intr, Recip] become namesake(s)
devenir homonyme(s).
Ϫ-nђmm-ђ׹tuK-d T-ka, 1-nђnn-ђ׹Iu-!+nK-d Ω [nm] namesake (one
who shares the same personal name) homonyme (personne).
t-ђnnђm-ђ׹tϪT-ka Ω [nf] being namesake(s) fait d’ê. homonyme(s).
√׹t 3a [cf. also √t׹t and √׹tt ; N √׹t (PerfP “yђqqut”); MGT 7.147, 154]
-+qqot-K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt 1׹ϪIK-d T-ka T-md, LoImpfP -!-1׹ϪI-
K-d T-ka T-md] Ω a) [intr] be or become dry ê. ou devenir sec [T]
Ω b) [intr] (wound, cut) seal up and begin to heal (blessure) sécher et
commencer à guérir [K-d] Ω c) [intr] (sth) be stiff; (sb) be skinny and stiff
(qch) ê. rigide; (qn) ê. mince et raide [K-d] - idiom: !-+qqoI
!-e!!-+nne!K-d his eye is stiff (= he is fearlessly rude) son œil est
rigide (= il est impoli sans peur) Ω d) [intr, plus prep 1+J] (sb) hold on
tightly to (sth) (qn) tenir (qch) avec force - ex: Ø-+qqoI-\1+JJϪ-s
K-d he’s holding on to it tightly (rigidly) il le tient avec force (de façon
rigide). Caus √s-׹t 4.
Ø-+qqo t-+nK-d T-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] dry sec.
t-+qqot-+tK-d T-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] dry sèche.
+qqo t-nenK-d T-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] dry secs, sèches.
-ђqqut-A-grm = -+qqot-R [Imprt u׹ϪIA-grm R, LoImpfP -!-u׹ϪI-
A-grm R] Ω [intr] be or become dry ê. ou devenir sec.
±-qqut-+nA-grm Ω [partpl, MaSg] dry sec.
t-ђqqut-+nA-grm Ω [partpl, FeSg] dry sèche.
ђqqut-nenA-grm Ω [partpl, Pl] dry secs, sèches.
t-+-׹Ϫt-tA-grm K-d R T-ka Ω [nf] dryness; dessicated state (of
vegetation) sécheresse (fait d’ê. sec); état sec (des plantes) [for ‘drought’
see √mn 3].
√׹t 3b [N √׹t]
+ -׹ϪttK-d R T-ka[x+-], Pl 1-׹ϪII-+nK-d R T-ka Ω [nm] dessicated
cram-cram grass (after the burrs have fallen) cram-cram (graminée) à
l’état sec (après la chute des bardanes) [ID: dry stage of Cenchrus biflorus
(√wz¸)].
√׹t 4 [N √׹t]
+ -׹ottK-d R[x+-] T-ka T-md = +-׹ϪtA-grm, Pl 1-׹oII-ϪnR
= 1-׹oII-+nT-md = 1-׹ϪII-+nA-grm R T-ka T-md Ω [nm]
patty made from goat or sheep droppings, put in young animal’s mouth to
prevent suckling pâte faite avec des crottes de mouton ou de chèvre,
mise dans la gueule d’un jeune animal pour l’empêcher de téter.
-+qqot+-tA-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt ׹uIђ-!A-grm T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1׹uIu-!K-d T-ka = -!-Ϫ׹ϪIϪ-!A-grm] Ω [tr] smear breast
170
of (woman, animal) with bad-tasting or bad-smelling substance to
discourage suckling by baby enduire les mamelles de (une femme, un
animal) avec une substance à goût amer ou à odeur dégoûtante pour
diminuer la tétée d’un enfant [hot pepper for woman, generally excrement
for animals].
t-+qqote-tA-grm Ω [partpl, FeSg] (woman, female animal) with
smeared breasts (femme, animal femelle) aux seins enduits.
+-׹Ϫtu A-grm K-d T-ka, Pl 1-׹ϪIu-!+n T-ka = 1-׹ϪI-+nA-grm
Ω [nm, vbln of -+qqoI+-!].
+-m+s-׹ϪtuA-grm T-ka, Pl 1-n+s-׹ϪIu-!+nA-grm = 1-nђs-׹uIϪ
T-ka Ω [nm, Agent] one who smears breasts celui qui enduit les
mamelles.
√׹t 5 [N √׹t]
e-׹etA-grm[x⍾+-] Im K-d T-ka T-md, Pl 1-׹eI-+nA-grm Im K-d T-ka
T-md Ω a) [nm] modern cooking pot (metal or ceramic) marmite
moderne (en métal ou en émail) [all dialects] [cf. √1kn] Ω b) [nm] large
iron crock pot grand marmite en fer [K-d] [no longer in common use]
Ω c) [nm] half of a metal gas drum (cut vertically, used as a drinking
trough for livestock) demi-fût métallique (coupé de haut en bas, utilisé
comme abreuvoir pour le bétail) [K-d] Ω d) [nm] copper cuivre [T].
t-e-׹et-tA-grm K-d T-ka[x⍾t-+-], Pl !-1-׹eI-enA-grm[x
⍾t-ђ-] K-d T-ka Ω a) [nf] metal drinking cup, tankard gobelet en
métal pour boire [A-grm] Ω b) [nf] metal eating bowl cuvette
(= écuelle) en métal pour manger [A-grm K-d T] Ω c) [nf] bowl for
milking she-camels écuelle pour traire les chamelles [K-d] [cf. √kbt 3b,
√kby, √ks 5].
√qt 6 [similar N form means « se protéger, se cacher derrière ...»]
-ђqqђt+-tT-ka [Imprt q+I+-!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫq+IϪ-!-T-ka]
Ω [intr] be cut; (piece of hide) have indentations cut on its edge ê. coupé;
(morceau de peau) avoir des indentations coupées sur la frange. Caus
√s-qt 2.
wђt±-qqђt+-tT-ka Ω [phrasal cpd nm, lit. “it has not been cut”]
crawling vine sp. plante rampante sp. [ID: Ipomoea kotschyana].
Ϫ-qђt±T-ka[x⍾ђ-] Ω [nm, vbln of -ђqqђI+-!].
Ϫ-qq+t (or: Ϫ-qqђt) K R, Pl 1 -qq+I-+n R Ω [nm] small piece of hide
petit morceau de peau [homonym √׹t 11].
√׹t 7 [N √׹t]
׹+ttoA-grm[x׹+...] R T-ka[x׹+...] = ׹+ttoK-d, Pl ׹+IIo-!+nT-ka
= ׹+IIo-!+nK-d Ω [nm] vow, promesse (to do sth) vœu, promesse
(de faire qch) [can be used as object of √¸ ‘do, make’ or √ks 1 ‘take out’
(= ‘fulfill’)] - ex: ђkk+s-+׹׹+IIoR I fulfilled a vow (or promise)
je me suis acquitté d’un vœu, j’ai tenu un une promesse.
׹+ttoK-d Ω [nm, as interj] good riddance! (to sb leaving) bon débarras! (à
qn qui part).
171
√׹t 8
׹+ttT-ka Ω [clause-final emphatic particle] .
√׹t 9
-ђqq+t-K-d T-ka [Imprt ђqqђIT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫqq+I-T-ka] Ω a)
[intr] (substance, e.g. water) be mixed with sth else (substance, par ex.
de l’eau) ê. mélangé(e) avec qch d’autre [K-d T] Ω b) [intr] (sb) be of
mixed race (qn) ê. métis, ê. de race mélangée [T] Ω c) [tr] mix (two
things) mélanger (deux choses) [T].
[Pl only:] oqqet-+n (or: uqq1I-+n)T-ka Ω [nmpl] water mixed with a
little milk eau mélangée avec un peu de lait [common beverage, called
zI11ց in HassAr; cf. √dtt 2, √z11 2, √syn׹].
√׹t 10 [N √׹t]
t-Ϫ׹ђt-tGao, Pl !-Ϫ׹ђI-enGao Ω [nf] thatch matting wrapped around
base of a hut (as windbreak) natte en paille (= paillasson) enroulée
autour du bas d’une case (en brise-vent).
√׹t 11 [homonym Ϫ-qq+I √׹t 6]
Ϫqq+t (or: Ϫqqђt)K-d, Pl Ϫqq+I-+nK-d Ω [nm] kind, sort sorte,
espèce [syn: √1 8, √n׹ 4, √n 13].
√׹tb 1 [Y !-Ϫ-׹+I+bϪ ‘thorny shrub sp.’; DTF 4.1767 with other sense]
t-Ϫ-׹+t+bϪA-grm T-ka = t-Ϫ-׹+t+bϪ (or: t-Ϫ׹+t+bϪ)T-md Gao
= t-+-׹+t+bϪGnd = t-Ϫ׹Ϫt+bϪTs = t-+-׹+tbϪ R, Pl
!-1-׹ϪIb1x-enR = !-1-׹IϪb1x-enR = !-1-׹+I+b1x-en
T-ka = !-Ϫ׹+I+bϪ-!enT-md = !-Ϫ׹ϪI+bϪ-!enTs
= !-1-׹+I+bϪ-!enA-grm = !-1-׹uIbϪT-md Ω a) [nf] a thorny
acacia-like shrub sp. arbuste épineux sp. qui ressemble aux acacias [Gnd
T] [ID: Mimosa pigra, forms impenetrable thickets on edge of river or
other wet areas] Ω b) [nf] erect leguminous plant sp. plante
légumineuse érigée [A-grm Ts] [ID: Sesbania sp. (A-grm), Psoralea
plicata (Ts), both Leguminosae-Papilionaceae; cf. perhaps Songhay (KS,
Bamba dialect) !aaIa-ba‘tall sedge sp.’].
√׹tb 2 [N √׹tb]
-+׹t+bb+-tK-d T-ka [Imprt ׹ђIђbbђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP !-1׹Iђbb1-!
T-ka] Ω a) [tr] hit (sth) hard, tap (metal) frapper (qch) avec force, taper
(métal) Ω b) [tr] wolf down (food) avaler (nourriture) goulûment.
Ϫ-׹tђbb±K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+׹I+bb+-!].
√׹tb 3
Ϫ -׹tϪbK-d, Pl 1-׹IϪb-+nK-d Ω [nm] man’s bag for money and ID card,
made of hide, finely sewn, worn on the side sac d’homme en peau pour
l’argent et la carte d’identité, bien tissé, porté sur le côté [cf. √k1 12,
√1zbt, √ms 5, √skw 1; larger hide sacks: see √nwt].
172
√׹tbtb [cf. N √׹tbtb]
-+׹t+bt+b-K-d [Imprt ׹ђIђbIђbK-d, LoImpfP -!-1׹IђbI1b-K-d]
Ω [intr] (people) move or travel in a disorganized way (gens) se déplacer
en désordre.
Ϫ-׹tђbtђbK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+׹I+bI+b-].
√׹tbs [cf. Ar √xtbs ; N √׹tbs]
t-Ϫ-׹+tbos-tK-d T-ka, Pl !-1-׹ђIbϪsT-ka Ω [nf] koranic school
école coranique.
√׹td 1a [cf. √s-mnd ; N √׹td]
׹ђtђ dGao Im K K-d K-f Ω [phrase-final particle] each, every, all, entirely
chaque, tout, complètement [dialectall syns √Ik 1, √k1 13, cf.
prenominal hϪk ‘each’ √hk 1] - ex: Ϫ-h
y
+J׹ђIђdK-f every day
chaque jour, tous les jours [√s1 1]; Ϫ-zIђ1׹ђIђdGao all the
money tout l’argent.
√׹td 1b
-ђ׹t+d-K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ׹IђdT-ka, LoImpfP -׹ϪII+d-T-ka] Ω [intr]
(sth) reach its (full) natural size or level; be complete; be or do to the
maximum (qch) atteindre son niveau ou sa taille naturel(le); ê. complet;
ê. ou faire le maximum - ex: ђ׹IђdϪ-h+nϪy-ђnn+kT-ka look
attentively! regardez bien!
Ϫ-׹+tϪdK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹I+d-].
Ϫ-׹tudT-ka[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-׹Iud-+nT-ka Ω [nm] total, sum total,
somme.
√׹td 1c
[Pl:] t-±-׹Ϫtd-enT-ka Ω [nfpl] [used as cpd final in lunar-month names
meaning ‘the last one, the final’]
t-e-s+seђn⍾t-ђ-׹Ϫtd-enT-ka Ω [cpd nf] eleventh Muslim lunar
month onzième mois lunaire musulman [follows !-e-s+se
!-+zzϪI-+!, precedes !-1-s-ђbdϪI ; similar cpd under √zm 3.
t-Ϫ-mϪtϪt-Ϫn⍾t-ђ-׹Ϫtd-enT-ka Ω [phrase] last 10 days (of a
lunar month) dix derniers jours (d’un mois lunaire).
√׹td 2 [N √׹td with different sense]
t-+ -׹ϪtdeK-d Ω [nf] lying on one’s side fait de se coucher sur le côté -
ex: +nsђs!-+-׹ϪIdeK-d sleep on your side! couche-toi sur le
côté!
√׹tdm [N √׹tdm “wind scorpion”; DTF 4.1772; EPPB 217]
e-׹etdђmK-d R T-ka[x⍾+-] Ts = +-׹etdђmA-grm, Pl 1-׹eIdђn-+n
A-grm R T-ka = 1-׹uIdϪnK-d T-ka Ts = 1-׹ђIdϪnA-grm Ω a)
[nm] large scorpion sp. grand scorpion sp. [K-d R T Ts] [perhaps
includes wind scorpions (order Solpugida = Solifugae, not a true scorpion);
said to be common near Algerian border; syn: √1k 3, cf. √ztdm] Ω b)
[nm] giant millipede sp. mille-pattes géant sp. [A-grm] [cf. √xbtbt].
173
√׹tds [variant of √׹tds, DTF 1.246 with Sg “...±s” versus Pl “...echchân”]
e-׹+tdesA-grm K-d, Pl 1-׹+Id+ss-ϪnK-d = 1-׹ђIdђss-ϪnA-grm
Ω [n] rib côte (os) [note Sg s versus Pl ss, and vocalic change] - poss:
e-׹+Ides-1nA-grm.
√׹tds [see variant √׹tds ; N √׹tds and √׹tds]
e-׹+tdesR T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md, Pl 1-׹+Idђs-ϪnT-md
= 1-׹+Id+ss-ϪnR = 1-׹ђIdђss-ϪnT-ka Ω [n] rib côte (os)
[note Sg s versus Pl ss, and vocalic change] - poss: 1Sg e-׹+Ides-1n
T-ka.
t-±n⍾Ø-׹ђtdђss-ϪnT-ka = t-±n⍾Ø-׹ђtdђss-ϪnA-grm
Ω a) [cpd nf, lit. “of ribs”] desert viper sp. vipère sp. du désert [A-grm
T] [ID: Cerastes vipera, so called because its sidewinding form of
locomotion leaves track with “ribs”; cf. (descriptive) !-1n
!-esk+I-!√skt 1, cf. also s-+11+J!+s √s-I1ts, √kttnց] Ω b)
[cpd nf] injured ribs blessure des côtes [A-grm].
√׹tI 1a [homonyms √׹tI 2; N √׹tI]
-ђ׹t+I-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ׹Iђ1A-grm T-ka, LoImpfP -׹ϪII+1-
A-grm T-ka] Ω a) [intr] (tomtoms) be set up for playing (tam-tams) ê.
préparés pour ê. battus [A-grm K-d T] [by stretching the hide over the
drum base] Ω b) [intr] (e.g. wall, side of hut) take shape (as it is built)
(mur, case) prendre forme (pendant sa construction) [A-grm T] Ω c) [tr]
(sb) begin (musical performance) commencer à jouer (musique) [K-d]
Ω d) [intr] trace lines to indicate where a well is to be dug tracer des
lignes pour indiquer où sera creusé un puits [K-d].
Ϫ-׹+tϪIA-grm K K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹I+1-] taking shape (of
drum, wall, hut) fait de prendre forme (tam-tam, mur, case).
√׹tI 1b
t-Ϫ-n-ђ׹tuI-tT-ka[x⍾t-ђ-], Pl !-1-n-ђ׹IϪ1T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-]
Ω [nf] form, shape (of sth) forme (de qch) [syn: √׹th 3b, √wt 1c,
√st 7]
√׹tI 2 [homonyms √׹tI 1a; N √׹tI]
-ђ׹t+I-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ׹Iђ1A-grm T-ka, LoImpfP -׹ϪII+1-
A-grm T-ka] Ω [intr] (animals, herders) travel to pasture zones without
water sources (bétail, bergers) aller pâturer dans une zone sans points
d’eau [possible for several days (or more) at a certain season, when
animals can get moisture from vegetation]. Caus √s-׹tI.
Ϫ-׹+tϪIK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹I+1-].
t-Ϫ-׹tђI-tA-grm K-d T-ka, Pl !-1-׹Iђ1-enT-ka = !-1-׹ђIIϪ1
A-grm K-d T-ka Ω [nf, vbln of -ђ׹I+1-] grazing in a zone without
water pâturage dans un lieu sans point d’eau.
√׹tI 3 [N √׹tI]
Ϫ-׹tђIT-ka Ω [nm] [occurs in the cpd below].
174
+ցց⍾ђ-׹tђIT-ka, Pl k+1⍾ђ-׹tђIT-ka Ω [cpd nm] gossipy person
personne bavarde [said of sb who can’t keep a secret; stereotypical trait
of griot and blacksmith castes, and of women from other families].
√׹tItI [N √׹tItI]
-+׹t+It+I-K-d T-ka [Imprt ׹ђIђ1Iђ1T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1׹Iђ1I11-
T-ka] Ω [intr] move noisily (among baggage or in brush) marcher
bruyamment (parmi les bagages ou parmi des buissons).
Ϫ-׹tђItђIK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+׹I+1I+1-].
√׹tցn [see variant √xtցn ; N √׹tցn, DTF 4.1773].
t-e-׹+t+ցց+n-tA-grm K-d T-md = t-e-׹t+ցց+n-tT-ka, Pl
!-1-׹+I+ցց+n-enK-d T-md = !-1-׹I+ցց+n-enT-ka Ω [nf]
fruit of !-+-!oJϪbush (√t1 4); (less often) fruit of +-nϪ bush (√n 12)
fruit du buisson !-+-!oJϪ (√t1 4); (moins souvent) fruit de buisson
+-nϪ (√n 12) [ID: Leptadenia hastata and L. pyrotechnica; fruits can be
sucked].
√׹t׹t 1 [homonym of and perhaps related to √׹t׹t 2; N √׹t׹t]
e-׹+t׹+tA-grm K-d R T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md, Pl 1-׹+I׹+I-+nT-md
= 1-׹ϪI׹ϪI-+nA-grm R T-ka Ω [nm] regg, large flat area regg,
grand terrain plat, zone plate [as opposed to sand dunes or rocky hills,
often vegetated by Ϫs׹ϪJ (fonio grass); cf. √1w 3, √1ms 1, √׹׹ 3].
√׹t׹t 2 [homonym of and perhaps related to √׹t׹t 1; N √׹t׹t]
e-׹+ t׹+tK-d Ω [nm] running at full speed; running to the point of
exhaustion fait de courir à toute allure; fait de courir jusqu’à
l’épuisement - ex: 1-b+!e-׹+I׹+IK-d he ran at full speed, he ran
hard il a couru à toute allure [√bt 2].
ukђsn⍾+-׹+t׹+tT-ka Ω [cpd nm] running or galloping at full speed
fait de courir ou de galoper à toute allure [√ks 1].
√׹t׹t 3
t-e-׹+t׹+t-tK-d, Pl !-1-׹ђI׹ϪIK-d Ω [nf] a steam treatment for
back pain soin médical à la vapeur pour le mal de dos [hole is dug and
filled with goat urine; a rock is heated in a fire then put into this hole;
patient lies down on back over hole; cf. √׹zbt]
√׹th 1 [homonyms √qth 2 and √׹th 4; see variant √ht׹]
-ђqqђth+-tT-ka T-md [Imprt ׹+Ih+-!T-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫ׹+IhϪ-!T-ka T-md] Ω [tr] cultivate, work (a field) cultiver,
labourer (un champ) [syn: √ItIt 1, √¸yk].
Ϫ-׹ђth±R T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђqqђIh+-!].
e-m-+qqeth±T-ka, Pl 1-n-ђqquIhϪT-ka Ω [nm, Agent] farmer,
farmhand, peasant cultivateur.
+-m+s-׹ђth±R, Pl 1-n+s-׹ђIh-ϪnR Ω [nm] farmer, peasant
cultivateur.
175
√qth 2 [homonyms √׹th 1 and √׹th 4; N √׹t]
-ђqqђth+-tA-grm [Imprt q+Ih+-!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫq+IhϪ-!
A-grm] Ω [tr] lie in wait for guetter.
Ϫ-qђth±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђqqђIh+-!].
√׹th 3a [N √׹t]
t-Ϫ-׹+thϪA-grm K-d R T-ka[x⍾t-+-] T-md, Pl !-1-׹ϪIh1x-enK-d
R T-ka T-md Ω [nf] manner (of doing sth); stance, physical position;
outlook, attitude manière (de faire qch); pose, position du corps; position
(mentale), attitude - phrase: +¸!-Ϫ-׹+IhϪT-md adopt a stance!
prends une position!
√׹th 3b[cf. √s-׹th 2]
-+m-׹+th+-tT-ka [Imprt n-ђ׹ђIhђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1n-׹ђIh1-!
T-ka] Ω [intr, Mediop] take shape prendre forme.
Ϫ-m-׹ђth±T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+n-׹+Ih+-!].
t-Ϫ-m-׹ђthu-t-tT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+n-׹+Ih+-!] form, shape (of
sth) forme (de qch) [syn: √st 7, √wt 1c, √׹tI 1b].
√׹th 4 (qth) [N √׹t]
Ϫ-׹+th (or: Ϫ-׹ђth)A-grm[x⍾+-] K-d R T-ka[x⍾+- (arguably x⍾ђ-)]
T-md, Pl 1-׹+Ih-Ϫn (or: 1-׹ђIh-Ϫn)A-grm K-d R T-ka T-md
Ω [nm] shield bouclier.
-ђqqђth+-tA-grm [Imprt q+Ih+-!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫq+IhϪ-!
A-grm] Ω [intr] be shielded ê. protégé (par un bouclier) [homonyms
√׹th 2 and √׹th 4]. Caus √s-׹th 2.
Ϫ-׹ђth±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђqqђIh+-!].
√√√ √׹ths(qths) [N √׹ts ; EPPB 214 with connection to √¸ts 1 ‘winter’]
-ђqquth+s- T-ka = -+qquth+s-K-d R T-md [Imprt ׹uIhђs R T-ka
T-md, LoImpfP -!-1׹ђIhus-R T-ka T-md] Ω [intr] (water) freeze;
(blood) clot, (butter, fat) harden (eau) geler; (sang) se coaguler, (beurre,
graisse) durcir [all dialects] [for milk see √kt 3].
Ϫ-׹uthђs K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђqquIh+s-].
-ђqqђth+s-A-grm [Imprt qђIhђs A-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫq+IhϪs-
A-grm] Ω [intr] [= -+qquIh+s-].
Ϫ-qђthђs A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђqqђIh+s-].
√׹t¸(׹tց) [cf. √ms׹t¸ ; N √׹tց]
Ϫ-׹tђ¸K-d[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-׹IϪ¸K-d Ω [nm] large storage sack (too heavy
to carry when filled) grand sac pour stocker (trop grand pour ê. porté
quand il est rempli) [other large sacks: sk 5, √sktt, cf. √nwt].
t-Ϫ-׹tђk-kK-d R T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-], Pl !-1-׹ђI¸-enR T-ka
= !-1-׹ђIց-enA-grm = !-1-׹IϪ¸K-d Ω [nf] holy man’s large
sack (for books etc.); sack carried on side with a strap grand sac de
marabout (pour les livres etc.); gibecière portée sur le côté.
176
√׹tm 1 [possibly related to √׹tm 3; N √׹tm]
Ϫ-׹tђmA-grm[x⍾+-] K-d R T-ka[x⍾ђ-] T-md, Pl 1-׹ђIn-ϪnA-grm
K-d R T-ka T-md Ω [nm] city, town ville, village [as opposed to
wilderness; cf. √dby].
t-Ϫ-׹tђm-tIm K-d T-ka T-md, Pl !-1-׹ђIn-enIm T-ka T-md
= !-1-׹ђInϪ-!-enK-d Ω [nf] city, town ville, village [for some
speakers, Dimin < Ϫ-׹Iђn ; for rare homonym see √׹tm 3].
√׹tm 2 [N √׹tm has senses centering on ‘(intestinal) constipation’; DTF 4.1758
(bread crust)]
Ϫ-׹tom (or: Ϫ׹tom)A-grm[x⍾+-] R[x⍾+-] T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md, Pl
1-׹Ion-+nR T-ka T-md = Ϫ׹Ion-+nA-grm T-md Ω [nm] liver
foie [common term around T] [syn: !-+sϪ √s 7, ϪxsϪ √ws 4].
t-±n⍾+-׹tomT-ka Ω [cpd nm] a liver disease of animals maladie du
foie des animaux.
√׹tm 3 [DTF 4.1758; perhaps N √׹tm]
-ђ׹t+m-K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt ђ׹IђnT-ka T-md, LoImpfP -׹ϪII+n-
T-ka] Ω [intr] (e.g. sheep, camel) be stubborn, refuse to budge, resist
pulling (mouton, chameau, etc.) ê. rétif, refuser de bouger, résister.
Ϫ-׹+tϪmR Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹I+n-].
t-Ϫ-׹tђm-tK-d T-md, Pl !-1-׹ђIn-enK-d Ω [nf] refusal to budge
refus de bouger [more common homonym under √׹tm 1].
√׹tmb [see variant √׹tmbw ; for verb see √s-׹tmby or √s-׹tmbw ; DTF
4.1758 √ttm (bread crust)]
t-Ϫ-׹tђmbϪT-ka, Pl !-1-׹IђnbϪx-enT-ka Ω [nf] scab (from a cut)
croûte (d’une plaie).
√׹tmbw [variant of √׹tmb]
t-Ϫ-׹tђmbϪw-tA-grm K-d R, Pl !-1-׹IђnbϪx-enA-grm R Ω [nf]
scab (from a cut) croûte (d’une plaie).
√׹tm׹tm [N √׹tm׹tm]
Ϫ-׹+t+m׹+tϪmR T-ka = Ϫ-׹t+m׹+tϪmA-grm = Ϫ-׹tђm׹+ tϪmK-d, Pl
1-׹+I+n׹+IϪn-+nA-grm T-ka = 1-׹I+n׹+IϪn-+nA-grm
= 1-׹Iђn׹+IϪn-+nK-d Ω a) [nm] small bit of hide; bits of hide left
over after cutting morceau de peau; petits morceaux de peau qui restent
après une coupure [T] Ω b) [nm] small piece of hide that has been cut out
petit morceau de peau qu’on a coupé [A-grm K-d].
√׹tn׹t [cf. √׹ttd 1a]
-+׹t+֊׹Ϫt+-tA-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt ׹ђIђ֊׹uIђ-!A-grm T-ka,
LoImpfP -!-1׹Iђ֊׹uIu-!K-d R T-ka = -!-1׹Iђ֊׹uI1-!
A-grm] Ω [intr] roll (on ground) rapidly se rouler (par terre) rapidement
[cf. √b1mb1, √׹ttd, √¸1nk]. Caus √s-׹tn׹t.
177
Ϫ-׹tђ֊׹utuR K-d T-ka = Ϫ-׹tђ֊׹ut±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of
-+׹I+֊׹ϪI+-!].
√׹t֊׹twn
t-Ϫ-׹+t+֊׹+tϪwђn-tT-ka T-md, Pl !-1-׹+I+֊׹+IϪxђn-enT-md
Ω [nf] black-headed plover pluvier à tête noire [ID: Vanellus tectus; less
common syn: √׹dtn].
√׹tnzz [variant of √׹tzz]
e-׹+t+nz+zzT-ka = e-׹+t+nz+zzT-ka Ω [nm] tall acacia-like tree sp.
balanzan (arbre) [ID: Faidherbia albida, Leguminosae-Mimosaceae;
syn: √hts (and √ths) and variants].
√׹tt 1 [N √׹tt]
t-Ϫ-׹tot-t (or: ...-׹tut-t)T-ka, Pl !-1-׹IoI-enT-ka Ω [nf]
shamelessness, brazenness fait d’ê. sans pudeur [said of sb who shows
off or reveals things that others would be ashamed to show].
√׹tt 2 [DTF 4.1776, cf. N √׹tt]
t-e-׹+tet-tK-d, Pl !-1-׹+IeI-enK-d Ω [nf] large old-fashioned
sack woven from hemp-like fibrous covering from upper trunk of a date
palm grand sac de type ancien tissé avec la couverture fibreuse de la
partie supérieure d’un dattier.
√׹ttd 1a [cf. √׹tn׹t ; N √׹ttd]
-+ ׹tϪt+d-K-d T-ka [Imprt ׹ђIuIђdK-d T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1׹IuIud-
K-d T-ka] Ω a) [intr] (sb) fall back (into reclining position) (qn)
retomber (en position couchée) [T-ka] Ω b) [intr] tumble and roll on
ground (involuntarily) tomber et se rouler à terre (involontairement)
[K-d] [cf. √b1mb1, √׹t֊׹t]. Caus √s-׹ttd.
Ϫ-׹tutђdK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+׹IϪI+d-]
√׹ttd 1b
+-׹+tϪtϪdA-grm Gao Gnd R T-ka Ts = e-׹ђtetђdT-md = Ϫ-׹+tϪtϪd
T-md, Pl 1-׹+IϪIϪd-+n A-grm Gao T-ka = 1-׹ђIeIђd-+nT-md
= 1-׹IuIϪdR T-ka T-md Ts Ω [nm] thick-knee (bird) œdicnème
(oiseau) [ID: Burhinus (= Oedicnemus) senegalensis and B. capensis].
√׹tth
-+׹t+thϪ-T-md [Imprt ׹ђIђIhT-ka T-md, LoImpfP -!-1׹IђIh1-
T-ka] Ω [intr] (food) be spicy (pungent); (food) have an excess of salt or
sugar (aliment) ê. piquant; (aliment) ê. trop salé ou sucré [cf. √׹smmd,
√ksmmd, √smm 2a, √mb]. Caus √s-׹tth.
±-׹±t+th+-nT-ka T-md Ω [partpl, MaSg] spicy, salty piquant, salé -
ex: Ϫ-dIђz1-׹1I+Ih+-nT-ka T-md [nm] hot (= pungent) sauce
sauce piquante.
t-ђ׹±t+th+-tT-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg].
ђ׹±t+th+-nenT-ka Ω [partpl, Pl].
178
Ϫ-׹tђthT-ka[x⍾ђ-] T-md, Pl 1-׹IђIh-ϪnT-ka = 1-׹IђIh1-!+n
T-md Ω [nm] spiciness; excess of salt or sugar fait d’ê. piquant; excès
de sel ou de sucre.
√׹tts
-+׹tϪt+s-T-ka [Imprt ׹ђIuIђsT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1׹IuIus-T-ka]
Ω [intr] (wound) begin to heal (plaie) commencer à guérir.
Ϫ-׹tutђs Ω [nm, vbln of -+׹IϪI+s-].
√׹ts 1a [see variant √׹tz 1; N √׹ts]
-ђ׹t+s- A-grm K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt ђ׹IђsA-grm T-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-׹ϪII+s-A-grm T-ka T-md] Ω a) [intr plus dative, less often simple
tr] slaughter (animal, in correct Muslim fashion), cut the throat of
égorger [for camel see also √nht 3; slaughter followed by ‘butcher’
√s 2, see also √nkd 1a] - ex: ђ׹I+s-+׹-\Ϫ-sT-ka I slaughtered it
je l’ai égorgé Ω b) [intr] (animal) be slaughtered, have its throat cut
(animal) ê. égorgé. Caus and Instr nominal √s-׹ts 1a-b, nominal
√s-m-׹ts.
+-m-Ϫ׹tϪsA-grm T-ka, Pl 1-n-Ϫ׹IϪs-+n A-grm T-ka Ω [nm, Agent]
slaughterer, the one who cuts the throat (of e.g. a sheep) celui qui égorge
[homonym √׹ts 1b].
Ϫ-׹+tϪsA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹I+s-].
√׹ts 1b[homonym √׹ts 1a; DTF 4.1778 « maladie de peau ...»]
+-m-Ϫ׹tϪsA-grm K-d T-ka Ω a) [nm, Sg only] leprosy (disease involving
skin spots) lèpre (maladie caractérisée par des taches sur la peau) [see
also under √׹ts 1a; distinct from Ϫ-nђ׹Iђs √m׹ts; for ‘advanced
leprosy’ see √¸t 9] Ω b) [nm, Sg only] syphilis syphilis [K-d].
+-m-Ϫ׹tϪsw-Ϫm+11-ϪnT-ka Ω [cpd nm] jaundice, hepatitis
jaunisse.
√׹tsw1 [N √׹tsw1, DTF 4.1489]
-+׹t+sw+1-K-d T-ka [Imprt ׹ђIђsxђJT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1׹Iђsx1J-
T-ka] Ω [intr] (esp. snake) writhe, wriggle (surtout serpent) se tortiller.
Ϫ-׹tђswϪ1T-ka = Ϫ-׹tђswђ1K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+׹I+sx+J-].
√׹tst
Ϫ-׹ђ ts ±tGao, Pl 1-׹ђIsϪ!Gao = 1-׹ђIs1!-+nGao Ω [nm]
remainder of upper quarter of carcass after ribs are cut off reste du
quartier supérieur d’une carcasse après que les côtes sont enlevées.
√׹tt [related to √׹t 3a; N √׹t (feminine gender)]
׹ϪtϪtK-d R[x׹Ϫ...] T-ka, Pl ׹ϪIϪ!-+nK-d T-ka Ω [nm] autumn, season
immediately following wet season automne, saison qui suit directement
la saison des pluies [rains have ceased, but pastures are still green].
t-+-m+s-׹ϪtϪt-tK-d Ω [nf] animal born during this season animal né
pendant cette saison [see also !-+-n+s׹ϪIϪ-!-! √ms׹t].
179
√׹tttw [cf. √btzzw, √׹tzzw ; N √׹tzzw]
-ђqqђ tt+tt+w-K-d [Imprt ׹ђI!ђ!!ђxK-d, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫ׹+I!+!!Ϫx-K-d] Ω [intr] (tree) fall, be felled; (heavy object)
fall with a thud (arbre) tomber; (grand objet) tomber lourdement [often
with Centripetal -\ђdd]. Caus √s-׹tttw.
Ϫ-׹ђttђttђw (or: ...tu) K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђqqђI!+!!+x-].
√׹tw 1
-ђqqђttϪw+-tK-d R T-md T-ka [Imprt ׹ђII1xђ-!T-md = ׹+IIϪx+-!
K-d R T-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ׹+IIϪxϪ-!R T-ka T-md
= -!-1׹ђII1x1-!K-d] Ω [intr] be or become torn ê. déchiré, se
déchirer [syn: √zt 5, cf. √ssI]. Caus √s-׹tw.
Ϫ-׹ђtt±w±K-d R T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђqqђIIϪx+-!].
Ϫ-׹+ ttϪw±K-d, Pl 1-׹+IIϪx1-!+nK-d Ω [nm] (a) rip, (a) tear
déchirure.
t-+-׹+ttϪw±-t-tR T-ka T-md, Pl !-1-׹ђII1xϪR T-ka T-md Ω [nf]
(a) rip déchirure.
√׹tw 2 [N √׹tw]
-+ ׹tϪw+-tK-d T-ka [Imprt ׹ђI1xђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1׹I1x1-!T-ka] Ω [intr] (donkey, camel) trot (âne, chameau)
aller au trot.
Ϫ-׹t±w±K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+׹IϪx+-!].
√׹twtw 1a [cf. N verb “׹ђtђwtђw”« dégringoler », i.e. ‘collapse, tumble’]
Ϫ-׹+t+wt+wT-ka Ts = Ϫ-׹+t+wt+wR, Pl 1-׹+I+xI+x-+nR T-ka Ts
Ω [nm] pod of certain acacia trees gousse de certains acacias [ID: Acacia
senegal (T) or Faidherbia albida (R), Leguminosae-Mimosaceae].
-+׹t+wt+w-K-d R [Imprt ׹ђIђxIђxR, LoImpfP -!-1׹IђxI1x-R]
Ω a) [intr] (stones, seeds) rattle (in a pod or container) (cailloux,
semences) bringuebaler, faire du bruit (dans une gousse ou dans un
récipient) [K-d R] Ω b) [intr] (sb) work or travel aimlessly; (sb) travel
while in bad shape; (sb) be the sole passenger (in a vehicle) (qn) marcher
ou voyager sans but, errer; (qn) voyager en mauvaise forme; (qn) ê. le seul
passager (dans un véhicule) [K-d].
Ϫ-׹tђwtђw (or: ...tu)K-d R Ω [nm, vbln of -+׹I+xI+x-].
√׹twtw 1b [cf. N √׹ty]
-׹+t+wt+w-A-grm [Imprt ׹ђIђxIђxA-grm, LoImpfP -!-1׹ђIђxI1x-
A-grm] Ω [intr] (sb) be skinny (qn) ê. maigre [syn: see √1bk 2].
Ϫ-׹ђtђwtђw (or: ...tu)A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -׹+I+xI+x-].
√׹ty(׹t) [Y ђ׹Iђy ‘give birth prematurely’]
-ђ׹t+y-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ׹IђyA-grm T-ka, LoImpfP -׹ϪII+y-
A-grm K-d T-ka] Ω [intr] (female, esp. sheep or goat) miscarry
(femelle, surtout de petit bétail) avorter [cf. √¸t 2a (camel), √sI 1 or
√s-hh 1 (woman)].
180
Ϫ-׹+tϪyA-grm R Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹I+y-].
Ϫ-׹t±A-grm K-d R[x⍾ђ-] T-ka, Pl 1-׹I1-!+n T-ka = 1-׹Iђy-+n(or:
1-׹I1y-+n) A-grm K-d T-ka = 1-׹Iђy-ϪnR Ω a) [nm, vbln of
-ђ׹I+y-] Ω b) [nm] miscarried fetus; premature newborn foetus
avorté; nouveau-né prématuré - poss: 1Sg Ϫ-׹I1-n1nT-ka.
t-Ϫ-׹t±-t-tA-grm K-d T-ka, Pl !-1-׹Iђy-enK-d T-ka Ω [nf]
miscarriage (esp. of animals) avortement (surtout d’un animal femelle)
Ϫ-׹+ttϪT-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-׹+IIϪ-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] miscarriage (esp.
of animals) fausse couche (surtout d’un animal femelle) [cf. √s-hh 1].
√׹tz 1 [variant of √׹ts 1a; N √׹ts]
-ђ׹t+z-Im [Imprt ђ׹IђzIm, LoImpfP -׹ϪII+z-Im] Ω [intr plus
dative] slaughter (animal), cut the throat of égorger - ex: 1-׹I+ze
⍾!-+-h+JJeIm he slaughtered a sheep il a égorgé un mouton. Cf.
noun √s-׹ts 1a.
Ϫ-׹+tϪzIm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹I+z-].
√׹tz 2
Ϫ-׹+ t+zzϪGao Ω [nm] traveler’s food provisions (based on pounded and
dried flour) provision de voyage (à base de farine pilée et séchée) [cf.
√zd].
√׹tzz [see variant √׹tnzz]
e-׹+tz+zzT-md = e-׹+tz+ zzR Ts = e-׹+ tz+zGnd, Pl
1-׹+Iz+zz-ϪnR Ts Ω [nm] tall acacia-like tree sp. grand acacia sp.
[ID: Faidherbia albida, Leguminosae-Mimosaceae; syn: Ϫ-h!ђs and
variants].
Ϫ-׹+tz+zzϪA-grm, Pl 1-׹+Iz+zz-ϪnA-grm Ω [nm] tree sp. arbre
sp. [ID: Piliostigma thonningii, syn: √kdցw, cpd under √It׹t׹].
√׹tzzw [cf. √btzzw, √׹tttw ; N √׹tzzw]
-ђqqђ tz+zz+w-K-d R [Imprt ׹ђIzђzzђxR, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫ׹+Iz+zzϪx-K-d R] Ω [intr] (tree) fall, be felled; (heavy object)
fall with a thud (arbre) tomber; (grand objet) tomber lourdement. Caus
√z-׹tzzw (and √s-׹tzzw).
Ϫ-׹ђtzђzzђw (or: ...zu) K-d R Ω [nm, vbln of -ђqqђIz+zz+x-].
√׹s ### [for 1׹s1 and !-Ϫ׹s1-!-! see √׹sy, for Pl !-1-n-ђ׹sϪ see √׹sy]
√׹s 1 [N √׹s, DTF 4.1781-3]
׹ϪsA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [clause- or phrase-final particle] only seulement
[can also be used between two clauses, indicating close temporal
sequencing] - ex: Ø-+bϪ-\!׹Ϫsn-ђցJϪK-d (soon) after he died,
we went away (juste) après qu’il est décédé, nous sommes partis.
+1xet׹ϪsA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [greeting phrase, lit. “just goodness”] (I
am) fine (je suis) bien.
181
√׹s 2a [N √׹s and DTF 4.1780-1]
t-Ϫ-׹ђssϪA-grm Im K-d R[x⍾t-ђ-] T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] T-md, Pl
!-1-׹ђsx-enA-grm Im K-d R T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] T-md Ω [nf] body
corps [N and DTF 4.1781 « ossature »; syn: √ky 4, √Ik 2].
e-׹+ss A-grm K-d R[x⍾+-] T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md, Pl 1-׹+s-Ϫn
A-grm K-d R T-ka T-md Ω [nm] bone os [note ss/s alternation].
√׹s 2b
e-׹+seA-grm[x⍾+-] R[x⍾+-] T-ka, Pl 1-׹+sex-+nA-grm T-ka
Ω a) [nm, generally Pl] larger bits of grain (sifted out of flour after
pounding) brisures de grains (séparées de la farine par tamisage après le
pilage) [R T] [cf. √׹1 5, √ks 10] Ω b) [nm] tobacco stems tiges de
tabac [A-grm] [stems are discarded when preparing to smoke].
√׹s 3a [N √׹s]
-ђqq+s-A-grm K-d R T-ka T-md [Imprt ђqqђsA-grm T-ka T-md,
LoImpfP -!-Ϫqq+s-A-grm T-ka T-md] Ω [intr] clap (hands)
applaudir, battre (les mains).
eqqϪsA-grm[xe...] K-d R Ω [nm, vbln of -ђqq+s-].
t-eqqes-tA-grm K-d T-ka[xt-e...], Pl !-1qqϪs-enA-grm
= !-1qqϪsT-ka[xt-±...] Ω [nf] applause, clapping
applaudissement.
√׹s 3b [specialized passive of √׹s 3a]
-ђmm-uqq+s-A-grm T-ka = -+mm-uqq+s-K-d R T-md [Imprt n-uqqђs
A-grm T-ka T-md, LoImpfP -!-1n-ђqqus-K-d T-ka T-md
= -!-Ϫn-+qqϪs-A-grm] Ω [intr plus prep d-] meet with, get
together with se réunir avec.
Ϫ-m-uqqђsK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђnn-uqq+s-].
t-ђ-m-uqqes-tT-ka = t-+-m-oqqes-t (or: t-+-m-u...)A-grm K-d R,
Pl !-1-n-uqqes-enT-ka = !-1-n-oqqes-enA-grm K-d R
Ω [nf] meeting, encounter rencontre.
√׹s 4 [N √׹s]
t-e׹seA-grm[xt-e...] K-d T-ka[xt-e...] T-md, Pl !-Ϫ׹s1x-en
A-grm[xt-Ϫ...] K-d T-ka T-md Ω [nf] (a) sheep or goat, (a) head of
small livestock (un) mouton ou (une) chèvre, (une) tête de petit bétail
[unit of counting; for bovines see √׹I 1].
√׹s 5 [N √׹s, √׹s]
t-Ϫ-׹ђss±-t-tK-d R T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] = t-e-׹ђss±-t-tGao
= t-+-׹+ ss±-t-tGnd = t-e-׹+ss±-t-tA-grm, Pl
!-1-׹ђss1-!-enGao = !-1-׹+ss1-!-enA-grm
= !-1-׹ђssϪ-!-enR = !-1-׹ђssK-d T-ka Ω [nf] (any) wild
beast of prey (tout) animal sauvage carnivore [used variably as a
euphemism for local animals: jackal, hyena, leopard, wild dog].
182
-+qquss+-tK-d [Imprt ׹ussђ-!K-d, LoImpfP -!-1׹ђssu-!K-d]
Ω (sb) be like a wild beast (tough, quick to act) (qn) ê. comme un animal
sauvage (féroce, rapide à agir).
ђqqђssuK-d Ω [nm] being like a lion (or other wild beast) fait d’ê. comme
un lion (ou autre animal sauvage).
√׹s 6 [cf. verb √׹ss 1c; N √׹s]
+-׹ϪssA-grm|x+-] T-ka, Pl 1-׹Ϫss-+nA-grm T-ka Ω [n] smell of
meat being roasted odeur de viande grillée.
√׹s 7
t-Ϫqqђs-tA-grm[xt-Ϫ...] K-d T-ka[xt-Ϫ...] T-md, Pl !-Ϫqqђs-en
A-grm K-d T-md Ω [nf] molar tooth, back tooth molaire, dent au fond
[‘tooth’: √sn 3].
√׹s1 [see variant √xs1 1 ( ᭢s1); <Ar √᭢s1]
-ђ׹s+1-A-grm K-d R [Imprt ђ׹sђJA-grm R, LoImpfP -׹Ϫss+J-A-grm
R] Ω [intr] be exhausted, be at the end of one’s endurance (due to fatigue,
thirst, poverty) ê. épuisé, ê. au bout de sa résistance (contre la fatigue, la
soif, ou la pauvreté).
-ђ׹s+1-(+ -\ђdd) K-d Ω [intr] (e.g. job offer, scholarship) come through,
become reality (boulot, bourse, etc.) se concrétiser.
Ϫ-׹+sϪ1A-grm K-d R T-md Ω [nm, vbl of -ђ׹s+J-].
