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SUBMITTED TO: Mr. Ravindera Nath Professor Technology in Business
TABLE OF CONTENTS
• INTRODUCTION • EVOLUTION OF ENTERPRISE MOBILITY • DEFINITION OF ENTERPRISE MOBILITY • UNDERSTANDING RELATED IT CONCEPTS • MOBILITY TRENDS IN CORPORATE • THE UNTRAILED ROAD AHEAD FUTURE ENVISIONED • REFERENCES
In the current business climate, enterprises have become increasingly distributed and their working spans across time and geographical boundaries. RESULT: “THE CONCEPT OF MOBILE WORKFORCE“ which is gradually becoming mainstream; organizations today have employees at client sites across the globe; they also engage consultants, vendors and suppliers spread across geographies; to support this entire ecosystem, organizations are becoming fundamentally mobile and this need due to increasing convergence of global boundaries gave birth to the concept of
Developments in IT and network capabilities have allowed recent deployments of mobile communication technologies and devices that support this scheme of enterprise mobility. It’s even more heartening that the entire diaspora of industry experts, consultants and researchers have become sensitized to the fact that mobility really does matter in their businesses. Mobility has virtually become the raison detre for extending the workplace. We do not have a ubiquitous wireless environment in the country. You need to access the data from wherever you are even if there is no wireless signal. Therefore, the flexibility and versatility of the mobile worker becomes important. Enterprise mobility must make network boundaries invisible to the user. So organizations have started to apply mobiletechnology to those processes where the integration of real-time information can drastically improve process quality.
EVOLUTION OF ENTERPRISE MOBILITY
Take this scenario when technology was in the nascent stage. A regional sales representative spends an average of three days per week making face-toface calls on prospects and customers. When he is in the office, he dedicates a morning a week to give feedback to his sales pipeline. He tries to find an system easy to use in the office but he has no other but to maintain the entire database manually in the system which adversely affects his time management .As a result, he stores up his updates until he can get back to the office. Few years later when there has been advent of Internet, he begins a three-day road trip by car. At an appointment, he gets a voice mail on his cell phone regarding a customer looking for a quote. If he can submit the quote that day, they will approve the purchase immediately. Taking a detour, he stops at two different hotels looking for a wireless hotspot, so that he can connect to the office. He logs on, prepares a quote and emails it to the customer. He calls ahead to his second appointment, saying he is running late. The receptionist puts him on hold for several minutes, and when he comes back on the line tells him the appointee has asked to rebook for a later date. Realizing he now has some unexpected free time, he wonders if he should do his call report. Since he finds the reporting system inconvenient and annoying, however, he decides to make a call on another customer instead. Then the office calls saying the customer he referred earlier was asking what the price would be if they increase their order. He hurries to a hotel equipped with Wi-Fi to log on to the ERP order history to get price break information and his email. Using the hotel's business center, he prints the upgrade information for his next appointment, and sends a revised quote with the better volume pricing. All the extra time has eaten into his schedule, so despite the extra effort the additional customer site visit turns into a brief handshake and exchange of literature in the lobby.Later, an email from his manager reminds him to update the pipeline report. He also sees an email from his first appointee, who is not happy, as they are still waiting for the technical summary he promised. Now, imagine this scenario. The same regional sales representative prepares for a road trip. Recently, his company has extended its SFA to the mobile application. Using a dashboard display of icons, the mobile application gives the sales representative access to critical SFA and PIM (personal information management) functions. Armed with his mobile application and a bluetooth-enabled printer, the sales representative begins a three-day road trip. On the way to his first appointment, he receives an email from the appointee, explaining he will not be available and has arranged for him to meet instead with one of his technical staff. He replies, confirming he will make the appointment. Using a wireless printer he prints the appropriate document. He also sends an instant message to tee up an internal consultant should he need one during the meeting. His contingency meeting
goes well, and the technical staff member is pleased with the information provided. Using his mobile application, he selects the prospect from his contact list and then the 'Call Update' icon. Scrolling through the milestones in the associated sales strategy, he selects the "technical review complete" step to immediately update the pipeline and call reporting functions at head office.