√׹smmd [variant of √ksmmd]
-׹+sm+mm+d-A-grm [Imprt ׹ђsnђnnђdA-grm, LoImpfP
-!-1׹ђsnђnn1d-A-grm] Ω [intr] (food) be spicy hot (repas) ê.
piquant [cf. √׹tth, √smm 2a] - ex: Ϫ-dIђz1-׹1sn+nn+dA-grm the
sauce is spicy la sauce est piquante.
Ϫ-׹ђsmђmmђdA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -׹+sn+nn+d-].
√׹sn ### [see √s-׹sn]
√׹sns [frozen cpd of √׹s 2a ‘bone’ and √ns 6 ‘toe’; N √׹sns « sabot »]
Ϫ-׹sђns±A-grm K-d R[x⍾+-] T-ka, Pl 1-׹sђns1x-+nA-grm K-d R
T-ka Ω [nm] shank, lower part of (front or back) leg of quadruped; thin
lower leg (shin without a thick calf) partie inférieure de la patte (de
devant ou d’arrière) d’un quadrupède; partie inférieure mince d’une jambe
(tibia sans mollet épais) [cf. √ks1 1, √mst 1].
√׹ss 1a
e-׹ђs±sT-ka = Ϫ-׹+s±sA-grm Im K-d R, Pl 1-׹+s1s-+nR = 1-׹sϪs
Im K-d T-ka[x⍾ђ-] = 1-׹ђsϪsA-grm Ω [nm] large earthenware
water jug (with neck) canari, grande jarre à eau en terre cuite (avec col)
[syn: √hb 2, cf. √b1b1 1, cf. √1kn].
√׹ss 1b
t-Ϫ-׹ђs±s-tT-ka, Pl !-1-׹sϪsT-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] Ω [nf] egg œuf
[local word] [syn: √sd1, √kk 6].
183
√׹ss 1c [cf. noun √׹s 6]
-+ ׹sϪs+-tK-d R [Imprt ׹ђsusђ-!R, LoImpfP -!-1׹susu-!-R]
Ω [intr] (e.g. overcooked food) have a strong odor (nourriture trop cuite,
etc.) avoir une forte odeur [cf. √ns¸].
Ϫ-׹susuK-d R Ω [nm, vbln of -+׹sϪs+-!].
√׹stn [N √׹stn]
e-׹+ st+nK-d, Pl 1-׹+s!+n-+nK-d Ω [nm] simple camel saddle without
prongs in front (for those learning to ride camels) selle simple sans
pointes par devant (pour ceux qui apprennent à conduire les chameaux)
[somewhat pejorative; non-pejorative syn: √hys].
t-e-׹+st+n-tT-ka, Pl !-1-׹+s!+n-enT-ka Ω [nf] ornate woman’s
raised camel saddle selle de chameau ornée et élevée pour les femmes
[special subtype of !-+-xϪx1-!-! √xw, cf. √hys ].
√׹sw ### [see √׹s 2a, 2b]
√׹sy (׹s) [see variant √s׹y 2; N √׹sy, DTF 4.1784]
-o׹s+y-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt Ϫ׹sђyA-grm K-d T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1׹sђy-K-d T-ka = -׹Ϫss+y-A-grm] Ω [tr] (animal) die
without being slaughtered, become carrion (animal) mourir sans ê.
égorgé, devenir charogne, « crever ».
±׹s± (or: ±׹sђy)R T-ka, Pl 1׹s1-!+nR Ω [nm, vbln of -o׹s+y-] -
poss: 1Sg 1׹s1-n1nT-ka.
Ϫ-׹+sϪyK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -o׹s+y-].
t-Ϫ׹s±-t-tA-grm Ω [nf, vbln of -o׹s+y-].
m-+׹soyIm K-d R[xm-+...] = m-+׹suyA-grm[xm+...], Pl n-+׹soy-+n
Im R Ω [nf] carrion charogne.
t-Ϫ-m-+׹soy-tA-grm K-d T-ka, Pl !-1-n-ђ׹sϪA-grm T-ka
= !-1-n-+׹soy-enK-d Ω [nf] carcass of animal that has died
without being slaughtered, carrion animal crevé, carcasse d’animal qui
est mort sans avoir été égorgé, charogne [N and DTF confirm Pl
”t±mђ׹sa”].
√׹s 1 [N √׹z]
-ђ׹+s-A-grm T-ka = -׹+s-K-d T-md [Imprt ђ׹ђsIm A-grm T-ka T-md,
MaPl Imprt +׹s-+!T-md = ђ׹ђs-+!A-grm T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-ђqqϪs-A-grm K-d T-ka T-md = -ђqqϪs-T-ka] Ω [tr] dig; dig
out, deepen (well); hollow out (sth) creuser; approfondir (un puits);
rendre (qch) creux [cf. √htn¸ y, √s1 3, √stw]. Instr noun √s-׹s.
e-׹esA-grm K-d T-ka[x⍾+-] Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹+s-].
Ϫ-m-+׹ϪsR T-ka = e-m-+׹ϪsIm, Pl 1-n׹ϪsIm Ω [nm, Agent] digger
creuseur.
t-e-׹es-tA-grm K-d R[x⍾t-+-] T-ka[x⍾t-+-], Pl !-1-׹usR T-ka
= !-1-׹uss A-grm Ω [nf] small pit in ground; hole for tent stake
petit trou dans la terre; trou pour piquet de tente [syn: √¸n 1].
184
√׹s 2 [see variant √׹z ; N √׹z]
Ϫ-׹ђs±A-grm Gnd Gos R T-ka T-mdTs = Ϫ-׹ђz±Gao = Ϫ-׹+s± K-d R,
Pl Ϫ-׹ђs1-!+nT-md = 1-׹ђs1-!+nGos R T-ka T-md Ts
= 1-׹ђsy-ϪnR = 1-׹ђsϪA-grm Ω [nm] sedge sp. that forms a
dense turf as floods recede « gazon », cypéracée sp. qui constitue un
gazon lorsque la crue descend [ID: mainly Cyperus rotundus, may extend
loosely to other sedges, especially the very similar C. bulbosus].
Ϫ-׹ђs±n⍾t-ђ-dϪtϪ-t-enT-ka Ω [cpd nm, lit. “... of gazelles”]
sedge sp. cypéracée sp. [ID: reportedly Cyperus digitatus; √dt 5b].
t-Ϫ׹ђs±-t-tTh, Pl !-1-׹ђsϪTh Ω [nf] sedge spp. cypéracée spp.
[ID: various Cyperaceae].
√׹s 3 [see variant √׹z ; N √׹z]
t-Ϫ-׹ђ s u-t-tR T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] = t-Ϫ-׹+su-t-tT-md, Pl
!-1-׹ђsu-!-enT-ka = !-1-׹+su-!-enT-md Ω [nf] wooden
bowl for milk écuelle en bois pour le lait [cf. √td 1, √ks 5].
√׹sd [N √׹sd]
-ђ׹s+d-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ׹sђdA-grm T-ka, LoImpfP -׹Ϫss+d-
A-grm T-ka] Ω a) [tr] harm, ruin, destroy, waste détruire, faire mal à,
abîmer, ruiner [cf. √h1k (and noun √1h1k), √1t, √m1d, √mts 1] Ω b)
[intr] be ruined; malfunction ê. détruit, ruiné. Nominal √s-׹sd.
mϪ±-׹s+d-+n ? Ω [greeting phrase, with Partpl] what (bad) has
happened? quoi (de mauvais) est arrivé? [standard “how are you?”
greeting].
Ϫ-׹+sϪd A-grm K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹s+d-].
u׹sϪd (or: o׹sϪd)K-d T-ka, Pl u׹sϪd-+nT-ka Ω a) [nm, vbln of
-ђ׹s+d-] Ω b) [nm] spoiled or misbehaving person personne gâtée ou
impolie.
+-m-Ϫ ׹s ϪdK-d T-ka T-md, Pl 1-n-Ϫ׹sϪd-+nT-ka T-md Ω a) [nm,
Agent] waster, destroyer, trouble-maker gaspilleur, destructeur, qn qui
gâte Ω b) [nm] person who has disappeared from the community (e.g.
who has gone permanently abroad and is out of contact) personne qui a
disparu du groupe (par ex. qui a émigré et dont on a perdu la trace).
√׹sm 1 [N √׹zm]
t-+-׹+sϪm-tA-grm T-ka = t-Ϫ-׹+sϪm-tK-d, Pl !-1-׹ђsn-en
A-grm T-ka Ω [nf] house, building (in mud-brick or concrete) maison,
édifice (en banco ou en dur) [cf. √hn 3a].
√׹sm 2
e-׹+s+mT-md Ω [n] quicksand sable mouvant.
√׹snst [N √znzt (also √knkt, √znkkt)]
+׹s±ns+tT-md = Ϫ-׹s±nsђtA-grm T-ka[x⍾ђ-] = Ϫ-׹s±ns+tK-d,
Pl +׹s1ns+I-+nT-md = 1-׹s1nsђI-+nA-grm T-ka
185
= 1-׹s1ns+I-+nK-d Ω a) [nm] beetle coléoptère [T] [general
term] Ω b) [nm] dung beetle bousier (coléoptère) [K-d] [a scarabeid].
t-+׹s±ns+t-tTs, Pl !-+׹s1ns+I-enTs A-grm Ω [nm] beetle
coléoptère [general term].
√׹st [see variant √׹zt ; N √׹zt]
e-׹+s+tA-grm[x⍾+-] K-d R T-ka = e-׹+h
y
+tK-f, Pl 1-׹ђsI-Ϫn
A-grm K-d R T-ka = 1-׹ђh
y
I-ϪnK-f Ω [nm] seasonally flooded area
(with some water flow); oued (dry riverbed that fills during rains) zone
inondée saisionièrement (avec un certain écoulement d’eau); oued [cf.
√hn-s-skt, √bn׹, √׹t1b].
√׹st
׹uss+tA-grm[x׹u...] K-d R[x׹u...] T-ka[x׹u...] Ω [nm] August
août.
√׹t ### [for !-Ϫ-׹Ϫ-!-! ‘goat’ see √׹ 2; for !-eqq1!-! ‘cauterizing mark’
see √׹d 4; for !-e׹ђ-!-! ‘waterskin string’ see √׹ 4].
√׹t 1 [N √׹t]
-ђ׹tϪ-A-grm K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt +׹!K-d T-ka T-md = +׹!u A-grm,
MaPl Imprt +׹!-+! A-grm, LoImpfP -׹Ϫ!!-A-grm K-d T-ka T-md
= -׹1!!u-K-d] Ω a) [intr] be planted (in ground), be straight
(vertically); stand straight up ê. planté (dans le sol), ê. droit (vertical); ê.
dressé (verticalement) [all dialects] Ω b) [intr] go in a straight line aller
droit [K-d]. Caus √s-׹t 1a.
t-e-׹+teA-grm K-d T-ka[x⍾t-+-] Ω [nf, vbln of -ђ׹!Ϫ-].
e-m-+׹tT-ka[x⍾+-] T-md, Pl 1-n-+׹!-ϪnT-md Ω [nm] tree (general
term) arbre (en général) [in Niger means ‘sth planted’; syn: √hks (and
√sk 10] - poss: 1Sg e-n-+׹!-1nT-md.
√׹t 2 [N √׹t]
+-׹ϪtϪA-grm Gnd K-d R T-ka T-md, Pl 1-׹Ϫ!-Ϫn A-grm K-d K-f R T-ka
= 1-׹u!ϪT-md Ω a) [nm] crocodile crocodile [usual sense] [ID:
Crocodilus niloticus; cf. √znցwy] Ω b) [nm] terrestrial monitor lizard sp.
varan terrestre sp. [ID: Varanus griseus; syn: √b¸n 1, cf. √bw 3].
√׹tI [Y verb ђ׹!ђ1]
-ђ׹t+I-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ׹!ђ1A-grm T-ka, LoImpfP -׹Ϫ!!+1-
A-grm T-ka] Ω a) [intr with optional dative] be vigilant, pay attention, be
alert; act as look-out faire attention, ê. vigilant, se méfier; faire la
sentinelle [all dialects] Ω b) [intr with dative] lay an ambush for (sb)
tendre une embuscade à (qn) [K-d]. Caus √s-n-׹tI.
Ϫ-׹+tϪIA-grm T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹!+1-].
+-n-Ϫ ׹tϪIK-d, Pl 1-n-Ϫ׹!Ϫ1-+nK-d Ω [nm, Agent] highway robber
brigand.
t-Ϫ׹tϪI-tT-ka[xt-Ϫ...], Pl !-Ϫ׹!Ϫ1-enT-ka Ω [nf, vbln of
-ђ׹!+1-].
186
√׹t1 [DTF 4.1789]
-ђ׹t+1-K [Imprt ђ׹!ђJK, LoImpfP -׹Ϫ!!+J-K] Ω [tr] shoo away
(animal) by shouting chasser (animal) en poussant un cri.
Ϫ-׹+tϪ1K Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹!+J-].
√׹t1b
e-׹+t+11+bT-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-׹+!+JJ+b-+nT-ka Ω [nm] puddle,
short-lived rainwater pool; small depression capable of holding such a pool
flaque d’eau, petite mare après les pluies; petit creux dans le sol capable
de contenir une telle flaque [cf. √skt 3].
√׹tm 1 [DTF 4.1788; N √׹tm « sandale »]
e-׹+temT-ka, Pl 1-׹+!en-+nT-ka Ω [nm] spur éperon.
√׹tm 2a [<Ar √xtm ; N √׹tm]
-ђ׹t+m-K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ׹!ђnK-d T-ka, LoImpfP -׹Ϫ!!+n-K-d T-ka]
Ω [intr] finish a reading; read (Coran) out loud terminer une lecture;
réciter (le Coran) à haute voix. Caus √s-׹tm.
Ϫ-׹+tϪmK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹!+n-].
√׹tm 2b
+-׹Ϫ ttϪmK-d T-ka Ω a) [nm] night of the 27th day of Ramadan, when
Muslims stay up and recite the Koran nuit du 27e jour de ramadan où les
musulmans veillent en récitant le Coran [K-d] [God is thought by Muslims
to pass by late at night and to assign good and bad fates for the coming
year] Ω b) [nm] 27th day of a lunar month le 27e jour d’un mois lunaire
[T-ka] [cf. √hs1 1b, √ktb 1b] Ω c) [nm] one of the Muslim lunar
months un des mois lunaires musulmans [K-d].
√׹ts 1a(xts) [N √׹ts]
-ђ׹t+s-A-grm K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt ђ׹!ђsT-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-׹Ϫ!!+s-T-ka T-md] Ω a) [tr] chop (wood), hew (tree); snap (string)
couper (bois, arbre); casser (corde) [syn: see √nkd 1a] - phrase: ђ׹!ђs
s!-ђ-ksђJeT-md cut (wood) across the grain! coupe (le bois)
perpendiculairement à la fibre! Ω b) [intr] (wood) be chopped (bois) ê.
coupé. Caus √s-׹ts.
+-m-Ϫ׹tϪsT-ka, Pl 1-n-Ϫ׹!Ϫs-+nT-ka Ω [nm, Agent] cutter; wood
cutter (man with axe) coupeur; coupeur de bois (homme avec hache).
Ϫ-׹+tϪsA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹!+s-].
t-Ϫ-׹tђs-tK-d Ω a) [nf, vbln of -ђ׹!+s-] Ω b) [nm] sacrificial bull
that is brought by the groom on his wedding day taureau sacrificiel
apporté par le marié le jour de son mariage [it is chased by his friends, who
cut its hocks with a saber, then slaughter it].
Ϫ-׹tђsK-d Ω [nm] severe lower back pain douleur extrême du dos
inférieur.
-ђmm-ђ׹t+s-A-grm T-ka [Imprt n-+׹!+sA-grm T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫn-+׹!Ϫs-A-grm] Ω [intr, Mediop] be chopped ê. coupé.
187
Ϫ-m-ђ׹tϪs (or: Ϫ-m-+׹tϪs)T-ka = Ϫ-m-ђ׹tђsA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of
-ђnn-ђ׹!+s-].
e-׹etђsK-d T-ka, Pl 1-׹e!ђs-+nT-ka Ω a) [nm] cut-off straight young
branch branche coupée droite et jeune [good for making sheds] Ω b)
[nm] flexible root (used as a strap or whip) racine souple (utilisée
comme cravache ou fouet).
√׹ts 1b (qts)
-ђqqђt+s-K-d R T-ka = -ђqqђ!ђs-A-grm [Imprt ׹+!+sA-grm K-d R
T-ka = q+!+sT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1׹ђ!us-R = -!-1׹ђ!!us- (with
tt)T-ka = -!-Ϫ׹+!Ϫs-A-grm] Ω a) [intr] (e.g. thread) snap, break
(under strain); (wood) be cut (fil etc.) se casser (sous la pression); (bois)
ê. coupé [A-grm K-d T] [cf. √bd 2] Ω b) [intr] (sb) faint (and briefly stop
breathing); be delirious, rave (qn) s’évanouir (et cesser de respirer pour
un moment); délirer [T] Ω c) [intr] (sb) lose consciousness; be in a coma;
die (qn) s’évanouir, perdre la connaissance; tomber dans le coma; mourir
[K-d A-grm] Ω d) [intr] (marriage) be agreed to (by parents and holy
man) (mariage) ê. accordé (par les parents et un marabout) [K-d]
[perhaps calqued on Arabic]. Caus √s-m-׹ts.
±-qq±t+s-+nT-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg].
t-ђqq±t+s-+tT-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg].
ђqq±t+s-nenT-ka Ω [partpl, Pl].
Ϫ-׹ђtђsA-grm R Ω [nm, vbln of -ђqqђ!+s-].
Ϫ-׹ђ ttusK-d R T-ka[x⍾ђ-] Ω [nm, vbln of -ђqqђ!+s-] [likewise
with !! DTF 1.792].
Ϫ-m-׹ђttϪsT Ω [nm, vbln, recip] (e.g. pools of water) be discontinuous,
scattered (in a line) (petits lacs, etc.) ê. interrompus, constituer une ligne
discontinue [likewise with !! N and DTF 4.1793, cf. Recip verb
“metettes” DTF 4.1792 (and N)].
√׹w ### [see also √n׹w ; for -ђqqu- and variants ‘gag’ see √׹ 5]
√׹wd 1 (׹ցd) [homonyms √׹wd 2; N √׹wd]
-ђ׹w+d- A-grm K-d R T-ka [Imprt ђ׹xђdA-grm R T-ka, LoImpfP
-׹Ϫxx+d-A-grm K-d R T-ka = -׹Ϫցց+d-A-grm T-ka] Ω [tr] cut
(hide or fabric) into strips (with knife or shears) couper (une peau ou un
tissu) en bandes (avec un couteau ou des ciseaux) [syn: see √nkd 1a].
Ϫ-׹+wϪdR T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹x+d-].
√׹wd 2 (׹ցd) [<Ar √әwd, cf. N √׹wd ; homonyms √׹wd 1]
-ђ׹w+d-K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ׹xђdT-ka, LoImpfP -׹Ϫxx+d-K-d T-ka
= -׹Ϫցց+d-T-ka] Ω [tr] read aloud lire à haute voix [cf. √׹t 2a].
Ϫ-׹+wϪdK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹x+d-].
188
√׹wd 3 [N √׹wd with different sense]
e-׹ewђdIm K-d K-f T-ka = +-׹ewђdA-grm, Pl 1-׹1xϪdA-grm Im K-d
K-f Ω [nm] man’s turban turban d’homme [mainly eastern dialects]
[syn: √s-n¸d, e-!+JJ √t1 1, cf. √1b1b 1b].
√׹w1 1 [N √׹w1, DTF 4.1747]
-+׹wϪ1+-tT-ka [Imprt ׹ђx1Jђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1׹x1J1-!T-ka]
Ω [intr] (slave) be freed, be allowed to live freely (esclave) ê. libéré,
pouvoir vivre en liberté [cf. √dtI 1a]. Caus √s-׹w1.
Ϫ-׹w±1±T-ka, Pl 1-׹x1JϪ-!+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+׹xϪJ+-!].
e-׹+we1T-ka, Pl 1-׹+xeJ-+nT-ka Ω [nm] slave (male) living freely
esclave (mâle) vivant libre.
t-e-׹+we1-tT-ka, Pl !-1-׹+xeJ-enT-ka Ω [nm] slave (female) living
freely esclave (femelle) vivant libre.
√׹w1 2 (׹ց1) [N √׹w1 and DTF 4.1746 « brun »]
׹+ցցϪ1-K-d T-ka [Imprt 1׹xϪJK-d T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1׹xϪJ-K-d
T-ka] Ω [intr] (goat, camel, mixed-blood person) be brown (chèvre,
chameau, métis) ê. brun [other brownish shades: √bnw 2, √bzw, √dm 2a,
√dt 5, √Iw 3].
-׹ђցց+1-A-grm (3MaSg ±-׹...) [Imprt ׹+ցց+JA-grm R, ShImpf
-+׹+ցց+J-R, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ׹+ցցϪJ-A-grm R] Ω [intr] (goat,
camel, mixed-blood person) be brown (chèvre, chameau, métis) ê. brun.
׹+ցց+1-+nA-grm K-d R T-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] brown brun.
׹+ցց+1-+tA-grm R T-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] brown brun.
׹+ցցϪ1-nenA-grm K-d R T-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] brown brun.
t-ђ-׹u1eR T-ka = t-+ -׹u1eK-d, Pl !-1-׹uJϪx-enT-ka Ω [nf]
brownness fait d’ê. brun.
t-e-׹+ցց+1-tT-ka Ω [nf] brownness fait d’ê. brun.
t-+׹+ ցց+1-tR Ω [nf] brownness fait d’ê. brun.
√׹wn [N √׹wn]
e-׹ewђnIm K-d T-ka, Pl 1-׹exђn-+nK-d T-ka = 1-׹exnϪ-!+nIm
Ω [nm] cluster of tents (of an extended family); extended family groupe
de tentes (d’une grande famille); grande famille [cf. Ϫ-n-+zzϪ׹ √z׹ 1].
√׹ws 1a (׹ցs) [N √׹ws]
-ђ׹w+s-T-ka [Imprt ђ׹xђsT-ka, LoImpfP -׹Ϫxx+s-T-ka = -׹Ϫցց+s-
T-ka] Ω a) [tr] bite at; (animal) rip at (meat), take a rapid bite of essayer
de mordre; (animal) mordre (de la viande) en arrachant [R T] [cf. √dd 1]
Ω b) [tr] slash (sth) with a knife or blade couper (qch) d’un coup de
couteau ou de lame [T] [syn: see √nkd 1a].
Ϫ-׹+wϪsT-ka, Pl 1-׹+xϪs-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹x+s-].
√׹ws 1b
-+׹w+ss+-tK-d [Imprt ׹ђxђssђ-!K-d, LoImpfP -!-1׹xђss1-!K-d]
Ω [tr] bite deeply into mordre profondément.
189
Ϫ-׹wђss±K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+׹x+ss+-!].
√׹ws 1c [DTF 4.1750 “metoues”]
e-m-e׹wϪsT-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-ne׹xϪs-+nT-ka Ω a) [nm] feeling bad
physically fait de se sentir mal physiquement [not a specific disease]
- ex: 1-¸IϪx-\!!⍾+-ne׹xϪsT-ka he is feeling bad il se sent mal
Ω b) [nm] a livestock disease maladie d’animaux.
+-m-e׹wђsA-grm, Pl 1-ne׹x1s-+nA-grm Ω [nm] sickly person
personne maladive.
√׹ws 2 [see also variant √׹wws and Rdp √׹wsws ; N √׹ws]
-ђ׹w±s-T-ka = -+׹w±s-R [Imprt 1׹xϪsR T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1׹xϪs-
R T-ka] Ω [intr] (dog) yelp (chien) glapir [cf. √׹nsns].
t-e׹wϪs-t (or: t-±׹wϪs-t)T-ka, Pl !-1-׹xϪs-enT-ka Ω [nf] (a)
yelp cri (de chien).
-׹+w+ss+-tA-grm [Imprt ׹ђxђssђ-! A-grm, LoImpfP -!-1׹xђss1-!
A-grm] Ω [intr] [= -ђ׹x1s-].
Ϫ-׹ђwђss±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -׹+x+ss+-!].
√׹ws 3
t-± ׹wϪs-tR, Pl !-1-׹xϪs-enR Ω [nf] tiny grain-like object found in
rice bags sorte de petit grain trouvé dans les sacs de riz.
√׹ws 4 [<Latin causa ; N √׹ws ]
t-+ -׹ϪwseK-d R, Pl !-1-׹Ϫxs1x-enK-d T-ka Ω [nf] (a) matter, issue,
situation affaire, matière, situation.
√׹wsws [see variant √׹nsns, cf. √׹ws 2, √׹wws]
-+׹w+sw+s-K-d [Imprt ׹ђxђsxђsK-d, LoImpfP -!-1׹xђsx1s-K-d]
Ω [intr] (dog) yelp; (sb) whine (chien) glapir; (qn) gémir, se lamenter en
pleurant.
√׹ws [N √׹ws]
-+׹wϪs+-tA-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt ׹ђx1sђ-!A-grm T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1׹x1s1-!K-d T-ka = -!-1׹ђx1s1-!A-grm] Ω [intr] (camel,
cow) bellow (in pain); (lion) roar (chameau, vache) mugir, crier (en
douleur); (lion) rugir.
Ϫ-׹w±s±K-d T-ka = Ϫ-׹ђw±s±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -+׹xϪs+-!].
√׹wws [variant of √׹ws 2, cf. √׹wsws, √׹nsns]
-+ ׹wϪw+s-R [Imprt ׹ђx1x+sR, LoImpfP -!-1׹x1x1s-R] Ω [intr]
(dog) yelp (chien) glapir.
Ϫ-׹w±wђsR Ω [nm, vbln of -+׹xϪx+s-].
√׹y 1a [homonym √׹y 1b; for verb see √s-׹y]
t-ђ-׹uyye-t-tT-ka = t-+-׹u yye-t-tR, Pl !-1-׹uyye-!-enT-ka
= !-1-׹uyyϪR Ω [nf] (a) shout (un) cri [syn: !-e-׹+I1-!-!
√׹t 2a].
190
√׹y 1b [homonym √׹y 1a]
t-+-׹uyye-t-tK-d Ω [nf] hard blow (esp. with a stick) coup sec (surtout
avec un bâton).
√׹y 2 [perhaps N √׹y]
-ђ׹+y-A-grm K-d T-ka = -׹+y-K-d [Imprt ђ׹ђyA-grm T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-ђqqϪy-A-grm T-ka = -ђqqϪy-T-ka = -!-Ϫ׹+yyϪ-A-grm]
Ω [intr] (animal) have distended stomach (animal) avoir le ventre
ballonné.
e-׹eyT-ka|x⍾+-] A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹+y-].
√׹y 3
t-Ϫ-׹+yϪA-grm K-d R T-ka, Pl !-1-׹+yϪx-enA-grm K-d R T-ka Ω a)
[nf] hoop (any ring-shaped object, e.g. ring for waterbag in well, steering
wheel) cerceau, tout objet en forme d’anneau (par ex. le cerceau d’une
puisette, le volant d’une voiture) [all dialects] [cf. √׹ 4; well waterbag:
√¸ 5] Ω b) [nf] bow (for arrows) arc (pour les flèches) [A-grm].
t-Ϫ-׹+yϪn+-¸ϪA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [cpd nf] hoop around waterbag for
well, to which sticks !-1-dx-en are attached cerceau de puisette,
auquel sont attachés les bâtons !-1-dx-en [cf. !-e׹ђ-!-! √׹ 4,
√dw 5].
√׹y 4 [N √׹y]
-o ׹+y-K-d T-ka [Imprt Ϫ׹ђyK-d T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1׹ђy-K-d T-ka]
Ω [tr] strangle étrangler.
±qquyK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -o׹+y-].
t-+-m-Ϫ׹Ϫy-tT-ka, Pl !-1-n-Ϫ׹Ϫy-enT-ka Ω [nf] strangulation
étranglement.
-+ m-e׹+y-K-d [Imprt n-Ϫ׹+yK-d, LoImpfP -!-Ϫn-Ϫ׹ϪyK-d] Ω [intr,
passive] strangle oneself, be strangled s’étrangler.
Ϫ-m-±׹ђy (or: Ϫ-m-±׹±) Ω [nm, vbln of -+n-e׹+y-].
√׹y 5 [cf. Mauritanian currency unit ougiya (HassAr xց1yy-a )]
t-oqq±yϪ-t-t (or: t-uqq...)R T-ka, Pl !-oqq1yϪ-!-enR T-ka Ω [nf]
riyal (tiny currency unit) riyal (devise) [a colonial currency unit, now
equated with 5 francs CFA, the smallest coin in circulation] [syn: √ty1,
√ktb 3].
√׹yb [<Ar √әyb]
-ђ׹y+b-K-d [Imprt ђ׹yђbK-d, LoImpfP -׹Ϫyy+b-K-d] Ω a) [intr]
become crippled, handicapped devenir perclus, handicappé Ω b) [tr]
criticize (sb) critiquer (qn).
Ϫ-׹+yϪbK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹y+b-].
√׹yd [see variant √׹ydd ; N √׹yd or √׹d]
e-׹+ydA-grm Im R T-md[x⍾+-], Pl 1-׹+yd-+nA-grm R T-md
= 1-׹+yd-ϪnIm Ω [nm] male goat kid cabri, chevreau [cpd: see
√dn 1¸.
191
t-e-׹+yd+-t-tA-grm T-md, Pl !-1-׹+yd+-!-enT-md
= !-1-׹+yd-enA-grm Ω [nf] female goat kid chevrette.
√׹ydd [variant of √׹yd based on resegmentation of Sg]
t-e-׹+yd+t-tR, Pl !-1-׹ђydϪdR Ω [nf] female goat kid chevrette.
√׹y1
-ђ׹y+1-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ׹yђJT-ka, LoImpfP -׹Ϫyy+J-T-ka]
Ω [tr] court (a woman) courtiser, faire la cour à (une femme).
t-Ϫ-׹yђ1-tA-grm K-d T-ka, Pl !-1-׹ђyyϪJA-grm T-ka = !-1-׹yϪJ
K-d Ω [nf, vbln of -ђ׹y+J-].
√׹ym 1(׹m, qym, qm) [N √׹m, DTF 4.1711]
-ђqq±mϪ- (or: -ђqqђymϪ-)T-ka T-md = -+qq±mϪ-Im K-d K-f R [Imprt
׹ϪynGao K-d R T-md = qϪnR T-ka = ׹ϪnK-f, MaPl Imprt qϪn-+!
T-ka, ShImpf -+qqϪn-Im K-d R T-ka (3MaPl +qqϪnђ-nIm R T-ka
= +qqϪn+-nT-ka) = -+qqϪyn-Gao K-d T-md (3MaPl +qqϪynђ-n
Gao K-d), LoImpfP -!-Ϫ׹+ynϪ-Im K-d K-f R T-ka T-md] Ω a) [intr]
sit, be seated s’asseoir, ê. assis Ω b) [intr] remain, be left rester
- idiom: n-+qq1nsn+ss1n+׹K we wait for God nous attendons
Dieu Ω c) [intr] (rains, rainy season) be delayed, not come in time
(pluies, saison des pluies) ê. en retard, ne pas arriver à temps. Caus
√s-׹ym.
-ђqq±mϪ-A-grm [Imprt ׹ϪnA-grm = qϪnGao, ShImpf -+qqϪn-Gao,
-!-Ϫ׹ϪnϪ-A-grm] Ω [intr] [= -ђqq1nϪ-, variant paradigm with no
evidence for medial y]. Caus √s-׹ym.
-ђqq±mϪ-(+ -\ђdd) Ω [intr] remain, be left (here) rester (ici) - ex:
x+I-\hϪ-n-\ђddØ-+qq1nϪI!-e-sed-! K you-FeSg have
only a female donkey left il ne te-FeSg reste qu’une ânesse.
-ђqq±mϪ-(+ -\±n) Ω [intr] be sitting (there) s’asseoir (là-bas) - ex:
1-qq1nϪ-\h1nT-ka he has been sitting there (for a long time) il est
assis là-bas (depuis longtemps).
+-n-+qqϪymR, Pl 1-n-ђqquynϪR Ω [nm, Agent] sitter qn qui est
assis.
Ϫ-׹±m (or: Ϫ-׹ђym) R Ω [nm, vbln of -ђqq1nϪ-].
t-Ϫ-׹±m±-t-tA-grm Im K-d K-f R T-ka[x |t-ђ-] T-md, Pl
!-1-׹1nϪ-!-enT-ka = !-1-׹1nϪx-enR = !-1-׹1nϪA-grm
R[x⍾t-∅-׹±...] Ω a) [nf, vbln] sitting fait de s’asseoir [all dialects]
Ω b) [nf] length of time durée [T] [cf. √h¸ 1] Ω c) [nf] menstrual
period règles (de femme) [R T] [cf. cpd 1bϪnђ-nud with √b 2 ‘loss’
and √md 3 ‘prayer’] - ex: !-ђhϪ!-Ϫ-׹1n1-!-!R T-ka she is having
her period elle a ses règles.
192
√׹ym 2
-+׹y+mm+-tK-d T-ka T-md = -׹+y+mm+-tA-grm [Imprt ׹ђyђnnђ-!
A-grm T-ka T-md, LoImpfP -!-1׹yђnn1-!T-ka T-md
= -!-1׹ђyђnn1-!A-grm] Ω a) [tr] propel (skiff) with paddle or pole
pagayer, faire avancer (pirogue) à la pagaie ou à la perche [K T] Ω b)
[tr] set off on (camel) partir sur (un chameau) [K-d].
Ϫ-׹yђmm±K-d T-ka = Ϫ-׹ђyђmm±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of
-+׹y+nn+-!]
√׹yn 1(әyn, qyn) [<Ar √әyn]
-ђәәђyy+n-T-ka = -ђqqђyy+n-A-grm R [Imprt ә+yy+nT-ka
= ׹+yy+nR = qђyyђnA-grm = ׹ђyyђnA-grm, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫә+yyϪn-R T-ka = -!-1qђyy1n-A-grm] Ω [tr] witness (an
event), see (sth) with one’s own eyes ê. témoin (d’un incident), voir
(qch) de ses propres yeux [cf. √¸yh].
+-m-+qqϪyyunR, Pl 1-n-ђqquyyϪnR Ω [nm, Agent] witness
témoin.
Ϫ-әђyyђnT-ka = Ϫ-׹ђyyђnA-grm R Ω [nm, vbln of -ђәәђyy+n-].
√׹yn 2 [N √׹yn]
-ђ׹y+n-K-d R T-ka [Imprt ђ׹yђnK-d R T-ka, LoImpfP -׹Ϫyy+n-R
T-ka] Ω a) [intr] change direction, turn (left or right, in walking), veer; be
curved virer, changer de sens (en marchant); ê. courbé [cf. √ktmby,
√1¸w, √It׹ 1] Ω b) [tr] bend (sth in a curve) tordre (qch en courbe).
Ϫ-׹+yϪnR T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ׹y+n-].
√׹yt [<Ar √׹yt]
-ђqqђyy+t-Hm [Imprt ׹+yy+IHm, LoImpfP !-Ϫ׹+yyϪI-Hm] Ω [tr]
change, alter (sth) changer (qch).
Ϫ-׹ђyyђtHm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђqqђyy+I-].
√׹yt [N √׹yt or √׹t]
e -׹+ytK-d T-ka, Pl 1-׹+y!-+nK-d T-ka Ω [nm] leather (of cow);
camelskin cuir (de vache); peau de chameau.
√׹z [variant of √׹s 2; N √׹z]
Ϫ-׹ђz±Gao Ω [nm] annual sedge sp. that forms a dense turf as floods recede
« gazon », cypéracée annuelle sp. qui forme un gazon lorsque la crue
descend [ID: mainly Cyperus rotundus, may extend loosely to other
sedges, especially the very similar C. bulbosus].
√׹zb (әzb) [<Ar √әᾩb]
-ђәәђzz+b-T-ka [Imprt ә+zz+bT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫә+zzϪb-T-ka]
Ω a) [tr] torment, torture tourmenter, torturer Ω b) [intr] be tormented,
tortured; be in hell ê. tourmenté, torturé; ê. dans l’enfer.
Ϫ-әђzzђbT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђәәђzz+b-].
-+qquzz+b+-tK-d [Imprt ׹uzzђbђ-!K-d, LoImpfP -!-1׹ђzzђbu-!
K-d] Ω a) [tr] torture, cause to suffer (physically) tourmenter, faire
193
souffrir (corporellement) Ω b) [intr] be tormented, tortured ê.
tourmenté, torturé.
Ϫ-׹ђzzђbuK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+qquzz+b+-!].
√׹zI [cf. N √׹zI]
Ϫ-׹ђzzϪIT-ka[x⍾ђ-] Ω [nm] nom d’un puits nom d’un puits.
k+1⍾ђ-׹ђzzϪIT-ka Ω [cpd nmpl] a clan (mainly near Goundam) une
fraction (surtout vers Goundam).
√׹zt [variant of √׹st]
e-׹+z+tIm K-d, Pl 1-׹ђzI-ϪnIm Ω [nm] large rainy-season pond or lake
grande mare de saison des pluies.
√׹z [variant of √׹s 3]
t-Ϫ-׹ђzu-t-t A-grm, Pl !-1-׹ђzϪ A-grm Ω [nf] wooden bowl for milk
écuelle en bois pour le lait.
√׹zb (әzb) [variant of √zb or √zzb, cf. √ssb ; <Ar √ә¸b ; N √׹z]
-ђәәђzz+b-T-ka [Imprt ә+zz+bT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫә+zzϪb-T-ka]
Ω a) [intr] be amazed ê. étonné [cf. √kn 2] Ω b) [tr] astonish (sb)
étonner (qn).
-+qquz+b+-tK-d [Imprt ׹uzђbђ-!K-d, LoImpfP -!-1׹ђzђbu-!K-d]
Ω be astonished ê. étonné.
Ϫ-׹uzђbK-d Ω [nm] astonishment étonnement.
√׹zbt
Ϫ-׹+z + botK-d Ω [nm] a native sauna for inducing sweat as medical
treatment sauna traditionnel qui provoque la transpiration dans un but
médical [e.g. for male impotence; a fire is built in hole under a makeshift
thatch enclosure; when the fire dies down it is covered with cross sticks
and the patient is brought into the enclosure; cf. √׹t׹t 3].
√׹znzt [variant of √xznzt ; N √׹znzt]
-+׹z+nz+t-K-d [Imprt ׹ђzђnzђIK-d, LoImpfP -!-1׹zђnz1I-K-d]
Ω [intr] (sb) be hoarse (qn) ê. rauque.
Ϫ-׹zђnzђtK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+׹z+nz+I-].
- h -
√h ### [for +-ho see √hh].
√h 1
-\hϪ-K-d R T-md Ω [dative enclitic with following pronominal suffix, also
part of 1Sg and 1Pl direct object enclitics; variant -\Ϫ- after a consonant
or contracted -\∅- after ...Ϫ] - with pron: 3MaSg -\hϪ-s, 1Sg
-\hϪ-h1, 2Sg -\hϪ-k.
194
√h 2
-\h±K-d T-md Ω [1Sg object or dative clitic, after a preverb] - ex: x+I-\h1
1-֊׹ϪK-d T-md he didn’t kill me il ne m’a pas tué.
-\Ϫ-h±K-d T-md Ω [1Sg object or dative clitic; allomorphs -\hϪ-h1 in
some positions, and contracted -\∅-h1 after Ϫ-final verb] - ex:
1-x+!-\Ϫ-h1T-md he hit me il m’a frappé.
√h 3
-hϪ K-d T-ka T-md Ω [proximal dem adverbial morpheme; cf. -hen√hn 1].
d-±-hϪT-ka T-md Ω [adv] here ici.
d-±-hϪ-d+׹K-d T-ka T-md Ω [adv] (right) here ici (même)
[√d׹ 1b].
s-±-hϪ K-d T-ka T-md Ω [adv] this way, along here vers ici, par ici
[√s 2].
s-±-hϪ-d+׹T-md = s-±-hϪ-dђ׹T-ka Ω [adv] this way, along here
vers ici, par ici.
-h±K-d T-ka T-md Ω [proximal dem pronoun morpheme].
w-Ϫ -h±K-d T-ka T-md Ω [dem pronoun, MaSg] this celui-ci.
w-± -h±K-d T-ka T-md Ω [dem pronoun, MaSg] these ceux-ci.
t-Ϫ -h±K-d T-ka T-md Ω [dem pronoun, FeSg] this celle-ci.
t-± -h±K-d T-ka T-md Ω [dem pronoun, FePl] these celles-ci.
wђ-d±-h±T-ka Ω [dem pronoun, MaSg] that (one) celui-là.
w-en-h±T-ka Ω [dem pronoun, MaSg] that (one) celui-là.
√h 4a [homonym √h 5; N “±hu”√h with suppletive imperfective, DTF 2.495-8;
MGT 7.124-5]
-hϪ-Im K-d R T-ka T-md [Reslt -hϪ-Im K-d R T-ka T-md, Imprt 1h1
A-grm, MaPl Imprt 1h1-h+!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-1h1-A-grm]
Ω a) [tr] (sb, sth) be in (sth or sw); (e.g. emotion) be in (sb) (qn, qch)
être dans (qch), se trouver (qq part); (un sentiment, etc.) ê. dans (qn)
[physical or abstract] [imperfectives occur only in A-grm (and
Tawellemmett); other Tamashek dialects shift to √¸s 1 ‘enter’; cf. √hdt,
√1 2a, √wt 2a] - exx (see also under √hd 2, √hkt 2, √ms 3, √wn 3): 1-hϪ
b+n+koA-grm K-d T-md he’s in Bamako il est à Bamako; x+I-\!
1-hϪh+I+!A-grm T-ka there’s nothing in it. il n’y a rien là–dedans
Ω [by extension:] b) [tr] (e.g. disease) be induced or entailed by (sth)
(maladie etc.) ê. provoqué(e) par (qch) [same aspect restrictions as sense
(a)].
-hϪ-(+ -\ђdd)T-ka Ω [intr] come from (a place) être de, venir de (un
lieu) [likewise DTF 2.496] - ex: ђndeks-1-hϪs-\dђd!-ђhe-d
A-grm where did (= do) you-Sg come from? d’où est-tu venu? (= viens-
tu?)
195
-hϪ-(+ -\±n)A-grm T-ka Ω [intr] go from (a place) partir de (un lieu)
- ex: ђndeks-1-hϪs-\h1n1-hϪA-grm where did he go from (to
arrive there)? d’où est-il parti (pour arriver là-bas)?
√h 4b
±h±A-grm[x±...], Pl 1h1-!+nA-grm Ω [nm] [= !-1h1-!-!]
t-±h±-t-tA-grm R T-ka, Pl !-1h1-!-enT-ka = !-1h1 (or: !-1hђyy)
A-grm Ω [nf] origin, place of origin, homeland origine, lieu d’origine,
patrie [cf. √1s1 ; less common homonym √h 5] - poss (of Pl): 1Sg
!-1-h1-n1nA-grm.
√h 5 [much more common homonyms √h 4a-b; cf. DTF 2.498 « tomber dans ou
sur »]
-hϪ -R = -ђ hϪ-K-d [Imprt -1h1-K-d, LoImpfP -!-1h1-K-d] Ω a)
[intr plus prep d+׹] lunge at (sth, trying to grab it) sauter vers (qch pour
le saisir) [R] Ω b) [tr] chase away chasser (faire fuir) [K-d].
t-± h±-t-tK-d Ω [nf, vbln of -hϪ-].
√h 6 [possibly related to N √hy or √yw « petit fils, ... » (i.e ‘grandchild’), see
also √w 2]
ehϪT-ka[xe...], Pl ehϪ-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] newborn child (up to around 8
months) nouveau-né (jusqu’à l’âge d’environ 8 mois).
√h 7 [N √h or √w (√tw), DTF 2.500 √h]
t-uheA-grm[xt-u...] R[xt-u...] T-ka[xt-u...], Pl !-uhϪx-enR
T-ka = !-uh+yy-enA-grm Ω [nf] hump (of camel) bosse (de
chameau) [cf. √smm 1, √kmht (and √kmt 2)].
idiom: t-ђ¸ђ-d-\tt-uheT-ka Ω [phrase] you should put it out of sight
tu devrais le mettre hors de vue.
√h 8 [DTF 2.501]
heK-d T-ka Ω [interj, with following 2nd person pronoun] look out!
attention! - exx: hek+yyK-d(MaSg addressee), hek+x+nedK-d
(MaPl addressee).
±heT-ka Ω [interj] [= he] [homophonous with 1-h-\e ‘he is in it’] - ex:
1hek+yy (MaSg addressee).
√h 9 (hw) [N “tayt, teyђt” √y ; EPPB 67 and 86]
t-Ϫ-h±-t-tA-grm[x⍾t-+-] Im K-d R[xt-+-] T-ka[xt-ђ-], Pl
!-1-h1xxA-grm Im K-d R T-ka Ω a) [nf] front leg (of quadruped)
patte de devant (d’un quadrupède) [all dialects] Ω b) [nf] arm (from
shoulder to wrist) bras (de l’épaule au poignet) [K-d].
√hb 1 [N √hb]
-+hob+-tA-grm K-d R T-ka T-md = -+ hhob+-tR [Imprt hubђ-!
A-grm K-d R, ShImpf -ђhubђ-! K-d, LoImpfP -!-1hubu-!R K-d
T-ka T-md = -!-ϪhϪbϪ-!A-grm T-ka T-md] Ω [tr] drag; pull (e.g.
sheep) traîner; tirer (un mouton etc.) [syn: √stwtw].
196
+-n-+hhϪbuT-ka, Pl 1-n-ђhhubϪT-ka Ω [nm, Agent] one who drags
qn qui traîne.
+-hϪbuA-grm K-d R T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+hob+-!].
t-+-hϪb±-t-tK-d Ω [nf] (an) act of dragging (un) acte de traîner.
-+tw-+hϪb+-t = -t+w-+hϪb+-tA-grm [Imprt !ђx-ђhubђ-!A-grm,
LoImpfP -!-1!ђx-ђhub1-!A-grm] Ω [intr, Pass] be dragged ê.
traîné.
Ϫ-tw-ђhubuT-ka = Ϫ-tђw-ђhub±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of
-+!x-+hob+-!].
√hb 2 [homonym √hb 3; <Songhay hoobu]
hebuIm T-ka T-md, Pl hebu-!+nIm T-ka T-md Ω [nm] large earthenware
water jar canari à eau en terre cuite [syn: √b1b1 1, √׹ss 1a].