THIS IS HOW ENTERPRISE MOBILITY HAS REVOLUTIONISED THE ENTIRE CORPORATE SCENARIO AND HAS ENSURED ITS METERIOC GROWTH BY:
• • • Providing effective solutions to meet the needs of business & prosumers alike Appropriate access to information & people regardless of location & time Scaleable, Interoperable & secure infrastructure
HERES WHAT IS ENTERPRISE MOBILITY
• • • It is a means to connect people with any mobile devices over any network through Internet protocol or cellular to access corporate data securely; Workplace centered on collaborative & ‘always connected’ teams Multiple technologies, interoperable for productivity & flexibility gains AT WORK FIXED IP, CORP WLAN On the Road GSM/CDMA/GPRS/3G Public Places GPRS/WLAN At Home Fixed IP/WLAN/GPRS Stringent requirements for data, device & system security Any device, any content, any network Sample applications include sales and field force automation, mobile point of sale, warehouse management, direct store delivery and wireless email. According to various studies, enterprise mobile market would be worth €18.1 billion. For comparison, software market would be €6.8 billion and security market would be €4.6 billion.
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UNDERSTANDING RELATED IT CONCEPTS
GPRS is packet-switched, which means that multiple users share the same transmission channel, only transmitting when they have data to send. Thus the total available bandwidth can be immediately dedicated to those users who are actually sending at any given moment, providing higher use where users only send or receive data intermittently. Web browsing, receiving e-mails as they arrive and instant messaging are examples of uses that require intermittent data transfers, which benefit from sharing the available bandwidth. By contrast, in the older Circuit Switched Data (CSD) standard included in GSM standards, a connection establishes a circuit, and reserves the full bandwidth of that circuit during the lifetime of the connection GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) is a non-voice service added to existing TDMA networks, one of the 2.5G technology upgrades. TDMA is the underlying transport mechanism used by GSM networks. GPRS provides the transmission of IP packets over existing cellular networks.
HOW DOES IT WORK?
GPRS is a network overlay to the existing cellular network. It uses the nature of IP transmissions to its advantage. Because IP traffic is made of “packets”, the network does not need to have continuous data transmission. Thus, IP traffic can easily share the channels. A user may be receiving or transmitting data while another one is reading information. The second user does not need to use the channel during this time, and it makes packet networks more efficient than circuit-switched networks (2G), where the channel would be in use, regardless of the user transmitting or not. Each channel is divided into eight time slots, with a maximum data transmission of 13.4Kbps. One of these time slots is used for control, and normal allocation would reserve two slots for voice traffic as well. Asymmetric traffic (more download than uploads) dictates the distribution of the remaining time slots: Type 2+1 3+1 4+1 Meaning two slots for download + 1 for upload three slots for download + 1 for upload four slots for download + 1 for upload
Also, the GPRS devices have a classification related to their ability to handle GSM voice calls and GPRS connections: Class A B C Meaning devices are capable of simultaneous voice and data transmission devices support one type at a time, and switch automatically between data and voice devices support one type at a time, and require user intervention to
switch between data and voice
HOW TO USE GPRS
Using a mobile with A user can connect to the GPRS and browse WAP pages a micro browser to from a GPRS enabled mobile. Of course the impact of access WAP pages reduced content on WML format and using the little phone keypad to type in URLs is tiresome. Examples are mobile phones such as Ericsson T39m and T68i. Using a handheld with built in GSM/GPRS capabilities Using handhelds with GPRS capabilities a user can connect to the GPRS network. All Internet services will be available, providing the needed ports are not blocked. This includes web, e-mail, newsgroups, VPN, ftp, etc. The connection between the terminal and the GPRS modem can be via infrared, serial cable or bluetooth. Examples are Treo, XDA Pocket PC Phone Edition, and Smart phones. Using a mobile as a A user can connect a notebook, desktop or handheld to GPRS modem connect to a GPRS enabled mobile, and then connect to the Internet. All Internet services will be available, providing the needed ports are not blocked. This includes web, e-mail, newsgroups, VPN, ftp, etc. The connection between the terminal and the GPRS modem can be via infrared, serial cable or bluetooth. Examples are using a H3970 to link via Bluetooth to a T39m and from there to the Internet. Using a PCMCIA A PCMCIA card can be used as a GPRS enabled modem, card as a GPRS and once inserted a dial up connection can be created. From modem there the user can connect to the Internet. All Internet services will be available, providing the needed ports are not blocked. This includes web, e-mail, newsgroups, VPN, ftp, etc.
WHAT CAN I DO WITH GPRS?
Anything available on the Internet really. Web browsing, email, VPN connections, Instant Messenger (AOL, ICQ, MSN Messenger) are services compatible with GPRS. Performance depends on strength of signal, number of users in the channel.
It is the most advanced digital cellular network, which means that mobile phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. It operates in four different frequency ranges. Most GSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. Some countries in the Americas (including Canada and the United
States) use the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands because the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands were already allocated. GSM networks are leaders in many typically &digital& services including the Short Message Service (SMS), Over the air (OTA) configuration and GSM positioning. Considered its technology and presence both in America and the rest of the world, GSM is in a good position for global roaming and many new GSM phones are called &global phones&, since they can be used in virtually any country. The SIM card (Subscriber Identification Module) is also a unique and essential component of GSM phones. Technically, GSM was built based on the TDMA protocol. There are four different cell sizes in a GSM network—macro, micro, pico and umbrella cells. The coverage area of each cell varies according to the implementation environment. Macro cells can be regarded as cells where the base station antenna is installed on a mast or a building above average roof top level. Micro cells are cells whose antenna height is under average roof top level; they are typically used in urban areas. Pico cells are small cells whose coverage diameter is a few dozen meters; they are mainly used indoors. Umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller cells and fill in gaps in coverage between those cells. Cell horizontal radius varies depending on antenna height, antenna gain and propagation conditions from a couple of hundred meters to several tens of kilometers. The longest distance the GSM specification supports in practical use is 35 kilometers (22 mi). Indoor coverage is also supported by GSM and may be a for example in shopping centers or airports.
3. WIRELESS LAN(WLAN)
A wireless LAN or WLAN is a wireless local area network, which is the linking of two or more computers without using wires. WLAN utilizes spread-spectrum modulation technology based on radio waves to enable communication between
devices in a limited area, also known as the basic service set. It provides wireless network communication over short distances through radio/infrared signals instead of traditional network cabling. A WLAN typically extends an existing wired local area network. WLANs are built by attaching a device called the access point (AP) to the edge of the wired network. Access points (APs) are base stations for the wireless network. They transmit and receive radio frequencies for wireless enabled devices to communicate with.Clients communicate with the AP using a wireless network adapter similar in function to a traditional Ethernet adapter. Wireless clients can be mobile devices such as laptops, personal digital assistants, IP phones, or fixed devices such as desktops and workstations that are equipped with a wireless network interface & give the mobility to move around within a broad coverage area and still be connected to the network.. For the home user, wireless has become popular due to ease of installation, and location freedom with the gaining popularity of laptops. Public businesses such as coffee shops or malls have begun to offer wireless access to their customers; some are even provided as a free service. Large wireless network projects are being put up in many major cities. Google is even providing a free service to Mountain View, California and has entered a bid to do the same for San Francisco. Example: For WLANs that connect to the Internet, Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) technology allows Web content to be more easily downloaded to a WLAN and rendered on wireless clients like cell phones and PDAs. A type of WLAN shown here :
The most common and most recent digital cellular technology in North America. What differentiates it from other phone technologies is that in order to carry many conversations over one frequency, it sends all communications in groups of bits mixed altogether, but tags each group, belonging to a specific communication, with a different code (CDMA stands for &Code Division Multiple Access&). Therefore, at the other end, each communication can be rebuilt in the correct order, based on the unique codes attached to certain groups of bits. Code division multiple access (CDMA) describes a communication channel access principle that employs spread-spectrum technology and a special coding scheme (where each transmitter is assigned a code). By contrast, time division multiple access (TDMA) divides access by time, while frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) divides it by frequency. CDMA is a form of "spread-spectrum"
signaling, since the modulated coded signal has a much higher bandwidth than the data being communicated.
What is the Difference between GSM and CDMA?