√hb 3 [homonym √hb 2; <Songhay heebu]
hebu Gao, Pl hebu-!+nGao Ω [nm] marketplace; (weekly) market
marché (lieu); marché (hebdomadaire) [syns √wt 2, √sk 7, √1m 4].
√hb 4 [<Songhay haabu ]
hϪbu R T-ka = hϪ buK-d, Pl hϪbu-!+nR T-ka = hϪbu-!+nK-d Ω [nm]
cotton; cotton bush coton; cotonnier [from cotton bush, Gossypium
hirsutum, cultivated in southern Mali; common syn: √dI 3, cf. e-Jes
√1s 4].
hϪbun⍾t-+-neteT-ka Ω [cpd nm, lit. “... of desert”] wild cotton bush
cotonnier sauvage [ID: Gossypium anomalum; Malvaceae; cf.
hϪbu-J+nbo, below].
√hbb
-+ hb+b+-tK-d [Imprt hђbђbђ-!K-d, LoImpfP -!-1hbђbu-!K-d]
Ω [intr] be stingy, unwilling to share (e.g. with food) ê. avare, ne pas
vouloir partager (de la nourriture, etc.)
Ϫ-hbђb±K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+hb+b+-!].
√hb-1mb
hϪbu-1+mboGao Ω [nm] wild cotton bush cotonnier sauvage [local term;
ID: Gossypium anomalum; for syn see cpd under √hb 4].
√hd 1
Ϫ-hђddT-ka[x⍾ђ-], 1-hђdd-+nT-ka Ω [nm] strand (of an unraveled
string) brin (d’une corde démêlée).
√hd 2 [for verb see √s-hd ; N √hd]
t-e-h+ddeA-grm K-d R T-ka, Pl !-1-hϪdd1x-enR
= !-1-hђddϪx-enA-grm = !-1-hђddA-grm K-d T-ka Ω a) [nf]
(sb’s) reach (going upward), height to which sb can reach (with upstretched
hands); (sb’s) height hauteur qu’on peut atteindre (les mains étirées en
haut); la taille (de qn) [A-grm T] Ω b) [nf] sexual desire; (female or
occasionally male animal) being in rut excitation sexuelle; chaleur
(d’animal femelle) ou parfois rut (d’un mâle) [R T] [cf. √bdt 3] - ex:
197
1-hϪ!-e-h+ddeT-ka he is sexually aroused il est excité
(sexuellement).
√hdds 1a [see variant √htdds]
-+hd+dd+s-T-ka [Imprt hђdђddђsT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1hdђdd1s-
T-ka] Ω [intr] make a clumsy effort (physical or verbal) faire un effort
maladroit (pour parler ou agir).
Ϫ-hdђddϪsT-ka Ω [nm] child’s clumsy effort to stand up effort
maladroit d’un enfant pour se lever.
-ђhhђdd+dd+s-R [Imprt hђddђddђsR, LoImpfP -!-1hђddђdd1s-R]
Ω [intr] speak poorly, slur parler d’une façon maladroite, mal articuler.
Ϫ-hђddђddђs R Ω [nm, vbln of -ђhhђdd+dd+s-].
Ϫ-h+dd+ ddϪs R Ω [nm] one who speaks clumsily qn qui parle d’une façon
maladroite [see also under √hdds 1b].
√hdds 1b
+-hϪd+ddϪsGnd Ω [nm] electric fish poisson électrique [uncommon
form; ID: Malapterurus electricus ; syn: √1bbs 1b].
√hd¸ [variant of √dh¸].
Ϫ-hdђ¸Gnd R, Pl 1-hdђ¸-+nR Ω [nm] aardvark oryctérope [ID:
Orycteropus afer; syn: √1w1w 3].
√hd1 1 [N √d1]
e-h+d+1A-grm K-d T-ka T-md, 1-h+d+J-+nA-grm K-d T-ka T-md
Ω [nm] young calf jeune veau [cf. √1ky 1, √snkm, √s¸t].
e-h+d+1nϪm-ϪnT-md Ω [cpd nm, lit. “...of water”] captain fish (large
cod) capitaine (poisson sp.) [ID: Lates niloticus ; syn: !-+ssn
Ϫn-Ϫn (cpd under √s 9)].
t-e-h+d+1-tA-grm K-d T-ka = t-e-h+ de1-tGnd T-ka,
!-1-h+d+J-enA-grm K-d Ω [nf] young female calf jeune veau
femelle.
t-e-h+de1-tnϪm-Ϫn Gnd = t-e-h+d+1-tnϪm-ϪnK-d Ω [cpd
nf] [= e-h+d+JnϪn-Ϫn, above].
√hd1 2 [see variant √dh1 2; N √d1]
ϪhdϪ1 (or: Ϫ-hdϪ1)Gnd K-d R[x⍾+-] T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl ϪhdϪJ-+nT-ka
= 1-hdϪJ-+nK-d R T-ka Ω [nm] cheetah guépard.
√hdndn [cf. √hdwdw]
-+hd+nd+n-K-d R T-ka [Imprt hђdђndђnR T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1hdђnd1n-R T-ka] Ω [intr] stutter; hesitate while trying to find a
word bégayer; hésiter en cherchant le mot juste.
Ϫ-hdђndђnK-d R T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+hd+nd+n-].
Ϫ-h+d+ndϪnR, Pl 1-h+d+ndϪn-+nR Ω [nm] stutterer bégayeur.
198
t-Ϫ-h+d+ndϪn-tK-d T-ka Ω [nf, vbln of -+hd+nd+n-] - phrase: X
!-ђ¸IϪx-\!⍾!-+-h+d+ndϪn-!T-ka X has an attack of stuttering
X souffre une crise de bégaiement.
√hdwdw [cf. √hdndn ; N √hdwdw]
-+hd+wd+w-Im = -h+d+wd+w-A-grm [Imprt hђdђxdђxA-grm Im,
LoImpfP -!-1hdђxd1x-Im = -!-1hђdђxd1x-A-grm] Ω [intr]
stutter bégayer.
Ϫ-hdђwdђw (or: ...du)Im = Ϫ-hђdђwdђw (or: ...du)A-grm Ω [nm, vbln
of -+hd+xd+x-].
t-Ϫ-h+d+wd+w-+tIm Ω [nf] stuttering bégaiement.
√hd ### [see √s-hd 1 ‘blow on’, ђnd-1h+dϪ ‘year before last’ (√nd 1]
√hd 1 [N √hd ; cf. +nd-+hϪd √nd 1‘last night’]
e-h+dA-grm[x⍾+-] K-d T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md, Pl 1-h+d-ϪnA-grm K-d
T-md Ω [nm] night nuit - exx: 1-¸Ϫ⍾+-h+d T-ka night has fallen;
it’s nighttime il fait nuit; la nuit est tombée; e-h+dk+x+J-+nK-d
complete night (dusk to dawn) nuit entière (du crépuscule à l’aube)
[√kw1 1 ‘black’].
se-h+dT-ka Ω [adv phrase]at night pendant la nuit.
e-h+d±T-ka = e-h+d±-d+׹K-d Ω [adv phrase]tonight cette nuit.
Ϫ-mmϪsn⍾+-h+dA-grm K-d T-md Ω [cpd nm]the middle of the night
le milieu de la nuit.
s+tt⍾+-h+dK-d Ω [cpd nfpl, lit. “daughters of ...”] Pleiades Pléiade
[7-star constellation; when it appears in east, time to get a blanket; when it
appears in west, time to get a good waterskin].
√hd 2 [N √hd ; MGT 1.74 √hhd]
-ђh+d-A-grm K-d T-ka T-md = -h+d-K-d T-md [Imprt ђhђdA-grm
T-ka T-md, LoImpfP -!-ђhhϪd-A-grm K-d T-ka T-md = -ђhhϪd-
T-ka] Ω [intr] swear, make an oath jurer. Caus √s-hd 1.
t-Ϫ-hode (or: ...hud ...) A-grm K-d[x⍾t-+-] R T-ka[x⍾t-+-] T-md,
!-1-hodϪx-en (or: ...hud...)K-d T-ka = !-1-hudA-grm Ω [nf]
oath serment [affirmation of sth in the name of God].
√hd 3 [N √hd, DTF 1.518-9 √hd]
h+ d -+nK-d Ω [partpl, MaSg] (the) other (l’)autre [with preceding definite
demonstrative, e.g. MaSg x-Ϫ ] - ex: x-Ϫh+d-+nK-d the other
l’autre.
h+ d -+tK-d Ω [partpl, FeSg] (the) other (l’)autre - ex: !-Ϫh+d-+!K-d
the other l’autre.
h+d-nenK-d Ω [partpl, Pl] others autres - ex (MaPl): x-1h+d-nenK-d
the others les autres (FePl !-1h+d-nen).
√hdd [variant of √hddy]
Ϫ-hdђduT-ka Ω [nm, vbln] (wound) being swollen (puffy) and infected
fait d’ê. gonflé et infecté (plaie, etc.)
199
√hddy [see also √hdd ; N √ddy or √hddy]
-+hd+d+y-Im K-d T-ka = -h+d+d+y-A-grm[Imprt hђdђdђyIm
A-grm T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1hdђd1y-Im K-d T-ka = -!-1hђdђd1y-
A-grm] Ω a) [intr] (wound, sore area on body) become swollen (puffy),
fester (plaie, partie du corps) enfler, suppurer [all dialects] [cf. √tn¸t]
Ω b) [intr] (sb) become angry, get mad (qn) se fâcher [T]. Cf. √s-hd 2.
Ϫ-hdђdђy (or: ...d±)Im K-d R = Ϫ-hђdђdђy (or: ...d±)A-grm Ω [nm,
vbln of -+hd+d+y-] [for T-ka see √hdd ].
√hdt [<Ar]
-ђhhђd +t-R T-ka = -ђhd+t-T-ka[Imprt h+d+IT-ka, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫh+dϪI-T-ka] Ω a) [intr] (sb) be present, be in attendance, be
around (= nearby); present oneself (qn) ê. présent, assister, ê. proche; se
présenter [R T] Ω b) [intr] (female animal) be pregnant (femelle) ê.
pleine [R].
Ϫ-hђdђrR T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђhhђd+I-].
-ђhhed+t-A-grm[Imprt h1dђIA-grm, LoImpfP -!-ϪhϪdϪI- A-grm]
Ω [intr] Ω [intr] (sb) be present, be in attendance, be around (= nearby);
present oneself (qn) ê. présent, assister, ê. proche; se présenter.
Ϫ-h±dђtA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђhhed+I-].
√hIn [variant of √hInn ; perhaps N √zInn]
t-+-hϪ In±-t-tR Ω [nf] malaria paludisme [symptoms described as
fever, yellow urine, pale skin; cf. √nd 2].
√hInn [see variant √hIn ; perhaps N √zInn]
t-+-hϪIn±n-tA-grm K-d T-ka Ω a) [nf] malaria paludisme [A-grm K-d
T-ka] [cf. √nd 2] Ω b) [nf] disease of stomach (said to be caused by
consuming too much sugar) maladie de l’estomac (attribuée à une
consommation excessive de sucre) [K-d].
√hIt
+ -hoIIϪtK-f, Pl 1-ho11ϪI-+nK-f Ω [nm] spiny fruits of Ϫ-¸+Io1 vine
fruits épineux de la croix de Malte (Ϫ-¸+Io1) [√¸tI 1; ID: Tribulus
terrestris].
√hցt ### [see √h¸t]
√h׹ 1 [N √׹, DTF 2.675]
e-h+׹eIm K-d R[x⍾+-] T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md = e-h+׹±A-grm, Pl
1-hђ׹x-ϪnK-d R T-ka T-md = 1-h+׹-ϪnA-grm = 1-h+׹Ϫx-+n
Im Ω [nm] young adult bull jeune bœuf adulte [‘bull’: √s 10, √mk 3,
√wds, √s¸ 1].
t-Ϫ-h+׹±-t-tK-d R T-ka[x⍾t-+-] = t-e-h+׹±-t-tA-grm T-ka, Pl
!-1-hђ׹x-enK-d T-ka = !-1-h+׹Ϫ-!-enA-grm Ω [nm] young
cow, heifer jeune vache, génisse [includes young first-time mothers].
200
√h׹ 2 [perhaps <Songhay haaցa, haaցu]
-+ hho׹+-tK-d R = -+ho׹+-tT-ka T-md = -ђhho׹+-t A-grm [Imprt
hu׹ђ-!A-grm T-ka T-md, LoImpfP -!-1hu׹u-!K-d R T-ka T-md
= -!-1hu׹1-!A-grm] Ω [tr] fry, cook (meat, fish, potatoes, cakes) in
oil frire, cuire à l’huile (viande, poisson, pommes de terre, gâteaux) [cf.
√ktykty 2, √kw 2].
+-hϪ׹uA-grm K-d T-ka R Ω [nm, vbln of -+hho׹+-!]
√h׹ 3 [perhaps related to √sh׹ ‘song’; N √׹]
-oh+׹-A-grm K-d R T-ka [Imprt Ϫhђ׹A-grm K-d R T-ka, MaPl Imprt
Ϫ׹h-+!R (metathesized), LoImpfP -!-1 hђ׹-K-d R T-ka (3MaPl
!-1hђ׹-+n T-ka = !-1h׹-ђnK-d = metathesized !-1׹h-ђnR)
= -!-Ϫh+׹-A-grm] Ω a) [tr] snatch, grab, take (sth) by force; take
(e.g. a child) away by force, kidnap happer, prendre de force; emmener
(un enfant etc.) de force, kidnapper [the usual sense; cf. √bt 2] Ω b) [intr
or tr] (dye) have taken hold (in a cloth) (colorant) avoir bien pris (dans
un tissu) [K-d] Ω c) [tr] (sb) parry (a blow) parer, détourner (un coup)
[K-d] Ω d) [tr] [in the following idiom type, with ‘day’ as subject]
- idiom: Ø-oh+q-\q+!⍾+-s+JK-d she was the most beautifully
dressed up on the day elle était la plus joliment habillée de la journée.
Caus √s-s-h׹.
+-m-ϪhϪ׹A-grm K-d R T-ka, Pl 1-n-ϪhϪ׹-+nA-grm = 1-n-uhϪ׹
T-ka Ω [nm, Agent] snatcher, kidnapper; pillager, one who takes by force
voleur à l’arraché, kidnappeur; brigand, pilleur, qui prend par la force.
t-+-m-ϪhϪq-qT-ka Ω a) [nf, Agent] snatcher happeuse [T-ka] Ω b)
[nf, vbln of -oh+׹-] [K-d].
t-+-m-ϪhϪq-qђn⍾Ø-m-Ϫn-netT-ka = ...-nesA-grm Ω [cpd
nf, lit. “she who has snatched her soul”, √m 4] woman who has left her
husband for good femme qui a quitté son mari définitivement [A-grm T].
Ϫhђ׹T-ka[xϪ...] Ω [nm, vbln of -oh+׹-].
t-ϪhϪq-qA-grm Ω [nf, vbln of -oh+׹-].
-+ m-eh+׹-K-d T-ka [Imprt n-Ϫh+׹T-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫn-ϪhϪ׹-T-ka]
Ω a) [intr, Mediop] (sb) be kidnapped, taken by force; (property) be
pillaged (qn) ê. kidnappé, ê. pris par la force; (biens) ê. pillé(s) Ω b)
[intr] (sb) be robbed of everything he’s worth (qn) ê. volé de tous ses
biens.
Ϫ-m-±hђ׹T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+n-eh+׹-].
√h׹ 4
t-e -heq-qK-d R[xt-+-] T-ka, Pl !-1-he׹-enT-ka = !-1-hϪ׹R[x
⍾t-Ø-] T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] = !-1-h1׹K-d R Ω a) [nf] getting food
down easily (e.g. with water) fait d’avaler de la nourriture sans difficulté
(avec de l’eau, etc.) [T-ka] Ω b) [nf] handful of food (force-fed)
poignée de nourriture (avalée de force) [R] [cf. !-eJJeq-q √1׹ 1,
201
!-Ϫ-dђkkeJ-! √dk1 (and variant √tk1)] Ω c) [nf] very small meal
très petit repas [K-d].
√h׹ 5
ho qqK-d Ω [nf] tickling fait de chatouiller [used with verb √¸ 1, plus
dative; cf. √s-d׹d׹] - ex: 1-¸Ϫ-\Ø-shoqqK-d he tickled him il
l’a chatouillé.
√h׹1 [metathesized variant of √׹h1]
t-Ϫ-h׹ђ1-tK-d, Pl !-1-h׹ϪJK-d Ω [nf] balsam-spurge, shrub sp. with
milky latex euphorbe (arbuste sp.) [ID: Euphorbia balsamifera,
Euphorbiaceae].
√h׹st [N √׹st]
e-h+׹s+tT-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-h+׹s+I-+nT-ka Ω [nm] large stormcloud
grand nuage de pluie [cf. √bn¸, √¸tk]
√hh ### [see verb √s-hh 1 ‘have miscarriage’]
√hh(h) [N √h (Pl 1ha!!an)or √w]
+-ho (or: +ho)A-grm[x+-] Im K-d[x+-] R[x+-] T-ka[x+-] T-md, Pl
+ho-!+nA-grm R = 1-hoh-ϪnIm K-d T-ka T-md Ω [nm] smoke
fumée - poss: 1Sg +-ho-n1nT-ka. See verb √s-hh 2.
t-±n+-hoK-d T-ka, Pl ђddђd!-1n+-hoT-ka Ω [cpd nm]
steamboat vapeur (bateau).
√hhs
t-+-hϪh±s-tA-grm Gao Gnd R T-ka T-md Ts = t-+-hϪhђs-tT-md, Pl
!-1-hϪh1s-enTs = !-1-hϪhђs-enT-md = !-1-huhϪsR T-ka
T-md Ω [nf] low shrub sp. often scrambled with others arbuste bas sp.
qui s’entre-mêle souvent aux autres [ID: Cadaba glandulosa, perhaps also
C. farinosa; C. glandulosa confirmed by UPWTA 1.321 and by RPRG; cf.
√b¸t 2].
√h¸ 1 (hց) [N √hց ; MGT 7.276]
-+ho¸Ϫ-Im K-d R T-ka T-md = -+hoցa-A-grm [Imprt hϪ¸Im T-ka
T-md = hϪցuA-grm, ShImpf -+hϪ¸-Im K-d R, LoImpfP
-!-ϪhϪ¸Ϫ-Im K-d R T-ka T-md = -!-ϪhϪցu-A-grm] Ω [intr]
spend a long time (sw, or doing sth) rester longtemps (qq part, ou en
faisant qch) [cf. √hk 3, √t 8 (√tw 3), √׹11 3, √z׹ 1, !-Ϫ-׹1n1-!-!
√׹ym 1].
-+ho¸Ϫ-(+ -\±n) Ω [intr] [= -+ho¸Ϫ-] [common combination] - ex:
+ho¸-+׹-\1nd+׹b+n+koT-md I was in Bamako a long time je
suis resté longtemps à Bamako.
t-+-hϪ¸±-t-tK-d R T-ka = t-+-hϪց±-t-tA-grm Ω [nf, vbln of
-+ho¸Ϫ-].
√h¸ 2 (hց) [N √wց or √hց]
+ -ho¸¸K-f R T-ka[x+-] = +-hoցցA-grm Im = + -hu¸¸K-d, Pl
1-ho¸¸-+nR T-ka = 1-hoցց-ϪnIm = 1-hu¸¸-+nK-d
202
= 1-hђ¸x-ϪnK-f = 1-hϪցց-+nA-grm Ω a) [nm] colt poulain [all
dialects] Ω b) [nm] young donkey ânon [R] [adult: √sd 1].
√h¸ 3 [N √hց]
-ђh+¸-T-ka [Imprt ђhђ¸T-ka, LoImpfP -!-ђhhϪ¸-T-ka = -ђhhϪ¸-
T-ka] Ω [tr] surprise (sb), interrupt (sb) surprendre (qn), interrompre
(qn).
e-he¸T-ka[x⍾+-] Ω [nm, vbln of -ђh+¸-].
t-e -hek-kR[x⍾t-+-], Pl !-1-he¸-enR Ω [nf] (a) surprise (une)
surprise.
√h¸ 4 (hց)
t-Ϫ -h+¸ϪK-d T-ka[xt-+-] = t-Ϫ-h+ցϪA-grm[xt-+-] Ω [nm] a
stomach disease of donkeys maladie d’estomac des ânes [symptoms:
swollen belly, pus in nose].
√h¸¸(hցց) [<Ar √᭢¸¸]
-ђhhu¸¸+¸-T-ka = -+hhu¸¸+¸-K-d R [Imprt hu¸¸ђ¸R T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1hђ¸¸u¸-K-d R T-ka] Ω [intr] do the Muslim pilgrimage to
Mecca faire le pèlerinage à La Mecque.
e-m-+hhe¸¸ђ¸K-d T-ka, Pl 1-n-ђhhu¸¸Ϫ¸K-d T-ka Ω [nm, Agent]
hajj (man who has made the pilgrimage) hadj (homme qui a fait le
pèlerinage).
Ϫ-hu¸¸ђ¸K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђhhu¸¸+¸-].
-ђhhђցց+ց-A-grm [Imprt h+ցց+ցA-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫh+ցցϪց-
A-grm] Ω [intr] [= -ђhhu¸¸+¸-].
Ϫ-hђցցђցA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђhhђցց+ց-].
√h¸t(hցt) [see variant √ցt 7; N √ցt]
t-Ϫ-hђ ¸¸Ϫt-tGnd K-d K-f R T-ka T-md Ts = t-Ϫ-hђցցϪt-tA-grm, Pl
!-1-hђ ¸¸ϪI-en K-f T-ka T-md = !-1-hђ¸I-enK-d T-ka T-md
Gos R Ts = !-1-hђցI-enA-grm Ω [nf] acacia tree sp. acacia
épineux sp. [ID: Acacia nilotica, long straight pods sold in markerts as a
medicine and for tanning].
Ϫ-hђ ¸¸ϪtGao Gos K-d K-f R T-md = Ϫ-hђցցϪtA-grm, Pl
1-hђ¸¸ϪI-+nK-d R = 1-hђցցϪI-+nA-grm K-f = 1-hђ¸I-Ϫn
T-md Ω [nm] pod of !-Ϫ-hђ¸¸ϪI-! tree gousse de l’arbre
!-Ϫ-hђ¸¸ϪI-! [subtypes: √td 3, √s¸d (√sd¸ 2)]. cpd: see √m-ks.
Ϫ-hђցցϪtn⍾ђ-k1±T-ka Ω [cpd nm, lit. “... of a slave”] herb sp.
plante sp. [ID: Spermacoce (= Borreria) radiata, Rubiaceae (small
clumpy herb resembling hair of African men); variant of Ϫ-bђցցoIn
⍾ђ-kJ1 √bցt]
√h¸y [<Songhay ha¸ey and variants]
-ђhhђ¸+y-R T-ka = -ђhhђց+y-A-grm [Imprt h+¸+yT-ka = h+ց+y
A-grm, ShImpf -+h+¸+yR, LoImpfP -!-Ϫh+¸Ϫy-R T-ka
203
= -!-Ϫh+ցϪy-A-grm] Ω [intr] (grain) be harvested (céréales) ê.
récolté. Caus √s-h¸y.
Ϫ-hђ¸ђy (or: ...¸±)R T-ka = Ϫ-hђցђy (or: ...ց±)A-grm, Pl 1-hђ¸1-!+n
R Ω [nm, vbln of -ђhhђ¸+y-].
h+¸+yT-ka[xh+¸+y] = h+ց+yA-grm, Pl h+¸+y-+nT-ka =
h+ց+y-!+nA-grm Ω [nm] harvest récolte.
√hk ### [for !-e-hek-k ‘surprise’ see √h¸ 3]
√hk 1 [see also √hkd ; N √k]
hϪkA-grm Gao K-d R T-ka Ω [prenominal quantifier] each, every chaque
[DN86 also « aussi »; for postnominal or clause-final ‘all’ see √Ik 1,
√k1 13, √׹td 1a] - exx: hϪk+-xϪdђnA-grm T-ka each man
chaque homme; hϪk!-Ϫ-n+!!A-grm R T-ka each woman
chaque femme; hϪke-׹+1(1)Gao K-d T-ka = hϪk⍾+-׹+11
A-grm each head chaque tête.
√hk 2 [completes paradigm of √kI 1]
[LoImpfP:] -hϪkk-A-grm Im K-d T-ka T-md = -hϪkkϪ-Gao Ω [tr plus
dative] give (sth to sb) donner (qch à qn) [suppletive for √kI 1].
+-m-u h+kR, Pl 1-n-uh+k-+nR Ω [nm, Agent] giver donateur, celui
qui donne.
[Pl only:] ±-hukkA-grm K-d R T-md Ω [nmpl, vbln of -ђk1Ϫ- and
-hϪkk- ‘give’] [syn: 1-su11 √sI 3] - ex: Ø-hϪ-n-\!+!⍾Ø-hukk
K-d she is generous elle est généreuse.
t-e-h+keT-ka[xt-+-], Pl !-1-hϪk1x-enT-ka = !-1-h+kϪ-!en
T-ka Ω [nf] giving; generosity fait de donner; libéralité - ex: !-ђh-\e
⍾!-+-h+keT-ka he is generous (i.e. gives a lot) il est généreux.
√hk 3 [related to √hkt]
-+ hhok+-tR T-ka = -ђhhok+-tA-grm [Imprt hukђ-!A-grm R T-ka,
LoImpfP -!-1huku-!R T-ka = -!-1huk1-!A-grm] Ω a) [intr] get
up, arise se lever [A-grm] Ω b) [intr] persist, never tire (of doing sth)
persister, ne pas se fatiguer (de faire qch), faire constamment [R T] [cf.
√h¸ 1] - ex: 1-hhok+-!d+׹!-ϪJ׹Ϫ!-en-d+׹A-grm he was in
that position for a long time il resté longtemps dans cette position.
Ϫ-hukR Ω [nm, vbln of -+hhok+-!].
+-hϪkuT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+hhok+-!].
√hkd [combination, often frozen, cf. √hk 1 ‘all’ and √d 1‘with’; DTF 2.725
“aked”]
hђkђddT-ka Ω [particle] and, as well as et, en plus.
hϪkђdK-d R Ω [particle] and, as well as et, en plus - ex: hϪkђd
⍾ђ-sђkkϪK-d even tomorrow même demain.
204
√hkk [perhaps N √kk]
Ϫ-hkђkGao Gnd K-d T-ka[x⍾ђ-] T-md Ts, Pl 1-hkђk-+nK-d T-ka
T-md Ts Ω [nm] scrambling shrub sp. arbuste sp. [ID: Combretum
aculeatum; for fruit see also √mt¸ 1].
√hkm [cf. √hkt ; N √km]
Ϫ-hђ kkumR T-ka[x⍾ђ-] T-md, Pl 1-hђkkϪnR T-ka T-md Ω a) [nm]
tent tente [T] [cf. √hkt 1a, √zkn, √nt 4, √hn 3a; ‘gear’ √s׹t 2, ‘side
of interior’ √tmk, ‘storage area inside’ √¸ 4, ‘central post’ √mnky, ‘cross-
beams’ √ns 3b or √t¸yt¸y, ‘arc-ed pole’ √s1ns1, √1b 1, √¸¸ 4, or
√1׹ 5, ‘stakes’ √¸tw (or: √¸t 2) and √s-tyty, ‘opening on side’
√s׹s׹, ‘windbreak around’ √sbt 1 (cf. verb √ty 2b, √s-ty); ‘stretch
out’ √tyty] Ω b) [nm] old tent vieille tente [A-grm R] [cf. √hkt 1a,
√bts¸].
√hks [see variants √sk 10 and √hsk ; N √sk ; DTF 1.123 (any plant)]
Ϫ-hђksT-ka[x⍾ђ-]T-md Ts = Ϫ-hђkh
y
K-f, Pl 1-hђks-ϪnT-ka T-md
Ts = 1-kh
y
-ϪnK-f Ω a) [nm] tree (in general) arbre (en général) [R]
[syn: e-n-+׹!√׹t 1, cf. √kzn] Ω b) [nm] thorny acacia tree sp.
acacia épineux sp. [R T Ts] [ID: Acacia tortilis spp. raddiana, good for
charcoal, the dominant sp. of the northern thorn scrub, hence the generic
usage; syn: !-e-s+׹eI-! √s׹t 5a, Ϫ-1+ցϪց (eastern Mali, Niger);
pod Ϫ-n+J+¸Ϫ, cf. !-Ϫ-h+ssϪ√hs and cpd under Ϫ-dϪn√dn ; cf.
also √bs׹].
√hkt 1a [cf. √hkm ; N √hkt]
e-h+ketA-grm Im K-d R T-ka[x⍾+-] = e-hђketT-md, Pl
1-h+ke!-+nR = 1-hђk!-ϪnIm R T-md = 1-hkϪ!T-ka[xђ-]
= 1-hђkϪ!A-grm Ω a) [nm] tent (made of hide) tente (en peau) [all
dialects] [cf. √hkm, √nt 4] Ω b) [nm] old tent (of sheep and goat skins)
vieille tente (de peau de mouton et de chèvre) [T] [cf. √btd 1, √bts¸].
√hkt 1b[N √kt]
[Pl only] t-±-hђkt-enK-d T-ka T-md Ω [nfpl] diaphragm (of body)
diaphragme (du corps).
√hkt 2 [related to √hk 3]
hok+tGao T-ka Ω a) [nm] restlessness, being always in motion fait d’ê.
agité, d’ê. toujours en marche [Gao] - ex: 1-h-\ehok+!Gao he’s
restless il est agité (toujours en marche) Ω b) [nm] persistance in, never
tiring of (an activity) persistance, fait de ne pas se fatiguer de (une
activité) [T-ka] - ex: 1-h-\ehok+!n⍾ђ-s-ђ¸IϪhT-ka he never
tires of looking il persiste à regarder; .
√hkz
+-hukezK-d, Pl 1-hukez-+nK-d Ω [nm] untamed donkey âne non
dressé [cf. √sd 1].
205
√h1 ### [for ‘be on the same level’ see √nmh1]
√h1 1 [N “te1e” and “t±1e” √1 with suppletive Pl √yId]
t-e-h+1eA-grm Im K-d K-f R T-ka[x⍾t-+-] T-md Ω [nf] sheep (esp.
ewe) mouton (surtout brebis) [for irregular Pl !-1-hϪ!!-en see
√ht 2].
√h1 2 (1h) [N √1]
-ђ1hϪ-A-grm Im K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt +JhA-grm Im K-d T-ka T-md,
LoImpfP -hϪJJ-Gao K-d K-f R T-ka T-md = -hϪJJϪ-A-grm Im
= -hϪJJu-A-grm] Ω [intr] weep, cry pleurer [note metathesis of
/h1/ to /1h/ when clustered; cf. √hnI, √hn׹hn׹ ; ‘tears’: √mt 5]. Caus
√s-1h.
t-Ϫ-h+1ϪA-grm Im K-d R T-ka[x⍾t-+-] T-md, Pl !-1-h+JϪx-en
A-grm = !-1-hђJJA-grm R T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] T-md Ω [nf, vbln]
weeping pleur(s).
√h1 3a [homonyms √h1 3b-d below; see √nmh1 and perhaps √s-th1 ; DTF
2.558 « attarder »]
-ђh+1-A-grm K T-ka = -h+1-K-d [Imprt ђhђJT-ka, LoImpfP
-!-ђhhϪJ-T-ka] Ω [tr] hold up, sustain; grip, hold firmly; hold back,
detain soutenir; tenir serré; retenir, retarder [cf. √dI 1].
e-he1A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђh+J-] [see also under √h1 3d].
e-he1n±detT-ka K-d Ω [cpd nm, lit. “holding the bottom”]
deterioration; being cursed détérioration; fait d’ê. maudit [√dt 2, cf.
√kdtk].
√h1 3b [homonyms √h1 3a,c; N √h1]
-ђh+1-T-ka = -h+1-K-d [Reslt -ђh+J-K-d T-ka, Imprt ђhђJT-ka,
LoImpfP -!-ђhhϪJ-T-ka] Ω [intr] dare, be daring oser, ê. intrépide
[syn: √kys].
±-h+1-+nT-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] daring intrépide.
t-Ϫho1-+tT-ka[xt-Ϫ...], Pl !-ϪhoJ-+!-enT-ka Ω [nf] daring,
brashness, fearlessness bravoure, intrépidité.
Ϫ-m-+ ho1K-d T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-n-+hoJ-+nK-d = 1-n-hϪJT-ka
Ω [nm] fearless person, one who dares personne intrépide, qn qui ose.
√h1 3c [homonyms √h1 3a-b; N √h1]
-ђ h+1-K = -h+1-K-d [Imprt ђhђJK, LoImpfP -!-ђhhϪJ-K] Ω [tr]
head to (a direction) se diriger vers (une direction) [cf. √nh1 1a,
√s-th1] - ex: ђndeØ-hϪJ-+dK-d where are you-Sg heading? où
te diriges-tu?
t-Ϫho1-tA-grm, Pl !-ϪhoJ-enA-grm Ω [nf] direction (of motion)
direction, sens (de mouvement) [syn: √¸ 3, √s-d¸ 1b, √dk 2a].
206
√h1 3d [homonym √h1 3a]
e-he1K-d R, Pl 1-heJ-+nK-d R Ω [nm] slope, side (of dune) versant,
pente (d’une dune) [see also under √h1 3a].
√h1 4 [N √h1]
Ϫ-hђ11A-grm[x⍾+-] K-d T-ka, Pl 1-hђJJ-+nA-grm T-ka Ω [nm]
natural blemish on skin, beauty spot défaut naturel de la peau, grain de
beauté.
√h1 5 [N √h1]
-ђhu1-T-ka = -+ hu1-K-d [Imprt ђhuJK-d T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1huJ-
T-ka] Ω [tr] present (sb) with small gift or greeting (on behalf of sb else)
offrir à (qn) un petit cadeau ou une salutation (de la part d’autrui). Caus
√s-h1.
-ђhu1-(+ -\ђdd) K-d Ω [tr] send a greeting to (sb) here envoyer une
salutation à (qn) ici.
-ђhu1-(+ -\±n) K-d T-ka Ω [tr] send a greeting to (sb) envoyer une
salutation à (qn).
t-ђhu1-t (or: t-ђ-hu1-t) T-ka = t-+ -hu1-tK-d, Pl !-1-huJ-en
T-ka = !-ђhuJ-enT-ka = !-1-huJϪx-enK-d T-ka Ω [nf] greeting
or small gift (delivered to sb) petit cadeau ou salutation (adressé à qn).
√h1b [Y hђJђbbђ-! ‘come loose’]
-+h1+bb+-tR = -h+1+bb+-tA-grm T-ka [Imprt hђJђbbђ-!R T-ka,
LoImpfP -!-1hJђbb1-!R T-ka = -!-Ϫh+J+bbϪ-! A-grm]
Ω [intr] (sth tied) break loose, become untied (objet attaché) se détacher,
se libérer. Caus √s-h1b.
Ϫ-h1ђbb±R T-ka = Ϫ-hђ1ђbb±A-grm, Pl 1-hJђbb1-!+nT-ka
Ω [nm, vbln of -+hJ+bb+-!].
√h1k [<Ar √h1k ; for related noun see √1h1k ; N √h1k]
-ђh1+k-A-grm K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt ђhJђkT-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-hϪJJ+k-T-ka T-md] Ω a) [tr] ruin, demolish abîmer, démolir,
détruire Ω b) [intr] be ruined; (sb) be doomed ê. gâté, abîmé; (qn) ê.
fichu [cf. √׹sd, √1t].
Ϫ-h+1ϪkA-grm K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђhJ+k-].
√h1k1k [onomatopoeic]
-+h1+k1+k-K-d T-ka [Imprt hђJђkJђkT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1hJђkJ1k-
T-ka] Ω [intr] (dog) pant (with tongue out) (chien) haleter (en sortant la
langue de la bouche) [cf. cpd e-heInun1Ϫs √ht 2].
Ϫ-h1ђk1ϪkT-ka = Ϫ-h1ђk1ђkK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+hJ+kJ+k-].
√h11 ### [for Ϫ-hJ1J1 ‘joy’ see √h1y1y].
207
√h11 1 [N √h11]
Ϫ-hu1e1T-ka = +-hu1e1A-grm K-d R T-md, Pl 1-huJeJ-+nK-d R
T-md = 1-huJϪJA-grm Ω [nm] young male donkey ânon mâle [syn:
√h¸ 3, √my 2; adult: √sd 1].
t-+-hu1e1-tK-d T-md, Pl !-1-huJeJ-enK-d T-md Ω [nm] young
female donkey ânon femelle.
√h11 2
hђ11e11eT-md Ω [nm] variety of water lily root tuber (large, potato-like)
variété de bulbe de nénuphar (gros comme une pomme de terre) [rare
term] [see √knd 2].
√h11 3
h+11e1e-h+11e1eA-grm Ω [adv] in any case, anyway en tout cas.
√h1m [Songhay haJan, haJun, etc. denote a different plant of similar habitat
Leptadenia hastata (Tamashek !-+-!oJϪ√t1 4)]
t-e-h+1+m-tA-grm K-f R T-ka T-md Ts, Pl !-1-h+J+n-enA-grm K- f
R T-ka T-md Ω a) [nf] tall semi-woody plant sp. of river and marsh with
hollow stem haute plante sp. demi-ligneuse à tige creuse du fleuve et des
mares [all dialects] [generally shorter than the similar plant √snցsnց ;
foliage said to be edible, stems used for floaters, equated in T with KS
kakaaIu ; ID: includes Sesbania rostrata or a closely related sp.,
confirmed RPRG (but taxonomy of group “sadly confused” UPWTA2
3.443), also at least one Aeschynome sp. whose hollow culm is used as a
floater] Ω b) [nf] stem (e.g. of millet) tige (de mil etc.) [A-grm].
√h1n [N √h1n or √w1n]
hu11+nT-ka = hu11ϪnA-grm K-d Ω [particle] very much, definitely;
especially très, beaucoup, certainement; surtout.
√h1n¸ y
-+h1+n¸+y-T-ka [Imprt hђJђn¸ђyT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1hJђn¸1y-
T-ka] Ω [intr] (blood) flow (from a tiny cut) (sang) couler (d’une très
petite blessure).
Ϫ-h1ђn¸ϪyT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+hJ+n¸+y-].
√h1s 1 [N √1s]
[Sg only:] +-hϪ1ђsA-grm Im K-d R T-ka T-md Ω a) [nm] man homme
[for suppletive Pl see √mdn 1] Ω b) [nm, with possessor] (sb’s) husband
époux, mari (de qn) [syn: +-n-h+IϪ¸ √ht¸ 2] - poss: +-hϪJђs-1n
T-md my husband mon mari.
ђhhu1ђsT-ka Ω [nm] manhood, manliness virilité, fait d’ê. un homme.
t-ђhhu1ђsϪK-d Ω [nf] manhood, manliness virilité, fait d’ê. un homme.
√h1s 2
e-h+1esT-ka, Pl 1-h+Jes-+nT-ka Ω [nm] moment (often in morning)
when visibility is sharp heure (souvent dans la matinée) où la visibilité
est parfaite [i.e. no dust in air].
208
√h1wt [N √1wt, DTF 3.1100 (Schouwia arabica)]
Ϫ-hђ1wϪtA-grm Gao A-grm K-d K-f R T-md Ts, Pl 1-hђJxϪ!-+nK- f
T-md Ts = 1-hђJxϪ!A-grm Ω a) [nm] herb sp. plante sp. [K T Ts]
[ID: Schouwia thebaica (= S. purpurea and S. schimperi); “alwas, alwat”
confirmed for S. schimperi UPWTA 1.569, which also gives “djirdjir”;
plant occurs in the far north] Ω b) [nm] vine sp. liane sp. [A-grm Gao
R] [described as a vine or liana in ponds in the Gourma (well south of the
range of Schouwia)].
√h1y1y [Y hђJђyJђy]
-+h1+y1+y-Im K-d T-ka T-md = -h+1+y1+y-A-grm [Reslt
-+h1J+yJ+y-Im, Imprt hђJђyJђyIm T-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-!-1hJђyJ1y-A-grm Im T-md] Ω a) [intr] (sb) be joyful (qn) ê.
joyeux [A-grm Im T] [syn: √dw 2] Ω b) [intr] become exuberant or brash
devenir fougueux, exubérant [K-d] [denoting an abrupt personality
change].
Ϫ-h1ђy1ђy (or: ...1±)K-d R T-md = Ϫ-hђ1ђy1ђy (or: ...1±)A-grm
= Ϫ-h1ђy1ϪyT-ka, Pl 1-hJђyJ1y-+nR T-md = Ϫ-hJђyJϪy-+n
T-ka Ω [nm, vbln] (children’s) joy joie (des enfants).
√hm-btց ### [see √hn-btց]
√hmys
humm+ ysϪK Ω [nm] bead necklace collier en perles.
√hn 1 [cf. demonstrative √h 3 and -en √n 2b]
-he nK-d T-md Ω [Distal morpheme in demonstrative adverbs].
s-±-henK-d T-md Ω [dem adv] that way par là.
s-±-hen-d+׹T-md Ω [dem adv] that way par là.
d-±-henK-d T-md Ω [adv] there là.
d-±-hen-d+׹K-d T-md Ω [adv] right there là-même, juste là.
√hn 2
hunA-grm K-d R T-ka Ω a) [adversative particle] but mais [A-grm]
[uncommon, cf. √msn] Ω b) [particle] than (sth) que (qch) [K-d R T]
[used with second complement of -+ss-o1- √s-I 1 ‘prefer (X to Y)’]
Ω c) [particle] well, what about ...? bon, et ...? [T].
uhu nK-d = uhђ nK-d Ω [particle] and if ... et si ... [continuation of a
biclausal conditional antecedent].
√hn 3a [N √hn]
e-h+nA-grm K-d R T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md, Pl 1-h+n-ϪnA-grm K-d T-ka
T-md Ω [nm] dwelling (home, tent, house, hut) domicile (maison,
tente, case) [cf. √׹sm 1; for possible frozen cpds see √hn-dց,
√hn-s-dk, √hn-s-d1, √hn-s-skt, √hn-s-wt, √hn-s-¸s,
√hn-z-z׹ ; ‘tent’: √hkt 1a, √hkm] - phrase: +¸e-h+n!Im T-md get
married! (lit. “make house!”) marie-toi! (litt. « fais maison! ») [said to
man or woman; similar phrase with !-Ϫ-n-ђzzuq-q √z׹ 1; cf. √dbn].
209
k+1⍾+-h+nT-ka Ω a) [cpd nm] people of the same family personnes de
la même famille Ω b) [cpd nm] natives (old families) of the place gens
(vieilles familles) du lieu.
t-e-h+nn±-t-tK-d Ω [nm] mediocre home (where a guest is not well
received) maison médiocre (où un étranger n’est pas bien accueilli)
[pejorative].
-+honϪ-A-grm Im K-d R T-ka T-md [Imprt hϪnA-grm Im K-d T-ka T-md,
ShImpf -+hϪn-K-d, LoImpfP -!-ϪhϪnϪ-A-grm Im K-d R T-ka
T-md] Ω [intr] move out (esp. to a new camp or town déménager
(surtout à un nouveau campement ou village) [cf. √s-mswt, √z1y 1b; for
‘move camp’ see √ց1 3].
Ϫ-h±nR = Ϫ-h±n±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -+honϪ-].
[Pl only:] ±-hϪn-ϪnA-grm T-ka = ± -h±n-ϪnK-d Ω [nmpl, vbln of
-+honϪ-]
√hn 3b
hђnn±T-ka[xhђ...] = h+nn±A-grm[xh+...] Im K-d R T-md, Pl
(uncommon) h+nn1-!+nA-grm = h+nn+y-R Ω [nf, inalienable]
(sb’s) wife épouse (de qn) [Pl uncommon, usually replaced by
!-1-ded-en ‘women’; cf. √mt 4] - poss of Sg stem: 1Sg hђnn1T-ka
= h+nn1A-grm[xh+...] Im K-d = h+nne-׹R T-md = hђnne-׹
T-ka, 2MaSg hђnn1-kT-ka = h+nn1-k A-grm R; 3Sg hђnn1-sT-ka
= h+nn1-sA-grm Im R T-md = hђnn1-sT-ka - poss of Pl: 1Pl
h+nn+y-n+׹R - phrase: h+nn1-snђbbϪA-grm the wife of my
father (= my mother’s co-wife) l’épouse de mon père (= ma marâtre, la
coépouse de ma mère) [cf. √Imb].
√hn 3c
h+nϪ-K-d R Ω [nf, inalienable] [obscure form, attested in the following
phrase].
+bϪ!1-ss+Jh+nϪ-nK-d T-ka [exclamation of surprise, said to a
woman who has fallen, been frightened, etc.; version addressed to a male is
... h+nϪ-k]
√hn 4 [N √hn]
t-ђ-hun-tT-ka = t-+ -hon-tR T-md = t-+-hun-tA-grm Im K-d
= t-Ϫ-hon-tT-md, Pl !-1-hunA-grm Im K-d R T-ka T-md Ω a)
[nf] (a) stone caillou, pierre [all dialects] [syn: √kdy, cf. √s1 6, √d׹׹]
Ω b) [nf] battery (e.g. for radio) pile [A-grm T] [syn: p1J].
√hn 5 [DTF 2.612 (Heliotropium suffruticosum)]
t-Ϫ-hђnnϪT-ka = t-Ϫ-h+ nnϪK-f, Pl !-1-h+nnex-enK-f Ω [nf] herb
sp. plante sp. [ID: Heliotropium ramosissimum (= H. undulatum = H.
bacciferum); cf. !-ϪbϪn⍾∅-sed-Ϫn √b 4, 1n⍾+-׹+1
n+JJ-+n √׹I q].
210
√hn-btց [cf. e-hϪn √hn 2, √bt¸ 4]
t-Ϫ-h+m-b+tok-kGao, Pl !-1-hђn-bђIϪցGao Ω [nf] type of soft,
edible gum from acacias sorte de gomme molle comestible des acacias
[cf. √bt¸ 4, √b1׹1׹].