Coverage: The most important factor is getting service in the areas you will be using your phone. Upon viewing competitors' coverage maps you may discover that only GSM or CDMA carriers offer cellular service in your area. If so, there is no decision to be made, but most people will find that they do have a choice. Data Transfer Speed: CDMA has been traditionally faster than GSM, though both technologies continue to rapidly leapfrog along this path. Both boast "3G" standards, or 3rd generation technologies.EVDO, also known as CDMA2000, is CDMA's answer to the need for speed with a downstream rate of about 2 megabits per second, though some reports suggest real world speeds are closer to 300-700 kilobits per second (kbps). This is comparable to basic DSL. As of fall 2005, EVDO is in the process of being deployed. It is not available everywhere and requires a phone that is CDMA2000 ready. GSM's answer is EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution), which boasts data rates of up to 384 kbps with real world speeds reported closer to 70-140 kbps. With added technologies still in the works that include UMTS (Universal Mobile Telephone Standard) and HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access), speeds reportedly increase to about 275—380 kbps. This technology is also known as W-CDMA, but is incompatible with CDMA networks. An EDGE-ready phone is required. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) cards: In the United States only GSM phones use SIM cards. The removable SIM card allows phones to be instantly activated, interchanged, swapped out and upgraded, all without carrier intervention. The SIM itself is tied to the network, rather than the actual phone. Phones that are card-enabled can be used with any GSM carrier. The CDMA equivalent, an R-UIM card, is only available in parts of Asia but remains on the horizon for the U.S. market. CDMA carriers in the U.S. require proprietary handsets that are linked to one carrier only and are not card-enabled. To upgrade a CDMA phone, the carrier must deactivate the old phone then activate the new one. The old phone becomes useless. Roaming: For the most part, both networks have fairly concentrated coverage in major cities and along major highways. GSM carriers, however, have roaming contracts with other GSM carriers, allowing wider coverage of more rural areas, generally speaking, often without roaming charges to the customer. CDMA networks may not cover rural areas as well as GSM carriers, and though they may contract with GSM cells for roaming in more rural areas, the charge to the customer will generally be significantly higher. International Roaming: If you need to make calls to other countries, a GSM carrier can offer international roaming, as GSM networks dominate the world market. If you travel to other countries you can even use your GSM cell phone
abroad, providing it is a quad-band phone (850/900/1800/1900 MHz). By purchasing a SIM card with minutes and a local number in the country you are visiting, you can make calls against the card to save yourself international roaming charges from your carrier back home. CDMA phones that are not cardenabled do not have this capability, however there are several countries that use CDMA networks.
3G is the third generation of mobile phone standards and technology, after 2G. It is based on the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) family of standards under the International Mobile Telecommunications programme, "IMT2000". Third Generation (3G) is the term used to describe the latest generation of mobile services which provides advanced voice communications and high-speed data connectivity, including access to the Internet, mobile data applications and multimedia content.3G technologies enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more advanced services while achieving greater network capacity through improved spectral efficiency. Services include wide-area wireless voice telephony and broadband wireless data, all in a mobile environment.
6. FIXED IP
In a traditional TCP/IP network architecture each computer is assigned a permanent IP address his requires manual configuration of each and every computer. Once the address is assigned it will not change, unless someone does it manually. It is called a fixed IP address. When hundreds or thousands of computers are involved this can be a lot of work. Sometimes networks are reconfigured and large numbers of machines must be given new IP addresses. Each time a computer is added care must be taken to ensure that it does not use an IP address already assigned to another computer on the same network. To improve this situation, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) was developed.
MOBILITY TRENDS IN CORPORATE
“DRIVE MOBILE PRODUCTIVITY, LEVERAGE CURRENT INFRASTRUCTURE”
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India has 78 mn mobile subscribers today. The growing mobile base in India is definitely a sign of increased coverage and robustness providing reliable connectivity anywhere anytime-which is one of the most important factors for an organization to adopt a mobility solution. Enterprises are implementing mobile solutions to realize benefits in terms of enhancing productivity Depending on region mobile projects will grow upto 20% by mid-2008 Investment approach remains conservative and careful For many professionals, the workplace is no longer a 'place,' and the work day is no longer a 'day. The advancement has increased business agility, transform the way they serve customers, and enable exciting new business models." Developers can leverage Information anywhere to build custom mobile solutions as well as extend existing enterprise information and applications (including SAP, Business Objects and Remedy) directly to any mobile device. Information Anywhere provides the core integration, synchronization; messaging and mobile data management capabilities required to exchange information between frontline workers and enterprise systems, enabling better decision making, improved efficiency and increased profits. It creates a bridge of system control, user support and information flow between the frontlines and the enterprise. Extending SFA and CRM functionality to mobile workers has reduced selling costs, increased quota attainment, improved intelligence, and bettered employee morale Field sales, field service, asset management, shop floor management, business intelligence, and supply chain management are the ones who have received huge attention because of wireless solutions on the shop floor and business intelligence Enterprise mobile users are increasing exponentially and decision makers are seriously thinking of integrating their LAN with wireless Blackberrys and other similar devices have suddenly become a rage amongst business users and is one of the success stories of a killer application in India The next phase of application extensions to include Mobile Intranet access e.g. business forms, rich document viewing is gaining acceptance and adoption in developed markets CALLED MOBILE E-MAIL.Today, 60% of all work is carried out via e-mail-making it the predominant mobile business application Applications such as multi-party (up to six way) conference calling, integrated hands free and conference call, dedicated voice key, internet call (VoIP over WLAN), push-to-talk over cellular, other SIP-based rich call services, enhanced voice commands, speed and voice dialing and car kits will bring a rich calling experience in reach of every mobile professional.