√hn-dց [√hn 3a plus √dց 1; DTF 1.176]
e-h+n-d+ցցA-grm Im K-d T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-h+n-d+ցց-ϪnIm K-d
T-ka = 1-h+n-d+ցց-+nA-grm Ω a) [n] location, place (where sth is)
lieu (où on est), emplacement [A-grm T] [cf. e-d+ցց] - ex:
e-h+n-d+ցց-ђnn+k A-grm (the place) where you are là où tu es
Ω b) [n] time (instance) fois [K-d R] [with numeral: ‘once’, ‘twice’, etc.;
syn: √1mt 2, √n 14].
√hndy [<Songhay (KS) hundey]
hu nd+yK Ω [adv particle] extremely, excessively avec excès,
démesurément.
√hndtt
Ϫ-h+nd+totR T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md, Pl 1-h+nd+IoI-+nR T-md
= 1-hђndђIϪIA-grm T-ka T-md Ω a) [nm] whirlwind; severe
sandstorm that darkens the sky tourbillon; vent de sable intense qui
noircit le ciel [R T] [cf. !-+-hoz-!√hz 2] Ω b) [nm] light wind (with
some dust) vent léger (qui lève un peu de poussière) [A-grm].
t-Ϫ-h+nd+tot-tK-d Ω [nm] nonsense, lies sottises, mensonges [syn:
!-Ϫ-d+Iok-k √dtk].
√hnI [N √hnI]
-+hn+II+-tK-d T-ka = -h+n+II+-tA-grm [Imprt hђnђ11ђ-!A-grm
T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1hnђ111-!Gao K-d T-ka = -!-1hђnђ111-!
A-grm] Ω [intr] moan, groan; groan rhythmically (gasping) gémir;
gémir de façon rythmique (en haletant) [cf. √׹nns, √zt 1].
Ϫ-hnђII±T-ka = Ϫ-hђnђII±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -+hn+11+-!].
√h-n׹ 1
-\hϪ-n+׹-K-d R T-ka T-md Ω [1Pl dative or object clitic, variant of
-\Ϫ-n+׹] - ex: x+I-\hϪ-n+׹1-֊׹ϪT-md he didn’t kill us il ne
nous a pas tués.
√hn׹ 2 [Rdp √hn׹hn׹ ; N √hn׹]
-+hn+qq+-tK-d T-ka [Imprt hђnђqqђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1hnђqq1-!
T-ka] Ω [intr] hiccough; make a hiccough-like sound (e.g. when hit)
avoir le hoquet; émettre un bruit comme le hoquet (lorsqu’on est frappé,
etc.)
Ϫ-hnђqq±T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+hn+qq+-!].
t-Ϫ-hnђqq±-t-tT-ka = t-Ϫ-hn+qqe-t-tK-d = t-Ϫ-h+n+qqϪ-t-t
Gao Ω a) [nf] hiccup hoquet [all dialects] Ω b) [nf] schwa (letter “ђ”)
schwa (lettre “ђ”) [Gao T-ka] [vowel in modern Tuareg orthography].
h+n+qqϪK-d Ω [n, in the following cpd]
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±nh+n+qqϪK-d Ω [cpd nm] condition causing hiccup-like gasping
maladie qui provoque des halètements qui ressemblent au hoquet.
√hn׹hn׹ [Rdp of √hn׹]
-+hn+׹h+n+׹-K-d [Imprt hђnђ׹hђnђ׹K-d, LoImpfP
-!-1hnђ׹hђn1׹-K-d] Ω [intr] (child) sob softly with a hiccup-like
rhythm (enfant) sangloter en hoquetant.
Ϫ-hnђ׹hђnђ׹K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+hn+׹h+n+׹-].
e-h+ne׹h+ne׹K-d [nm] rhythmical sobbing sanglots rythmiques.
√hn׹n׹ [N √hn׹n׹ with different sense]
-+hn+׹n+׹-T-ka [Imprt hђnђ׹nђ׹T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1hnђ׹n1׹-
T-ka] Ω [intr] act like a dandy, like a hotshot rouler des mécaniques.
Ϫ-hnђ׹nђ׹T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+hn+׹n+׹-].
√hn׹ty [N √n׹t]
Ϫ-h+֊׹+ttϪyA-grm K-d T-ka, Pl 1-h+֊׹+IIϪy-+nA-grm T-ka Ω a)
[nm] uncastrated adult male donkey âne mâle adulte non castré [A-grm
T-ka] [cf. √n׹t, √sd 1] Ω b) [nm] child who weeps or talks noisily
enfant qui pleure ou parle bruyamment [K-d].
√hn¸(hnց) [N √wnց « conjonctivite », DTF 2.615]
-ђ hhunn+¸-R T-ka = -+hhunn+¸-K-d [Imprt hunnђ¸R T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1hђnnu¸-R T-ka] Ω [intr] suffer from conjunctivitis (eye disease)
souffrir de conjonctivite.
Ϫ-hu nnϪ¸R Ω [nm, vbln of -ђhhunn+¸-].
Ϫ-hђ nnϪ¸K-d R T-ka Ω [nm] conjunctivitis, an eye malady involving
sticky secretions (requires frequent washing) conjonctivite, maladie
oculaire caractérisée par des secrétions visqueuses (il faut laver les yeux
fréquemment).
√hn¸m 1 [N √hnցm, DTF 2.617]
-ђhhђn¸+mm+-tT-ka [Imprt h+n¸+nn+-!K-d T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫh+n¸+nnϪ-!T-ka = K-d -!-1hђn¸ђnnu-!K-d] Ω [intr]
murmur; hum (a song); (e.g. lion) emit a low growl murmurer;
chantonner; (lion etc.) émettre un grognement sourd.
Ϫ-hђn¸ђmm±T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђhhђn¸+nn+-!].
t-Ϫ-hђn¸ђmme-t-tK-d Ω [nm] murmuring, humming fait de murmurer
ou chantonner.
√hn¸m 2
t-Ϫ-hђn¸ђm-t T-ka, Pl !-1-hђn¸ϪnT-ka Ω [nf] grass sp. graminée
sp. [ID: Tetrapogon cenchriformis; UPWTA 2.368 gives Tam “tadjemait”
for this sp.].
√hn¸t [<Songhay (KCh) hen¸eIe]
h+n¸+teGnd = hђn¸ђteA-grm T-ka = h+n¸ђteT-ka = h+n¸+teR
T-ka, Pl hђn¸ђIe-!+nT-ka = h+n¸+Ie-!+nR Ω [nm] fish sp. with
212
large scales poisson sp. à grandes écailles [known to river people; ID:
Heterotis niloticus].
√hnk׹ [cf. KCh ha֊kaa, KS aJka֊ey]
Ϫ-h+֊k+׹ϪT-ka T-md, Pl 1-h+֊k+׹Ϫ-!+nT-ka T-md Ω [nm] large
stone (used as part of 3-stone oven) grande pierre (faisant partie d’un
foyer à trois pierres) T [syn: e-k+de √kd 3; N gives unrelated
“asakkado”√kdw « foyer de cuisine (fait de trois pierres) »].
√hnkw1
-+hn+kw+1-K-d [Imprt hђnђkxђJK-d, LoImpfP -!-1hnђkx1J-K-d]
Ω [intr] (person, animal) stagger, sway (under the weight of a load)
(personne, animal) chanceler, tituber (sous le poids d’un fardeau).
Ϫ-hnђkwђ1K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+hn+kx+J-].
√hnn 1 [N suffix “-n±n”« de naguère, de tout à l’heure, ... »]
±-hђnn± nK-d T-md = ±-h+nn±nT-ka = e-h+nn±nA-grm Ω [nm]
previously; a little while ago avant, auparavant; il y a quelque temps
[arguably segmentable as 1-hђnn1n].
√hnn 2 [<Ar √᭢nn ; N √hnn].
-+hon+n-A-grm K-d R T-ka [Imprt hunђnA-grm R T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1hunun-K-d R T-ka = -!-ϪhϪnϪn-A-grm] Ω a) [intr plus
dative] have pity on avoir pitié de [A-grm K-d T] - ex:
+hon+n-+׹-\Ϫ-sT-ka I pity him j’ai pitié de lui (d’elle) Ω b) [intr
plus purposive clause] be incited, spurred (to do sth) ê. incité (a faire
qch) [R] - ex: +hon+n-+׹yϪ-\d+֊׹-+׹+-xϪdђnR I was
incited to kill a man j’ai été incité à tuer un homme. Caus √s-hnn.
Ϫ-hunђnA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+hon+n-].
t-+-hϪn±n-tA-grm K-d R T-ka T-md, Pl !-1-hunϪnA-grm K-d T-ka
T-md Ω [nf] pity, mercy pitié, miséricorde [used with verb -od+n-
√dn 2b or √¸tw 1a] - exx: odϪn-+׹-\Ϫ-s!-+-hϪn1n-!T-ka I
pity him j’ai pitié de lui; !-ђ¸I+x-\!+!!-+-hϪn1n-!R she felt
pity elle a eu la pitié.
√hnn 3 [N √hnns or √hnns ; Y also hђnunђ-!]
-+hn+n+-tT-ka = -h+n+n+-tA-grm [Imprt hђnenђ-!A-grm T-ka,
LoImpfP -!-1hnђn1-!T-ka = -!-1hђnђn1-!A-grm] Ω [intr]
(horse) neigh (cheval) hennir.
Ϫ-hђnђn±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -+hn+n+-!].
√hn-s-dk [√hn 3a plus √s-dk 2b, cf. √dk 2].
ђ-hђn-s-ϪdђkK-d T-ka = Ϫ-hђn-s-ϪdђkA-grm, Pl 1-hђn-s-udϪk
A-grm K-d T-ka Ω [nm] good camping spot bon emplacement pour un
campement.
√hn-s-d1 [√hn 3a, √d1 1]
ђ-hђn-s-Ϫdђ1T-ka, Pl 1-hђn-s-udϪJT-ka Ω [cpd nm] playing field
terrain de jeu.
213
√hn-s-skt [√hn 3a plus √s-skt].
-h+n-s-+sk+t-A-grm [Imprt hђn-s-ђskђIA-grm, LoImpfP
-!-1hђn-s-ђsk1I-A-grm] Ω [intr] (object) be placed in a stable
position (e.g. so it won’t tip over) (objet) ê. bien placé (de façon à ne pas
tomber, etc.) Caus √s-hn-s-skt.
Ϫ-hђn-s-ђskђtA-grm T-ka Ω a) [nm] low area where water will collect
after rains dépression où l’eau s’arrête après les pluies [T] [cf. √׹st,
√bn׹] Ω b) [nm] stable position (of an object) position stable (d’un
objet) [A-grm].
√hn-sw [perhaps contains √hn 3a; N √hnsw, DTF 2.621]
Ϫ-h+n-s+wϪHm K-d, Pl 1-h+n-s+xϪ-!+nK-d Ω [nm] forge forge.
√hn-s-wt [√hn 3a plus √s-wt 4a]
Ϫ-hђn-s-ђwђtT-ka[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-hђn-s-ђxϪ!T-ka Ω a) [nm] act of
crossing (= fording) a river fait de passer un fleuve à gué - ex: +¸
Ϫ-hђn-sђxђ!T-ka cross the river! passe le fleuve à gué! Ω b) [nm]
ford, place where river can be crossed gué, lieu où il est possible de
traverser le fleuve à pied [cf. √ywn 2].
√hn-s-¸s [√hn 3a plus √s-¸s 1a]
ђ-hђn-s-Ϫ¸ђsT-ka, Pl 1-hђn-s-u¸ϪsT-ka Ω [cpd nm] entranceway
entrée, chemin pour entrer [opp: √s-btbt].
√hnst [N √nzt or √nzt]
-ђhhunsϪt-A-grm T-ka = -+hhuns+t-K-d [Imprt hunsђIA-grm T-ka
T-md, LoImpfP -!-1hђnsuI-K-d T-ka = -!-Ϫh+nsϪI-A-grm]
Ω [intr] have a nose-bleed saigner du nez [cf. √s-nst].
Ϫ-hunsђtA-grm K-d T-ka T-md Ω [nm, vbln] nose-bleed saignement
de nez.
ђ-hunsetT-ka Ω [nm] blood (in nose) sang (au nez).
√hny 1(nhy) [hn metathesizes to nh unless separated by a vowel; N √ny or
√ny ; MGT 7.102]
-ђnh+y-A-grm K-d R T-ka[Imprt ђnhђyR K-d T-ka, LoImpfP
-hϪnn+y-A-grm K-d R T-ka T-md] Ω [tr] see; foresee, foretell
voir; prévoir, prédire [‘look’: √s-¸th, √kyd 1a-b, √swd 1, √s-¸ 2,
√s1m].
+-m-Ϫ nhϪyK-d T-ka Ω a) [nm, Agent] one who sees qn qui voit [K-d
T-ka] Ω b) [nm] fortune-teller diseur de bonne aventure [K-d] [tosses
cowrie shells to foretell the future of his clients].
Ϫ-h+nϪyA-grm R T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђnh+y-] - phrase: 1-JϪ
Ϫ-h+nϪyK-d he is good as foreseeing the future il est fort pour
prévoir l’avenir.
t-+-m-ϪnhϪy-tK-d T-ka, Pl !-1-n-ϪnhϪy-enT-ka Ω a) [nf] one who
sees qn (fém.) qui voit Ω b) [nf] eyeglasses; mirror lunettes; miroir
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m-ђnhuyA-grm[xmђ...] K-d T-ka, Pl n-ђnhuy-+nA-grm T-ka Ω [nm]
sth visible, view; appearance; clear view, clear visibility qch de visible,
vue; apparence; vue claire, visibilité.
-ђmm-ђnh+y-K-d [Imprt n-+nh+yK-d, LoImpfP -!-Ϫn-+nhϪy-K-d]
Ω [intr, Recip] see each other se voir (l’un l’autre).
Ϫ-m-ђnhђyK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђnn-ђnh+y-].
√hny 2
t-Ϫ-hђnn+y-tT-ka Ω [nf] being unsatisfied (always wanting more) fait
de ne pas ê. satisfait (de vouloir constamment davantage) - ex: 1-JϪ
!-Ϫ-hђnn+y-!T-ka he is always unsatisfied il n’est jamais satisfait.
√hn-zb [ √hn 3a plus √zb 1]
+-h+n-zϪbbuA-grm K-d T-ka, Pl 1-hђn-zubbϪA-grm K-d T-ka Ω a)
[nm] (traveler’s) host (in another town) hôte qui reçoit (un voyageur,
dans un autre village) [all dialects] Ω b) [nm] place (in bush or desert)
where one can stop for the night endroit (dans la brousse ou dans le
désert) où on peut passer la nuit [K-d].
t-+-h+n-zϪbbu-t-tK-d R T-ka, Pl !-1-hђn-zubbϪK-d R T-ka Ω a)
[nf] female host logeuse [A-grm T] Ω b) [nf] (male or female) host
logeur, logeuse [K-d R] Ω c) [nf] man who functions as intermediary
between sellers and buyers at animal market homme qui sert
d’intermédiare entre vendeurs et acheteurs au marché du bétail [A-grm].
√hn-z-z׹ [√hn 3a plus √z-z׹]
ђ-hђn-z-Ϫzђ׹T-ka = +-h+n-z-Ϫzђ׹A-grm K-d R, Pl
1-hђn-z-Ϫzђ׹-+nT-ka = 1-hђn-zuzϪ׹A-grm K-d R T-ka Ω a)
[nm] inhabited area zone habitée [A-grm T] Ω b) [nm] surroundings,
environment environnement [A-grm K-d].
√ht ### [for !-ђhhђIu-!-!‘spaciousness’ see √htw 2]
√ht 1 [regional form (Songhay haJ and variants), perhaps related to Ar
᭢a!!aa ; N “hat”, etc.; cf. also ϪI √t 2]
hϪtA-grm Im K-d T-ka T-md Ω [conjunction] until jusqu’à ce que -
phrases (see also under √y1 1; perhaps part of √htkk].
hϪt±kϪd±T-md meanwhile en attendant.
hϪtϪ-sђkkϪT-ka until tomorrow jusqu’à demain.
hϪtђmmenT-md Ω [interrog] when? quand? (and variants, see √mn 1)
hϪtw-ϪIm T-ka Ω [phrase] not yet pas encore [see also frozen variant
h+IxϪ√htw 3; syn: √sd׹]
√ht 2 [N √ht ; MGT 1.76 <*√hht]
-ђh+t-A-grm R T-ka = -h+t-K-d T-md [Imprt ђhђIA-grm R T-ka
T-md, LoImpfP -!-ђhhϪI-A-grm K-d R T-ka T-md = -ђhhϪI-
T-ka] Ω a) [intr] (e.g. pot) be covered; (door, store) be closed (marmite,
etc.) ê. couvert; (porte, boutique) ê. fermé Ω b) [tr] shut (door); block;
215
cover (pot) fermer (porte); boucher; couvrir (marmite) [cf. √׹I1 ; opp:
√t 3 ‘open’]. Instr nominal √s-ht.
e-hetA-grm K-d T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-heI-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of
-ђh+I-].
e-hetnunIϪsK-d T-ka Ω [cpd nm, lit. “shutting of breath”] panting,
being out of breath fait d’ê. étouffé, à bout de souffle [cf. √h1k1k].
t-e-het-tA-grm K-d T-ka[x⍾t-+-] Ω a) [nf] obstruction of light (e.g.
through a doorway) fait de bloquer la lumière (à travers une porte, etc.)
[T] - phrase: ђkkђs-\Ϫ-h1!-e-heI-!T-ka get out of the doorway
for me (= so I can see)! ôte-toi de la porte pour moi (= pour que je puisse
voir)! Ω b) [n] asthma asthme [A-grm K-d].
-+tw-+h+t-T-ka [Imprt !ђx-ђhђIT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1!x-ђh1I-
T-ka] Ω [intr, Pass] be closed, shut ê. fermé.
Ϫ-tw-ђhђtT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+!x-+h+I-].
√ht 3 [N √ht ; MGT 1.76 <*√hht]
-oh+t-A-grm K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt ϪhђIA-grm T-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-!-1hђI-A-grm T-ka T-md] Ω [tr] have (sth) in common; do together
avoir (qch) en commun; faire ensemble [another ex under √hw1 1a] - ex:
oh+I-+n+-s1֊kK-d they shared a meal (= they ate together) ils
ont pris un repas en commun (= ils ont mangé ensemble). Caus √s-ht 2.
Ϫ-hϪtA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -oh+I-].
t-±htϪA-grm[xt±...] Ω [nm, vbln of -oh+I-].
t-Ϫ-hђt-tT-ka Ω [nf, vbln of -oh+I-] [homophonous to !-Ϫ-h+I-!
√ht 5].
-+mm-oh+t-T-ka [Imprt n-Ϫh+IT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫn-ϪhϪI-T-ka]
Ω a) [intr, Mediop] (sth) be held in common (qch) ê. possédé en
commun Ω b) [intr, Mediop] (e.g. rendez-vous) be agreed on (rendez-
vous, etc.) ê. convenu.
Ϫ-m-±hђtT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+nn-oh+I-].
-+mm-oh+t-T-ka [Imprt n-uhђIT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1n-uhuI-T-ka]
Ω [intr, Mediop] [= -+nn-oh+I-, different imperfectives].
Ϫ-m-uhђtT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+nn-oh+I-].
√ht 4 [N √ht]
-+hot+-tA-grm K-d T-ka T-md = -+ hhot+-tR [Imprt huIђ-!A-grm
R T-ka T-md, LoImpfP -!-1huIu-!K-d R T-ka T-md
= -!-1huI1-!A-grm] Ω [tr] track (e.g. an animal), follow the tracks
of pister, suivre les traces de (animal etc.) [cf. √s-wt 4b].
+-hϪtuA-grm K-d R T-ka T-md, Pl 1-hϪIu-!+nT-ka = 1-huIu-!+n
T-ka T-md Ω [nm, vbln] tracking, following the tracks fait de suivre les
traces.
216
√ht 5 [N √ht, DTF 2.640]
Ϫ -h+ttK-d K-f R T-ka[x⍾+-] = Ϫ-h+tA-grm[x⍾+-] Gao Im[x⍾+-],
Pl ehI-ϪnA-grm Gao Im K-d K-f R T-ka[xe...] = 1-h+II1-!+n
A-grm Ω a) [nm] lion lion [known in T, but less common there than
syn √w׹s] Ω [by extension:] b) [nm] brave man, hero (un) brave, héros
[T].
t-e-h+tt±-t-tA-grm R = t-Ϫ-h+tt±-t-tK-d, Pl
!-1-h+IIϪ-!-enA-grm R = !-1-h+II1-!-enA-grm K-d
Ω [nf] lioness lionne.
t-Ϫ-h+t-tA-grm, Pl !-1-h+II1-!-enA-grm = !-1-h+IIϪ-!-en
T-ka Ω [nf] [= !-e-h+II1-!-! ; homophonous to !-Ϫ-hђI-!
√ht 3].
√ht 6 [<Songhay huuIa]
hutϪ Gnd Ω [nm] fish sp. with pointed snout poisson sp. à gueule pointu
[known to river people] [ID: Mormyrus rume].
√ht 7 (htw) [N √htw]
e-h+teA-grm K-d R T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-hђIx-ϪnR T-ka = 1-h+IϪx-+n
A-grm K-d Ω [nm] wealth, possessions; herd of livestock (belonging to
sb) richesse, biens; troupeau de bétail (de qn).
k+1⍾Ø-h+tϪw-+nA-grm T-ka Ω [nmpl] transhumant people (who
migrate with herds) transhumants.
t-Ϫ-htu-t-tA-grm K-d R T-ka T-md, Pl !-1-hIu-!-enA-grm K-d R
T-ka Ω [nf] (small) herd (petit) troupeau.
√ht 8 [<Songhay (KS h1II1)]
h+tt±A-grm, Pl h+II1-!+nA-grm Ω [nm] boundary (between two fields)
limite (entre deux champs) [syn: √ցm 1, cf. √mk 4, √1xdd].
√ht 9 [N √ht, DTF 2.640]
+-hϪtϪA-grm Im K-d R T-ka, Pl 1-hϪI-ϪnA-grm Im R T-ka Ω [nm]
saltlick, salty earth terre salée [licked by livestock animals] [syn:
√knkn 2, cf. √s-1׹ 6].
√ht 10
hђtt±!K-d R T-ka Ω [interj] come on, I dare you! vas-y, je te défie!
[challenging addressee to carry out a feat or threat; cf. !-ђnnϪz! √mz].
√ht 11 [perhaps related to √htw 1; DTF 2.659]
t-Ϫ-huteA-grm K-d[x⍾t-ђ-] T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-], Pl !-1-huIϪx-en
A-grm K-d T-ka Ω a) [nf, vbln of -ђhh+I+x- √htw 1] [T] Ω b) work
of art; product (of artisan or metalsmith) objet d’art; produit (d’un artisan
ou d’un forgeron) [K-d] Ω c) occupation, trade; activity métier; activité
[A-grm].
√htdds [variant of √hdds]
+-h+td+ddϪsA-grm, Pl 1-h+Id+ddϪs-+nA-grm Ω [nm] electric fish
poisson électrique [ID: Malapterurus electricus ; syn: √1bbs].
217
-h+td+dd+s-A-grm [Imprt hђIdђddђsA-grm, LoImpfP
-!-1hђIdђdd1s-A-grm] Ω [intr] make a clumsy effort (physical or
verbal) faire un effort maladroit (pour parler ou pour agir).
Ϫ-hђtdeddђsA-grm Ω [nm] tingling (as from an electric shock)
impression de recevoir un choc électrique.
√htdn [N √htdn]
t-e-h+td+n-tT-ka[x⍾t-+-] A-grm, Pl !-1-h+Id+n-enA-grm T-ka
Ω [nf] native three-stringed guitar (lute) luth à trois cordes.
√htdds ### [see √hdds]
√htdn [<HassAr √᭢ttn ; N √htdn]
Ϫ-h+tdϪnK-d T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-h+IdϪn-+nT-ka Ω [nm] hartani
(Arabic-speaking freed slave) hartani (esclave affranchi arabophone).
√ht׹ 1 [see variants under √htt ; DTF 2.663 “ehetat”, perhaps N √ht׹]
-+hot+׹-T-ka [Imprt huIђ׹T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1huIu׹-T-ka] Ω [tr]
fear, be afraid of avoir peur de, craindre [chiefly in T-ka] [cf. √ksd ,
√mts, √¸dd 2].
e-m-+hhetђ׹T-ka, Pl 1-n-+hheIђ׹-+nT-ka = 1-n-ђhhuIϪ׹T-ka
Ω [nm, Agent] one who is afraid qn qui a peur.
Ϫ-hutђ׹T-ka[x⍾+-] Ω [nm, vbln of -+hoI+׹-].
e-hetϪ׹T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-heIϪ׹-+nT-ka Ω [nm] fear peur.
√ht׹ 2 [variant of √׹th 1]
-ђhhђt׹+-tT-k [Imprt h+I׹+-!T-ka T-md, LoImpfP -!-Ϫh+I׹Ϫ-!
T-ka] Ω [tr] farm (a field) cultiver, labourer (champ).
Ϫ-hђt׹±T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђhhђI׹+-!].
√hth׹ [Y hђIuhђI ‘migrate’]
-+ htϪh+׹-K-d R T-ka = -h+tϪh+׹-A-grm [Imprt hђIuhђ׹A-grm R
T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1hIuhu׹-K-d R T-ka = -!-1hђIuh1׹-A-grm]
Ω a) [intr] migrate (to another region) émigrer (dans une nouvelle
région) [T] Ω b) [intr] be in a hurry ê. pressé [A-grm] Ω c) [intr] flee
fuir [K-d].
Ϫ-htuhђ׹K-d R T-ka, Pl 1-hIuhu׹-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of
-+hIϪh+׹-].
t-+h+teh+q-qA-grm Ω [nf, vbln of -+hIϪh+׹-].
√ht¸ 1 (htց) [N √tց, DTF 2.643 ; MGT 1.69, 7.277]
-ђhhut¸+-tT-ka = -+hhut¸+-tK-d R = -+hutց+-tA-grm [Imprt
huI¸ђ-!R T-ka T-md = huIցђ-!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-1hђI¸u-!
K-d R T-ka = -!-1huIց1-!A-grm] Ω [tr] see in dream, dream of (sth
good in the future) voir en rêvant, rêver de (qch de bon à venir) [cf.
√mnwnw].
Ϫ-hђt¸uT-ka = Ϫ-hђtցuA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђhhuI¸+-!].
t-ђ-hut¸±-t-tT-ka, Pl !-1-huI¸ϪT-ka Ω [nf, vbln] dream rêve.
218
t-+-hotց±-t-tA-grm, Pl !-1-hoIցϪx-enA-grm = !-1-huIցϪ
A-grm[x⍾t-ђ-] Ω [nf, vbln] dream rêve.
t-+-hϪt¸±-t-tK-d R T-md, Pl !-1-huI¸ϪK-d R Ω [nf, vbln] dream
rêve.
√ht¸ 2 [N √htց, √ntց]
-ђhhђt+¸-T-ka [Imprt h+I+¸T-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫh+IϪ¸-T-ka]
Ω [intr, plus optional prep d ‘with’] be or become a neighbor ê. ou
devenir voisin.
Ϫ-hђtђ¸R T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђhhђI+¸-].
-+ het+¸-K-d [Imprt hϪI+¸K-d, LoImpfP -!-ϪhϪIϪ¸-K-d] Ω [intr]
[= -ђhhђI+¸-].
Ϫ-h+to¸K-d R T-ka, Pl 1-h+Io¸-+nT-ka Ω [nm] neighborliness, being
neighbors voisinage, fait d’ê. voisins.
Ϫ-h+tϪ¸R Ω [nm] [= Ϫ-h+ Io¸].
-+n-hϪt+¸-R [Imprt n-ђhuIђ¸R, LoImpfP -!-1n-huIu¸-R]
Ω [intr] be a neighbor ê. voisin.
-+n-h+t+¸-T-ka [Imprt n-ђhђIђ¸T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1n-hђI1¸-
T-ka] Ω [intr] be a neighbor ê. voisin.
Ϫ-n-hђtϪ¸(or: Ϫ-n-h+tϪ¸) T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+n-h+I+¸-].
+n-h+tϪ¸Im K-d R T-ka, Pl +n-h+IϪ¸-+nIm K-d R T-ka Ω [nm] male
neighbor; (woman’s) husband voisin; mari (d’une femme) [cf. √h1s 1] -
poss: 1Sg +-n-h+IϪ¸-ђnnes her husband son mari [used
respectfully].
t-+n-h+tϪk-kK-d T-ka, Pl !-+n-h+IϪ¸-enT-ka Ω [nf] female
neighbor voisine.
√ht¸d [cf. hϪI √ht 1 ‘until’ and √¸d 1, cf. √¸dd׹]
hђt¸ud±K-d Ω [adv] still; (not) yet encore, toujours; (pas) encore - ex:
!-ђJJe-dd-1-hϪhђI¸ud1K-d you-Sg are still here tu es
toujours là ; x+I-\dØ-osϪhђI¸ud1K-d he hasn’t come yet il
n’est pas encore venu.
√ht¸¸m
Ϫ-h+t¸ђ¸¸ђmK-d R[x⍾+-] T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md Ts = Ϫ-h+tցђցցђm
A-grm, Pl 1-h+I¸ђ¸¸ђn-+nT-ka T-md Ts = 1-hђIցђցցϪnA-grm
Ω [nm] medicinal herb sp. plante médicinale sp. [ID: Senna (= Cassia)
italica, Leguminosae-Papilionaceae; syn: √¸t¸t 2].
Ϫ-d+ցցϪ1ђnh+t¸ђ¸¸ђm T-md[cpd nm, lit. “in-law of ...”] fairly tall,
semi-woody leguminous plant sp. plante légumineuse semi-ligneuse sp.
[T (uncommon)] [ID: Senna obtusifolia (= Cassia tora); syn: cpd under
√d1׹ 1].
219
√htk [DTF 2.654 « respecter »]
-+ht+kk+-t K-d T-ka T-md = -h+t+kk+-tA-grm [Imprt hђIђkkђ-!
A-grm T-ka T-md, LoImpfP -!-1hIђkkϪ-T-md = 1-!-1hIђkk1-!
K-d T-md = 1-!-1hђIђkk1-!A-grm] Ω a) [tr] gain, find (sth)
gagner, trouver (qch) [T] [cf. √¸tw 1a] Ω b) [tr or with clausal
complement] notice remarquer [A-grm K-d] - ex: ђh1I+kke-׹
Ϫ-\s-\dђd1-!-Ϫsd1-hϪA-grm I’ve noticed that he (often)
comes here) j’ai remarqué qu’il vient ici (souvent) Ω c) [tr] treat (sb)
respectfully traiter (qn) avec respect [K-d].
Ϫ-htђkk±K-d T-ka = Ϫ-hђtђkk±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of
-+hI+kk+-!].
√htkk [may contain hϪI √ht 1; N √tkk and √htkk]
hϪtku kK-d T-ka Ω [particle] frequently, constantly fréquemment,
constamment - ex: 1-kkϪse-n-+sJ1hϪIkukT-ka it (e.g. engine)
makes noise constantly il (moteur, par ex.) fait du bruit constamment.
√htm [see variants ϪIђnne √m 3c, hϪIђnnen √mn 1]
hϪtђmmeA-grm = h+tђmme K-f Ω [interrog adv] when? quand? [for
onset see hϪI ‘until’ √ht 1; syn: √mn-d¸ ; cf. ђn- √n 6] - ex: hϪIђnne
!-Ϫsђ-d-\d1A-grm when are you-Sg coming? quand viendras-tu?
√htn¸ y
-+ht+n¸Ϫy+-tK-d T-ka [Imprt hђIђn¸uyђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1hIђn¸uyu-!T-ka] Ω a) [intr] dig here and there creuser çà et
là [T-ka] [cf. √׹s 1] Ω b) [intr] stab deeply (with knife) piquer
profondément (avec un couteau) [K-d].
Ϫ-htђn¸uyuT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+hI+n¸Ϫy+-!].
√htnn [N √htnn]
-ђhhђtn+n-K-d T-ka [Imprt h+In+nT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫh+InϪn-
T-ka] Ω [intr] (dog) give out a low growl (chien) gronder.
Ϫ-hђtnђn K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђhhђIn+n-].
√htt [cf. √ht׹ 1]
-ђhhet+t-Gao = -+ het+t-R [Imprt huIђIA-grm R, LoImpfP
-!-1huIuI-R = -!-1huI1I-A-grm] Ω [tr] be afraid (to do sth),
have stage fright avoir peur (de faire qch), perdre courage [cf. √mts].
t-e-he tϪt-tR T-ka = t-+-hetϪt-tA-grm, Pl !-1-heIaI-enT-ka
= !-1-huIaIA-grm Ω [nf] uneasiness, fear, stage fright peur,
manque de courage.
√htt¸ [see variant √tt¸]
-+ht+tt+¸+-tT-ka [Imprt hђIђIIђ¸ђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1hIђIIђ¸1-!T-ka] Ω [tr] bind tightly (on all sides) attacher
fermement (de tous les côtés).
220
Ϫ-htђttђ¸±T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+hI+II+¸+-!].
√hts [N √hts « rouge (cheval) », DTF 2.663 « gris alouette »]
h+tϪsK-d T-ka [Imprt h+I+sT-ka = 1hIϪsK-d T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1hIϪs-K-d T-ka = -!-Ϫh+IϪs-T-ka] Ω [intr] (e.g. cow) be
dark grey (vache etc.) ê. gris foncé.
h+tϪs-+nT-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] dark grey gris foncé.
h+tϪs-+tT-ka = h+t+ s-+tK-d Ω [partpl, FeSg] dark grey gris
foncé.
h+tϪs-nenT-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] dark grey gris foncé.
t-+hh+t+s-tK-d T-ka Ω [nf] dark grey (color) (couleur) gris foncé.
Ϫ -htϪsK-d T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-hIϪs-+nT-ka Ω [nm] dark grey one
celui qui est gris foncé.
t-Ϫ-htϪs-tK-d Ω [nf] dark grey one (cow) une (vache) qui est gris
foncé.
√htt [N √htt or √ttt ; MGT 1.73]
h+t+tA-grm[xh+...] K-d T-ka[xh+...] T-md, Pl h+I+!-+nA-grm K-d
T-ka Ω [nm] thing; something chose; quelque chose - exx: h+I+!ђn
XT-ka a little (of) X, some X un peu de X, de l’X [X = any NP]; x+I
!-1-hϪh+I+!T-ka there’s nothing in it il n’y a rien là–dedans.
√htw ### [see also under √ht 7]
√htw 1 [for related noun see !-Ϫ-huIe √ht 11; DTF 2.658]
-ђhhђt+w-K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt h+I+xT-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫh+IϪx-K-d T-ka T-md] Ω [tr] forge (metal object); produce,
create (work of art) forger (objet en métal); produire, créer (œuvre d’art)
[distinct from √tw 1a ‘give birth’].
e-m-+hh+t+wK-d, Pl 1-n-+hh+I+x-+nK-d Ω [nm, Agent] artisan
artisan.
√htw 2 (ht)
h+ tϪw-K-d R T-md T-ka = hђtђw-A-grm T-ka T-md [Imprt 1hIϪx
A-grm K-d R T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1hIϪx-A-grm K-d T-ka T-md] Ω a)
[intr] (e.g. courtyard) be spacious, wide (in two dimensions) ê. ou
devenir spacieux, large (en deux dimensions) Ω b) [intr] (sb) be tolerant,
broad-minded, cool-headed (qn) ê. tolérant, avoir du sang-froid, ê.
calme.
h+tϪw-T-ka T-md = hђtђw-A-grm [Imprt hђIђxT-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫh+IϪx-A-grm R T-ka T-md] Ω [intr] [= h+IϪx-, with different
imperfectives, cf. those of √htw 1].
hђtђw-+nA-grm T-ka T-md Ω [partpl, MaSg] spacious, wide; cool-headed
spacieux, large; calme.
hђtђw-+nK-d Ω [partpl, MaSg] [= hђIђx-+n].
h+tϪw-+nA-grm T-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] [= hђIђx-+n].
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hђtђw-+tA-grm T-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] spacious, wide; cool-headed
spacieuse, large; calme.
h+tϪw-+tA-grm T-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] [= hђIђx-+!].
hђtђw-nenT-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] spacious, wide; cool-headed spacieux,
large; calme.
h+tϪw-nenA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] [= hђIђx-nen].
t-ђhhђ tu-t-tK-d T-ka Ω [nf] spaciousness fait d’ê. spacieux.
√htw 3 [N √htw]
h+twϪA-grm Ω [particle] not yet pas encore [frozen variant of hϪIx-Ϫ,
lit. ‘until this’; syn: √sd׹].
√hty [DTF 2.654 (have ears speckled with white)]
h+tϪy-A-grm K-d R T-ka [Imprt h+I+yT-ka = 1hIϪyA-grm R, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫh+IϪy-T-ka = -!-1hIϪy-A-grm R] Ω a) [intr] be inept or
sloppy (at work), behave poorly ê. gauche, faire un travail peu soigné,
mal se comporter [A-grm T] Ω b) [intr] be ugly ê. vilain, laid [R].
h+tϪy-+nA-grm K-d R T-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] sloppy; ugly qui agit
avec négligence; laid.
h+tϪy-+tA-grm R T-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] sloppy; ugly qui agit avec
négligence; laide.
h+tϪy-nenA-grm R T-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] sloppy; ugly qui agissent avec
négligence; laids.
t-+hh+t+y-tA-grm K-d R T-ka Ω [nf] sloppiness; ugliness fait d’ê.
gauche; laideur.
√htymn [perhaps <KS hoI1]
+-hotђyϪmђnGao R T-ka = +-hotђyϪmђntGnd = hotђyϪmђnGos, Pl
1-hoIђyϪnђn-+nR T-ka = hoIђyϪnђn-!+nGos Ω [nm] grains of
bourgou grass bђI¸u graine de bourgou bђI¸u [ID: Echinochloa
stagnina; extended by some speakers to other similar grains].
√htynn [N √tynn]
Ϫ-h+t+ynϪnA-grm T-ka, Pl 1-h+I+ynϪn-+nA-grm T-ka Ω [nm]
venom (e.g. of snake) venin (de serpent etc.)
[Pl only:] ±-h+t+yn-+nK-d Ω [nmpl] [= Ϫ-h+I+ynϪn].
√hs ### [for !-+-hoz-! ‘cloud of dust’ see √hz 2]
√hs 1 [DTF 2.676]
t-Ϫhђs-t (or: t-Ϫ-hђs-t)K-d R[x⍾t-ђ-] T-ka[xt-Ϫ...], Pl
!-Ϫhђs-enT-ka Ω [nf] large man-made fire grand feu allumé par qn
[cf. √Iw 1].
t-Ϫ-hђs-tn⍾+-IewR Ω [cpd nf] big flames (from kindling) grande
flamme (d’un feu de brindilles).
√hs 2
-+hosϪ-A-grm K-d T-ka [Imprt husA-grm K-d T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1husu-K-d T-ka] Ω a) [intr] (skin, hair) be dry (= be in need of oil
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or water) (peau, cheveux) ê. sec (= manquer d’huile ou d’eau) [K-d T]
Ω b) [intr] (sb) feel like eating meat (after not having any for a long time)
(qn) désirer manger de la viande (après n’en avoir pas eu pendant
longtemps) [A-grm].
Ϫ-husA-grm K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+hosϪ-].
√hs 3
hђss!T-ka Ω [interj] shoo! (to a cow) pschtt! (à une vache).
√hs 4
e-hesT-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-hes-+nT-ka Ω [nm] light to moderate rain
pluie légère ou modérée [syn: √dbdb 1b, cf. √dmdm 3].
√hsk [for noun ‘beauty’ see √hsy ; N verbs based on √hsy ; EPPB 188]
-+hhusk+-tT-md = -ђhusk+-tT-ka = -+husk+-tA-grm K-d R
[Imprt huskђ-!R A-grm T-ka T-md, LoImpfP -!-1hђsku-!K-d R
T-ka T-md = -!-1husk1-!A-grm] Ω [intr] be pretty, good-looking,
attractive; be well-made, good ê. beau, joli; ê. bien fabriqué, bon. Caus
√s-hsk.
±-huske-nT-ka = Ø-+huske-nA-grm K-d R Ω [partpl, MaSg] pretty;
good joli; bon.
t-ђhuske-tT-ka= t-+huske-tA-grm K-d R Ω [partpl, FeSg] pretty;
good jolie; bonne.
ђhusk+-t-nenT-ka = +husk+-t-nenA-grm K-d R Ω [partpl, Pl]
pretty; good jolis; bons.
√hsy [for verb see √hsk ; N √hsy, DTF 2.676; EPPB 188]
[Pl only:] t-±-husϪyA-grm T-ka T-md Ω [nfpl] beauty beauté [cpd: see
under √¸dd and phrase under √mzt].
√hs ### [see √mhs]
√hs 1 [N √hs]
t-Ϫ-h+sϪK-d T-ka = t-Ϫ-h+ssϪT-md = !-Ϫ-hђssϪ A-grm, Pl
!-1-h+ss1x-enT-md Ω [nf] ripe pod of Ϫ-hђkstree (ready to fall)
gousse mûre de l’arbre Ϫ-hђks (prête à tomber) [cf. √m1¸, √sn¸t].
√hs 2
e-hesT-ka, Pl 1-hes-+nT-ka Ω [nf (usually Pl)] baggage bagages.
√hsk [variant of √hks]
Ϫ-hђskK-d R[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-hђsk-ϪnK-d R Ω a) [nm] tree (in general)
arbre (en général) [syn: e-n-+׹!√׹t 1] Ω b) [nm] thorny acacia
tree sp. acacia épineux sp. [ID: Acacia tortilis spp. raddiana].
√hs1 1a [N √hs1 or √s1]
-ђhhuss+1-T-ka = -+hhuss+1-K-d = -+huss+1-A-grm K [Imprt
hussђJA-grm T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1hђssuJ-K T-ka
= -!-1huss1J-A-grm Gao = -!-Ϫh+ssϪJ-Gao] Ω [tr] be
obligatory on, be a duty on (sb) ê. obligatoire à, ê. un devoir à (qn) [cf.
√1zm, √Itd] - exx: Ø-+huss+J-\Ϫ-h1Ϫ-\d+qqϪn-+׹A-grm I
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am obligated to remain je suis obligé de rester ; Ø-+huss+J-\!
Ϫ-\dØ-+qq+ynK-d he must stay il doit rester. Caus √s-hs1.
Ϫ-hussђ1K-d T-ka, Pl 1-hђssuJ-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of
-ђhhuss+J-].
t-+-hϪss±1-tA-grm K-d T-ka, Pl !-1-hϪss1J-enT-ka
= !-1-hђssϪJA-grm Ω [nf] duty, obligation obligation, devoir
[syns √Itd 2, √ktd 4a, √1wzb 1, √1zm].
hђss±1T-ka, Pl hђss1J-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] obligation obligation [see
also under √hs1 1b-c].
√hs1 1b
hђss±1T-ka, Pl hђss1J-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] night when the new moon is
certain to appear (often the 29th of the lunar month) nuit où l’arrivée de
la nouvelle lune est certaine (souvent le 29 du mois lunaire) [see also under
√hs1 1a,c; cf. √ktb 1b, √׹tm 2b].
√hs1 1c [cf. +ss1J √s1 6]
h+ s s ±1R[xh+...], Pl h+ss1J-+nR Ω [nm] disaster that is impossible to
escape from malheur qu’il est impossible d’éviter [see also under
√hs1 1a-b; can be used as an invariant predicate form] - ex:
!-oIhђnnϪx-enh+ss1JR diseases are an unavoidable calamity
les maladies sont un malheur inévitable.
√ht### [for !-Ϫ-h1-!-! ‘front leg’ see √h 5; for !-1-h1-!-! ‘origin’
see √h 4].
√ht 1 [N √ht, DTF 2.677]
e-h+ttA-grm K-d R T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-h+!-ϪnA-grm K-d R T-ka T-md
Ω [nm] Songhay (man) (homme) songhay.
t-e-h+t±-t-tA-grm K-d R T-ka T-md, Pl !-1-h+!Ϫ-!-enA-grm K-d
T-md Ω [nf] Songhay (woman); the Songhay language (femme)
songhay; langue songhay.
√ht 2
[Pl only:] t-±-hϪtt-en (or: ...-hϪt-t-en)A-grm K-d K-f R T-ka T-md
Ω [nfpl] sheep moutons, ovins [irregular Pl of !-e-h+Je √h1 1].
√ht 3
-ђhhutt+-tT-ka [Imprt hu!!ђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1hђ!!u-!T-ka]
Ω [tr] press (sb) persistently (to do sth) presser constamment (qn de faire
qch).
Ϫ-hђttuT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђhhu!!+-!].
√htn [see variant √tn 2; N √tn, DTF 2.680 √htn]
Ϫ-hђ tt±nR T-ka[x⍾ђ-] = Ϫ-h+tt±nK-d T-md, Pl 1-hђ!!ϪnR T-ka
Ω [nm] calabash or other spherical container covered with hide, with small
opening at top, for butter calebasse ou autre récipient sphérique couvert
de peau, à petite ouverture, pour le beurre [subtype: √s¸n 2].
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t-Ϫ-hђ tt±n-tR T-ka = t-Ϫ-h+tt±n-tK-d, Pl !-1-hђ!!ϪnK-d R
T-ka T-md Ω a) [nf] tin can boîte de conserve [T] Ω b) [nf] small box,
often wooden, with lid or cover (e.g. for snuff tobacco) petite boîte,
souvent en bois, avec un couvercle (pour le tabac à priser, etc.) [K-d R T]
[‘box’: see √dt 3] Ω c) [nf] small tobacco container made of hide petit
récipient en peau pour le tabac [R].
√hts [see variant √ths ; N √ts, DTF 2.680 √hts]
Ϫ-htђsR T-ka[x⍾ђ-] T-md, Pl 1-h!ђs-+nR T-md T-ka = 1-hђ!s-Ϫn
T-md = 1-h!ϪsT-ka[x⍾ђ-] T-md Ω [nm] tall acacia-like tree
balanzan (arbre) [ID: Faidherbia albida, Leguminosae-Mimosaceae;
syn: √׹tzz; pod = √n׹m 1, cf. √m1¸].
√hw ### [for !-1-h1xx‘front legs’ see Pl of !-Ϫ-h1-!-!√h 5; for Pl
!-uhϪx-en ‘humps’ see !-uhe √h 7]
√hw 1 [N √wt or √wt]
t-+-hϪw-tA-grm Gao Gnd K-d T-ka T-md Ts = t-+-hϪww (or:
t-+hϪww)K-f R = t-+-hϪwT-ka, Pl !-1-hϪxx-enA-grm Gao K-d
K-f T-ka T-md Ts = !-+hϪx-!enR Ω [nf] chameleon caméléon
[ID: Chamaeleo sp.].
√hw 2 [cf. √w 2 ‘be born’]
hђwwϪT-ka, Pl hђxxϪ-!+nT-ka Ω [nf] stage; first stage (of growth);
segment, unit (of a process, e.g. a boxing round) stade; premier stade (de
qch); unité, division (d’un processus, par ex. un round de boxe) - ex: ׹oI
hђxxϪx-Ϫ+zzϪI-+nT-ka in its first stage dans son premier
stade.
√hwhw
h+wh+w!A-grm T-md Ω [interj] barking of dog (onomatopoeia) aboiement
(onomatopée).
-ђhhђwh+w-A-grm Im K-d T-ka T-md = -+hhђwh+w- (or: -+hhuh+w-)
R [Imprt h+xh+xA-grm T-ka T-md, LoImpfP -!-Ϫh+xhϪx-A-grm
Im T-ka T-md] Ω [intr] (dog) bark (chien) aboyer [syn: √s 7].
Ϫ-hђwhђwIm K-d R T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђhhђxh+x-].
√hw1 1a [perhaps N √w1]
Ϫ-hђwwϪ1T-ka, Pl 1-hђxxϪJ-+nT-ka Ω [nm] plan, idea; direction
projet, idée; direction (sens) - ex: ohϪI-+nϪ-hђxxϪJT-ka they’re
going in the same direction; they have the same idea ils vont dans le
même sens; ils ont la même idée [cf. √ht 3].
√hw1 1b[questionably related to √s-w1 2; N √w1]
Ϫ-h+ wwϪ1K-d Ω [nm] sound, nose bruit, son.
-+ hew+1-K-d [Imprt h1xђJK-d, LoImpfP -!-ϪhϪxϪJ-K-d] Ω [intr]
(sb) make a sound, speak (qn) émettre un son, parler.
Ϫ-h±wђ1K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+hex+J-].
225
√hwt [N √hwt]
Ϫ -hwϪtK-d T-ka, Pl 1-hxϪI-+nT-ka Ω [nm] wool tapestry (blanket)
hung on walls couverture en laine accrochée au mur.
√hy 1 [for feminine see √hyw ; parallel to √¸y 2 (¸yw); N √hyw, √yw].
Ϫ-h+yϪA-grm Im K-d R[x⍾+-] T-ka T-md, Pl 1-h+yϪ-!+nT-md
= 1-h+yϪx-+nA-grm Im K-d R T-ka Ω [nm] grandson; grandchild
(sex unspecified) petit-fils; petit-enfant (sexe non spécifié) - poss: 1Sg
Ϫ-h+yϪ-n1nT-md, Pl 1-h+yϪ-!+n-1nT-md.
√hy 2 [perhaps <Songhay hoo‘hunt’]
-ђhhuyy+-tT-ka = -+hhuyy+-tIm K-d R T-md = -+hoyy+-tA-grm
[Imprt huyyђ-!A-grm Im R T-ka T-md, LoImpfP -!-1hђyyu-!K-d
R T-ka T-md = -!-Ϫh+yyϪ-!A-grm] Ω [intr] hunt, go hunting aller
à la chasse [syn: √¸mt 1b].
+-m-+hhϪyyuA-grm Im R T-ka, Pl 1-n-ђhhuyyϪA-grm Im R T-ka
Ω [nm, Agent] hunter chasseur.
+-m+ s-hϪyyuR, Pl 1-nђs-huyyϪR Ω [nm] hunter chasseur.
+-hoyyA-grm R T-ka[x+-...] Ω [nm] hunt, hunting chasse.
±n+-hoyy+zzϪt-+nT-ka Ω [cpd nm] dog hunting for the first time
chien qui va à la chasse pour la première fois.
±n+-hoy-+zzϪ tϪGnd Ω [cpd nm, partially frozen] venomous snake
sp. serpent venimeux sp.
√hy 3 [N √hy, √yy]
[Pl only:] t-±hϪyA-grm[xt-±...] K-d R T-ka[xt-±...] T-md Ω [nfpl]
darkness ténèbres, obscurité.
√hy 4 [<Songhay hoy, 1aku-hoy]
ho yGnd = hoyyA-grm[xho...] K-d R[xho...] T-ka T-md Ts, Pl
hoy-!+nK-d R T-ka T-md Ts Ω a) [nm] green sauce (served on rice);
herb sp. whose leaves are used in green sauce sauce verte; plante sp.
dont les feuilles sont utilisées dans la sauce verte [all dialects] [ID: leaves
of the cultivated Corchorus fascicularis, Tiliaceae; secondarily from either
of two wild Corchorus spp.; syn: 1+ko-hoy, cf. 1Ϫku √Ik 5] Ω b)
[nm] okra (used in sauces) gombo (utilisé dans la sauce) [A-grm] -
poss: 1Sg hoyy-1nA-grm T-md.
√hy 5 [N √hy]
t-e -h+y-tR[x⍾t-+-], Pl !-1-h+yy-enR Ω [nf] stubbornness,
perseverance entêtement, tête dure, persévérance - ex: Ø-hϪ-\∅-h1
⍾!-+-h+y-!R I am (or was) stubborn je suis (ou j’étais) têtu.
√hyd
+hoydK Ω [particle] [attested once, appears to have exhortative force].
√hyd׹
eh+yd+׹R Ω [particle followed by PerfP clause] be about to, be on the verge
of ê. sur le point de, faillir [cf. √dt׹ 2] - exx: eh+yd+׹od+-nR
226
they-Ma were about to fall; they nearly fell ils étaient sur le point de
tomber; ils ont failli tomber; eh+yd+׹ode-׹R I nearly fell j’ai
failli tomber.
√hyd [“ahoyyaցh” for this sp. for Algeria, FS 148; likewise DTF 2.547 √hyt
(Cleome arabica, old term for C. amblyocarpa)]
+-hoyyϪdK-d K-f, Pl 1-hoyyϪd-+nK-f Ω [nm] herb sp. plante sp. [ID:
Cleome amblyocarpa, Capparaceae; smells when rubbed, toxic; cf.
√1mxynz].
√hyց [<Songhay (KCh, KS) hayցa]
h+yցϪGos T-md = h+yցϪTs, Pl h+yցϪ-!+nTs Ω [nm] aquatic grass sp.
graminée aquatique sp. [known to river people; ID: Panicum
subalbidum, grows in shallow-water floodplains].
√hy¸ 1(hyց) [N √hyց with different sense]
h+yyo¸T-ka[xh+...] = +-h+yoցA-grm, Pl h+yyo¸-+nT-ka
= 1-hђyyϪցA-grm Ω [nm] wound, cut blessure, plaie [syn: √bws].
-ђhy+¸-K-d R T-ka [Imprt ђhyђ¸R T-ka, LoImpfP -hϪyy+¸-R T-ka]
Ω a) [intr] be cut, wounded (by a thorn or blade) ê. blessé, piqué (par une
épine ou une lame) [T] Ω b) [intr] limp, favor one foot (because of a
wound on the other one) boiter, marcher en s’appuyant plus sur un pied
(à cause d’une blessure à l’autre) [K-d R].
+-m-ϪhyϪ¸T-ka Ω [nm, Agent] sth that causes a wound (thorn, blade)
qch qui provoque une blessure (épine, lame).
Ϫ-h+yϪ¸K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђhy+¸-].
Ϫ-h+yo¸K-d Ω [nm] limp, having a bad leg fait de boiter, d’avoir une
jambe qui fait mal.
√hyn 1 [homonyms √hyn 2; N √yn]
t-+-hϪyneIm R T-ka T-md = t-e-h+yne A-grm, Pl !-1-hϪyn1x-en
A-grm Im R T-ka T-md Ω [nf] gum (in teeth) gencive [often in Pl].
√hyn 2 [homonyms √hyn 1; N √n, √yn, and √ny]
t-e-h+yneA-grm R T-ka[x⍾t-+-] T-md, Pl !-1-hϪyn1x-enT-md R
A-grm Ω [nf] date datte [ID: usually sweet imported dates from the true
date palm Phoenix dactylifera, rarely the “wild date” √bt׹ 1].
+-botϪ׹ђn⍾t-+-h+yne Ω [cpd nm] (imported) date datte
(importée) [from true date palm].
+-m-ut+tђn⍾t-+-hϪyneT-md = ђ-mutϪt...T-ka Ω [cpd nm, lit.
“seeker of dates”] garganey (duck sp.) sarcelle d’été [ID: Anas
querquedula, so-called because it migrates between Mali and Algeria,
killed specimens may have Algerian dates in stomach; syn: √sII].
√hys ### [see √hys]
√hys [variant of √hys]
t-Ϫ-hyϪs-tA-grm, Pl !-1-hyϪs-enA-grm Ω [nf] [= !-Ϫ-hyϪs-!].
√hys [see variant √hys ; N √hys ; EPPB 72]
Ϫ -hyϪs K-d, Pl 1-hyϪs-+nK-d Ω [nm] simple camel saddle without
prongs in front (for those learning to ride) selle simple sans pointes par
227
devant (pour ceux qui apprennent à conduire les chameaux) [pejorative
syn: √׹stn].
t-Ϫ-hyϪs-tIm R[x |t-+-] T-ka, Pl !-1-hyϪs-enIm R T-ka Ω [nf]
camel saddle (front is flat with two prongs at top) selle de chameau (à
devant plat avec deux pointes dessus) [other saddle types: √mz¸, √׹bydy,
√tk 2, √׹stn, √xw].
√hyt׹ [variant of √Iyt׹]
t-e-h+yt+q-qK-d, Pl !-1-h+y!+׹-enK-d Ω [nf] small bare surface,
small patch (of land, on skin, etc.) petite surface nue, petite zone (de
terrain, de peau, etc.)
√hyt1 [N √hyt1]
-ђhhђyt+1-K-d T-ka [Imprt h+y!+JT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫh+y!ϪJ-
T-ka] Ω [tr] delay (st, sth) briefly (from reaching a place); delay
(livestock, from drinking) retarder (qn, qch) momentanément
(d’atteindre un lieu); retarder (bétail, de s’abreuver).
Ϫ-hђytђ1K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђhhђy!+J-].
-+m-h+yt+1-T-ka [Imprt n-ђhђy!ђJT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1n-hђy!1J-
T-ka] Ω [intr, Recip] (e.g. livestock at well or trough) get in each other’s
way, impede each other (bétail au puits ou à l’abreuvoir) se gêner, se
retarder les uns les autres.
Ϫ-m-hђytђ1T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+n-h+y!+J-].
√hyw [for masculine see √hy 1]
t-Ϫ-h+yϪw-tA-grm Im K-d R T-ka T-md, Pl !-1-h+yϪx-enA-grm Im
K-d R T-ka Ω [nf] granddaughter petite-fille - poss: 1Sg
!-Ϫ-h+yϪx-!-1nT-md.
√hy-zt ### [for 1n+-hoy-+zzϪIϪ see under √hy 2]
√hz׹
t-Ϫ-hђ zzϪq-qK-d T-ka, Pl !-1-hђzzϪ׹-enT-ka Ω [nf] algae, pond
scum algues.
√hz 1a [N √hz ; MGT 1.76 <√*hhz ]
-oh+z-A-grm K K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt ϪhђzA-grm T-ka T-md, MaPl
Imprt Ϫhђz-+!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1hђz-A-grm K T-ka T-md]
Ω [intr] come close, be near s’approcher, ê. proche [usually with
directional clitic]. Caus √z-hz.
-oh+z-(+ -\ђdd)A-grm T-md Ω [intr] come close, be near (to me/us)
s’approcher, ê. proche (de moi/de nous) - ex (Imprt): Ϫhђz-\1dd
T-md = Ϫhђz-\ђddT-ka come close! approche-toi!
-oh+z-(+ -\±n)T-md Ω [intr] come close (to there) s’approcher (de
là-bas).
± huz R = ±hhuzK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -oh+z-].
±hђzA-grm T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -oh+z-].
Ϫ-n-±hђz K-d Ω [nm] proximity proximité.
228
t-+-n-ϪhϪz-tT-ka, Pl !-1-n-ϪhϪz-enT-ka Ω [nf] vicinity, the
approaches (to a location) les approches (d’un lieu) [see also under
√hz 1b].
+-m-Ϫh±z (or: ...ez)R, Pl 1-n-uhϪzR Ω [nm] sb who lives nearby qn
qui habite à proximité.
-+nm-Ϫh+z-T-ka = -n+m-Ϫh+z-A-grm [Imprt nђn-1hђzA-grm T-ka,
LoImpfP -!-1nn-1h1z-T-ka = -!-1nђn-1h1z-A-grm] Ω [intr,
Recip] (two entities) come nearer to each other (deux objets) s’approcher
l’un de l’autre. Caus √z-nm-hz.
Ϫ-nm-±hђzT-ka = Ϫ-nm-±hϪzT-ka = Ϫ-nђm-±hϪzA-grm Ω [nm,
vbln of -+nn-Ϫh+z-].
√hz 1b [cf. √tw 1b]
+-m-ϪhϪzR, Pl 1-n-ϪhϪz-+nR Ω [nm] close kinsman proche parent.
+-n-ϪhϪzA-grm K-d Ω [nm] close kinsman proche parent, (un) proche.
t-+-n-ϪhϪz-tT-ka, Pl !-1-n-ϪhϪz-enT-ka Ω [nf] close
kinswoman proche parente [see also under √hz 1a].
e-n+mm-ehђzT-ka, Pl 1-n+nn-ehђz-+nT-ka Ω [nm, Agent of Recip]
close kinsman proche parent.
√hz 2
t-+ -hoz -tR T-ka T-md, (rare) Pl !-1-huzR Ω [nf] cloud of dust
(reducing visibility); sandstorm (seen at a distance) brume de poussière
(qui diminue la visibilité); vent de sable (vu de loin) [Pl not always
elicitable; cf. √hndtt, √bs 4, √zyt].
- ᭢ -
[note: ᭢ in Arabic loanwords is normally converted into Tamashek x, and when still
pronounced ᭢ (as in Kal Ansar dialects) it is alphabetized as though x]
- ± -
ñ 1a
±- Ω [3MaSg subject prefix on verbs beginning in ђ or any consonant,
contracting with /ђ/ to give 1- (compare 3MaSg allomorph Ø- used before
+ or any full vowel)].
√± 1b [for -\e in other dialects see √e 2]
-\±A-grm Ω [3MaSg object suffix allomorph after vowel-final verbs, cf. -\!
√t 4] - ex: !-+֊׹-\1A-grm she killed him elle l’a tué.
229
ñ 2a
±Im K-f T-ka Ω [minimal demonstrative element (determiner), used as internal
head of relative clause following a 1st or 2nd person pronoun functioning
as logical head NP, treated as definite] - ex: n+kk-u11-ցJ+-nK-f I
who went away moi qui suis parti).
√± 2b [N √± or √y, DTF 2.691]
± Gao K-d T-ka Ω [determiner used as dummy head of indefinite, otherwise
headless ‘who(-ever) ...’ relative clauses, cf. eIe √t 4 and Ϫ √Ϫ 1c] - ex:
1-\!!1-ssϪn-+nGao whoever knows it quiconque le sait.
√± 2c [N “yђ-nn-”, “yђ-nn-” √y or “±-nn-”√±, DTF 2.691].
±- Ω [MaSg demonstrative (determiner); occurs with following possessor
pronominal suffix in positive predicate genitive construction] ex: 1-nn+n
A-grm T-md it’s yours-FeSg, it belongs to you il est à toi-FeSg, il
t’appartient - forms: 1Sg 1-n1nA-grm K-f T-ka T-md, 2MaSg 1-nn+k
A-grm T-ka T-md, 2FeSg 1-nn+nA-grm T-ka T-md, 3Sg 1-nnes
A-grm T-md = 1-nne! T-ka T-md, 1Pl 1-n+n+׹A-grm T-ka
T-md, 2MaPl 1-n+x+nA-grm T-ka T-md, 2FePl 1-n+kn+!A-grm
T-ka T-md, 3MaPl 1-n+s+nA-grm T-ka T-md, 3FePl 1-n+sn+!
A-grm T-ka T-md.
t-±- Ω [FeSg or FePl equivalent of 1-].
w-±- Ω [Ma Pl equivalent of 1-].
ñ 2d
± Ω [Presentative particle following nouns, independently accented; for the
usual ‘this’ demonstrative see √w 1] - exx: Ϫ-nnђs1Im T-md this
(male) camel here ce chameau–ci [Pl 1-nnϪs1 T-ka]. !-+JJ+n-!
1Im T-md this she-camel here cette chamelle–ci [Pl !-+Jn-en1
T-ka].
ñ 3
-±- Ω [Pl morpheme in demonstrative pronouns].
w-±-h±T-ka T-md Ω [dem pron, MaPl] these ceux-ci [Sg x-Ϫ-h1].
t-±-h±T-ka T-md Ω [dem pron, FePl] these celles-ci [Sg !-Ϫ-h1].
w-±-nT-md Ω [dem pron, MaPl] those (distant) ceux–là (éloignés) [Sg
x-en].
t-±-nT-md Ω [dem pron, FePl] those (distant) celles–là (éloignées) [Sg
!-en].
w-±n-h±T-ka Ω [dem pron, MaPl] those (ones) ceux-là.
t-±n-h±T-ka Ω [dem pron, FePl] those (ones) ceux-là.
ñ 4 [N ñ]
-± Ω a) [1Sg suffix after preposition (all dialects); free variant -e׹ in T
(especially T-ka)] - ex: 1+JJ-1 on me sur moi [T-ka also 1+JJ-e׹]
Ω b) [1Sg inalienable possessor suffix after one or two consonant-final
230
nouns, A-grm dialect, elsewhere zero, -׹, -e׹] - ex: n+ssϪx-1A-grm
my masters mes maîtres.
- ¸ -
√¸#### [for Ø-+¸¸e-n‘much, a lot’ see √¸t 1].
√¸ 1 (ց, ¸w, ցw) [N √ց, DTF 1.374-380; MGT 7.119]
-ђ ¸Ϫ-R T-ka = -¸Ϫ-Im K-d R T-md = -ցϪ-T-md = -ђցϪ- A-grm [Imprt
+¸Im K-d R T-ka T-md = +ցA-grm, MaPl Imprt +¸-+!T-ka
= +ց-+!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ¸¸-Im K K-d R T-ka T-md
= -!-Ϫցց-A-grm T-md] Ω a) [tr] do, make faire [general word,
often used with verbal nouns] - ex: x+I!-+¸¸Ϫ-d1T-md = x+I
¸e-dϪ-d1R = x+Iցe-dϪ-xenA-grm don’t do this/that! ne
fais pas ceci/ça!; euphemistic phrase: 1-¸-\Ϫ-sh+I+!T-ka he did
sth to (= did black magic against) him il lui a fait qch (= lui a jeté un
mauvais sort) Ω b) [intr, Passive] be done; (event) happen ê. fait;
(incident) avoir lieu Ω c) [tr with following locational] put (sth sw)
mettre (qch, qq part) - ex: ¸e-׹-\dђ-sђssuk+IR I put the sugar
in it j’y ai mis le sucr. Caus √sw-¸.
Ϫ±-¸Ϫ, ... Ω [phrase] that is to say, ... c’est-à-dire, ...
mϪ ±-¸Ϫ -nK-d T-ka Ω [greeting] what has happened? (= what’s the
news?) qu’est-il arrivé? (= y a-t-il du nouveau?) [see similar greeting
question under √׹sd].
e-m-+¸¸R T-ka = e-m-+ցցA-grm, Pl 1-n-+¸¸-ϪnR T-ka
= 1-n-+ցց-ϪnA-grm Ω [nm, Agent] (male) doer, maker celui qui
fait [cpd under √m 4 ‘soul’].
e-m-+¸¸n+1xetT-ka Ω [cpd nm] doer of good bienfaiteur.
e-m-+¸¸ђn⍾Ø-s+1-ϪnR Ω [cpd nm] one who spreads news qn
qui répand les nouvelles.
t-e-m-+ ¸¸±-t-tR, Pl !-1-n-+¸¸Ϫ-!-enR Ω [nf, Agent] (female)
doer, maker celle qui fait.
± ¸±K-d R[x±...] T-ka[x±...] = ±ց±A-grm[x±...], Pl 1¸1-!+nR
= 1ց1-!+nA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸Ϫ-] act, action acte, fait [cf.
!-+-nϪsϪJ-! √ms1 1].
±¸±n⍾Ø-m-Ϫ n-nesHm Ω [cpd nm] killing him (her) fait de le/la
tuer.
t-± ¸Ϫw-tR T-ka = t-±ցϪw-tT-ka, Pl !-1¸Ϫx-enT-ka= !-1ցϪx-en
A-grm Ω a) [nf, vbln of -ђ¸Ϫ-] Ω b) [nf] a design on bazin (fabric for
boubous) motif sur le bazin (tissu des boubous).
+-m-o¸¸T-ka, Pl 1-n-o¸¸-ϪnT-ka Ω [nm] act, action acte, fait.
231
-+tw-+¸¸Ϫ-R T-ka = -t+w-+ցցϪ-A-grm [Imprt !ђx-ђ¸¸R T-ka
= !ђx-ђցցA-grm, LoImpfP -!Ϫx-+¸¸Ϫ-R T-ka
= -!-1!ђx-ђցց1-A-grm] Ω [intr, Pass] be done, be put ê. fait, ê.
mis.
Ϫ-tw-ђ¸¸T-ka = Ϫ-tђw-eցց±A-grm, Pl 1-!x-ђ¸¸-ϪnT-ka
= 1-!ђx-ђցց1-!+nA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -+!x-+¸¸Ϫ-].
-+nm-+¸¸Ϫ-T-ka [Imprt nђn-ђ¸¸T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1nn-ђ¸¸1-T-ka]
Ω [intr, Recip] make each other se faire l’un l’autre.
Ϫ-nm-ђ¸¸T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+nn-+¸¸Ϫ-].
√¸ 2 (ց) [N √ց]
-o¸¸Ϫ-Im K-d R T-ka = -oցցϪ-A-grm [Imprt Ϫ¸¸Im K-d T-ka = Ϫցց
A-grm, LoImpfP -!-1¸¸-Im K-d T-ka = -!-1ցց-A-grm] Ω a)
[intr] stretch (on tiptoes) to look se dresser (sur la pointe des pieds) pour
regarder Ω b) [tr] see (at a distance) voir (à distance) [A-grm]. Caus
√s-¸
Ϫ ¸¸K-d T-ka[xϪ...] Ω [nm, vbln of -o¸¸Ϫ-].
± ¸¸R[x±...] T-ka[x±...] = ±ցց±A-grm, Pl 1¸¸ђ-!+nT-ka
= 1¸¸1-!+nR = 1ցց1-!+nA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -o¸¸Ϫ-].
t-Ϫցց±-t-tA-grm Ω [nf, vbln of -o¸¸Ϫ-].
√¸ 3 (ց) [homonym √¸ 4; N “teցe ” √ց, senses include « horizon »]
t-e¸eIm R[xt-e...] T-ka[xt-e...] T-md = t-eցeA-grm[xt-e...], Pl
!-Ϫ¸1x-enIm R T-ka T-md = !-eցe-!+nA-grm Ω a) [nf]
direction (north, east, etc.) orientation, direction (nord, est, etc.) [R T]
[syn: √h1 3c, √s-d¸ 1b, √dk 2a, √t 8, √1xt 2, cf. verb √nmh1] Ω b)
[nf] non-cardinal direction (e.g. southwest, northeast) direction mixte
(nord-est, sud-ouest, etc.) [Im] Ω b) [nf] east est [A-grm R] [especially
in connection with rainclouds, which often come from the east].
√¸ 4 [homonym √¸ 3; see variant √ցy 5; Y !-ϪցϪ ‘area for storing cheese’]
t-e¸eK-d R T-ka[xt-e...] T-md, Pl !-Ϫ¸1x-enK-d R T-ka T-md
Ω [nf] storage area (esp. in corner of tent) lieu pour garder les bagages
(surtout un coin de la tente) [cf. √tmk].
t-e¸enhђkkum Ω [cpd nf]storage area in tent for grain or baggage (at
north or south end) lieu à l’intérieur d’une tente où on garde les céréales
ou les bagages (à l’extrémité nord ou sud de la tente).
√¸ 5 (ց, ¸t, ցt, ¸¸) [N √ց, (Pl “±ցaցցan” and “±ցaցցan”), DTF 1.383 (Pl
“±ցatten” and “±ցaցցen”)]
+-¸ϪIm K-d R[x+-] T-ka[x+-] T-md = +-ցϪA-grm, Pl 1-¸Ϫ!!-+n
Im R T-ka = 1-ցϪ!!-+nA-grm = 1-¸Ϫ¸¸-+nK-d T-ka Ω [nm]
waterbag (lowered on ropes into well using a pulley) puisette
[traditionally a goatskin, now often rubber; cf. √׹y 3; ‘let run’ √s-s1 or
‘let down’ √s-1y 2a by ‘tugging’ √s-s-h׹ on rope, ‘retrieval hook’
√sk 8; ‘well’ and its parts: √n 10; waterskins: see √dd 2].
232
√¸b
Ϫ ¸obK-d R[xϪ...] T-ka[xϪ...], Pl Ϫ¸ob-+nR T-ka Ω [nm] tough central
stem linking doum palm frond to trunk nervure médiane de palme de
palmier doum [made into handles for fans; syn √ztk, cf. √kI 4].
√¸bd
-ђ¸b+d-K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ¸bђdT-ka, LoImpfP -¸Ϫbb+d-T-ka] Ω a)
[intr] (sb) flex a muscle (qn) bander (un muscle) Ω b) [intr] (sb) jerk,
move abruptly (body part) (qn) faire un mouvement brusque (d’une
partie du corps) [e.g. jerk one’s hand away to avoid being grabbed] Ω c)
[intr] (trap) be sprung (without catching prey) (piège) sauter (sans
attraper la proie) [K-d].
Ϫ-¸+bϪdK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸b+d-].
t-+-n-Ϫ¸bϪt-tT-ka, Pl !-1-n-Ϫ¸bϪd-enT-ka Ω [nf] biceps biceps
[syn: cpd under !-+-n-ϪJϪy-! √1y 1a].
√¸bt 1 (ցbt) [N √ցbt]
-ђ¸b+t-K-d T-ka = -ђցb+t-A-grm [Imprt ђ¸bђIT-ka, LoImpfP
-¸Ϫbb+I-T-ka] Ω a) [tr] surround (sth), adhere to the circumference
of (sth); be abundant around (sth) entourer, encercler (qch), se coller
autour de (qch); ê. abondant autour de (qch) [T] - exx: e-hϪn
ђ¸bϪI-+n-\!Ϫn-ϪnT-ka the tent is surrounded by water la tente
est entourée d’eau; !-Ϫ-¸1¸1-!-!1-¸bϪI-\!+!⍾+-s+ksoT-ka
there’s plenty of fodder (= grass) around the (small) dune il y a beaucoup
de fourrage (= d’herbe) autour de la (petite) dune [√¸¸y] Ω b) [tr] bend
back the rim of (e.g. goatskin waterbag, to sew it) retourner le bord de
(une outre, etc., pour le coudre) [A-grm] Ω c) [intr] (girl) braid one’s hair
(fille) se tresser les cheveux [A-grm K-d] Ω d) [tr] drive (animals)
ahead of oneself chasser (des animaux) devant soi [K-d] Ω e) [tr] grab
hold of the back of (sb in a quarrel) saisir le dos de (qn dans une bagarre)
[K-d].
Ϫ-¸+bϪtT-ka, Ϫ-ց+bϪtA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸b+I-].
√¸bt 2 (ցbt) [perhaps related to √¸bt 1; N √ցbt¸
t-e-¸+ b+t-tGnd K-d R T-ka[x⍾t-+-] T-md Ts = t-e-ց+b+t-t
A-grm Gao = t-Ϫ-¸+ b+t-tGos, Pl !-1-¸+b+I-enT-ka T-md Ts
= !-1-ց+b+I-enA-grm = !-1-¸ђbI-enR Ω [nf] grass sp.
graminée sp. [seeds edible; ID: Echinochloa colona; confirmed RPRG;
for this sp. UPWTA 2.233 gives Mali Arabic “tadjabar, taggabar”
evidently borrowed <Tam].
√¸bt 3 [N √ցbt]
ђ¸¸ђ butuK-d T-ka Ω [nf] head cold rhume [syn: √mz1].
√¸bs(ցbs) [perhaps N √ցbs]
Ϫ-¸busT-ka[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-¸bus-+nT-ka Ω [nm] half (of the contents of
a container) moitié (du contenu d’un récipient) - ex: Ϫ-¸busn
+JkϪsT-ka half a glass demi-verre [cf. √ds 1a, √zn, √st 3, √stt].
233
-ђ¸b+s-K-d T-ka = -ђցb+s-A-grm [Imprt ђ¸bђsT-ka ђցbђsA-grm,
LoImpfP -¸Ϫbb+s-T-ka = -ցϪbb+s-A-grm] Ω a) [intr] tie one’s
belt (at waist); (woman) tie (wrap, around waist) attacher sa ceinture (à
la hanche); (femme) attacher (pagne) [A-grm K-d T] Ω b) [intr]
(container) be half-full (récipient) ê. rempli à moitié [A-grm K-d T]
Ω c) [tr] fill (container) halfway remplir (un récipient) à moitié [A-grm
T]. Verb [cf. √s-¸bs]
Ϫ-¸+bϪsK-d R T-ka = Ϫ-ց+bϪsA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸b+s-].
√¸bs
e-¸+besK-d T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-¸ђbs-ϪnK-d T-ka Ω a) [nm] trash bin
poubelle (récipient) [T-ka] Ω b) [nm] dog’s bowl écuelle à chien
[K-d] Ω c) [nm] woman’s chamberpot (for nighttime urination) pot de
chambre de femme [K-d].
e-¸+besnϪm-ϪnK-d Ω [cpd nm] skiff (boat) pirogue.
√¸bz 1
-ђ¸b+z-T-ka [Imprt ђ¸bђzT-ka, LoImpfP -¸Ϫbb+z-T-ka] Ω [intr]
(animal) suffer from too much sand in belly (animal) souffrir du fait
d’avoir trop de sable dans l’estomac.
¸+bbϪzT-ka[x¸+...] Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸b+z-].
√¸bz 2 [DTF 1.114 (under √bz)]
-ђ¸b+z-K-d [Imprt ђ¸bђzK-d, LoImpfP -¸Ϫbb+z-K-d] Ω [intr] make
a fist fermer le poing [cf. noun √¸1tm].
Ϫ-¸+bϪzK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸b+z-].
√¸d ### [see √s-ցd]
√¸d 1(ցd) [originally part of √¸dd׹ and √mnd¸ (mn¸d)]
ђ-¸ud (or: ђ¸ud)K[xђ-] K-d R T-ka[xђ-] = +ցudA-grm[x+...], Pl
1-¸ud-+nR = ђ¸ud-+nK-d = +ցud-+nA-grm Ω [nm] point in
time, moment moment [Pl not always elicitable; cf. √1w׹ 2, √s׹ 3,
√zmn].
hϪtђ-¸ud±T-ka = hђtђ-¸ud± Ω [phrase] up to now, so far; (not)
yet jusqu’à présent; (pas) encore [cf. √sd׹, hϪIx-Ϫ √ht 1].
Ϫ¸u dR T-ka Ω [conjunction] if ...; when ... si ...; lorsque ... [syn: √ndt 1
‘if...’, Ϫ-1+J √I1 1 ‘if’, d-1-hϪ-\d √d 5b ‘when...’, √kd 1 ‘even if...’]
- ex: Ϫ¸ud!-ђ¸Ϫ!-Ϫdx1-!-!,Ϫd+kk-+׹e-h+nT-ka when
the mid-afternoon comes, I’ll go home quand on sera au milieu de
l’après-midi, j’irai à la maison.
Ϫ¸udd±-hϪ-\d ...T-ka Ω [conjunctive phrase] (at the time) when ...
lorsque ..., au moment où ... .
√¸d 2 [variant of √¸¸y ; N √ցd and √ցz, DTF 1.394]
t-e-¸ed±-t-tK-d K-f, Pl !-1-¸1dϪK-f Ω [nf] dune; flat spot with fine
sand dune; endroit plat à sable fin.
234
[Pl only] ± -¸±dϪK-d K-f Ω [nmpl] dunes; small, unstable mounds of sand
dunes; petits monticules de sable.
√¸dd(ցdd) [N √ցdd, DTF 1.395 √ցdd ; EPPB 211-12]
Ϫ-¸+dodT-ka = Ϫ-ց+dodA-grm R, Pl 1-¸dϪdT-ka = 1-ցdϪdR
= 1-ցђdϪdA-grm Ω a) [nm] old waterskin; old waterbag for use at a
well vieille outre en peau; vieille puisette [K-d R T] Ω b) [nm]
waterskin (made of goatskin) outre (en peau de chèvre) [A-grm] [new or
old skin] [cf. √skw 1, √nwt, √dd 2] Ω c) [nm] container for spoons
(leather envelope with some hard sand inside) étui pour les cuillers
(enveloppe de cuir contenant du sable durci) [T] [syn √tցs].
√¸dh 1 (¸dhw, ցdh, ցdhw) [partially merged with √ցdh 2; N √ցd, DTF
1.395 √ցdh]
-ђ¸d+h-K-d T-ka = -ђցd+h-A-grm Im R T-md [Reslt -ђ¸d+h- T-ka
= -ђցd+ h- K-d, Imprt ђ¸dђhT-ka = ђցdђhA-grm R T-md, LoImpfP
-¸Ϫdd+h-T-ka = -ցϪdd+h-R = -!-1ցdђh-A-grm T-md
= -!-Ϫց+ddϪh-A-grm] Ω [intr, plus optional dative] be enough (for
sb) ê. suffisant (pour qn) [cf. √nI1y] - exx: 1-ցd+hIm K-f it’s
enough ça suffit; 1-ցd+h-\Ϫ-h1A-grm it’s enough for me ça me
suffit. Caus √s-s-¸dh 1.
±-¸d+h-+nT-ka = ±-ցd+ h-+nK-d Ω [partpl, MaSg] sufficient
(amount) suffisant.
+-m-Ϫd±n±-¸d+h-+nT-ka Ω [nm+partpl] a sufficient amount
quantité suffisante [√dn 2a].
t-ђ¸d+h-+tT-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] sufficient suffisante.
ђ¸d+h-nenT-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] sufficient suffisants.
Ϫ-ց+dϪhR Ω [nm, vbln] being enough, sufficiency suffisance [see also
under √ցdh 2].
m-±¸d+hϪwT-ka = m-±ցd+hϪwA-grm R Ω [nm] being enough, sufficiency
suffisance [see also under √¸dh 2].
t-±ցdђhϪA-grm Ω [nf, vbln] being enough, sufficiency suffisance [cf.
!-ђցdђhϪ √ցdh 2].
√¸dh 2 (¸dhw, ցdh, ցdhw) [cf. √wd ; N √ցd, DTF √ցd 1.389]
-o¸d+h-T-ka = -oցd+h-A-grm K-d Im R T-md [Reslt -oցd+h-K-d,
Imprt Ϫ¸dђhT-ka = ϪցdђhA-grm K-d T-md, LoImpfP -!-1¸dђh-
T-ka = -!-1ցdђh-K-d T-md = -!-Ϫցd+h-A-grm] Ω a) [intr with
prep d] be the same size or amount as, be the equal or equivalent of, be as
... as (sb, sth) ê. égal en taille ou en quantité à; ê. l’équivalent ou l’égal
de, ê. aussi ... que (qn, qch) [all dialects] [cf. √ms 4, √msns, √nmh1] - ex:
nϪ-\d!-oցd+h!-Ϫ1Ϫ׹+!!-Ϫ!+!!+-dhϪkϪ-sђJ K-d
how much rice do you-Sg eat every day? quelle quantité de riz manges-
tu chaque jour? Ω b) [intr] be comfortably seated ê. assis
confortablement [T] Ω c) [intr] (ground) be level (= flat) (terrain) ê.
235
égal (= plat) [A-grm] [cf. √I1t׹] Ω d) [tr] straighten (sth) up; equalize
(two things) rendre (qch) droit; égaliser (deux choses) [T]. Caus
√s-s-¸dh 2, cf. √s-¸dh.
Ø-oցd+h-+nA-grm K-d = Ø-oցdϪh-+nT-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] equal;
level (ground) égal; (terrain) plat.
t-oցdϪh-+tT-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] equal; level (ground) égal; plate.
oցd+ h-nenK-d = oցdϪh-nenT-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] equal; level (ground)
égaux; plats.
ђ-m-±¸d+hT-ka, Pl 1-n-1¸d+h-+nT-ka Ω [nm, Agent] one of equal
size or height un de la même taille.
m-± ¸d+hϪwK-d T-ka = m-±ցd+hϪwA-grm Ω [nm, vbln] equality, parity
égalité [see also under √¸dh 1].
t-ђցdђhϪR Ω [nf] equal size taille égale [cf. !-1 ցdђhϪ √ցdh 1].
√¸d1 (ցd1) [N √ցd1]
-ђ¸d+1-T-ka = -ђցd+1-K-d [Imprt ђ¸dђJT-ka, LoImpfP -¸Ϫdd+J-
T-ka] Ω [tr] prohibit, obstruct (sb from doing sth) interdire, empêcher
(à qn de faire qch) - ex: ... hϪI-\h1ђցd+J-+n!-ekJeK-d ... so
that they prevented me from going de sorte qu’ils m’ont empêché de
partir. Caus √s-¸d1.
Ϫ-¸+dϪ1T-ka = Ϫ-ց+dϪ1K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸d+J-].
√¸d1st(ցd1st) [see variant √¸d1st ; N √dց1st, DTF 1.398 √ցd1st]
Ϫ-¸dђ1setT-ka T-md = Ϫ-ցdђ1setIm K-d K-f R, Pl 1-¸dђJse!-+n
T-ka T-md = 1-ցdђJse!-+nIm K-d K-f R Ω [nm] morning matin
[dawn to around 9 AM; cf. √Iw 2, +-׹oIϪ √׹t 2a].
Ϫ-¸dђ1setsђmmed-+nT-ka T-md Ω [nm+partpl] early morning (8-10
AM) matin (de 8 à 10 h.)
Ϫ-¸dђ1setђkkus-+nT-md = ... ±-kkus-+nT-ka Ω [nm+partpl] late
morning (10-11 AM) fin de matinée (de 10 à 11 h.)
√¸d1st(ցd1st) [variant of √¸d1st]
Ϫ-ցdђ1setA-grm, Pl 1-ցdђJsϪ!A-grm Ω [nm] morning matin [dawn
to around 9 AM; cf. !-11Ϫx-! √Iw 2, +-׹oIϪ √׹t 2].
√¸dm 1a [N √ցdm]
-ђ¸d+m-T-ka [Imprt ђ¸dђnT-ka, LoImpfP -¸Ϫdd+n-T-ka] Ω [intr]
(line of objects) be broadside (ligne d’objets) se présenter
transversalement [e.g. a line of approaching storm clouds].
Ϫ-¸+dϪmT-ka Ω [nm\, vbln of -ђ¸d+n-] [homonym √¸dm 1b].
√¸dm 1b[homonym √¸dm 1a]
Ϫ-¸+dϪmK-d Ω [nm] old-fashioned man’s hairstyle (hair shaved at edges
and around ears) coiffure masculine de type ancien (les cheveux sont
rasés sur les bords et autour des oreilles). verb √s-¸dm.
236
√¸dm 2 [N √dցm]
-+¸d+mm+-tK-d T-ka [Imprt ¸ђdђnnђ-!K-d T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1¸dђnn1-!K-d T-ka] Ω a) [tr] prod (donkey, to make it trot)
donner un petit coup à (un âne, pour le faire trotter) [T-ka] Ω b) [intr]
ride on a donkey aller à dos d’âne [K-d].
Ϫ-¸dђmm±K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+¸d+nn+-!].
√¸dt 1(ցdt) [homonym √¸dt 2; see variant √zdt ; N √zdt ; EPPB 140]
e-¸+d+tGnd K-d R T-ka T-md Ts = e-ց+d+tA-grm, Pl 1-¸ђdI-ϪnK-d
R T-ka T-md Ts = 1-ցђdI-ϪnA-grm = 1-¸+d+I-+nT-md Ω [nm]
vulture charognard [most common vulture term; ID: mainly Gyps
rueppellii ; other vultures: √׹1¸, √btky].
√¸dt 2 [homonym √¸dt 1; N √ցdt]
e-¸+d+tK-d T-ka, Pl 1-¸ђdI-ϪnK-d T-ka Ω [nm] share (of sth) part
(de qch) [syn: √zn, cf. √dm1].
√¸dt 3
Ϫ-¸+dotT-ka, Pl 1-¸dϪIT-ka Ω [nm] government office bureau du
gouvernement
√¸dts [variant of √d¸ts ; N √dցtz]
+-¸±dt+sK-d = ђ-¸±dt+sT-ka, Pl 1-¸1dI+s-+nT-ka Ω [nm] hail,
hailstones grêle.
√¸ds(ցds) [cf. N √ցdz]
e-¸+d+sIm K-d T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md = e-ց+d+sA-grm, Pl 1-¸ђds-Ϫn
Im K-d T-ka T-md = 1-ցђds-ϪnA-grm Ω [nm] family; extended
family famille; grande famille [cf. √1׹y1, !-Ϫ-n-ђzzuq-q √z׹ 1].
√¸d 1a (ցd) [homonyms √¸d 1b, 2; cf. perhapsN √ցd « ê. avalé de travers »]
e-¸edT-ka Ts = e ¸Ϫd K-d[xe...] K-f = eցϪd Th, Pl 1-¸ed-+nTs
= e¸Ϫd-+n K-d K-f = eցϪd-+n Th Ω [nm] toxic leguminous herb sp.
plante légumineuse toxique sp. [said to cause bloating (Fr météorisation)
of stomachs of grazing animals especially when flowering; ID: Indigofera
aspera (= I. tenella), collected near T, perhaps also some other Indigofera
or Tephrosia spp., all Leguminosae-Papilionaceae; syn: √ցnց1, cf.
!-Ϫ-Jђցց1-!-! √1ց 2, √m1¸y].
√¸d 1b [homonyms √¸d 1a, √¸d 2]
e-¸edT-ka Ω [nm] a disease of calves maladie de veaux [uncommon
word].
√¸d 2 (ցd) [see variant √d¸ 2 (note metathesis); DTF 1.263ff. √d¸]
-ђ¸+d-T-ka = -ђց+d-A-grm = -¸+d-K-d [Imprt ђ¸ђdT-ka, LoImpfP
-!-ђ¸¸Ϫd-K-d T-ka = -ђ¸¸Ϫd-T-ka] Ω a) [intr] (troop of fighters)
go off to war (troupe de guerriers) partir en guerre [all dialects] Ω b)
[intr] persevere with determination (in sth) persister résolument (à faire
qch) [T-ka].
237
e-¸edK-d T-ka[x⍾+-] = e-ցedA-grm[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-¸ed-+nT-ka
= 1-ցed-+nA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸+d-; homonyms √¸d 1a-b].
+-¸ϪdGao K-d T-ka = +-ցϪdA-grm, Pl 1-ցϪdd-+nA-grm Ω [nm]
squabble, fighting; conflict, warfare bagarre, lutte; conflit, guerre [cf.
√kns 1, √m¸t 3].
Ϫ-m+s-¸+dϪT-ka = e-m+s-¸+deK-d, Pl 1-n+s-¸+dϪ-!+nT-ka
= 1-n+s-¸ђdy-ϪnK-d Ω [nm] trouble-maker provocateur.
t-Ϫ-m-¸ut-tT-ka[x⍾t-ђ-], Pl !-1-n-¸ud-enT-ka = !-1-n-¸Ϫd
T-ka Ω [nf] band of warriors bande ou troupe de guerriers [syn: √¸hn].
√¸d 3 [related by metathesis to noun √dց ; N √dց]
-o ¸+d -K-d T-ka [Imprt Ϫ¸ђdK-d T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1¸ђd-K-d T-ka]
Ω a) [intr plus dative] give a tap (to donkey, on its side, as a signal to
change direction) donner un petit coup ou une tape (à un âne, sur le
flanc, pour le faire virer) [T-ka] Ω b) [tr] rap (sb) on the nape donner un
coup sec à (qn) sur la nuque [K-d] [cf. √zց 2]. Instr nominal (‘strap’)
√s-¸d.
±¸¸udT-ka[x±...] Ω [nm, vbln of -o¸+d-].
√¸d 4 [related to √¸dy]
+ -¸od ϪK-d T-ka, Pl 1-¸od-ϪnT-ka Ω [nm] giving thanks, appreciation
remerciement, reconnaissance.
√¸dd׹ [cf. ђ-¸ud √¸d 1 ‘time’, Anaphoric √d׹ 1b]
¸oddђd+׹ (or: ¸u...)T-ka Ω [adv] now, nowadays maintenant, de nos
jours.
ђ¸¸odd+׹K-d Ω [adv phrase] [= ¸oddђd+׹].
√¸dd 1 (ցdd) [N √ցdd or √ցzd , DTF 1.401]
e-¸+dedT-ka[x⍾+-] = e-ց+dedIm K K-d R T-md = Ϫ-ց+ded A-grm,
Pl 1-¸dϪd T-ka[x⍾ђ-] = 1-ցdϪd Im K K-d K-f R T-md = 1-ցђdϪd
A-grm Ω [nm] bird (general term) oiseau (terme générique) [cpd: see
√1znt].
e-¸+dedw-Ϫ-\h±n±-ssens+-nt±-st-±-husϪyA-grm T-md
Ω [phrasal nm, lit. “bird who traded his father for beauty”] large, beautiful
stork grande cigogne très belle [ID: includes the white stork Ciconia
ciconia, and the rarely seen jabiru stork Ephippiorhyncus senegalensis].
t-e-¸+det-tT-ka = t-e-ց+det-tGao, Pl !-1-¸dϪdT-ka
= !-1-ցђdϪdGao Ω [nf] sparrow (various small bird spp.) moineau
(plusieurs spp. de petits oiseaux).