58% of large corporations consider Personal Information Management (PIM) to be a key driver for wireless wide-area solutions
USAGE BY DIFFERENT CATEGORY OF USERS,SECTORS,CONTINENTS
THE UNTRAILED ROAD AHEAD…..
“Enterprise Mobility - It’s more than connecting on the go” It’s a surprising but very real statistic: 50% to 70% of office space is unoccupied during normal business hours (International Telework Association and Council). Where are these people? With the
widespread adoption of telecommuting, wireless and various other “virtual office” trends has increased. Companies ensure that time and distance does not become barriers to productive collaboration. The best way to enable geographically dispersed teams to work together in ways that are natural, convenient and effective – is by providing prompt & right data to the right person at right time. As key standards and technologies mature and new innovations reach the market, it’s time to raise the bar on what constitutes real mobility for the dynamic, distributed enterprise. Is the wireless device & PDA’s etc. the only way your users want to connect when away from their desks? We need to pay attention to following important areas:
• Enterprise mobility should extend seamlessly beyond the boundaries of your company’s buildings. Users should be able to roam across town, on the road, or around the world — anywhere within the reach of a LAN, MAN or WAN. Users should be able to connect in many ways when they are away from their offices — such as via wireless LANs (WLANs) from an Ethernet jack in a hotel room over DSL or cable modem connections from home, or someday with WiMax. Enterprise mobility should be more than just having some way to connect when you’re away. Today, people carry a host of portable communication devices — laptops, pagers, PDAs, multi-mode cell phones, two-way radio phones, etc. & it’s easy to see that we’ve traded some inconvenience for convenience. Enterprise mobility should be about more than discrete mobile services. It should be more than carrying a device for e-mail and Web access, another for voice calls and another for urgent alerts. Mobility should capitalize on unified applications and multi-purpose access — enabling users to not just connect, but fully engage, from afar. Enterprise mobility must be secure everywhere. It does seem like a paradox; the very openness that makes mobility applications useful would seem to make them equally vulnerable. Stringent protections against unauthorized or malicious access.
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“The new vision of mobility redefines the possibilities for communication and collaboration in dynamic, distributed enterprises. If we can embrace this broader perspective of mobility, enterprises
really will achieve their stated goals of improving productivity, reaching new markets and delivering superior customer care.” The technology enablers are here or on the very close horizon. The NEW VISION of mobility encompasses three classes of bandwidth:
Wired bandwidth to the user’s desktop, enough bandwidth to support high speed Internet access, IP Telephony and multimedia applications Wireless WAN bandwidth, available just about anywhere, embracing enterprise WLANs, public WLAN hotspots, campus and metro wireless mesh networks and 2G and 3G public wireless services Nomadic bandwidth — a combination of wired and wireless options — for occasional, on-demand used by out-of-office users, who may be at home, in a hotel or at enterprise and public WLAN hotspots
The major implication is that the more plentiful and economical bandwidth becomes; the more applications naturally migrate from the desktop to mobile campus workers, teleworkers and road warriors.
To be useful though, basic connectivity for these applications must be natural, convenient and simple for end users, whether they are connecting on wireless or wired devices. This ideal capitalizes on the growing trend toward devices that have multiple connectivity options, such as public wireless/WLAN duland tri-mode operation, wired Ethernet and even dial modem in a single device. Provide a consistent, high quality user experience. Integrate presence across a broad range of activities and user devices, such as phones, PCs, laptops and PDAs Converge asynchronous communications (such as e-mail, voice mail, short message services) and synchronous communications (such as IM, voice, video and application sharing) Enrich mobile communications with voice and multimedia capabilities The goal is a seamless experience that transcends traditional network boundaries. Users can roam from floor to floor in a building or campus, across the city and around the world. Wherever they roam, they enjoy non-disruptive voice, data and multimedia sessions, with little or no noticeable impact as they move around or cross networks. Dynamic network analysis transparently determines the most applicable connection point for data, voice and multimedia sessions.
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www.sun.com/mobility/enterprise/index.html www.onesearch.sun.com www.wireless-reports.com/article_mobile_enterprise.htm www.emobile-news.com www.google.com www.wikipedia.com www.ciol.com www.davesite.com www.elsop.com www.fordham.edu www.livinginternet.com www.let.leidenuniv.nl www.anu.edu.au www.emarketer.com SUBMITTED BY: GROUP-11 SECTION-E PGP-I ANUJ MINOCHA ROOPKAMAL GROVER NIKITA VYAS HARSHITA BHADANI SUNNY GROVER
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