√¸dd 2 (ցdd) [see variant √¸¸d, cf. also √¸wd ; N √ցdd (note metathesis)]
-ђ¸¸ђdd+d-K-d [Imprt ¸+dd+dK-d, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ¸+ddϪd-K-d]
Ω [tr] fear, be afraid of avoir peur de [syn: √ksd, √mts, √ht׹ 1]
Ω [intr] be terrified, flee ê. terrifié, fuir.
e-m-ђ¸¸eddђd K-d Ω [nm, Agent] terrified one, one who flees qn qui
est terrifié, fuyard.
238
Ϫ-¸ђddђd K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸¸ђdd+d-].
-ђցցђd +d -Gao K [Imprt ց+d+dGao K, LoImpfP -!-Ϫց+dϪd-Gao K]
Ω [tr] [= -ђ¸¸ђdd+d-].
e-m-ђ¸¸eddђd K-d Ω [nm, Agent] fearful one (un) peureux.
√¸d¸d (ցdցd) [N √ցdցd]
t-+-¸Ϫd¸Ϫt-tK-d R T-ka T-md = t-+-ցϪdցϪt-tA-grm, Pl
!-1-¸Ϫd¸Ϫd-enK-d R T-ka T-md Ω a) [nf] soft concave area just
above collarbone petit creux juste au-dessus de la clavicule [R T] Ω b)
[nf] throat gorge [A-grm].
√¸d1(ցd1) [N √ցd1]
e-¸+d+1K-d T-ka = e-ց+d+1A-grm, Pl 1-¸ђdJ-ϪnK-d T-ka
= 1-ցђdJ-ϪnA-grm Ω [nm] fall, falling chute, fait de tomber
[functions as VblN of √d 1 ‘fall’].
e-ց+d+1ђnt-+-IukkA-grm Ω a) [cpd nm, lit. “fall of sun”] sunset
coucher du soleil Ω b) [cpd nm] southwest sud-ouest [e.g. direction
from T to Bamako, or from Gao to Mopti]
-ђ¸¸ђd1+-tK-d R T-ka = -ђցցђd1+-tA-grm [Imprt ¸+dJ+-!R T-ka
= ց+dJ+-!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ¸+dJϪ-!R T-ka
= -!-Ϫց+dJϪ-!A-grm] Ω [tr] cause to fall, knock down (in fighting)
faire tomber, terrasser (en luttant). Cf. √s-ցd1.
Ϫ-¸ђd 1±R T-ka = Ϫ-ցђd1±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸¸ђdJ+-!].
√¸dtt [N √ցdtt]
+-¸odtϪtK-d T-ka Ω [nm] dust in air (e.g. kicked up by vehicle)
poussière (levée par une voiture, etc.)
√¸dy(ցdy) [related noun +-¸odϪ√¸d 4; N √ցdy]
-+¸od+y-K-d T-ka [Imprt ¸udђyT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1¸ud1y-K-d T-ka
= -!-1¸uduy-T-ka] Ω a) [tr] express thanks to (a benefactor), praise
(God, for blessings) remercier (un bienfaiteur), louer (Dieu, pour ses
bienfaits) [syn: √my 1] Ω [by extension:] b) [intr] (sb) be fine (qn) bien
se porter [used in greetings, answering inquiries about relatives, etc.].
Ϫ-¸udђy (or: ...d±) R T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+¸od+y-].
+ -¸od ϪK-d Ω [nm] expression of thanks remerciement.
√¸I 1(ցI) [N √ցI]
e-¸eIIm K-d R[x⍾+-] T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md = e-ցeIA-grm[x⍾+-], Pl
1-¸e1-+nIm K-d T-ka T-md = 1-ցe1-+nA-grm Ω a) [nm] high
dune, mountain of sand grande dune, colline de sable [all dialects] [cf.
√¸¸y (and √¸d 2), √m¸n 2, √¸mtt] Ω b) [nm] (the) bush, wilderness
brousse [K-d] [syn: see √¸m 1] - cpd: see under √׹11n and under
√dbt 1b.
t-e-¸eI-tIm K-d T-md, Pl !-1-¸e1-enIm T-md Ω [nm] dune dune.
239
√¸I 2 [N √ցI]
-+ ¸¸oI+-tK-d T-ka [Imprt ¸u1+-!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1¸u1u-!T-ka]
Ω [intr] do bad things, do evil; act irresponsibly faire du mal; agir sans
réfléchir.
+-¸ϪIuT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+¸¸o1+-!].
+-n+s-¸ϪIϪK-d T-ka, Pl 1-nђs-¸u1ϪT-ka = K-d 1-n+s-¸Ϫ1-Ϫn
K-d Ω [nm] evil-doer malfaiteur [common insult].
ђ¸¸uIuK-d Ω [nm] evil-doing, irresponsible behavior fait d’ê.
malfaisant, mauvais comportement.
√¸I11 [Songhay (KCh) ¸u1uJeJe]
¸uIђ1e1e Gnd Ω [nm] pied kingfisher martin-pêcheur pie [ID: Ceryle
rudis; syn: √׹11n, cf. √׹11 4b].
√¸ց
¸Ϫ ցoR T-ka[x¸Ϫ...], Pl ¸Ϫցo-!+nR T-ka Ω [nm] taking animals to
market for sale fait de conduire des animaux au marché pour les vendre
[syn: √tt 4, e-xe! √wt 2] - phrase: ¸e-׹¸ϪցoR I took the animals
to market j’ai conduit les animaux au marché.
u¸ϪցoT-ka, Pl k+J¸ϪցoT-ka Ω [cpd nm] one who takes animals to
market for sale celui qui conduit les animaux au marché pour les vendre.
√¸׹ [cf. N √ց׹]
+-¸o׹T-ka, Pl 1-¸o׹-+nT-ka Ω [nm] small depression between dunes or
mounds petite dépression entre des dunes ou des buttes [cf. √bh׹ 1,
√bt1, √yt 3, √std 1b].
√¸h ### [for !-Ϫ-¸uhe, -ђ¸¸1hϪ-,etc. see √¸yh ‘witness’].
√¸h1(ցh1) [N √ցց1 ; MGT 1.70, EPPB 150]
Ϫ-¸uhe1R T-ka[x⍾ђ-] T-md = +-¸uhe1K-d = +-ցuhe1A-grm, Pl
1-¸uheJ-+nK-d R T-ka T-md = 1-ցuheJ-+nA-grm Ω [nm]
fatherless child enfant qui a perdu son père [cf. √kId ].
ђ¸¸uhђ1K-d Ω [nm] being fatherless état d’ê. sans père.
√¸hn(ցhn) [N √ցn]
e¸h+nK-d R T-ka[xe...] T-md = eցh+nA-grm, Pl Ϫ¸hϪn-+nK-d R
T-ka[xϪ¸...] = eցhϪn-+nA-grm Ω [nm] band (of raiders), troop (of
warriors) bande (de razzia), troupe (de combattants) [cf. √kns 1, √¸d 2;
for cpd see √s-wI].
√¸¸ ### [for !-Ϫ-ց1ց1-!-! ‘dispute’ see √ցց 1; for Ϫ-¸1¸1 and
!-Ϫ-¸1¸1-!-! ‘small dune’ see √¸¸y ; for Pl 1-¸Ϫ¸¸-+n see √¸ 5]
√¸¸ 1 (ցց) [N √ցց, DTF 1.405-6; MGT 7.275, EPPB 147]
-u¸ђ¸-Im K-d R T-ka T-md [Imprt Ϫ¸ђ¸Im K-d R T-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-!-1¸ђ¸-K-d R T-ka T-md] Ω [intr] be or go far away s’éloigner, ê.
loin - ex (Reslt): Ø-u¸ђ¸Im T-ka it’s far away il est loin. Caus
√s-¸¸.
240
-u¸ђ¸- (+ -\±n)R T-md Ω [intr] go far away s’éloigner - ex:
Ø-u¸ђ¸-\1nT-md he went far away il s’est éloigné.
+-m-u ¸+¸R Ω [nm, Agent] distant one; one who lives some distance away
celui qui est loin; qn qui habite un peu loin.
±¸ђ¸Im K-d R T-ka[x±...] T-md Ω [nm] distance; being far away
distance; éloignement.
-ђցցuց-A-grm [Imprt uցϪցA-grm, LoImpfP -!-uցϪց-A-grm]
Ω [intr] [= -u¸ђ¸-].
t-+ցϪk-kA-grm Ω [nf, vbln of -ђցցuց-].
-+nm-+¸¸Ϫ¸-K-d [Imprt nђn-ђ¸¸Ϫ¸K-d, LoImpfP -!-1nn-ђ¸¸1¸-
K-d] Ω [intr, recip] become widely separated, become far apart
s’éloigner l’un de l’autre, devenir bien séparés [unusual vocalism with Ϫ
in PerfP and Imprt].
Ϫ-nm-ђ ¸¸Ϫ¸K-d = Ϫ-nn-1¸Ϫ¸K-d Ω [nf, vbln of -+nn-+¸¸Ϫ¸-].
√¸¸ 2 [ N √ցց].
-ђ¸¸+¸-K-d T-ka T-md = -ђցց+ց-A-grm [Imprt ђ¸¸ђ¸T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫ¸¸+¸-T-ka = -!-Ϫցց+ց-A-grm] Ω [intr] thunder tonner
[3MaSg subject; syn: √׹׹ 1a, cf. √sm 2] - ex: 1-¸¸+¸T-mdit
thundered il a tonné.
e¸¸Ϫ¸K-d R[xe...] T-ka[xe...] T-md = eցցϪցA-grm[xe...] = Ϫ¸¸Ϫ¸
T-ka, Pl e¸¸Ϫ¸-+nR T-ka T-md = eցցϪց-+nA-grm Ω [nm]
thunder; lightning tonnerre; éclair.
√¸¸ 3 (ցց) [N √ցց, DTF 1.406-8; MGT 7.277, EPPB 157]
-ђ¸¸u¸¸Ϫ-T-ka = -+¸¸u¸¸Ϫ-Im K-d R T-md [Imprt ¸Ϫ¸¸Im K-d R
T-ka T-md, ShImpf -+¸¸Ϫ¸¸Im R T-ka (3MaPl +¸¸Ϫ¸¸ђ-n R T-ka),
LoImpfP -!-Ϫ¸+¸¸Ϫ-K-d R T-ka T-md] Ω a) [tr] load (e.g. donkey)
charger (un âne etc.) [‘overload’: √z-zy ; ‘unload’: √s-ts 1] Ω b)
[intr] (donkey) be loaded with, carry (load) on back (âne) ê. chargé de,
porter (un chargement) sur le dos.
-ђցցђցցϪ-A-grm = -ђ¸¸ђ¸¸Ϫ-Gao [Imprt ց+ցցA-grm = ¸+¸¸Gao,
ShImpf -+¸¸+¸¸Gao (3MaPl +¸¸+¸¸ђ-n = [less often] +¸¸+¸¸+-n
Gao), LoImpfP -!-Ϫց+ցցϪ-A-grm] Ω [= -ђ¸¸u¸¸Ϫ-].
¸+¸¸ϪT-ka, Pl ¸+¸¸Ϫ-!+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸¸u¸¸Ϫ-].
Ϫ-¸ђ¸¸Im K-d R T-ka = Ϫ-ցђցցA-grm, Pl 1-¸ђ¸¸1-!+nR Ω [nm,
vbln of -ђ¸¸u¸¸Ϫ-].
t-Ϫ-¸ђ¸¸±-t-tK-d, Pl !-1-¸ђ¸¸K-d Ω [nf] (a) load chargement.
√¸¸ 4 (¸w) [N √ցց, DTF 1.247, 1.408]
Ϫ-¸ђ¸uK-d T-md, Pl 1-¸ђ¸x-ϪnT-md Ω a) [nm] arc-ed pole on top of
simple tent arceau du dessus d’une tente simple [syn: √1b 1, √1׹ 5,
√s1ns1, cf. √mnky, √t¸yt¸y] Ω b) [nm] rainbow arc-en-ciel [syn:
√¸¸n1, cpd. under √z1 2].
241
Ϫ-¸ђ¸uђne1w-ϪnT-md Ω [cpd nm, lit. “... of elephants”] rainbow
arc-en-ciel.
Ϫ-¸ђ¸uђ nebs-ϪnK-d Ω [cpd nm, lit. “... of vomiting”] amount
vomited quantité vomie.
Ϫ -¸+¸±R, Pl 1-¸+¸-ϪnR Ω a) [nm] arc-ed pole on top of simple tent
arceau du dessus d’une tente simple Ω b) [nm] rainbow arc-en-ciel.
√¸¸ 5
Ϫ -¸o¸¸Gao, Pl 1-¸o¸¸-ϪnGao Ω [nm] large bonfire (e.g. for making
charcoal) grand feu (pour faire le charbon, etc.) [cf. √Iw 1].
√¸¸b(ցցb)
-ђ¸¸u¸¸+b+-tT-ka = -+¸¸u¸¸+b+-tR [Imprt ¸u¸¸ђbђ-!R T-ka,
LoImpfP -!-1¸ђ¸¸ђbu-!R T-ka] Ω a) [intr] be tied up very tightly
(so the ropes make one sore); be lacerated (by whipping) ê. attaché très
serré (de sorte que les cordes font mal); ê. lacéré (par le fouet) Ω b) tie
tightly; lacerate attacher très serré; lacérer [syn: √kkb 2].
Ϫ-¸ђ¸¸ђbuT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸¸u¸¸+b+-!].
-ց+ցց+b+-tA-grm [Imprt ցђցցђbђ-! A-grm, LoImpfP -!-1ցђցցђb1-!
A-grm] Ω [= -ђ¸¸u¸¸+b+-!].
Ϫ-ցђցցђb±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ց+ցց+b+-!].
√¸¸d [variant of √¸dd 2]
-ђ¸¸ђ¸¸+d-K-f [Imprt ¸+¸¸+dK-f, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ¸+¸¸Ϫd-K-f]
Ω [intr] be afraid avoir peur.
Ϫ-¸ђ¸¸ђd K-f Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸¸ђ¸¸+d-] fear peur.
√¸¸1 1 [homonym under √¸¸1 1b; possibly related to √ցց1]
e-¸+¸¸+1T-ka, Pl 1-¸+¸¸+J-+nT-ka Ω [nm] mountain ridge crête de
colline.
√¸¸1 2 [homonym √¸¸1 1a; variant of √¸1¸1]
e-¸+ ¸¸+1R, Pl 1-¸+¸¸+J-+nR Ω [nm] hanging sac under neck of cow
sac suspendu au cou d’une vache.
√¸¸n1 [cf. √¸¸ 4]
Ϫ-¸ђ¸ne1T-ka[x⍾ђ-] Ω [nm] rainbow arc-en-ciel [syn: √¸¸ 4, and
phrase under √z1 2 ‘hold out’].
√¸¸t 1a (ցցt) [N √ցցt]
-ђ¸¸u¸tϪ-T-ka [Imprt ¸u¸Iђ-! T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1¸ђ¸Iu-T-ka]
Ω [intr] (woman, man, animal) be sterile (femme, homme, animal) ê.
stérile [augmented Imprt reflects the syllabic unacceptability of the
expected #¸Ϫ¸t]. Caus √s-¸¸t.
±-¸¸u¸t+-nT-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] sterile stérile.
t-ђ¸¸u¸t+-tT-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] sterile stérile.
ђ¸¸u¸t+-nenT-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] sterile stériles.
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-ђ¸¸u¸t+-tT-ka = -+¸¸u¸t+-tK-d [Imprt ¸u¸Iђ-! T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1¸ђ¸Iu-!T-ka] Ω [intr] [= -ђ¸¸u¸IϪ-].
Ø-+¸¸u¸t+-nK-d Ω [partpl, MaSg] sterile stérile.
t-+¸¸u¸t+-tK-d Ω [partpl, FeSg] sterile stérile.
+¸¸u¸t+-nenK-d Ω [partpl, Pl] sterile stériles.
-ђցցђցtϪ-A-grm [Imprt ց+ցIu A-grm, MaPl Imprt ց+ցI+-!A-grm,
LoImpfP -!-Ϫց+ցIϪ-A-grm] Ω [intr] [= -ђ¸¸u¸IϪ-].
±-ցց±ցte-nA-grm Ω [partpl, MaSg] sterile stérile.
t-ђցց±ցte-tA-grm Ω [partpl, FeSg] sterile stérile.
ђցց±ցt+-t-nenA-grm Ω [partpl, Pl] sterile stériles.
Ϫ-ցђցt±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђցցђցIϪ-].
ђ¸¸ђ¸tuK-d T-ka, Pl ђ¸¸ђ¸Iu-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] sterility stérilité.
t-e-m-+¸¸e¸tђ-t-tT-ka = t-e-m-ђ¸e¸tђ-t-tT-md
= t-e-m-ђ¸¸e¸tu-t-tK-d, Pl !-1-n-+¸¸e¸Iђ-!-enT-ka
= !-1-n-ђ¸¸u¸IϪK-d T-ka Ω [nf] sterile female (woman or animal)
femelle stérile (femme ou animal).
√¸¸t 1b (ցցt)
e-m-+¸¸e¸¸ђtR T-ka = e-m-ђ¸¸e¸¸+tK-d T-md, Pl
1-n-+¸¸e¸¸ђI-+nR = 1-n-ђ¸¸u¸¸ϪIK-d T-ka T-md Ω [nm]
collarbone clavicule.
t-+-m-+ցցeցց+t-tA-grm, Pl !-1-n-ђցցuցցϪIT-ka Ω [nf]
collarbone clavicule.
√¸¸t 2 (ցցt) [<Songhay ¸1¸1Ia, ¸1¸1I1ya,and further variants]
¸±¸tϪR T-ka T-md = ց±ցtϪA-grm = ¸± ¸±tϪGnd, Pl ¸1¸IϪ-!+nR
T-ka = ց1ցIϪ-!+nA-grm Ω [nm] catfish sp. silure sp. [ID:
Synodontis and similar spp., extended loosely to other catfish].
√¸¸ts [variant of √d¸ts ; N √dցtz]
+-¸±¸t+sT-md, Pl 1-¸1¸I+s-+nT-md Ω [nm] hail(-stones) grêle.
√¸¸s [N √ցցs]
+-¸o¸ϪsT-ka, Pl 1-¸o¸Ϫs-+nT-ka Ω [nm] low ridge (e.g. separating two
fields or paddies) diguette (séparant deux champs ou deux rizières, etc.)
√¸¸w ### [for 1-¸ђ¸x-Ϫn see √¸¸ 5]
√¸¸y [see variant √¸d 2; N √ցd and √ցz ; for !-Ϫ-ց1ց1-!-! ‘dispute’ see
√ցց 1]
Ϫ-¸±¸± (or: Ϫ-¸±¸ђy)T-ka, Pl 1-¸1¸ϪyR Ω [nm] small dune petite
dune - poss: 1Sg Ϫ-¸1¸1-n1nR.
t-Ϫ-¸±¸±-t-tK-d T-ka, Pl !-1-¸1¸ϪyT-ka = !-1-¸1¸1-!-enK-d
Ω [nf] small dune petite dune [cf. √¸I 1, √m¸n 2].
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√¸k [see variant √dk 4; regional word (KCh ¸ukku-nd1, KS zukke, Ful
√¸ukk-)]
-ђ¸¸ukk+-tT-ka = -+¸¸ukk+-tR T-md [Imprt ¸ukkђ-!R T-ka T-md,
LoImpfP -!-1¸ђkku-!R T-ka T-md] Ω [tr] fine, impose a fine on
(sb) infliger une amende à (qn).
Ϫ-¸ђkkuR Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸¸ukk+-!].
+-m-+¸¸ϪkuR Ω [nm] fined person personne qui a reçu une amende.
-+tw-+ ¸+kk+-tR [Imprt !ђx-ђ¸ђkkђ-!R, LoImpfP
-!-1!x-ђ¸ђkk1-!R] Ω [intr, Pass] (sb) be fined (qn) recevoir une
amende.
Ϫ-tw-ђ¸ђkk±R Ω [nm, vbln of -+!x-+¸+kk+-!].
¸ukk-enR[x¸u...] = ¸ukk-enT-ka[x¸u...], Pl ¸ukk-en-+nR T-ka
Ω [nm] (a) fine amende.
√¸1 1 (ց1) [cf. √ց1 4; N √ց1 ; see √ms 2, -osa- √s 5, -ђkka- √k 3]
-ђ¸1Ϫ-T-ka T-md = -ђց1Ϫ-A-grm Im K-d K-f R [Imprt ђ¸ђJT-ka T-md
= ђցђJA-grm Gao Im = ђցђJIm R = ђցJuK-d K-f Ts = +ցJu
Gao, MaPl Imprt +¸J-+! = +ցJ-+!A-grm Im = ђցJu x-+! K-f Ts,
LoImpfP -¸ϪJJ-Im T-ka T-md = -ցϪJJ-Gao R = -ցϪJJϪ-A-grm
= -ցϪJJu-A-grm = -ց1JJu-K K-d K-f] Ω [intr] go away, depart,
leave partir [very common; cf. √tkb 1]. Caus √s-¸1 2.
e-ց+11±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸JϪ-].
t-Ϫ-¸ђ11Ϫw-tT-ka = t-Ϫ-ցђ11Ϫw-tA-grm, Pl !-1-¸ђJJϪx-en
T-ka = !-1-ցђJJϪx-enA-grm Ω [nf, vbln of -ђ¸JϪ-] [!-ekJe
√k1 7 is the common VblN ‘going’].
√¸1 2a (ց1) [homonyms √¸1 2b; N √ց1 ; EPPB 157]
-o ¸+1-K-d R T-ka T-md = -oց+1-A-grm [Imprt Ϫ¸ђJR T-ka T-md,
LoImpfP -!-1¸ђJ-R T-ka T-md] Ω [intr] decline (e.g. a meager
meal); refuse to eat or drink refuser (un repas dérisoire, etc.); refuser de
manger ou de boire.
±¸¸u1K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -o¸+J-].
ϪցցϪ1A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -o¸+J-].
t-± ¸1ϪR T-ka = t-±ց1ϪA-grm[xt-±...], Pl !-1¸JϪx-enT-ka
= !-1ցJϪx-enA-grm Ω [nf, vbln of -o¸+J-].
√¸1 2b (ց1) [homonyms √¸1 2a]
-o¸+1-T-ka T-md = -oց+1-A-grm [Imprt Ϫ¸ђJT-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-!-1¸ђJ-T-ka T-md] Ω [intr] (udder, well) be partially replenished,
begin filling up again with liquid (pis, puits) se remplir de nouveau en
partie, commencer à se remplir.
±¸¸u1K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -o¸+J-].
ϪցցϪ1A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -o¸+J-].
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√¸1 2c (ց1) [see variant √¸n]
Ϫ-¸ђ1K-d T-md T-ka[x⍾ђ-] Ω [nm] (grazing animal’s) cud bol
alimentaire (d’un ruminant) - phrase: Ø-+ss-o׹+JϪ¸ђJK-d T-ka
T-md it chewed its cud il a ruminé [with √s-׹1 1].
Ϫ-ց1±A-grm[x⍾+-], Pl 1-ցJђy-+nA-grm Ω [= Ϫ-¸ђJ] - phrase:
1-sso׹+JϪ-ցJ1A-grm it chewed its cud il a ruminé.
√¸1 3 (ց1) [N √ց1]
e-¸e1K-d R T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md = e-ցe1A-grm, Pl 1-¸eJ-+nK-d R
T-md = 1-ցeJ-+nA-grm Ω [nm] flour, powder farine, poudre.
ђssuk+tw-Ϫn⍾+-¸e1T-ka Ω [cpd nm] granulated sugar sucre en
poudre [syn: √sty 1].
t-Ϫ-¸ђ11ϪIm K-d T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] T-md = t-Ϫ-ցђ11ϪA-grm, Pl
!-1-¸ђJx-enIm K-d T-ka T-md Ω [nf] bread pain [cf. buIu
√bt 6].
√¸1 4a (ց1) [see variant √¸1t; N √ց1 ; EPPB 144-5]
t-Ϫ-¸ђ11ђ-t-tK-d K-f R T-ka T-md Ts = t-+-¸ђ11±-t-tGnd, Pl
!-1-¸ђJJђ-!-enK-d K-f R T-ka T-md Ts Ω [nf] colocynth, inedible
wild melon sp. coloquinte, melon sauvage non comestible sp. [ID:
Citrullus colocynthis, confirmed UPWTA 1.571 (“tagalel, tagellit,
tedjellet”) and RPRG (“tajillit” etc.); cf. √1¸z ].
t-e-ց+11+-t-tA-grm Gao Th, Pl !-1-ց+JJ+-!-enA-grm Th Ω [nf]
[= !-Ϫ-¸ђJJђ-!-!].
√¸1 4b
t-Ϫ-¸ђ11ђ-t-tT-ka, Pl !-1-¸ђJJђ!-enT-ka Ω [nf] lower wisdom
tooth dent de sagesse inférieure [uncommon word; ‘tooth’: √sn 3].
√¸1 5 (ց1) [N √ց1 ; DN86 “±ցђ11Ϫ”]
[Pl only:] ±-¸ђ11-ϪnT-ka = ±-ցђ11-ϪnA-grm = ±-¸ђ11ϪK-d
Ω [nmpl] womb matrice.
√¸1 6 ( ց1) [for feminine see √¸1y 3; N √ց1 and √ց1y]
+ -¸o1ϪK-d R T-ka = +-ցo1ϪA-grm, Pl 1-¸oJ-ϪnK-d R T-ka
= 1-ցoJ-ϪnA-grm Ω a) [nm] (man’s or woman’s) step-son;
(woman’s) co-wife’s son fils adoptif, beau-fils (d’un homme ou d’une
femme, par remariage); fils de la coépouse (d’une femme) [cf. √Imb 1]
Ω b) [nm] stake that holds trap in place détendeur de piège [for another
kin/trap-part, see √¸y 2b]. Cf. verb √s-¸1y.
√¸1d(ց1d)
Ϫ-¸ђ11edT-ka = Ϫ-ցђ11ђdA-grm = Ϫ-¸+ 11±dK-d, Pl 1-¸ђJJϪdK-d
T-ka T-md = 1-ցђJJϪdA-grm Ω [nm] Ijellad Ijellad [maraboutistic
Tuareg clan around Bourem and K].
245
√¸1I(ց1I) [perhaps N √ց1I]
-ђ¸1+I-K-d T-ka = -eց1+I-A-grm [Imprt ђ¸Jђ1T-ka, LoImpfP
-¸ϪJJ+1-T-ka] Ω [tr] be inhospitable to (visitor); be xenophobic; be
indisposed to (sth, sb) mal accueillir, négliger (un visiteur); ê.
xénophobe; avoir marre de (qch, qn).
Ϫ-¸+1ϪIK-d T-ka = Ϫ-ց+1ϪIA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸J+1-].
t-Ϫ-¸1ђI-tT-ka Ω [nf, vbln of -ђ¸J+1-].
Ϫ -¸1ϪIK-d T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-¸JϪ1-+nT-ka Ω a) [nm] gift given to an
arriving traveler cadeau donné à un étranger qui vient d’arriver [T-ka]
Ω b) [nm] booty butin [K-d].
√¸1¸1 [see variant √¸¸1 2]
Ϫ-¸+ 1¸+1ϪK-d T-ka Ω [nm] hanging sac under neck of cow sac pendu au
cou d’une vache [for chicken: √1׹1׹ 2].
√¸1k (ց1k) [N √ց1k]
¸ђ1ђkIm K-d T-ka[x¸ђ...] T-md = ցђ1ђkA-grm[xցђ...], Pl ¸ђJђk-+n
T-ka T-md Ω [nm] (temporary) hunger, hunger pangs faim
(momentanée) [cf. √1z 2].
-ђ¸1+k-K-d T-ka = -ђց1+k-A-grm [Imprt ђ¸JђkT-ka, LoImpfP
-¸ϪJJ+k-T-ka] Ω [intr] be hungry avoir faim.
√¸11 1a (ց11) [homonym √¸11 1b; N √ց11]
Ϫ-¸±1Ϫ1K-d T-md T-ka = Ϫ-ց±1Ϫ1A-grm, Pl 1-¸1JϪJ-+nT-ka T-md
= 1-ց1JϪJ-+nA-grm Ω [nm] behind, backside (of an object); rear (of
a procession) partie arrière (d’un objet); queue (d’un défilé) - phrase:
x-Ϫn⍾+-¸1JϪJT-md the last (= final) one le dernier (= final).
+ցց⍾ђ-¸±1Ϫ1T-ka, Pl k+Jђ-¸1JϪJT-ka Ω [cpd nm] laggard, one
who lags behind qn qui traîne derrière, traînard [cf. √ցtցt 2].
Ϫ-mђs-¸±1Ϫ1T-ka, Pl 1-nђs-¸1JϪJ-+nT-ka Ω [nm] laggard, one who
lags behind qn qui traîne derrière, traînard.
√¸11 1b[homonym √¸1 1a]
Ϫ-¸±1Ϫ1T-ka[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-¸1JϪJ-+nT-ka Ω [nm] animal with tail cut
off animal dont la queue a été coupée [syn: √ktn].
√¸11 2 (ց11) [N √ց11]
Ϫ-¸+1Ϫ1T-ka = Ϫ-¸+1+1T-md, Pl 1-¸+JϪJ-+nT-ka = 1-¸+J+J-+n
T-md Ω [nm] fruit of !-Ϫ-¸+JϪJ-!tree fruit de l’arbre
!-Ϫ-¸+JϪJ-!.
t-Ϫ-¸+ 1Ϫ1-tGao Gnd K-f R T-ka Ts = t-Ϫ-ց+1Ϫ1-tA-grm Th, Pl
!-1-¸+JϪJ-enR T-ka Ts = !-1-ց+JϪJ-enA-grm Th Ω [nf]
large tree sp. grand arbre sp. [ID: Mitragyna inermis, Rubiaceae].
√¸11hy
-+¸1+1h+y-K-d [Imprt ¸ђJђJhђyK-d, LoImpfP -!-1¸JђJh1y-K-d]
Ω [tr] dislike intensely (a food, etc.) détester (une nourriture, etc.) [syn:
√kth, √knht]. Cf. noun √s-¸11hy.
246
Ϫ-¸1ђ1hђy (or: ...h±)K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+¸J+Jh+y-].
√¸11w(ց11w) [N √ց11]
t-Ϫ-¸+1+11+wϪ-t-tK-d T-ka, Pl !-1-¸+J+JJ+xϪ-!-enK-d T-ka
Ω [nf] circle; curve cercle; courbe.
-+¸1+11+w+-tK-d T-ka = -ց+1+11+w+-tA-grm [Imprt ¸ђJђJJђxђ-!
T-ka = ցђJђJJђxђ-!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-1¸JђJJђx1-!T-ka
= -!-1ցђJђJJђx1-!A-grm] Ω [intr] have or take the shape of a
circle; draw or cut out a curve ê. ou devenir circulaire; dessiner ou
découper une courbe.
Ϫ-¸1ђ11ђw±K-d = Ϫ-ցђ1ђ11ђw±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of
-+¸J+JJ+x+-!].
√¸1m [N √ց1m]
Ϫ -¸1emK-d T-ka = Ϫ-ց1emA-grm[x⍾+-], Pl 1-¸Jen-+nK-d T-ka =
1-ցJen-+nA-grm Ω [nm] prayer skin, sheepskin used as prayer mat
tapis de prière en peau [made from the skin of a ram slaughtered at the
annual Muslim feast (aïd al adha)].
√¸1ms [N √ց1ms]
t-Ϫ-¸ђ1mus-tT-ka[x⍾t-ђ-], Pl !-1-¸ђJnϪsT-ka Ω [nf] black fabric
for turbans tissu noir pour turbans [similar to √1s 3].
√¸1n(ց1n) [N √ց1n, DTF 1.440 √ց1n « couleur crème avec de très petits points
plus foncéss »]
-ђ¸¸ђ1+n-K-d T-ka [Imprt ¸+J+nT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ¸+JϪn-T-ka]
Ω [intr] (e.g. cow) be spotted (vache, etc.) ê. tacheté, avoir des taches
[cf. √ks 4].
ց+1Ϫn-A-grm [Imprt ց+J+nA-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫց+JϪn-A-grm]
Ω [intr] [= -ђ¸¸ђJ+n-].
¸+1+ n-+nK-d T-ka = ց+1+n-+nA-grm Ω [partpl, MaSg] spotted
tacheté.
¸+1+ n-+tK-d T-ka = ց+1+n-+tA-grm Ω [partpl, FeSg] spotted
tachetée.
¸+1Ϫ n-nenK-d T-ka = ց+1Ϫn-nenA-grm Ω [partpl, Pl] spotted
tachetés.
t-+¸¸+1+n-tT-ka, Pl t-+¸¸+1+n-enT-ka Ω [nf] spottedness fait
d’ê. tacheté.
Ϫ-¸1ϪnT-ka = Ϫ-ց1ϪnA-grm, Pl 1-¸JϪn-+nT-ka = 1-ցJϪn-+n
A-grm Ω [nm] spotted one (un) tacheté.
t-Ϫ-¸1Ϫn-tT-ka, Pl !-1-¸JϪn-enT-ka Ω [nf] spotted one (une)
tachetée.
√¸1n¸1 [cf. perhaps DTF 1.440-1, or Y zђJђnzuJђ-! ‘unroll, uncoil (rope)’]
-+¸1+n¸Ϫ1+-tT-ka [Imprt ¸ђJђn¸1Jђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1¸Jђn¸1J1-!T-ka] Ω [tr] crush into bits (e.g. by pounding);
mash into a pulp (e.g. by chewing) écraser en petits morceaux (en pilant,
etc.); réduire en pâte (en mâchant etc.)
247
Ϫ-¸1ђn¸±1±T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+¸J+n¸ϪJ+-!].
√¸1nk [cf. √1n¸ 1; N √ց1nk, cf. Songhay (KS) ¸aJa֊ka ]
-+¸1+֊k+-tT-ka = -ց+1+֊k+-tA-grm [Imprt ¸ђJђ֊kђ-!T-ka
= ցђJђ֊kђ-!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-1¸Jђ֊k1-!T-ka
= -!-1ցђJђ֊k1-!A-grm] Ω a) [tr] roll up (rag, as a head cushion)
enrouler (un chiffon, pour le poser sur la tête comme coussin) [A-grm
T-ka] [cf. √b1mb1, √׹ttd, √׹t֊׹t] Ω b) [tr] carry (sth) on one’s head
porter (qch) sur sa tête [K-d] [syn: √1n¸ 1].
Ϫ-¸1ђ֊k±T-ka = Ϫ-ցђ1ђ֊k±A-grm, Pl 1-¸Jђ֊k1-!+nT-ka Ω [nm,
vbln of -+¸J+֊k+-!].
Ϫ-ց+1+֊kϪA-grm, Pl 1-ց+J+֊k-ϪnA-grm Ω [nm]
[= !-Ϫ-¸+J+֊kϪ-!-!]
t-Ϫ-¸+1+֊kϪ-t-tK-d T-ka T-md = t-Ϫ-ց+1+֊kϪ-t-tA-grm, Pl
!-1-¸+J+֊kϪ-!-enT-ka T-md = !-1-ց+J+֊kϪ-!-enA-grm
Ω [nf] rag put under a weight carried on the head coussinet de portage,
chiffon mis sous un poids qu’on porte sur la tête.
√¸1s ### [see √s-¸1s]
√¸1s 1 [perhaps related to √mց1s ; N √ց1z ; DN86 “eց1ђz” Tribulus
macroptera, “te¸1ђst” T. longipetalus]
t-e ¸1+s -tK-d T-ka T-md, Pl !-e¸J+s-enT-ka Ω [nf] crawling vine sp.
plante rampante sp. [ID: not seen, from description perhaps a Tribulus
sp. such as T. macroptera or T. mollis (but not T. terrestris √¸tI 1), cf.
√mց1s].
e¸1+sK-d Ω [nm] crawling vine sp. plante rampante sp. [ID: said to be
similar to !-e¸J+s-!, but rises higher].
√¸1s 2a [homonyms √¸1s 2b; N √ց1z]
-ђ¸1+s-T-ka [Imprt ђ¸JђsT-ka, LoImpfP -¸ϪJJ+s-T-ka] Ω [intr]
escape, survive (a drought or other disaster) s’échapper, survivre, ê.
sauvé [cf. √1wb].
Ϫ-¸+1ϪsT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸J+s-].
+-¸Ϫ1usT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸J+s-].
Ϫ-¸1ђsT-ka[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-¸ђJs-ϪnT-ka Ω [nm] remainder reste.
√¸1s 2b[homonyms √¸1s 2a]
-ђ¸1+s-K-d R [Imprt ђ¸JђsR, LoImpfP -¸ϪJJ+s-R] Ω [intr plus
dative and optional prep d+׹] reserve a little for (sb) réserver un peu
pour (qn) [often with -\ђdd, often refers to food or beverages] - ex:
ђ¸J+s-+׹-\Ϫ-sd+׹Ϫ!ϪyK-d I saved some tea for him je lui ai
réservé du thé.
-ђ¸1+s- (+ -\ђdd) Ω [= -ђ¸J+s-, very common] - ex:
ђ¸Jђs-+׹-\ђddd+׹⍾ђ-nђns1T-ka I left a little of the supper
j'ai laissé un peu du dîner.
248
Ϫ-¸+1ϪsK-d R Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸J+s-].
Ϫ-¸1ђsT-ka[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-¸ђJs-ϪnT-ka Ω [nm] remainder restant,
reste.
√¸1t [variant of √¸1 4a; N √ց1]
t-Ϫ-¸ђ 11±t-tGos, Pl !-1-¸ђJJϪ!Gos Ω [nf] colocynth, inedible wild
melon sp. coloquinte, melon sauvage non comestible sp. [ID: Citrullus
colocynthis].
√¸1tm [N √ց1tm]
t-Ϫ-¸ђ1tђm-tK-d R T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] T-md = t-Ϫ-ցђ1tђm-tA-grm, Pl
!-1-¸ђJ!ђn-enK-d = !-1-¸ђJ!ϪnT-ka T-md = !-1-ցђJ!Ϫn
A-grm Ω a) [nf] fist poing [K-d R T] [cf. verb √¸bz 2] Ω b) [nf]
forearm avant-bras [A-grm].
√¸1w ### [for !-Ϫ-¸ђJJϪx-! see √¸1 1]
√¸1y 1 [homonyms √¸1y 2; perhaps N √ց1y« nouer, ... »]
-ђ¸1+y-K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ¸JђyT-ka, LoImpfP -¸ϪJJ+y-T-ka] Ω a)
[tr] cross-cut, cut (long object) cross-wise, chop (long piece of wood)
against the grain couper (objet long) en travers, couper (un long bois) à
contrefil [T-ka] [syn: see √nkd 1a] Ω b) [tr] cross (e.g. street) traverser
(rue, etc.) [K-d].
Ϫ-¸+1ϪyK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸J+y-].
√¸1y 2 (ց1y) [homonyms √¸1y 1; N √ց1y]
-ђ¸1+y-K-d T-ka = -ђց1+y-A-grm [Imprt ђ¸JђyT-ka, LoImpfP
-¸ϪJJ+y-T-ka] Ω [intr] speak seriously (not in jest); (sb) be serious,
responsible, reliable; be determined (to do sth) parler sérieusement (pas
en plaisantant); (qn) ê. sérieux, fiable; ê. décidé (à faire qch) [cf. √s-th 1].
Ϫ-ց+1ϪyA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸J+y-].
u¸1eyK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸J+y-].
ђ¸¸ђ1u y-+tK-d T-ka, Pl ђ¸¸ђJuy-+!-enT-ka Ω [nf, vbln of
-ђ¸J+y-].
√¸1y 3 [for masculine see √¸1 6]
t-+-¸o1Ϫy-tK-d R T-ka = t-+-ցo1Ϫy-tA-grm, Pl !-1-¸oJϪy-en
K-d R T-ka = !-1-ցoJϪy-enA-grm Ω [nf] step-daughter fille
adoptive, belle-fille (par remariage).
√¸m 1 (ցm) [perhaps related to √dցmn ; N √ցm, DTF 1.443]
Ϫ-¸+mϪA-grm[x⍾+-]K-d T-ka T-md = Ϫ-ց+mϪ, Pl 1-¸+nϪ-!+nT-md
= 1-ց+nϪ-!+nA-grm Ω a) [nm] (the) outside; periphery, outskirts
(le) dehors; périphérie, alentours, marge Ω b) [nm] wilderness, bush
brousse [syn: √nt 3, √sI 5, √¸I 1, √1bd, √t¸ 1, √sxt 3].
k+1⍾+-¸+mϪT-ka Ω [cpd nmpl] rural people, nomads gens de la
brousse, broussards, nomades.
249
sϪ-¸+mϪT-ka Ω [adv phrase] to the outside au dehors - ex:
n-ђz¸+I-e!sϪ-¸+nϪT-ka let’s go outside! allons dehors!
[√z¸t 2].
√¸m 2 (ցm) [N √ցm].
t-±¸ђm-tK-d T-md[xt-±...] = !-1ցђn-!A-grm, Pl !-1¸n-enT-ka[x
t-±...] T-md = !-1-ցђnnA-grm Ω [nf] camel’s metal nose-ring
anneau de nez en métal d’un chameau.
√¸m 3 [variant of √¸n 5]
Ϫ¸ђmmT-ka Ω [clause-initial yes-no interrogative particle] is it true that ...?
est-il vrai que ...? [rather emphatic; cf.√k 2] - ex: Ϫ¸ђnnђ!!1zϪJ
ђnәϪJ1x+IØ-+xxedT-ka has not Ali’s due date arrived? n’est-
ce pas que la date convenue avec Ali est arrivée?
√¸m 4 (ցm) [N √ցm]
-o ¸+m-K-d T-ka = -oց+m-A-grm [Imprt Ϫ¸ђnT-ka = ϪցђnA-grm,
LoImpfP -!-1¸ђn-T-ka = -!-Ϫց+n-A-grm] Ω [tr] serve, ladle
(food, from pot onto eating bowl) servir (la sauce etc., de la marmite
dans une écuelle).
±¸¸umK-d T-ka[x±...], Pl 1¸¸un-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -o¸+n-].
ϪցցϪmA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -o¸+n-].
t-ϪցցϪm-tA-grm Ω [nf, vbln of -o¸+n-].
√¸m 5 (ցm) [N √ցm]
t-Ϫ¸mϪT-ka, Pl !-Ϫ¸n1x-enT-ka Ω [nf] spout (of kettle) bec (de
théière).
√¸m 6 [N √ցm]
ђ-¸±mmT-ka[xђ-] = Ϫ-¸¸±mmT-ka[x⍾ђ-] = Ϫ¸¸±mK-d[xϪ...]
Ω [nm] million; huge number million; nombre énorme.
√¸m 7 [originally related to √¸m 4; DTF 1.443]
t-e ¸¸Ϫm-tK-d T-ka, Pl !-1¸¸ϪnK-d T-ka Ω a) [nm] trip to a well to get
water; trip to fill a container fait d’aller au puits pour chercher de l’eau;
fait d’aller remplir un récipient Ω b) [nm] (single) act of drawing water
and pouring into the trough fait de puiser de l’eau (une fois) et de la
verser dans l’abreuvoir.
√¸m 8
[intr] [occurs in the following formulaic expression]
+¸ђm-et-\Ϫ-k!T-ka Ω [interj] may God grant it for you! que Dieu
l’exauce pour toi!
√¸mb 1(ցmb) [N √ցnb and DTF 1.459 √ցnb « crocodile, ... »]
+-¸ϪmbϪK-d R T-ka T-md Ts = +-¸ϪmbϪGnd = +-ցϪmbϪA-grm Gao, Pl
1-¸unbϪT-md = 1-¸Ϫnb-ϪnK-d T-ka T-md Ts = 1-ցϪnb-Ϫn
A-grm Gao = 1-¸unb-ϪnR Ω [nm] hippopotamus hippopotame.
t-+-¸ϪmbϪ-t-tK-d T-ka T-md = t-+-ցϪmbϪ-t-tA-grm, Pl
!-1-¸unbϪT-md = !-1-¸ϪnbϪ-!-enK-d T-ka
250
= !-1-ցϪnbϪ-!-enA-grm Ω [nf] female hippopotamus
hippopotame femelle.
√¸mb 2
¸embuT-ka = ¸embuT-md, Pl ¸enbu-!+nT-ka = ¸enbu-!+nT-md
Ω [nm] field champ [Bella word].
√¸mb 3 [perhaps < KCh ¸onbo ‘a woman’s hairstyle’; on braiding see DTF
3.1241-3]
-ђ¸¸umb+-tT-ka [Imprt ¸unbђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1¸ђnbu-!T-ka]
Ω [intr] (woman) have her hair braided (femme) se faire tresser les
cheveux [cf. √s-s-kn 1b (and √s-kn 2)]. Caus √s-¸mb.
Ϫ-¸ђmbuT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸¸unb+-!].
t-e-n+s-¸embђ-t-tT-ka, Pl !-1-nђs-¸unbϪT-ka Ω [nf] braider
(woman who braids other women) tresseuse.
√¸mbt [TNEBF 279 ‘foreskin’]
Ϫ-¸+ mbotK-d, Pl 1-¸ђnbϪIK-d Ω [nm] scalp (skin under head hair)
cuir chevelu, peau sous les cheveux.
√¸md(ցmd) [N √ցmd ; EPPB 168]
-ђ¸m+d-K-d T-ka T-md = -ђցm+d-A-grm [Imprt ђ¸nђdT-ka, LoImpfP
-¸Ϫnn+dT-ka] Ω a) [tr] pull away from, beat (sb, e.g. in arriving sw),
get there before (sb) devancer, arriver avant (qn, qq part) [A-grm T-ka] -
phrase: 1-¸nϪd-\!+ss+kkT-ka there is no doubt il n’y a aucun
doute Ω b) [intr, tr] escape (from); (word, fart, etc.) slip out inadvertently
(from) se sauver, s’échapper (de); (mot, pet, etc.) ê. émis par accident
(par) [A-grm K-d T] - ex: !-ђ¸n+d-\!!-oIIe!-!T-ka a fart
escaped from him (= he let out an unintended fart) un pet s’est échappé
de lui (= il a pété involontairement) Ω c) [intr] (sun) rise (soleil) se
lever [A-grm T] [cf. √wt 2a] - ex: !-ђ¸n+d!-+-1ukkT-mdthe sun
rose le soleil s’est levéT-md Ω d) [intr] (grass) appear, sprout
(herbe) germer, pousser [K-d T] Ω e) [intr] (storm clouds) appear, loom
(nuages de pluie, orage) apparaître, menacer [K-d] [cf. √s-kn 1a,
√wt 2a, √ny 1, √nmnk, √ts¸ 1].
Ϫ-ց+mϪdK-d = Ϫ-ց+mϪdA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸n+d-].
Ϫ-ց+mϪdђnt-+-IukkA-grm Ω [cpd nm] sunrise lever du soleil.
Ϫ-¸modT-ka[x⍾ђ-], Pl 1-¸nod-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸n+d-].
Ϫ-¸modђnt-ђ-IukkT-ka Ω [cpd nm] sunrise lever du soleil.
√¸m¸m (ցmցm) [for verb see √s-¸m¸m ; N √ցmցm]
t-ђ-¸u m¸em-tK-f R T-ka = t-+-¸um¸em-tK-d, Pl !-1-¸un¸en-en
K-d K-f R T-ka Ω [nf] breakfast petit déjeuner [syn: √1Itt, √tzn].
t-Ϫ-ցђmցђm-tA-grm, Pl !-1-ցђnցϪnA-grm Ω [nf]
[= !-ђ-¸un¸en-!].
251
√¸mk [N √ցmk]
-ђ¸m+k-K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ¸nђkT-ka, LoImpfP -¸Ϫnn+k-T-ka] Ω [tr]
read (alphabet) out loud; sound out, read (text) letter by letter (like a
beginning pupil) lire (l’alphabet) à haute voix; vocaliser, lire (un texte)
lettre par lettre (comme un élève débutant).
Ϫ-¸+mϪkK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸n+k-].
t-e -¸+mkeK-d T-ka, Pl !-1-¸Ϫnk1x-enT-ka Ω a) [nf] alphabet
alphabet [T-ka] Ω b) [nf] recitation, (a) reading (aloud) récitation,
lecture (à haute voix) [K-d].
√¸mm(ցmm) [N √ցmm]
-ђ¸m+m-K-d T-ka = -ђցm+m-A-grm [Imprt ђ¸nђnT-ka, LoImpfP
-¸Ϫnn+n-T-ka] Ω [tr] drink (liquid) from tankard or cup put in mouth;
put (chewing tobacco) in one’s mouth boire (liquide) dans un récipient
porté à la bouche; chiquer, mettre (tabac à chiquer) dans la bouche.
Ϫ-¸+mϪmK-d T-ka = Ϫ-ց+mϪmA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸n+n-].
√¸mn¸m [cf. N √ցmm, DTF 1.450 √ցmnցm « se rincer la bouche »]
-+¸m+n¸+m+-tK-d T-ka = -ց+m+֊ց+m+-tA-grm [Imprt ¸ђnђn¸ђnђ-!
T-ka = ցђnђ֊ցђnђ-!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-1¸nђn¸ђn1-!K-d T-ka
= -!-1ցђnђ֊ցђn1-!A-grm] Ω a) [tr] nibble, chew lightly with front
teeth mordiller légèrement avec les dents de devant [all dialects] Ω b)
[tr] drink (sth) a little at a time boire (qch) à petites gorgées [K-d].
Ϫ-¸mђn¸ђm± K-d T-ka = Ϫ-ցђmђ֊ցђm±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of
-+¸n+n¸+n+-!].
√¸mt 1a(ցmt) [homonyms √¸mt 1c]
-ђ¸m+t-K K-d T-ka = -ђցm+t-A-grm [Imprt ђ¸nђIT-ka, LoImpfP
-¸Ϫnn+I-T-ka] Ω a) [tr] treat carefully, take good care of (sb, one’s
hair, etc.); fatten (e.g. a sheep or a woman); be deeply involved in (making
sth) prendre en charge, traiter avec soin, entretenir (qn, ses cheveux,
etc.); engraisser (un mouton, une femme noble, etc.); ê. absorbé (par la
fabrication de qch) [all dialects] Ω b) [intr] go on a special diet (to add
weight) se mettre en régime (pour grossir) [A-grm].
+-n-Ϫ¸mϪtT-ka, Pl 1-n-Ϫ¸nϪI-+nT-ka Ω [nm, Agent] sth or sb kept
under close watch while it grows; well-treated child qn ou qch surveillé
de près pendant sa croissance; enfant bien traité Ω b) [nm] sth or sb kept
under close watch while it grows qn ou qch surveillé de près pendant sa
croissance Ω c) [nm] sb who protects his pet qn qui a un animal favori
qu’il protège.
t-+-n-Ϫ¸mϪt-tK-d Ω [nf] woman who is fattened deliberately femme
qu’on engraisse délibérément.
Ϫ-¸+mϪtK-d T-ka = Ϫ-ց+mϪtA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸n+I-].
Ϫ-¸mutT-ka[x⍾ђ-] Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸n+I-].
e-¸emђtT-ka Ω [nm, Agent] (sb’s) pet animal animal favori protégé (de
qn).
252
√¸mt 1b
Ϫ-¸ђmmetT-ka[x⍾ђ-] Ω [nm] initial investment, capital invested in a
business venture; initial recovery (e.g. from drought) investissement
initial, capital investi au début d’un commerce; début de récupération
(après une sécheresse, etc.) [DTF 1.451 « honneur »].
√¸mt 1c(ցmt) [homonyms √¸mt 1a; N √ցmt]
-ђցm+t-A-grm [Imprt ђցnђIA-grm, LoImpfP -ցϪnn+I-A-grm] Ω a)
[intr] go hunting aller à la chasse [syn: √hy 2] Ω b) [tr] raise, train
(hunting dog) élever, dresser (un chien de chasse).
+-n-ϪցmϪtA-grm, Pl 1-n-ϪցnϪI-+nA-grm Ω [nm, Agent] one who
raises hunting dogs; hunter qn qui élève des chiens de chasse; chasseur.
Ϫ-ց+mϪtA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђցn+I-].
√¸ms [N √ցms]
t-+-¸om+s-tIm K-d R, Pl !-1-¸on+s-enIm K-d R Ω a) [nf] cheek
joue [K-d R] [from cheekbone to jaw; cf. √dd 2, √¸z 1] Ω b) [nf]
cheekbone area région de la pommette [Im].
√¸msk [N √ցmsk (verb “ցamsak”« ê. triangulaire, ... »)]
+-¸± ms+kR T-md = ђ-¸±ms+kT-ka, Pl 1-¸1ns+k-+nR T-ka T-md
Ω a) [nm] swift martinet (« hirondelle ») [ID: Apus affinis, often roosts
in minarets or water towers] Ω b) [nm] rake for removing weeds râteau
pour enlever les mauvaises herbes.
t-+-¸±ms+k-kTs, Pl !-1-¸1ns+k-enTs Ω [nm] swift martinet.
√¸ms (ցms) [N √ցmz]
e¸m+sIm K-d R T-ka[xe...] = eցm+sA-grm[xe...], Pl Ϫ¸nϪs-+nIm
K-d R T-ka = eցn+s-+nA-grm = 1-¸ђns-ϪnT-ka Ω [nm] thumb
pouce [‘finger’: √skd 1].
√¸msd
t-e-¸+mϪset-tK-d Ω [nf, Sg only] rope with waterskins tied at both ends
corde avec des outres attachés aux deux bouts [waterskins are placed on
donkey’s flank, with rope looped under tail to hold them in place].
√¸mtt [cf. √¸ntt]
Ϫ-¸ђmmђ totK-d, Pl 1-¸ђnnђ!ϪIK-d Ω [nf] (wind-made) mound of sand
(less than a dune) petit monticule de sable fait par le vent (plus petit
qu’une dune) [cf. √¸I 1].
√¸n ### [for LoImpfP -¸Ϫnn- see √n 9 ‘say’; for Ø-+¸¸e-n see √¸t 1; see also
√m¸n 3].
√¸n 1
t-Ϫ-¸nu-t-tK-d T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] T-md, Pl !-1-¸nu-!-enT-ka T-md
Ω [nf] shallow but wide pit, hole (in ground) fossé, trou (dans le sol) peu
profond mais large [syn: !-e-׹es-! √׹s 1].
253
√¸n 2 (ցn) [N √ցn or √ցnw or √zn]
Ϫ-¸ђnnϪIm K-d K-f R T-ka[x⍾ђ-] T-md = Ϫ-ցђnnϪA-grm = Ϫ-¸+nnϪ
T-md, Pl 1-¸ђnnϪx-+nIm K-d K-f R T-ka T-md = 1-ցђnnϪx-+n
A-grm Ω [nm] rain pluie - phrase: 1-x+!⍾ђ-¸ђnnϪA-grm K-d
T-md rain struck (= it rained) la pluie a frappé (= il a plu) [see cpd under
√n 11 ‘mother’].
√¸n 3a (ցn) [no clear semantic connection to √m¸n 2,3; N √ցn ; MGT 1.71
<√*ցhn]
-ђ¸+n-T-ka = -¸+n-K-d T-md = -ђց+n-A-grm [Imprt ђ¸ђnT-ka
T-md, LoImpfP -!-ђ¸¸Ϫn-T-ka T-md = -!-ђցցϪn-A-grm
= -ђ¸¸Ϫn-K-d T-ka] Ω [intr] (e.g. camel) kneel; (camel) crouch down
on front knees (in mating) (chameau etc.) s’agenouiller, baraquer;
(chameau) s’accroupir avec les genoux de devant à terre (en s’accouplant).
Caus √s-¸n 1.
t-Ϫ-m-ђ¸±n-tK-d R T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] = !-Ϫ-n-ђց1n-!A-grm, Pl
!-1-n-¸Ϫn1x-enR = !-1-n-ђ¸Ϫn1x-enT-ka
= !-1-n-ђ¸1n-enT-ka = !-1-n-ђցϪnA-grm Ω [nf, vbln of
-ђ¸+n-].
√¸n 3b (ցn) [see also Ϫ-n-+¸on ‘small dune’ √m¸n 2]
Ϫ-m-+ցonA-grm, Pl 1-nђցϪnA-grm Ω [nm] spot where cows lie down
endroit où les vaches se couchent.
√¸n 4 [<Songhay (¸een1, ¸eyn1)]
t-e -¸en-tR T-ka, Pl !-1-¸en-enR T-ka Ω [nf] grain spike, ear (esp. of
millet) épi (surtout de mil) [syn: !-e-׹Ϫ׹+n-! √׹׹n].
√¸n 5 (ցn) [see variant Ϫ¸ђnn √¸m 3; probably related to ϪցnϪ √ցn]
Ϫ¸+nIm K-d K-f = e¸+ nGao = eց+nA-grm Ω [yes-no interrogative
particle] is it true that ...? est-ce que ..? [cf. √k 2].
√¸n 6 (ցn) [N √ցn, DTF 3.1324]
t-u ¸nϪK-d R T-ka[xt-u...] = t-uցnϪA-grm[xt-u...], Pl
!-u¸nϪx-enK-d R T-ka = !-uցnϪx-enA-grm Ω [nf] silhouette
(of sb) silhouette (de qn) [i.e. shape of sb seen at night, often
recognizable].
√¸n 7 [variant of √¸1 2c]
Ϫ-¸ђnIm Ω [nf] (grazing animal’s) cud bol alimentaire (d’un ruminant).
√¸n 8 [DTF 1.456 with different sense connected to √¸n 3]
t-+ -¸ϪnϪK-d, Pl !-1-¸Ϫn1x-enK-d Ω [nf] pile of belongings, pile of
baggage tas de bagages.
-+ ¸¸on+-t K-d [Imprt ¸unђ-! K-d, LoImpfP -!-1 ¸unu-! K-d] Ω [tr]
put (baggage) together in a pile entasser (les bagages).
+ -¸ϪnuK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+¸¸on+-!].
√¸nb ### [see √¸mb].
254
√¸nd 1 [variant of √dn¸ and √1n¸ 2]
Ϫ-¸ђnd±T-md, Pl 1-¸ђnd1-!+nT-md Ω [nm] zaban fruit zaban (fruit).
t-Ϫ-¸ђnd±-tT-md Ω [nf] zaban, woody climbing vine whose fruits can be
sucked zabanier (arbre du fruit zaban) [ID: Saba senegalensis, grows in
southern Mali, fruits brought north for sale in cities].
√¸nd 2 [N √ցnd, DTF 1.459-60 with description]
e -¸+ndK-d T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-¸+nd-+nT-ka Ω [nm] old-fashioned
underground granary silo souterrain de type ancien.
√¸ndI
Ϫ-¸ђnduIT-ka, Pl 1-¸ђndu1-+nT-ka = 1-¸ђndϪ1T-ka Ω [nm]
forearm span (measure) empan de l’avant-bras [elbow to knuckle of fist;
cf. √tds 1, √׹1 3a].
√¸ndms [mutation of √ցn¸ms]
¸ђnd±musT-ka = ¸+nd±mo ssR, Pl ¸+nd1nos-!+nR Ω [nm] wild cat
chat sauvage [ID: mainly the sand cat, Felis margarita, cf. √bwn].
√¸ndy
Ϫ-¸ђndϪyђnT-md = Ϫ-ցђndϪyђnA-grm, Pl 1-ցђndϪyђn-+nA-grm
Ω a) [nm] grass sp. graminée sp. [A-grm] [unidentified] Ω b) [nm]
erect herb sp. plante à port érigé sp. [A-grm] [flowering herb along river
or edge of pond, said to occur in Gourma near Ansongo] [syn:
!-Ϫ-s1sђk-k √skk] Ω c) [nm] fruit of !-+-dunun-!tree fruit
de l’arbre !-+-dunun-! [T-md] [more often +-dunun].
√¸nI 1 [DTF 1.461, DN86]
-ђ¸¸unIϪ-T-ka = -+ ¸¸unIa-K-d [Imprt ¸un1T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1¸ђn1u-T-ka] Ω [tr] have a good look at (sth) bien regarder,
contempler (qch).
Ϫ-¸u nIK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸¸un1Ϫ-].
√¸nI 2
¸+nIoK-d T-ka[x¸+...] Ω [nm] eighth Muslim lunar month huitième
mois lunaire musulman [follows !-1-nђnne׹+I-en, precedes
+-zunn].
√¸n׹1
e-¸+ ֊׹+1K-d T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-¸+֊׹+J-+nK-d T-ka Ω [nm] collar
leash for dog laisse, corde attachée au cou d’un chien.
√¸n¸ [see variant √dnց ; N √dnց ; EPPB 148]
¸ђnnђ¸Im K-d K-f R T-ka T-md Ts Ω [prep] above au-dessus de [cf. √I1]
- with pronominal (Im K-f R T-ka T-md Ts): 1Sg ¸ђnnђ¸-1, 2MaSg
¸ђnnђ¸-ђk, 2FeSg ¸ђnnђ¸-ђn, 3MaSg ¸ђnnђ¸-ђs, 1Pl
¸ђnnђ¸-n+׹, 2MaPl ¸ђnnђ¸-x+n, 2FePl ¸ђnnђ¸-kn+!, 3MaPl
¸ђnnђ¸-s+n, 3FePl ¸ђnnђ¸-sn+! - ex: 1-JJϪ¸ђnnђ¸-1T-ka he
is above me il est au-dessus de moi.
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√¸n¸n [cf. N √ցnցn]
e-¸+n¸+nT-ka, Pl 1-¸+n¸+n-+nT-ka Ω [nm] nostalgia nostalgie [syn:
√sI 5, √zy 1b, cf. √nt 3] - ex: 1-nϪqq-\e⍾+-¸+n¸+nn
⍾+-n-1d1-nne!T-ka he misses his friend son ami lui manque [syn:
+-su11 √sI 5, √nt 3, √zy 1b].
√¸nn ### [for VblN Ϫ-¸ђynϪn see √¸ynn]
√¸ns
e -¸+ns K-d R T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md = e-ց+nsA-grm, Pl 1-¸+ns-+nR
T-ka = 1-ց+ns-+nA-grm = 1-¸+ns-ϪnK-d Ω a) [nm] river
fleuve [R T] [syn √¸tw 2] Ω b) [nm] deep water; river (with deep bed)
eau profonde; fleuve aux eaux profondes [A-grm K-d].
√¸ntt [cf. √¸mtt ; cf. N √ցntt and √dnցt]
t-Ϫ-¸ђntut-tT-ka, Pl !-1-¸ђn!uI-+nT-ka Ω [nf] mound of sand
(e.g. covering a small bush) monticule de sable (par ex. couvrant un petit
buisson).
√¸nw (ցnw) [Y !-Ϫ-ցn+xxϪ!‘momentary blindness’; N √ցnw « ê. obscur »]
-+¸n+ww+-tK-d = -+ցn+ww+-tR T-ka = -ց+n+ww+-t A-grm [Imprt
ցђnђxxђ-!A-grm R T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1¸nђxx1-!K-d
= -!-1ցnђxx1-!R T-ka = -!-1ցђnђxx1-!A-grm] Ω a) [intr]
suffer an eye disease souffrir d’une maladie oculaire [R T] Ω b) [intr]
be visibly exhausted (e.g. with bags under eyes) ê. visiblement très
fatigué [K-d] Ω c) [intr] suffer indigestion avoir une indigestion
[A-grm].
Ϫ-¸nђww±K-d = Ϫ-ցnђww±R = Ϫ-ցђnђww±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of
-+ցn+xx+-!].
t-Ϫ ¸nϪw-tK-d Ω [nf] indigestion indigestion.
√¸nz [N √ցnz]
ђ¸¸ђnz uK-d T-ka Ω [nm] (sb’s) low socioeconomic status, low class
niveau socioéconomiquement bas, classe inférieure.
e-¸+nz±T-ka[x⍾+-] Ω [nm] low-status person personne de status
inférieur [common in joking or light insults].
t-e-¸+nz±-t-tK-d, Pl t-±-¸ђnzK-d Ω [nf] low-status person (either
sex) personne (mâle ou femelle) de status inférieur.
√¸t ### [see also √s-¸t 2 ‘rescue’]
√¸t 1 (ցt) [N √ցt ; EPPB 138]
¸e tK-d T-ka = ց+tA-grm Ω [prep, before noun] between entre [with two
NPs expressed as ¸eI X ђd Y].
ց+tA-grm Gao Ω [prep, before noun] [= ¸eI].
¸e t-K-d R T-ka Ω [prep, before Sg pronominal suffix] between entre -
pronominal forms: 1Sg ¸eI-1 = ¸eI-e׹, 2MaSg ¸ђI-ђk, 2FeSg
¸ђI-ђn, 3Sg ¸eI-ђs - ex: ¸eI-1-\dђI-ђkK-d T-ka between me
and you-Ma entre toi-Ma et moi.
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ց+t-A-grm Ω [prep, before Sg pronominal suffix] [= ¸eI-] - ex:
ց+I-1-\dђI-ђkA-grm between me and you-MaSg entre toi-Ma et
moi.
¸ete-Im K-d R T-ka = ցete - Gao = ¸e t- R Ω [prep, before Pl pronominal
suffix] between entre - with pron: 1Pl ¸eIe-n+׹Gao K-d R T-ka
= ցeIe-n+׹Gao = ¸eIe-nn+׹Im = ¸eI-n+׹Gao R, 2MaPl
¸eIe-xx+n = ¸eI-x+n, 2FePl ¸eIe-kn+! = ¸eI-kn+!, 3MaPl
¸eIe-ss+n = ¸eI-s+n, 3FePl ¸eIe-sn+! = ¸eI-sn+!.
ց+t-A-grm = ց+te- [reported for K area] Ω [prep, before Pl pronominal
suffix] - with pron: 3MaPl ց+I-s+n = ց+Ie-ss+n ; 1Pl ց+I-n+׹
= ց+Ie-nn+׹.
√¸t 2a (ցt) [homonyms √¸t 2b, 3; cf. √m¸t 4, √m¸tm¸t ; cf. Ϫ-n¸ђI ‘war’; N
√ցt]
-ђ ¸+t-R T-ka = -¸+t-K-d T-md = -ђց+t-A-grm [Imprt ђ¸ђIR T-ka
T-md, LoImpfP -ђ¸¸ϪI-T-ka = -!-ђ¸¸ϪI-T-ka = -!-ђցցϪI-
A-grm] Ω a) [tr] throw (stone, spear) lancer (pierre, lance) [all dialects]
[cf. √ndw, √st1 4] Ω b) [tr] lose (money) perdre (argent) [A-grm T]
Ω c) [tr] strike (fire, using a flint) faire jaillir (le feu, avec un silex) [K-d
T] Ω d) [tr] set fire to (sth) mettre feu à, allumer (qch) [A-grm T] [cf.
√s-¸t 1] Ω e) [tr] offer (a price, in market) proposer (un prix, au
marché) [A-grm K-d] Ω f) [tr plus dative or prep 1+J] make (a greeting,
to sb) donner (une salutation, à qn) [K-d T] - ex: 1-¸+I-\1+JJϪ-s
+ss+JϪnT-ka he greeted him il l’a salué Ω g) [tr] have (hopes)
avoir (de l’espoir) [object is +!!+nϪ √tm 2] [K] Ω h) [tr] lightly cook
(tripe) by putting hot stones inside it cuire légèrement (des tripes) en
mettant des pierres chaudes dedans [K-d] Ω i) [intr] (female animal, esp.
camel) miscarry (animal femelle, surtout chamelle) avorter [K-d] [cf.
√sI 1 or √s-hh 1 (woman), √׹ty (sheep or goat)]. Cf. √s-¸t 2.
e-¸etK-d R T-ka[x⍾ђ-] = e-ցetA-grm[x⍾+-], Pl 1-¸eI-+nT-ka
Ω a) [nm, vbln of -ђ¸+I-] [widely elicitable, but less common than
homonyms √¸t 2b and √¸t 3] Ω b) [nm] miscarriage (of she-camel)
avortement (d’une chamelle) [A-grm].
+¸¸otT-ka = +ցցotA-grm[x+...], Pl +¸¸oI-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of
-ђ¸+I-].
t-e -¸eteK-d T-ka = t-e-ցeteA-grm[x⍾t-+-], Pl !-1-¸1IT-ka
= !-1-ցuIA-grm[x⍾t-ђ-] Ω a) [nf] (a) throw; missile, sth thrown
lancement; chose lancée [all dialects] Ω b) [nf] (a) stone’s throw
(distance) jet de pierre (mesure de distance) [K-d].
-+nm-+¸+t-T-ka = -n+m-+ց+t-A-grm [Imprt nђn-ђ¸ђIT-ka
= nђn-ђցђIA-grm, LoImpfP -!-1nn-ђ¸1I-T-ka
= -!-1nђn-ђց1I-A-grm] Ω [intr, Recip] throw to or at each other
se jeter l’un à l’autre.
257
Ϫ-nm-ђ¸ϪtT-ka = Ϫ-nђm-ђցђtA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -+nn-+¸+I-]
√¸t 2b [homonym √¸t 2a, 3]
e-¸etT-ka[x⍾ђ-] = e-ցetA-grm[x⍾+-], Pl 1-¸eI-+nT-ka Ω [nm]
incense encens [usually Pl in this sense; usual reference is to rhizome of
the sedge Cyperus maculatus; for another type of incense see √m1xt ; cf.
√dց 3, √1bxt].
√¸t 2c (ցt)
Ϫ ¸otK-d R T-ka T-md = Ϫցot (or: Ϫ-ցot)A-grm[xϪ...], Pl Ϫ¸oI-+n
K-d R T-ka T-md = ϪցoI-+nA-grm = 1-ցoI-+nA-grm Ω [nm]
large fighting spear grande lance de guerre [cf. √1׹ 5; for +-ցoII
‘castrated billygoat’ see √ցt 6].
√¸t 2d
t-e-¸et-tIm K-d, Pl !-1-¸eI-enIm K-d Ω [nf] cowry cauris.
√¸t 3 [homonyms √¸t 2a; perhaps related to √¸th 3; N “uցat” √ցt]
-ђ¸+t-T-ka = -ђց+t-A-grm [Imprt ђցђI A-grm, LoImpfP -!-ђցցϪI-
A-grm] Ω [intr] be rescued, survive ê. sauvé, survivre [usually with
directional clitic]. Caus √s-¸t 2.
e-¸etT-ka, Pl 1-¸eI-+nT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸+I-].
√¸t 4 (ցt) [N √ցt]
-o¸+t-Im K-d T-ka T-md = -oց+t-A-grm [Reslt -o¸+I-T-ka, Imprt
Ϫ¸ђIT-ka T-md = ϪցђIA-grm, LoImpfP -!-1¸ђI-T-ka T-md
= -!-1ցђI-A-grm = -!-Ϫց+I-A-grm] Ω [tr] surpass, exceed; be
bigger than dépasser; ê. plus que - ex: Ø-o¸+I-\Ϫ-h1!-Ϫ-yђ!!e
T-md he surpasses me in smartness (= is smarter than I) il me dépasse
en intelligence (= est plus intelligent que moi). Caus √s-s-¸t,
√s-m-s-¸t.
Ø-o¸+t-+nT-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] bigger plus grand - exx: x-Ϫ
Ø-o¸+I-+nK-d T-ka the bigger one le plus grand; Ϫx-Ϫ
Ø-o¸+I-+nIm most, the majority la plupart, la majeure partie.
t-o¸+t-+tT-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] bigger plus grande.
o ¸+t-nenK-d T-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] bigger plus grands.
t-± ¸tϪR = t-±ցtϪA-grm[xt-±...] Ω [nf, vbln of -o¸+I-].
m-±¸tϪwK-d T-ka[xm-±...] Ω a) [nm, vbln of -o¸+I-] Ω b) [nm]
majority (of ...) majorité, la majeur partie (de ...) [syn: !-ђssђn and
n-usn-+! √sm 1].
-+nm-Ϫ¸+t-K-d T-ka = -n+m-Ϫց+t-A-grm [Imprt nђn-1¸ђIT-ka
= nђn-1ցђIA-grm, LoImpfP -!-1nn-1¸1I-T-ka =
-!-1nђn-1ց1I-A-grm] Ω [intr, Recip] compete unequally (with one
better than the other); compare each other ê. en compétition inégale (où
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l’un est meilleur que l’autre); se comparer l’un l’autre [cf. √It׹]. Caus
√s-nm-¸t.
Ϫ-nm-±¸ђtT-ka = Ϫ-nђm-±ցђtA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -+nn-Ϫ¸+I-].
√¸t 5 [cf. √¸tsmm ; N √ցt]
+ -¸ϪttGos K-d R T-ka T-md Ts = +-¸ϪtGnd = +-ցϪttA-grm[x+-]
Th, Pl 1-¸ϪII-+nK-d R T-ka T-md Ts = 1-¸+II-ϪnGos
= 1-ցϪII-+nA-grm Th Ω [nm] tree sp. with small leaves arbre sp.
à petites feuilles [ID: Maerua crassifolia, Capparaceae, twigs used for
chewsticks; fruit √b1׹n].
+-¸Ϫt-d+ hϪnR T-ka T-md = +-ցϪt-d+ hϪnGao = Ϫ-¸+t-d+hϪnTs
= Ϫ-ց+t-d+hϪnA-grm, Pl 1-¸ϪI-d+hϪn-+nR T-ka T-md
= 1-¸+I-d+hϪn-+nTs = 1-ց+I-d+hϪn-+nA-grm Ω [frozen cpd
nm] tree sp. that resembles +-¸ϪII arbre sp. qui ressemble à +-¸ϪII
[ID: Boscia angustifolia, Capparaceae; for some speakers not segmentable;
N “aցat-hadan” √ցt].
t-+ -¸Ϫt-tK-d T-ka T-md = t-+-ցϪt-tA-grm Gao, Pl !-1-¸ϪII-en
T-ka T-md Ω a) [nf] [Dimin < +-¸ϪII] [K-d T-md] Ω b) [nf] tree sp.
arbre sp. [ID: Maerua crassifolia or Boscia angustifolia] [A-grm] Ω c)
[nf] leaves of this tree sp. feuilles de cet arbre [T] - cpd: see under
√mz11¸.
√¸t 6 (¸ty) [<Songhay ¸eeI1 ]
e-¸et±T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-¸eIђy-+nT-ka Ω [nm] gazelle sp. gazelle
sp. [ID: mainly Gazella rufifrons, not necessarily male; syn: √dm 2b].
t-e-¸et±-t-tT-ka = t-e-¸etu-t-tGnd, Pl !-1-¸eI1-!-enT-ka
Ω [nf] [= e-¸eI1, not necessarily female].
√¸t 7 [N √ցt ; EPPB 146]
e-¸+ ttGnd K-d R T-ka[x⍾+-] Ts, Pl 1-¸+I-ϪnK-d R T-ka Ts Ω a)
[nm] frog grenouille [all dialects] [cf. √kdbdb, √mb1 2, √nmk] Ω b)
[nm] silver cross (jewelry) croix en argent (bijouterie) [T] [syn: √zt].
√¸t 8 [N √ցt]
-ђ¸¸utt+-tT-ka [Imprt ¸uIIђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1¸ђIIu-!T-ka]
Ω [tr] drive ahead of oneself (animal that is moving slowly) pousser
devant soi (animal qui marche lentement).
Ϫ-¸ђttuT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸¸uII+-!].
√¸t 9
¸ђt±K-d T-ka[x¸ђ...] Ω [nm] advanced leprosy lèpre au stade avancé
[e.g. when fingers fall off; cf. √׹ts 1b]
√¸td(dtց) [variant of √dtց (note metathesis), cf. also √dt¸ ; N √dtց]
-ђ¸t+d-K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ¸IђdT-ka, LoImpfP -¸ϪII+d-T-ka] Ω [intr,
often plus dative] (sth) be invisible to (sb), be unknown to (sb) (qch) ê.
invisible à (qn), ê. inconnu à (qn) - ex: !-ђ¸IϪd-\Ϫ-sT-md she is
unaware of it; it’s invisible to her elle l’ignore; elle ne le voit pas -
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proverb: Ϫ1-¸IϪd-+ny⍾+-k+zz!-enden⍾+-h+dT-ka
what the chicken is unaware of is the mortar of the night ce que le poulet
ignore, c’est le mortier de la nuit [i.e. “wouldn’t so-and-so like to see
this!”].
+-m-Ϫ¸tϪdT-ka Ω [nm, Agent] sb who can disappear (magically) qn
qui est capable de disparaître (par magie).
Ϫ-¸+tϪdK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸I+d-].
√¸t-dhn ### [for +-¸ϪI-d+hϪn see under √¸t 5].
√¸tdn [N √ցtd, √ցtdy]
+-¸o td+nK-d T-ka = +-¸otdђnT-md, Pl 1-¸oId+n-+nT-ka
= 1-¸oIdђn-+nT-md Ω [nm] camel tick tique de chameau [syn:
√¸tm1, cf. √s1I 2, √sb 2, √kts1I].
√¸td [cf. √ցtd ; N √¸td ]
-ђ¸t+d-K-d [Imprt ђ¸IђdK-d, LoImpfP -¸ϪII+dK-d] Ω [tr] (rodent)
gnaw on (wood, hide, etc., leaving marks) (rongeur) ronger (du bois, une
peau, etc., en laissant des traces) [cf. √mtd ; ‘bite’: √dd 1].
Ϫ-¸+tϪdK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸I+d-].
√¸tdw [N √ցtd]
t-e-¸+td+w-tK-d R, Pl !-1-¸+Id+x-enK-d R Ω [nf] base of cranium
just above nape partie inférieure du crâne juste au-dessus de la nuque [cf.
√1n¸w, √ktd 5].
√¸tI 1(ցtI) [N √ցtI]
Ϫ-¸+toIGnd Gos K-d K-f T-ka T-md Ts = Ϫ-ց+toIA-grm Gao, Pl
1-¸+Io1-+nK-d T-ka T-md Ts = 1-¸ђI1-ϪnGos K- f
= 1-ցђI1-ϪnA-grm Ω [nm] crawling vine sp. with sharp, spiny fruits
croix de Malte, plante rampante sp. à fruits épineux [ID: Tribulus
terrestris, Zygophyllaceae; notoriously dangerous for barefoot walkers;
fruit +-ho11ϪI ; botanically related spp. √mց1s and √¸1s 1].
Ϫ-¸+toIne-1uT-md Ω [cpd nm, lit. “... of elephant”] herb sp. plante
sp. [uncommon; ID: Coldenia procumbens, cf. √mց1s and √¸1s 1].
√¸tI 2(ցtI) [N √ցtI]
-+¸t+II+-tK-d T-ka = -ց+t+II+-tA-grm [Imprt ¸ђIђ11ђ-!T-ka
= ցђIђ11ђ-!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-1¸Iђ111-!T-ka
= -!-1ցђIђ111-!A-grm] Ω a) [intr] (camel) fall to its knees
(chameau) baraquer, tomber à genoux Ω b) [intr] (sb) fall to one’s
knees, kneel (e.g. in prayer) (qn) tomber à genoux, s’agenouiller (en
priant).
Ϫ-¸tђII±K-d T-ka = Ϫ-ցђtђII±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of
-+¸I+11+-!].
√¸tI¸tI(ցtIցtI) [Y ցђIђ1ցђIђ1 ‘crush’ (also ‘kneel’)]
-+¸t+I¸+t+I-K-d T-ka = -ց+t+Iց+t+I-A-grm [Imprt ¸ђIђ1¸ђIђ1
T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1¸Iђ1¸ђI11-K-d T-ka = -!-1ցђIђ1ցђI11-
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A-grm] Ω a) [tr] pound (millet or sorghum grains) in mortar to remove
bran piler (grains de mil ou de sorgho) dans un mortier pour enlever le
son [T] [second round of pounding; cf. √dh 2, √zd 2; bran: √1m 8] Ω b)
[tr] pound or grind (millet grains) coarsely piler ou écraser grossièrement
(des grains de mil) [A-grm K-d] [to make a snack].
Ϫ-¸tђI¸ђtђIK-d T-ka = Ϫ-ցђtђIցђtђIA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of
-+¸I+1¸+I+1-].
Ϫ-¸+tϪI¸+tϪIR T-ka, Pl 1-¸+IϪ1¸+IϪ1-ϪnT-ka Ω [nm, Agent] one
who pounds (to remove bran) celui qui pile (pour enlever le son).
t-Ϫ-¸+tϪI¸+tϪI-tK-d = t-+-¸+tϪI¸+ tϪI-tR
= t-Ϫ-ց+t+Iց+t+I-tA-grm, Pl !-1-¸+IϪ1¸+IϪ1-enR Ω [nf]
coarsely pounded or ground millet grains mil pilé ou écrasé
grossièrement [eaten uncooked as a snack, or mixed with water and drunk;
cf. √stIstI].
√¸th 1 (ցth) [N √ցt]
-ђ¸t+h-K-d T-md = -ђցt+h-A-grm [Imprt ђ¸IђhT-md, LoImpfP
-¸ϪII+h-T-md] Ω [intr, tr] understand comprendre [cf. √Ihm,
√1md, √sn 6]. Caus √s-s-¸th (cf. √s-¸th ‘look at’).
Ϫ-¸+tϪhR = Ϫ-ց+tϪhA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸I+h-].
u¸tehT-ka[xu...] Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸I+h-].
ђ¸¸ђtu h-+tK-d Ω [nf] understanding compréhension.
√¸th 2 [see variant √ցt 6; N √ցt]
ђ-¸uthT-ka = +-¸oth R = K-d +-¸othϪK-d, Pl 1-¸uIhϪx-+nT-ka
= 1-¸uIh-ϪnK-d T-ka Ω [nm] castrated animal (esp. goat) animal
(surtout bouc) castré.
√¸th 3 [perhaps related to √¸t 3 ‘survive’; N “uցat” √ցt]
-ђ¸¸uthϪ- T-ka [Imprt ¸uIhT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1¸ђIhu-T-ka]
Ω [intr] end up (in a state, doing sth) finir (dans tel état, par faire qch,
etc.)
Ϫ-¸uthT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸¸uIhϪ-].
√¸t¸ (ցtց) [N √ցtց, DTF 4.1595-6]
-+¸ot+¸-T-ka = -+ ցot+ց-R = -+ցցot+ց-A-grm [Imprt ¸uIђ¸T-ka
= ցuIђցA-grm R, ShImpf -ђցuIђց-R, LoImpfP -!-1¸uIu¸-
T-ka = -!-1ցuIuց-R = -!-1ցuI1ց-A-grm] Ω [intr] (sb) be free
to move around; (animal) be unfettered and untied (qn) ê. libre de
circuler; (animal) ê. libre (ni attaché ni entravé) [cf. √tt¸ 1a]. Caus
√s-¸t¸.
Ϫ-¸utђ¸T-ka = Ϫ-ցutђցA-grm R Ω [nm, vbln of -+¸oI+¸-].
√¸t¸m (ցtցm)
-+ ¸tϪ¸+m-K-d = -ց+tϪց+m-A-grm [Imprt ¸ђIu¸ђnK-d = ցђIuցђn
A-grm, LoImpfP -!-1¸Iu¸un-K-d = -!-1ցђIuց1n-A-grm] Ω a)
[intr] (meat, grain, etc.) be half-cooked, undercooked (viande, grains,
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etc.) ê. à moitié cuit, mal cuit [A-grm K-d] [cf. √th 2] Ω b) [intr] (sb) do
a task half-way, fail to complete a task (qn) faire une tâche à moitié, ne
pas achever une tâche [K-d].
Ϫ-¸tu¸ђmK-d = Ϫ-ցђtuցђmA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -+¸IϪ¸+n-].
√¸t¸n
e-¸+t+¸¸+nT-ka Ω [nm] fibers of +-nϪ shrub fibres de l’arbuste +-nϪ
[used like thread; √n 12].
√¸t¸t ### [see also √ցtցt]
√¸t¸t 1a (ցtցt) [see also √ցtցt 1; homonyms √¸t¸t 1b; N √ցtցt]
-ђ¸¸ђt¸+t-K-d R T-ka = -ђցցђtց+t-A-grm [Imprt¸+I¸+IR T-ka
= ց+Iց+IA-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ¸+I¸ϪI-K-d R T-ka
= -!-Ϫց+IցϪI-A-grm] Ω a) [tr] cut open (an animal carcass, with a
long incision) couper (la carcasse d’un animal, avec une longue incision)
[K-d R T-ka] [refers to the first major cut in a carcass; cf. √s1d ‘cut at
joint’; cf. √nkd 1a] Ω b) [tr] lengthen (a woman’s outer garment) by
adding an extra strip of fabric between its two halves (for a very tall
woman) rallonger (le vêtement extérieur = voile d’une femme) en
ajoutant une bande de tissu entre les deux moitiés (pour une femme de
grande taille) [K-d].
Ϫ-¸ђt¸ђtK-d R = Ϫ-ցђtցђtA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸¸ђI¸+I-].
e-¸+t¸+tT-ka, Pl 1-¸ђI¸ϪIK-d T-ka Ω a) [nm] upper middle of back
partie supérieure centrale du dos [T-ka] [Sg or Pl; cf. √¸s 2a] Ω [Pl
only:] b) [nm] upper torso (front and back, down to ribs) partie
supérieure du torse (des deux côtés, jusqu’aux côtes) [K-d T-ka].
√¸t¸t 1b (ցtցt) [homonyms √¸t¸t 1a; N √ցtցt]
-ђ¸¸ђt¸+t-T-ka = -ђցցђtց+t-K-d [Imprt¸+I¸+IT-ka = ց+Iց+I
K-d, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ¸+I¸ϪI-T-ka = -!-Ϫց+IցϪI-K-d] Ω [intr]
(old pulley for well) become worn out (so its holes are widened and it
doesn’t hold the rope properly) (vieille poulie de puits) devenir usé (de
sorte que la gorge s’élargit et que la poulie ne peut plus tenir la corde).
ђ-¸±t¸±tT-ka, 1-¸1I¸1I-+nT-ka Ω [nm] old pulley on well (with
widened holes) vieille poulie de puits (à gorge élargie) [similar form
√ցtցt 3; cf. √ktkt 5].
e-¸e t¸etK-d Ω a) [nm] old pulley on well (with widened holes) vieille
poulie de puits (à gorge élargie) Ω b) [nm] jalopy, old vehicle vieille
voiture, guimbarde.
e-¸e t¸etR, Pl 1-¸eI¸eI-+nR Ω [nm] sewn up narrowed neck of
waterskin col étroit cousu d’une outre.
√¸t¸t 2 (ցtցt) [N √ցtցt « séné »; “aցatցat” FS 152, cf. DTF 1.482]
Ϫ-ց+tց+tA-grm Gao K-f, Pl 1-ց+Iց+I-+nK-f Ω [nm] medicinal herb
sp. plante médicinale sp., séné [ID: Senna (= Cassia) italica, confirmed
UPWTA 3.155 (“egerger” etc.) and FS 152; syn: √ht¸¸m].
t-e-¸+t¸+t-tK Ω [nf] [= Ϫ-ց+Iց+I]
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t-Ϫ-ց+tց+t-tGao = t-e-ց+tց+t-t Ω [nf] [Dimin < Ϫ-ց+Iց+I].
√¸t¸s(¸tցs, ցtցs) [N √ցtցs and DTF 1.482 (« omoplate » and
« richesse »]
t-Ϫ-¸ђ t¸±s-tK-d T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] T-md = t-Ϫ-¸+tց±s-t R[x
⍾t-+-] = t-Ϫ-ց+tց±s-t A-grm, Pl !-1-¸ђI¸ϪsK-d T-ka T-md
= !-1-ցђIցϪsA-grm Ω [nf] shoulder blade omoplate [syn: √ms1k,
cf. √zth 1] [occurs in phrases involving fate or luck] - ex: !-ђnbϪ¸
⍾!-ђ-¸ђI¸1s-!-ђnne!K-d his shoulder blade is punctured (= he has
bad luck) son omoplate est trouée (= il n’a pas de chance).
√¸t¸ws [N √ցtցws]
e-¸+t¸+wϪsT-ka = Ϫ-¸+t¸+wϪsK-d, Pl 1-¸+I¸+xϪs-+nK-d T-ka
Ω [nf] hard cartilege cartilage dur.
√¸tk 1 (ցtk) [N √ցtk]
e-¸+t+kR = e-ց+t+kA-grm, Pl 1-ց+I+k-+nA-grm Ω [nm] cloud
nuage.
t-e-¸+t+k-kIm K-d R T-md, Pl !-1-¸+I+k-enIm K-d R T-ka T-md
Ω [nf] cloud nuage [cf. √bn¸, √h׹st].
√¸tk 2 (ցtk) [variant of √¸ty 1]
-+¸tuk-Im = -ђցtuk-A-grm [Imprt u¸IϪkIm = uցIϪkA-grm,
LoImpfP -!-u¸IϪk-Im = -!-uցIϪk-A-grm] Ω [intr] belch, burp
éructer, roter.
t-u¸tϪk-kIm = t-uցtϪk-kA-grm, Pl !-uցIϪk-enA-grm Ω [nm,
vbln] (a) belch éructation, rot.
√¸tm1(ցtm1) [N √ցtm1]
+-¸o tm+1K-d = +-ցotm+1A-grm, Pl 1-¸oIn+J-+nK-d
= 1-ցoIn+J-+nA-grm Ω [nm] camel tick tique de chameau [cf.
√¸tdn].
√¸tmm(ցtmm) [N √ցtmm]
¸ђtmђm-K-d R T-ka = ¸+tmϪm-R = -ђցցђtm+m-A-grm [Imprt
¸+In+nK-d R T-ka = ցђInђnA-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ¸+InϪn-K-d
R T-ka = -!-Ϫց+InϪn-A-grm] Ω a) [intr] (hide, ewe’s udder, wall,
meat, etc.) be tough, thick (e.g. hard to cut); (situation) be tough (peau,
pis de brebis, mur, viande, etc.) ê. dur, épais (donc difficile à couper);
(situation) ê. difficile [all dialects] [cf. √sh 2, √zw 5] Ω b) [intr] (sb) be
stingy (qn) ê. avare [K-d]. Caus √s-¸tmm.
¸ђtmђ m-+nK-d T-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] tough, thick dur, épais.
¸ђtmђm-+tT-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] tough, thick dure, épaisse.
¸ђtmђm-nenT-ka Ω [partpl, MaSg] tough, thick durs, épais.
±-ցցђtm+m-+nA-grm Ω [partpl, MaSg] tough, thick dur, épais.
t-ђցցђtm+m-+tA-grm Ω [partpl, FeSg] tough, thick dure, épaisse.
ђցցђtmϪm-nenA-grm Ω [partpl, MaSg] tough, thick durs, épais.
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t-+¸¸+tm+m-tR T-ka = t-ђ¸¸ђtmђm-tK-d = t-ђցցђtmђm-tA-grm
Ω [nf] thickness (of hide, wall, etc.) épaisseur (d’une peau, d’un mur,
etc.)
√¸tI
Ϫ-¸tђnIϪGao, Pl 1-¸Iђn1Ϫ-!+nGao Ω [nm] bit of hard residue from
burrgrass grain after pounding débris dur de grains de cram-cram qui
reste après le pilage [usually Pl; cram-cram: √wz¸].
√¸tnnw [DN86 √ցtnn]
-ђ¸¸ђtn+nn+w+-tT-ka = -ђ¸¸ђtnђnn+w+-tK-d [Imprt
¸+In+nn+x+-!K-d T-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ¸+In+nn+xϪ-!K-d T-ka]
Ω a) [tr] (donkey) scrape off (e.g. tree bark) with teeth) (âne) enlever (de
l’écorce, etc.) en grattant avec les dents [K-d T] [cf. √ktkt 1a, √st 1]
Ω b) [intr] (sb) beg or plead persistently (qn) quémander avec insistance
[K-d].
Ϫ-¸ђtnђnnђw±T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸¸ђIn+nn+x+-!].
√¸tt 1(ցtt) [N √ցtt]
e-¸etϪtR T-ka[x⍾+-] = +-ցetetA-grm = e-¸+tetIm K-d, Pl
1-¸eIϪI-+n R T-ka = 1-ցeIeI-+nA-grm = 1-¸+IeI-+nIm K-d
Ω a) [nm] channel, ditch (dug for rainwater, for burying cable) canal,
fossé (creusé pour l’eau de pluie, pour enterrer un câble) [A-grm T-ka]
Ω b) [nm] long natural gully (dry except after a rain), oued ravin ou oued
naturel long (sec, sauf après une pluie) [A-grm K-d T-ka] [cf. √n¸y 2,
√s-n¸y 1b].
√¸tt 2
-+¸t+t+-tT-ka [Imprt ¸ђIђIђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1¸IђI1-!T-ka]
Ω [intr] be dying (of general weakness, as in starvation) ê. en train de
mourir (de faiblesse générale, par ex. d’inanition).
Ϫ-¸tђt±T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+¸I+I+-!].
√¸ts 1 [N √ցts ; EPPB 214 with connection to √׹ths]
t-Ϫ-¸tђs-tK-d T-ka T-md = !-Ϫ-ցIђs-!A-grm, (rare) Pl
!-1-¸Iђs-enT-ka Ω [nf] cold season, winter saison froide, hiver.
√¸ts 2 [N √ցts]
e-¸etђsK-d T-ka, Pl 1-¸eIђs-+nK-d T-ka Ω [nm] bullet balle (de
fusil) [syn: !-Ϫ-s+xϪ-!-! √sw 3].
√¸ts 3 [cf. N √ցts « forêt », DTF 1.487 « vallée »]
+-¸otϪsK-d = +-ցotϪsGao, Pl 1-¸oIϪs-+nK-d Ω [nm] discomfort
(queasiness) in stomach after eating sth acidic (or from acid reflux) mal
d’estomac après avoir mangé qch d’acide (ou dû au reflux) [syn: √mnցtt,
√tt 3].
√¸tsmm(ցtsmm) [see variant √ցtsmy ; perhaps all from Songhay (KS
ցuIsuney), but if so the √¸tsmm variants were reshaped based on tree
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term +-¸ϪII √¸t 5 and adjective √smm 2a ‘sour’; N √ցtsm, DTF
1.487]
+-¸+tsђmђmT-md = +-¸+t-sђmђmR = +-¸Ϫt-sђmђmK-d T-md
= Ϫ-¸+tsђmђmT-ka = Ϫ-¸+tsђm+ mmK-f = Ϫ-ցђtsђmђmA-grm,
Pl 1-¸+I-sђnђn-+nK-d R = 1-ցђIsђnђn-+nA-grm
= 1-¸+Isђn+nn-ϪnK-f Ω a) [nm] tree sp. with edible red berries
arbre sp. à fruits rouges comestibles [K R T] [ID: Grewia spp., Tiliaceae;
mainly G. villosa (large leathery leaves), as also AASAF 67, but perhaps in
some areas also G. flavescens (smaller pointed leaves), cf. √ցtsmy,
√d¸ 2, √stm 2, √tkt, √nIn] Ω b) [nm] edible red berries of
Ϫ-ցuIsunn+y tree fruits rouges comestibles de l’arbre
Ϫ-ցuIsunn+y [A-grm].
√¸ts(ցts) [N √ցtz]
+ -¸ots K-d R T-md = +-ցotsA-grm[x+-] = ђ-¸otsT-ka, Pl
1-¸oIsϪx-+nK-d T-ka T-md = 1-¸oIs-ϪnR = 1-ցoIs-Ϫn
A-grm Ω [nm] windpipe; thorax trachée; thorax.
√¸tsm ### [see √¸tsmm]
√¸tt [see also ց+I+! √ցtt ‘rabies’]
¸+t+tT-ka[x¸+...], Pl ¸+I+!-+nT-ka Ω [nm] uninhabited desert
wasteland zone désertique inhabitée.
√¸tt׹1
-ђ¸¸ђ tt+qq+1-K-d T-ka T-md [Imprt ¸+I!+qq+JT-ka T-md, LoImpfP
-!-Ϫ¸+I!+qqϪJ-K-d T-ka T-md] Ω [intr] stumble, trip trébucher
[cf. √¸tttI, √ts1].
Ϫ-¸ђttђqqђ1K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸¸ђI!+qq+J-].
√¸tttI(ցtttI) [N √ցtttI]
-ђ¸¸ђ tt+tt+I-K-d T-ka = -ց+tt+tt+I-A-grm [Imprt ¸+I!+!!+1
T-ka = ցђI!ђ!!ђ1A-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ¸+I!+!!Ϫ1-K-d T-ka
= -!-1ցђI!ђ!!11-A-grm] Ω [intr] stumble (without falling)
trébucher (sans tomber) [cf. √¸tt׹1, √ts1].
Ϫ-¸ђttђttђIK-d T-ka = Ϫ-ցђttђttђIA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of
-ђ¸¸ђI!+!!+1-].
√¸tw ### [for n-1¸IϪx ‘majority of’ see √¸t 4]
√¸tw 1a (ցtw) [N √ցtw]
-ђ¸t+w-K-d T-ka T-md = -ђցt+w-A-grm [Imprt ђ¸IђxT-ka T-md,
LoImpfP -¸ϪII+x-T-ka T-md] Ω a) [tr] get, obtain, find obtenir,
trouver [basic sense] [near-syns √1 1, √kts, √htk] Ω b) [tr] (sickness,
calamity) afflict (sb) (maladie, catastrophe) affliger (qn) [often in Reslt
stem] - ex (curse): 1-¸Iђx-e!-\k+yh+I+!T-mdmay sth (bad)
afflict you! que qch (de mauvais) t’afflige! Ω c) [intr] (sb) be free (not
busy); (e.g. room) be free, unoccupied; have a chance (to do sth) (qn) ê.
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libre (inoccupé); (chambre etc.) ê. libre (inoccupé); avoir la possibilité (de
faire qch) [usually Reslt] - ex: 1-¸IϪxT-ka he is free (at the moment)
il est libre (pour le moment); xђIђ¸Iex-+׹sϪ-\h1nØ-Ϫs-+׹
T-ka I don’t have the time (= I’m too busy) to go there je n’ai pas le
temps de (= je suis trop occupé pour) y aller.
Ϫ-¸+tϪwK-d T-ka = Ϫ-ց+tϪwA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸I+x-].
-ђtt-ђ¸t+w-R T-ka [Imprt !-+¸I+xR T-ka, ShImpf -+!!-+¸I+x-R
T-ka, LoImpfP -!-e¸IϪx-T-ka = -!-Ϫ!-+¸IϪx-R T-ka] Ω [intr,
Pass] be found, gotten ê. trouvé, obtenu.
Ϫ-t-ђ ¸tϪwR T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ!!-ђ¸I+x-].
-+tw-+¸t+w-T-ka = -t+w-+ցt+w-A-grm [Imprt !ђx-ђ¸IђxT-ka
= !ђx-ђցIђxA-grm, LoImpfP -!-1!x-ђ¸I1x-T-ka
= -!-1!ђx-ђցI1x-A-grm] Ω [intr, Pass] be found, gotten ê.
trouvé, obtenu.
Ϫ-tw-ђ¸tϪwT-ka = Ϫ-tђw-ђցtђwA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of
-+!x-+¸I+x-].
-+ nm-+¸t+w-R [Imprt nђn-ђ¸IђxR, LoImpfP -!-1nn-ђ¸I1x-R]
Ω [intr, Recip] meet each other, come together se rencontrer, se réunir
[cf. √s-¸ty¸ty].
Ϫ-nm-ђ¸tђwR Ω [nm, vbln of -+nn-+¸I+x-].
√¸tw 1b[see Caus verb √s-m-¸tw]
t-Ϫ-m-ђ ¸tew-tK-d T-ka, Pl !-1-n-ђ¸IϪxK-d T-ka Ω [nf] (a) blessing
(from a holy man, using spells) bénédiction (d’un marabout, en utilisant
des versets).
√¸tw 2 (ցtw) [N √ցtw]
e-¸tewIm K-d K-f R T-ka[x⍾+-] T-md = e-ցIexA-grm, Pl 1-¸ђIx-Ϫn
Im K-d K-f R T-ka T-md = 1-ցђIx-ϪnA-grm Ω [nm] river fleuve
[cf. √¸ns ; for cpd see √dt 2.
e-¸teww-Ϫsђmmђm-+nT-ka T-md Ω [nm+partpl] salty river (= sea)
fleuve salé (= mer).
√¸tw1 [N √ցtw1, DTF 4.1488]
-+ ¸tϪw+1-K-d T-ka [Imprt ¸ђI1xђJT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1¸I1x1J-
T-ka] Ω a) [intr] turn around and retrace one’s steps faire demi-tour et
revenir sur ses pas [said e.g. of oxen at a well, or waterbag going up and
down in well] [T-ka] Ω b) [intr] veer, change direction; take a crooked
path virer; prendre un chemin tortueux [K-d].
Ϫ-¸t±wђ1K-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+¸IϪx+J-].
√¸ty ### [for Pl 1-¸eIђy-+n ‘gazelles’ see √¸t 6]
√¸ty 1 (ցty) [see also variant √¸tk 2; N √ցtk, cf. Songhay ¸eIbu]
-ђ¸tuy-T-ka = -+¸tuy-K-d = -+ցtuy-R [Imprt u¸IϪyK-d T-ka
T-md = uցIϪyR, LoImpfP -!-u¸IϪy-K-d T-ka T-md
= -!-uցIϪy-R] Ω [intr] belch, burp éructer, roter.
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t-u ¸tϪy-tK-d K-f T-md Ω [nf] (a) belch éructation, rot.
t-Ϫ-¸tϪy-tT-ka[x⍾t-+-], Pl !-Ϫ¸IϪy-enT-ka Ω [nf] (a) belch
éructation, rot.
√¸ty 2 (ցty) [N √ցty]
Ϫ-¸+ t+yyϪK-d R T-ka T-md Ts = Ϫ-ց+t+yyϪA-grm R, Pl
1-¸+I+yyϪ-!+nK-d R T-ka Ts = 1-¸+I+yy-ϪnR T-md
= 1-ց+I+yy-ϪnA-grm Ω [nm] skink lizard scinque (lézard) [ID:
appears to range from the relatively large Scincus scincus to smaller
brownish skinks like Mabuya quinquetaeniata scharica, depending on
zone; cf. √mdydt, √kwt 1b, √s1ms1].
√¸ty¸ty ### [see √s-¸ty¸ty]
√¸tz 1a (ցtz) [homonyms √¸tz 1b; N √ցtz ]
-ђ¸t+z-K-d R T-ka T-md = -ђցt+z-A-grm [Imprt ђ¸IђzR T-ka T-md,
LoImpfP -¸ϪII+z-R T-ka] Ω [intr plus dative] be pleasing to (sb)
plaire à (qn) - ex: 1-¸I+z-\Ϫ-s+nT-md it pleased them (= they had
a good time) ça leur a plu (= ils s’y sont amusés). Caus: see √z-¸tz.
Ϫ-¸+tϪzR Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸I+z-].
ђ¸¸ђtϪ z -+tK-d T-ka = +ցց+tez-+tA-grm Ω [nf, vbln of -ђ¸I+z-].
√¸tz 1b (ցtz ) [homonyms √¸tz 1a; N √ցtz]
-ђ¸t+z-T-ka = -ђցt+z-A-grm [Imprt ђ¸IђzT-ka = ђցIђzR,
LoImpfP -¸ϪII+z-T-ka = -ցϪII+z-R] Ω [intr] be stingy with
one’s possessions, give only skimpily ê. avare de ses biens, lésiner [often
in Reslt stem] - ex: !-ђ¸IϪz-+d1+J⍾+-h+Ie-nn+kT-ka you-Sg
are stingy with your wealth tu es avare de tes biens.
+-m-Ϫ¸tϪzT-ka = +-m-ϪցtϪzA-grm, Pl 1-n-Ϫ¸IϪz-+nT-ka
= 1-n-ϪցIϪz-+nA-grm Ω [nm, Agent] stingy person, tightwad, one
who shares his possessions reluctantly avare, qn qui ne partage pas ses
biens de bonne volonté.
t-ђցցђtђz-tA-grm Ω [nf] stinginess fait de lésiner, avarice.
¸ђttђz (or: ¸+tt+z)T-ka[x¸ђ...] Ω [nm] stinginess fait de lésiner,
avarice.
√¸tz 1c
-ђ mm-u¸t+z -R T-ka = -+mm-u¸t+z-K K-d[Imprt n-u¸IђzK K-d R
T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1n-ђ¸Iuz-K-d R] Ω [intr, tr] regret, be sorry
regretter.
-ђmm-ђցt+z-A-grm[Imprt n-+ցI+zA-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫn-+ցIϪz-
A-grm] Ω [intr, tr] [= -ђnn-u¸I+z-].
t-+-m-Ϫ¸tez-tT-ka = t-+-m-Ϫցtez-tA-grm = t-+-m-Ϫ¸tϪz-t
K-d, Pl !-1-n-ђցIϪzA-grm = !-1-n-Ϫ¸IϪz-enK-d Ω [nf]
regret regret.
t-+-m-o¸tϪz-tK, Pl !-1-n-o¸IϪz-enK Ω [nf] regret regret.
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√ցtz 1d[homonyms √¸tz 1a,b]
-ђցt+z-A-grm [Imprt ђցIђzA-grm, LoImpfP -ցϪII+z-A-grm] Ω [tr]
crush (bones, grass stalks) écraser (os, tiges d’herbe).
Ϫ-ց+tϪzA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђցI+z-].
√¸s 1
-ђ¸¸ussϪ-T-ka = -+ ¸¸ussϪ-K-d R [Imprt ¸ussT-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1¸ђssu-K-d T-ka] Ω [intr] go south aller au sud.
Ϫ-¸ussIm K-d T-ka[x⍾ђ-] Ω [nm, formally a vbln] south sud [syn:
√ց1 4].
+ցց⍾+-¸ussT-md, Pl k+J⍾+-¸ussT-ka Ω a) [cpd nm, lit.
“son/people of ...”] southerner homme du sud Ω b) [nm] south wind
vent du sud.
√¸s 2 [N √ցs with unrelated sense]
-o¸+s-T-ka [Imprt Ϫ¸ђsT-ka, LoImpfP -!-1¸ђs-T-ka] Ω [tr] sew
(sth) with thin cords of hide, making holes several cm apart coudre (qch)
avec des cordelettes en peau, en faisant des trous espacés de plusieurs cm
[this rough sewing is followed by the tighter sewing √z1 5].
±¸¸usT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -o¸+s-].
√¸sn(ցsn)
e-¸esђnK-d R T-ka = +-ցesђnA-grm, Pl 1-¸esђn-+nT-ka
= 1-¸usϪnK-d R = 1-ցusϪnA-grm Ω [nm] broom balai [syn:
√s-Itd 1b].
√¸sy (ցsy) [N √ցsy].
Ϫ-¸+s+y (or: Ϫ¸+s+y)T-ka[xϪ...] = Ϫ-ց+s+y (or: Ϫց+s+y)A-grm Gnd
K-d R T-ka T-md Th Ts, Pl 1-¸+s+y-+nT-ka = 1-ց+s+y-+nR
= Ϫց+s+y-+nTs = Ϫ¸+s+y-+nT-ka = 1-ց+s-ϪnA-grm Ω [nm]
edible herb sp. plante comestible sp. [ID: Cleome (= Gynandropsis)
gynandra; cf. √sk 4].
√¸s 1 (ցs) [N √ցz ; EPPB 166]
-ђ¸¸+s-Hm K K-d T-ka T-md = -ђցց+s-A-grm = -ђ ¸¸+h
y
-K-f [Imprt
ђ¸¸ђsT-ka T-md, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ¸¸+s-T-ka T-md] Ω a) [intr or tr]
go in, enter (into); come to be included in entrer (dans); devenir inclus
dans [all dialects] [very common; cf. √ts 1] - phrase: ђ¸¸ђse-nђs
T-md go into agony entrer en agonie Ω b) [intr or tr] enter into, adopt
(a religion) entrer dans, adopter (une religion) [Hm] Ω c) [intr] (e.g.
plant sp.) appear abundantly (in a zone) (espèce de plante, etc.)
apparaître en abondance (dans une zone) [K-d]. Caus √s-¸s .
ђ-m-u¸+sT-ka = +-m-u¸+sK-d, Pl 1-n-u¸+s-+nK-d T-ka Ω [nm,
Agent] visitor; one who is new (to a zone) étranger; nouvel arrivé (dans
une zone).
u¸ђs K-d T-ka = uցђsA-grm, Pl u¸sϪx-+nT-ka = uցђs-+nA-grm
Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸¸+s-].
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√¸s 2a (ցs, ցz, ¸z) [N √ցz]
t-e-¸+seK-d R T-ka[x⍾t-+-] T-md = t-e-ց+seA-grm, Pl
!-1-¸ђsx-enR T-ka T-md = !-1-ց+sϪx-enA-grm = !-1-ցђsϪ
A-grm = !-1-¸ђzzK-d = !-1-ցђzzT-ka Ω a) [nf] midriff, lower
back hanche, bas du dos [A-grm T] [cf. e-¸+I¸+I √¸t¸t 1a] Ω b)
[nf] area between shoulder blade and spine zone entre l’omoplate et la
colonne vertébrale [T].
√¸s 2b (ցz, ¸z)
e-ց+se A-grm, Pl 1-ցђzz A-grm Ω [nm] nephew (sister’s son) neveu (fils
de la sœur)
t-e-¸+seA-grm K-d R T-ka[x⍾t-+-] T-md, Pl !-1-¸ђsx-enR
= !-1-¸ђzzK-d = !-1-ցђzzA-grm T-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] T-md Ω [nm
or nf, normally possessed] nephew, niece (sister’s child) neveu, nièce
(enfant de la sœur).
√¸s 3a (ցs) [N √ցz]
t-+-¸ϪsϪK-d R T-ka = t-Ϫ-ցϪsϪA-grm, Pl !-1-¸Ϫs1x-enK-d R
T-ka = !-1-ցϪs1x-enA-grm Ω [nf] wide, shallow pit dug in earth;
collapsed well fossé large et peu profond creusé dans la terre; puits
effondré [e.g. pit for penning goat kids, refuse dump, or hole left after mud
for bricks has been removed].
√¸s 3b
[Pl only:] ±-¸+s-ϪnIm K-d R Ω [nmpl] marks in sand (used to divine the
future) marques dans le sable (pour la divination de l’avenir).
√¸s 4 [<Songhay ցaasu].
+-¸ϪsuIm K-d R T-ka T-md, Pl 1-¸usϪIm K-d R T-ka T-md Ω [nm]
calabash (half-gourd) calebasse [cf. √1ks 4; contrast +-¸Ϫsu √¸s 6a
with default accent].
t-+-¸Ϫsu-t-tT-ka = t-+-¸Ϫsu-tT-md, Pl !-1-¸usϪT-ka T-md
Ω [nf] small calabash petite calebasse.
√¸s 5 (ցs) [perhaps N √ցz ; DN86 “aցoz” « tendon d’Achille », “a¸os”
« talon »]
Ϫ ¸os K-d T-ka[xϪ¸...] T-md = ϪցosA-grm[xϪ...], Pl Ϫ¸os-+nK-d
T-ka T-md = Ϫցos-+nA-grm Ω [nm] heel talon.
√¸s 6a [homonyms √¸s 6b; perhaps N √ցz]
-+ ¸¸os +-tK-d T-ka [Imprt ¸usђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1¸usu-!T-ka]
Ω [tr] walk past (sb) croiser (qn) en marchant [e.g. sb going in the
opposite direction].
+-¸ϪsuT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+¸¸os+-!] [contrast +-¸Ϫsu √¸s 4 with
marked accent].
-+m-¸Ϫs+-tT-ka [Imprt n-ђ¸usђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1n-¸usu-!
T-ka] Ω [intr, Recip] walk past each other se croiser.
Ϫ-m-¸usuT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+n-¸Ϫs+-!].
Ϫ-m-¸usK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+n-¸Ϫs+-!].
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√¸s 6a [homonyms √¸s 6a]
-+¸¸os+-tT-ka [Imprt ¸usђ-!T-ka, LoImpfP -!-1¸usu-!T-ka]
Ω [tr] stop doing (sth), do something other than (sth) cesser de faire
(qach), faire autre chose que (qch).
+-¸ϪsuT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+¸¸os+-!].
√¸s1 [see variant √¸x1]
Ϫ-¸+sso1T-ka[x⍾+-] = Ϫ-¸+so1T-ka T-md Ts, Pl 1-¸sϪJT-ka
T-md Ts Ω [nm] spotted eagle-owl grand duc africain (hibou) [ID:
Bubo africanus; other owls are √bhw 1b, √wk 1].
√¸t (ցt) ###[for Pl 1-¸Ϫ!!-+n see √¸ 5]
√¸t 1 (¸, ցt) [N √ցt, DTF 1.382-3; EPPB 150]
-ђ¸¸ђt-Im R T-ka = -ђ¸¸+t-T-md = -+¸¸ot-K-d [Imprt 1¸Ϫ!K-d
T-ka T-md, MaPl Imprt 1¸Ϫ!-+!T-md, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ¸Ϫ!Ϫ-T-md
= -!-1¸Ϫ!-K-d T-ka] Ω [intr] be many, abound ê. nombreux,
abondant [for T-ka, 3MaSg PerfP is unprefixed ђ¸¸ђ!, though other
subject prefixes are allowed; R and T-md have prefixed 3MaSg 1-¸¸ђ!].
Caus √s-¸t.
-ђ¸¸ђt-Im [Imprt u¸Ϫ!Im, LoImpfP -!-u¸Ϫ!-T-ka] Ω [intr]
[= -ђ¸¸ђ!-] [different imperfectives] [unprefixed 3MaSg PerfP ђ¸¸ђ!
as in T-ka, other subject prefixes allowed].
-+ ¸ut-R [Imprt u¸Ϫ!R, LoImpfP -!-u¸Ϫ!-R] Ω [intr] [= ђ¸¸ђ!-]
[perfective perhaps back-formed from Pl Partpl +¸¸o!-nen].
Ø-+¸¸e-nIm K K-d T-ka T-md Ω [partpl, MaSg] a lot, much beaucoup
- phrase: ϪØ-+¸¸e-nd+׹!-esђn-!T-ka a lot of salt beaucoup
de sel.
t-+¸¸e-tIm T-ka Ω [partpl, FeSg] a lot, much beaucoup.
+¸¸ot-nen (or: +¸¸o-t-nen)Im K-d T-ka Ω [partpl, Pl] many
beaucoup, nombreux.
-ђց+t-A-grm [Imprt 1ցϪ!A-grm, LoImpfP -!-1ցϪ!-A-grm] Ω [intr]
[= ђ¸¸ђ!-].
+ցցe-nA-grm Ω [partpl, MaSg] a lot, much nombreux, beaucoup.
+ցցe-tA-grm Ω [partpl, FeSg] a lot, much nombreuse, beaucoup.
ђցցђt-nen (or: ђցցђ-t-nen)A-grm Ω [partpl, Pl] many nombreux,
beaucoup.
ђ-¸uttK-d R T-ka Ω [nm] large quantity or number, lots, abundance
abondance, grande quantité ou grand nombre.
ђ-ցђtA-grm[xђ-] Ω [nm] [= ђ-¸u!!].
t-ђ-¸uttR Ω [nf] abundance abondance.
√¸t 2 [related to √¸tw ; N √ցt]
Ϫ-¸ђttK-d R T-ka[x⍾ђ-] T-md, Pl 1-¸ђ!!-ϪnR T-md = 1-¸ђ!!-+n
K-d T-ka Ω a) [nm] stake (for tent or mosquito net) pieu, piquet (de
270
tente ou de moustiquaire) [all dialects] [esp. at front of tent; cf. √s-tyty,
√hkm] Ω b) [nm] wooden beam (in roof) long bois (du plafond) [K-d]
Ω c) [nm] (entire) salt bar barre de sel (entière) [all dialects] [cf. √1¸m 3
(and √s-1¸m), √1mәtd].
Ϫ-¸ђttђnt-otђI-tT-md Ω [nm] pole for skiff (boat) perche de
pirogue [cf. verb √׹ym].
√¸t 3
[Pl only:] ±-¸Ϫt-ϪnK-d Ω [nmpl] long trip (e.g. one week) to collect fonio
grains long voyage (d’une semaine, etc.) pour cueillir le fonio [cf.
√s׹1 3]
√¸tI
e-¸+t+IT-md = Ϫ-¸+t+I (or: Ϫ¸+t+I)Gnd T-ka, Pl 1-¸+!+1-+nT-ka
T-md = Ϫ¸+!+1-+nT-ka Ω [nm] tree sp. arbre sp. [ID: Crataeva
adansonii (= C. religiosa), Capparaceae, found in the Gourma].
√¸t׹ [N √ցt׹ with different sense]
-ђ¸¸ђt+׹-T-ka [Imprt ¸+!+׹T-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ¸+!Ϫ׹-T-ka]
Ω [intr] limp boiter [syn: √s-ktty1, cf. √s-ցd1]. Also √s-¸t׹.
e-¸+te׹T-ka, Pl 1-¸+!e׹-+nT-ka Ω [nm] limp boitement.
√¸tw(ցtw) [related to √¸t 2; N √ցtw]
t-Ϫ-¸ђ ttew-tK-d R T-md = !-Ϫ-ց1!!+x-!A-grm, Pl
!-1-¸ђ!!ex-enK-d R T-md = !-1-ց1!!+x-enA-grm Ω a) [nf]
wooden stick propping up tabletop (Ϫ-s+JϪs) or for holding waterbags
above the ground; wooden end stake for tent (two each close together on
long ends) bâton qui supporte une tablette (Ϫ-s+JϪs) ou qui soutient
une outre au-dessus du sol; piquet de tente (deux à chaque bout) [A-grm T]
Ω b) [nm] tent stake piquet de tente [A-grm] [syn: √¸t 2] Ω c) [nm]
forked stick bois fourchu [A-grm K-d] [e.g. planted in ground to support
cross-beams of shed or tent] [cf. √¸yd].
√¸w ### [for !-1¸Ϫx-! see √¸ 1; for VblN Ϫ-¸ђx1 and Ϫ-¸x1 see √¸wy].
√¸wb [variant of √zwb (wzb, 1zwb); <Ar √¸wb]
+-m+s-¸Ϫ wϪbR, Pl 1-n+s-¸ϪxϪb-+nR Ω [nm] respondent, one who
replies to questions celui qui répond aux questions.
√¸wd(ցwd) [cf. √¸dd 2]
-+¸ew+d-K-d R T-ka = -+¸Ϫw+d-T-md = -+ցցew+d-A-grm [Imprt
¸Ϫx+dR T-ka T-md = ցϪx+d A-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ¸ϪxϪd-K-d R
T-ka T-md = -!-ϪցϪxϪd-A-grm] Ω [intr] flee, escape, run away (in
fear) fuir, s’échapper, se sauver (de peur) [cf. √¸md].
e-m-ђ¸¸ewђd K-d R, Pl 1-n-ђ¸¸1xϪdK-d R Ω [nm, Agent] fugitive
fugitif.
Ϫ-¸±wђd K-d T-ka = Ϫ-ց±wђdA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -+¸ex+d-].
271
√¸w׹¸w׹
-+¸w+׹¸+w+׹-K-d T-ka [Imprt ¸ђxђ׹¸ђxђ׹T-ka, LoImpfP
-!-1¸xђ׹¸ђx1׹-T-ka] Ω [tr] drink rapidly, gulp down boire
rapidement, avaler à grandes gorgées [usually liquid, sometimes solid food;
cf. √1׹n1׹].
Ϫ-¸wђ׹¸ђwђ׹K-d Ω [nm, vbln of -+¸x+׹¸+x+׹-].
√¸ws [N √ցwz]
-ђ¸w+s-K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ¸xђsT-ka, LoImpfP -¸Ϫxx+s-K-d T-ka]
Ω a) [tr] trim, clip (e.g. tree branches); give a haircut to (sb) tailler (des
branches d’arbre, etc.); coiffer (qn) Ω b) [intr] (sb) get a haircut, trim
one’s hair (qn) se faire coiffer, se coiffer. Caus √s-¸ws.
Ϫ-¸+wϪsK-d T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸x+s-].
-ђtt-ђ¸w+s-T-ka [Imprt !-+¸x+sT-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ!-+¸xϪs-
T-ka] Ω [intr, Pass] be trimmed ê. coiffé.
Ϫ-t-ђ¸wϪsT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ!!-ђ¸x+s-].
√¸wy(ցwy) [N and DTF 1.467 √ցwy « remonter »]
-ђ¸¸ђw+y-K-d R T-ka = -ђցցђw+y-A-grm [Imprt ¸+x+yR T-ka
= ց+x+yA-grm, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ¸+xϪy-K-d R T-ka = -!-Ϫց+xϪy-
A-grm] Ω a) [intr] go east aller vers l’est [all dialects] [syn: √myn¸, cf.
√1qb1 3] Ω b) [intr] change direction, veer changer de direction, virer
[T].
Ϫ-¸ђwђy (or: ...w±)K-d T-ka[x⍾ђ-] = Ϫ-ցђxђy (or: ...w±)A-grm
Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸¸ђx+y-].
Ϫ-¸wђy (or: ...w±)R, Pl 1-¸xђy-+n (or: ...x1y-+n)R Ω [nm, vbln of
-ђ¸¸ђx+y-].
√¸x1 [variant of √¸s1]
+-¸+xo1Gnd Ω [nm] spotted eagle-owl grand duc africain (hibou) [ID:
Bubo africanus].
√¸y 1 (ցy) [cf. √ցy 3; N √ցy]
-o ¸+y-K-d T-ka = -oց+y-A-grm [Imprt Ϫ¸ђyT-ka = ϪցђyA-grm,
LoImpfP -!-1¸ђy-K-d R T-ka = -!-Ϫց+y-A-grm] Ω a) [tr] tie
(e.g. boat or animal, to an immovable object), tie fast attacher (par ex.
une pirogue ou un animal, à un objet immobile) [cf. √׹n 1a, √kts 1a,
√ktd 1] Ω b) [intr] be tied fast ê. bien attaché [cf. √tdI].
±¸¸uyK-d R T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -o¸+y-].
ϪցցϪyA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -o¸+y-].
√¸y 2a (ցy) [for feminine see also √¸yw ; formally parallel to √hy 1 (hyw)].
Ϫ -¸+yϪR T-md T-ka = Ϫ-ց+yϪA-grm K-d, Pl 1-¸+yϪ-!+nR T-md, Pl
1-ց+yϪ-!+nA-grm = 1-¸+yϪx-+nT-ka = 1-ց+yϪx-+nA-grm
K-d Ω [nm, inalienable] great-grandson arrière-petit-fils [see also
272
Ϫ-ց+yϪ ‘date pit’ under √ցy 2] - poss: 1Sg Ϫ-¸+yϪ-n1nT-md, Pl
1-¸+yϪ-!+n-1nT-md.
t-Ϫ-ց+yϪ-t-tK-d, Pl !-1-ց+yϪx-enK-d Ω [nf] great-granddaughter
arrière-petite-fille [see also under √¸yw].
t-Ϫ-ց+yϪA-grm, Pl !-1-ց+yϪx-enA-grm Ω [nf, inalienable]
[= !-Ϫ-ց+yϪ-!-!].
√¸y 2b
t-Ϫ-¸+yϪT-ka[x⍾t-+-], Pl !-1-¸+yϪx-enT-ka Ω [nf] curved stick
in an animal trap tendeur dans un piège [cf. √s-dd 2; for another
kinship term denoting a trap part, see √¸1 6].
√¸y 3 [probably related to √¸yh]
t-± ¸yϪK-d T-ka[xt-±...], Pl !-1¸yϪx-enT-ka Ω [nf] knowledge,
awareness (of sth) connaissance, fait d’ê. au courant (de qch) [often
subject of Reslt -hϪ- √h 4 ‘be in’, or object of √¸ 1 ‘do’] - exx:
!-ђh-\e!-1¸yϪT-ka he knows (about it) il est au courant (de ça);
ђ¸e-׹-\Ϫ-s!-1¸yϪT-ka I informed him je l’ai mis au courant.
√¸yd [N √ցyd or √ցd]
e -¸+ydK-d T-ka[x⍾+-] = e-ց+ydA-grm, Pl 1-¸+yd-+nT-ka
= 1-ց+yd-+nA-grm Ω a) [nm] forked stick bois fourchu [K-d T]
[can be planted in ground to support a cross-bar in making a shed or market
stall] [cf. √¸tw] Ω b) [nm] small forked stick bois fourchu court
[A-grm] [e.g. planted in ground to support ends of a bed].
√¸yh(¸h, ցh) [see also √¸y 3; N √ցy]
-ђ¸¸±hϪ- (or: -ђ¸¸ђyhϪ-)R T-ka = -+¸¸±hϪ- (or: -+¸¸ђyhϪ-)Im K-d
R T-md [Imprt ¸ϪyhIm K-d R T-md = ¸+yhT-ka, ShImpf -+¸¸Ϫyh-
Im K-d R, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ¸+yhϪ-Im K-d R T-md] Ω [intr] bear
witness, testify as witness témoigner [cf. √׹yn 1].
e-m-+¸¸eyhT-ka = e-m-+¸¸+yhR = e-m-+ ¸¸Ϫyh±R, Pl
1-n-+¸¸+yh-ϪnR = 1-n-+¸¸Ϫyh-ϪnR = 1-n-ђ¸¸uyhϪT-ka
Ω [nm, Agent] witness témoin.
Ϫ-¸±h (or: Ϫ-¸ђyh)K-d R T-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸¸1hϪ-].
-ђցց±hϪ-A-grm [Imprt ցϪhA-grm = ցϪhuA-grm, LoImpfP -!-ϪցϪhu-
A-grm] Ω [intr] [= -ђ¸¸1hϪ-].
Ϫ-ց±h±A-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђցց1hϪ-].
t-Ϫ -¸uheR T-ka T-md = t-+-¸uheIm = t-+-ցuheA-grm, Pl
!-1-¸uhϪx-enIm R T-ka T-md = !-1-ցuhϪx-enA-grm Ω [nf]
witness; testimony témoin; témoignage [N “tђցђyya”].
√¸yk (ցyk) [N √ցyk]
-ђ¸y+k-Im K-d = -ђցy+k-A-grm [Imprt ђ¸yђkIm = ђցyђkA-grm,
LoImpfP -¸Ϫyy+k-Im = -ցϪyy+k-A-grm] Ω a) [tr] weed around
(millet, sorghum, young rice) with hoe désherber à la houe (petit mil,
273
sorgho, jeune riz) [A-grm] [cf. √ItIt 1, √׹th 1] Ω b) [tr] plant, sow
(millet) semer (du mil) [Im] [cf. √dm 5].
Ϫ-¸+yϪkIm K-d = Ϫ-ց+yϪkA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђցy+k-].
+-m-Ϫ¸yϪkIm, Pl 1-n-Ϫ¸yϪk-+nIm Ω [nm, Agent] farmer
cultivateur [cf. k+J⍾Ø-s-ђkIϪs √s-kts].
√¸ynn [N √ցnn]
-ђ¸¸ђyn+n-K-d T-ka [Imprt ¸+yn+nK-d T-ka, LoImpfP -!-Ϫ¸+ynϪn-
K-d T-ka] Ω [tr] beg, importune (sb for sth) quémander (qch, auprès de
qn) [cf. √d1 2] - ex: ђ¸¸ђyn+n-+׹XϪ-zIђ1T-ka I begged X for
some money j’ai quémandé de l’argent auprès de X.
Ϫ-¸ђynϪn Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸¸ђyn+n-].
√¸yns
e-¸+ yn+sGao Ω [nm] pounded dried meat (marinated in butter before being
eaten) viande séchée pilée (marinée dans le beurre avant d’ê. mangée)
[cf. √׹m 3].
√¸ys(ցys) [N √ցys]
+-¸ϪyђsGnd T-ka T-md Ts = Ϫ-¸Ϫy±sR = +-ցϪyђsA-grm Gao
= +-¸Ϫ ysK-d, Pl 1-¸uyϪsR T-ka T-md Ts = 1-ցuyϪsA-grm Gao
K-d Ω [nm] large bustard sp.; bustard (in general) grande outarde sp.;
outarde (en général) [ID in specific sense: Ardeotis (= Otis) arabs,
alternatively Neotis denhami; said to occur now in the Gourma; cf. √s׹t,
1neIIb+hϪx-+n√bhw 1a, √ktw 2].
√¸ys(ցys) [N √ցyz]
-ђ¸y+s-Im K-d T-ka = -ђցy+s-A-grm [Imprt ђ¸yђsIm T-ka = ђցyђs
A-grm, LoImpfP -¸Ϫyy+s-Im T-ka = -ցϪyy+s-A-grm] Ω [tr]
vaccinate vacciner [syn: see √ksn 2].
Ϫ-¸+yϪsT-ka = Ϫ-ց+yϪsA-grm Ω [nm, vbln of -ђ¸y+s-]
t-Ϫ-¸ђyyes-tIm K-d = t-Ϫ-ցђyyes-tA-grm, Pl !-1-¸ђyyϪsIm
= !-1-ցђyyϪsA-grm Ω a) [nf] vaccination vaccination [A-grm I
K-d] [syn: √ksn 2] Ω b) [nf] medicinal bleeding (cupping) saignée
[K-d] Ω c) [nf] scar cicatrice [K-d] [cf. √mst, √mtt 3].
√¸yw [for masculine, and for variant of feminine, see √¸y 2]
t-Ϫ-¸+yϪw-tT-md, Pl !-1-¸+yϪx-enT-md Ω [nf, inalienable] great-
granddaughter arrière-petite-fille - poss: 1Sg !-Ϫ-¸+yϪx-!-1n
T-md.
√¸z ### [for Pl !-1-¸ђzz see √¸s 2a-b]
√¸z [for verb see √z-¸z ; possibly related to N √ցz or √zցzd]
e-¸+zz±K-d T-ka[x⍾+-], Pl 1-¸+zz1-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] (sb’s) opinion,
interpretation, analysis avis (de qn), interpétation, analyse [cf. √׹t 1
(‘according to’), √nzt, √xyz 1].
274
√¸z1(ցz1) [for variant forms see √ks1 2; N √ցz1, DTF 1.414 √ցh1 ; EPPB
153-4]
¸ђzzђ1-R T-ka T-md [Imprt 1¸zϪJR T-ka T-md, LoImpfP -!-1¸zϪJ-
R T-ka T-md] Ω [intr] be or become short ê. ou devenir court.
¸ђzzђ1-+nIm T-ka T-md = ցђzzђ1-+nIm Ω [partpl, MaSg] short
court - ex: +-hϪJђs¸ђzzђJ-+nT-md short man homme de
petite taille.
¸ђzzђ1-+tT-ka = ցђzzђ1-+tIm Ω [partpl, FeSg] short courte.
¸ђzzђ1-nenT-ka = ¸+zzo1-nenT-md = ց+zzo1-+nIm Ω [partpl,
Pl] short courts - ex: nedd-+n¸+zzoJ-nenT-md.
¸+ zzu1K-d = ց+zzu1A-grm [Imprt 1¸zϪJK-d = 1ցzϪJA-grm,
LoImpfP -!-1¸zϪJ-K-d = -!-1ցzϪJ-A-grm] Ω [intr]
[= ¸ђzzђJ-].
¸+zzu 1-+nK-d = ¸ђzzu1-+nK-f = ց+zzu1-+nA-grm Ω [partpl,
MaSg] short court.
¸+zzu 1-+tK-d = ց+zzu1-+nA-grm Ω [partpl, FeSg] short courte.
¸+zzu1-nenK-d = ¸ђzzu 1-nenK-f = ց+zzu1-nenA-grm
Ω [partpl, Pl] short courts.
Ϫ-m-ђցցђzu1uA-grm Ω [nm, Agent] a short one (un) court.
Ϫ-¸ђzzђ1uK-d T-ka T-md, Pl 1-¸ђzzђJu-!+nT-ka Ω [nm] (a) short
one (un) court.
t-Ϫ-¸ђzzђ1u-t-tT-ka, Pl !-1-¸ђzzђJu-!-enT-ka Ω [nf] (a) short
one (une) courte.
t-ђ¸¸ђzzђ1-tT-ka Ω [nf] shortness fait d’ê. court.
t-ђ-¸ђz1eK-d = t-ђ-ցђz1eIm = t-ђ-ցzђ1eA-grm Ω [nf] shortness
fait d’ê. court.
√¸zm(ցzm) [variant of √¸ztm (see also √ցztm, √ցzm); Y e-ց+zz+n]
e-¸ђzzϪmT-ka = Ϫ-ցђzzϪmT-ka Ts = e-ց+ zz+mGnd, Pl
1-¸ђzzϪn-+nT-ka = 1-ցђzzϪn-+nT-ka Ts Ω [nm] mid-sized
lizard sp. that whips its tail fouette-queue (lézard) [ID: Uromastix spp.;
certain informants use the √¸zm and √¸ztm variants to distinguish local
lizard spp.].
√¸zt [N √ցzt]
Ϫ-¸+zzϪtT-ka Ω [nm] hate, dislike haine, dégoût.
√¸ztm (ցztm) [see variants under √¸zm, √ցztm, √ցzm ; DTF 1.494]
Ϫ-¸ђzz+ tϪmK-d T-ka = Ϫ-¸+zz+tϪmK-f = Ϫ-ցђzz+ t+mR
= Ϫ-ցђzzђtϪmA-grm, Pl 1-¸ђzz+IϪn-+nK-d = 1-ցђzz+I+n-+n
R = 1-¸+zz+IϪn-+n K-f = 1-ցђzzђIϪnA-grm Ω [nm] mid-sized
lizard sp. that whips its tail fouette-queue (lézard) [ID: Uromastix spp.;
one or two informants use the √¸zm and √¸ztm variants to distinguish two
spp. (perhaps U. acanthinurus and U. maliensis].
275
√¸z 1 (ցz) [N √ցz, EPPB 159]
+ -¸Ϫz z K-d T-md = + -¸ez z R[x+-] = ђ-¸±zzT-ka = +-ցezz
A-grm[x+-] Im, Pl 1-¸Ϫzz-+nK-d R T-ka T-md = 1-ցϪzz-+n
A-grm = 1-¸ђzz-ϪnR = 1-ցђzz-ϪnIm Ω [nm] cheek joue [cf.
√¸ms, √dd 2].
√¸z 2 (ցz) [N √ցz]
-o¸+z-T-ka = -oց+z-A-grm K-d [Imprt Ϫ¸ђzT-ka = ϪցђzA-grm K-d,
LoImpfP -!-1¸ђz-T-ka = -!-1ցђz-K-d = -!-Ϫց+z-A-grm]
Ω a) [tr] encounter (by chance), run into (a situation) rencontrer (par
hasard), se trouver (dans une situation) [often with directional clitic in this
sense] - ex: oց+z-+q-\q-\1nA-grm I found him there (by chance)
je l’ai rencontré là-bas (par hasard) Ω b) [tr, plus optional prep d+׹]
save, keep (sb/sth from sth); guard, watch over (flock) protéger (qn/qch,
contre qch); surveiller, veiller sur (troupeau) [cf. √w1 6] - phrases:
Ø-o¸+z1-n-Ϫn-ne!T-ka he saved his soul (= escaped, survived)
il a sauvé son âme (= s’en est sorti, a survécu)
-o¸+z- (+ -\±n) Ω [tr] encounter by chance (going away) rencontrer par
hasard (en allant).
-o¸+z- (+ -\ђdd) Ω [tr] encounter by chance (coming this way)
rencontrer par hasard (en venant).
±¸¸uzT-ka[x±...] = ±ցցuzK-d Ω [nm, vbln of -o¸+z-].
t-ϪցցϪz-tA-grm Ω [nf, vbln of -o¸+z-, all senses].
√¸z1(ցz1) [N √ցz1]
t-Ϫ-¸ђzђ1-tT-ka[x⍾t-ђ-] = t-Ϫ-¸ђ z z e1-tK-d = t-Ϫ-¸ђzzђ1-t
T-md = !-Ϫ-ցzђJ-!A-grm, Pl !-1-¸ђzzϪJK-d T-ka T-md
= !-1-ցђzzϪJA-grm Ω a) [nf] kidney rein [widespread] [cf.
!-Ϫ-kIuk+I-! √ktkt 3] Ω b) [nf] side of body, flank côté du corps
[T].
t-Ϫ-¸+ z z e1-tR, Pl !-1-¸ђzzϪJR Ω [nf] kidney rein.
√¸zy(ցzy) [N √ցzy and DTF 1.491-2 with zz (‘look up’ and ‘go up’]
-+¸oz+y-K-d R T-ka = -+ցoz+y-Im [Imprt ¸Ϫz+yT-ka = ցuzђyIm
= ¸uz ђyK-d R, ShImpf -ђցuzђy-Im, LoImpfP -!-1¸uzuy-K-d R
T-ka] Ω a) [intr] go north (away from the river); go (north or south) away
from the river aller vers le nord (en s’éloignant du fleuve); aller en
s’éloignant du fleuve (au nord ou au sud) [R T] [original sense probably
‘go up’; cf. √I1 2a] Ω b) [intr] go (from village) into the bush aller (du
village) en brousse [K-d] Ω c) [intr] look up regarder en haut [Im K-d].
Ϫ-¸uzђyR = Ϫ-ցuzђyIm Ω [nm, vbln of -+¸oz+y-].
Ϫ-¸±zђyT-ka Ω [nm, vbln of -+¸oz+y-].
Ϫ-¸±zϪyT-md Ω [nm] north nord [less common than syn: √I1 2a, cf.
√msn 3].
276
-ђցցuzz+y-A-grm [Imprt ցuzzђyA-grm, LoImpfP -!-1ցuzz1y-
A-grm] Ω a) [intr] come back up (e.g. from river) remonter (du fleuve)
Ω b) [intr] look up at (sb, sth) regarder (qn, qch) en levant les yeux.
¸Ϫz+yt-ђ-IukkK-d T-ka T-md Ts = ¸Ϫzђyt-ђ-IukkR Ω [cpd
nm, lit. “go up/look up (to) sun”] desert herb sp. that follows the sun
plante sp. du désert qui suit le soleil [ID: Heliotropium sp. but perhaps
applies to various local spp.; for Hoggar FS 172 “ցazzayIuk” for herb
Lupinus digitatus, Leguminosae-Papilionaceae (sp. not recorded for Mali);
N “ցazzay-tђIuk”].
ցozz+yt-ђ-IukkA-grm Ω [cpd nm] [= ¸Ϫz+y!-ђ-1ukk].
√¸zz [N √ցzz]
-ђ¸z+z-K-d T-ka [Imprt ђ¸zђzT-ka, LoImpfP -¸Ϫzz+z-K-d T-ka]
Ω [tr] munch on, chew (whole grains) croquer (des grains entiers).
Ϫ-¸+ z Ϫz K-d T-ka, Pl 1-¸+zϪz-+nT-ka Ω a) [nm, vbln of -ђ¸z+z-]
Ω b) [nm] handful of grains (for munching) poignée de grains (à
croquer).

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