SOIL ACIDITY

Sandip Patil LA – 9106 Guide: Prof. Deepa Maheshwari Department of Landscape Architecture, CEPT University.

5 .0 .e. In time. and exchange of basic cations for H+ by the roots. and potassium to satisfy their nutritional requirements. Soils that develop from weathered granite are likely to be more acidic than those developed from shale or limestone. where cropping is intensive and monsoonal precipitation is high.com Soil Description Strongly acid Medium acid Slightly acid Very slightly acid Neutral Very slightly alkaline Slightly alkaline Medium alkaline Strongly alkaline Table 2: Lime required to counteract acidity caused by product removal.5. The natural rate of acidification is accelerated by agricultural practices like use of nitrogen fertilizers. As soils become more acidic. Plant product Lime requirement kg CaCO3 per tonne Lucerne hay 60 20% subclover/annual grass 15 40% subclover/annual grass 30 60% subclover/annual grass 40 80% submedic/annual grass 50 perennial ryegrass hay 40 cereal hay 22 phalaris/cocksfoot hay 30 wheat grain 5 . harvesting high-yielding forages such as bermudagrass and alfalfa affects soil acidity more than harvesting grain does. Therefore. Table 1: Soil description based on pH pH < 5. acid-forming fertilizers. Acid soils are found mainly in the eastern part of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.5 5.5 7.10 Source: Agricultural Bureau of South Australia Table 3: Acidification rates for different farming systems *in terms of equivalent of kg lime/ha/year required to neutralise acidity Farming system Extensive grazing Improved pasture Cropping Cropping (high N input) Horticulture (high N input) Typical hay paddock Lucerne hay Acidification rate* 10-25 50 75-100 400 up to 500 300 500-600 • In conditions where rainfall exceeds evapotranspiration (leaching) during most of the year. magnesium. Clay soils often contain Fe and hydroxy Al.0 8. Causes: Major reasons for soils to become acidic are: • rainfall and leaching. • organic matter decay • harvest of high-yielding crops • removal of product from the farm or paddock • inappropriate use of nitrogenous fertilizers Wet climates have a greater potential for acidic soils. which affect the retention and availability of fertilizer cations and anions in acidic soils.6. which are responsible for acidity (an ion is a positively or negatively charged element).0 7. Bangladesh and the mid-hills region of Nepal. During growth.1 . leading to soil acidity. i. The impact of nitrogen fertilisers on acidification depends on the type of fertilizer. Organic matter decay produces hydrogen ions (H+). magnesium.4 6. As crop yields increase. In many of these soils.7.6. excessive rainfall leaches the soil profile's basic elements (calcium. acidic soil development from decaying organic matter is insignificant in the short term.6 . Compared to the leaf and stem portions of the plant.5 . grain contains minute amounts of these basic nutrients.8. crops absorb basic elements such as calcium. due to decomposition of organic matter. Mg.Soil acidity occurs when there is a build up of acid in the soil. plants intolerant of acidic conditions do not thrive and productivity declines.8. Acidification is a slow process but it is accelerated by agriculture.donnan. sodium.9 6.1 . and potassium) that prevent soil acidity. The production of acid in the soils is a natural process and many soils in the high rainfall areas are inherently acidic.5 Source: www. organic matter is also quite low.5 > 8. Source: Agricultural Bureau of South Australia . the basic soil cations (Ca. Harvest of high-yielding crops plays the most significant role in increasing soil acidity. more of these limelike nutrients are removed from the field. K) are gradually depleted and replaced with cations helds in colloidal soil reserves. • Soil acidification may also occur by addition of hydrogen.9 7. Like that from rainfall. in West Bengal. • acidic parent material. resulting in poor buffering capacity and low nutrient contents.

6 MAP (10:22) 3. • Rainfall: Higher rainfall increases leaching of nutrients which in turn increases acidification. For instance the removal of one tonne of lucerne hay requires 70 kg of lime to neutralise the resulting acidity. While organic matter has many beneficial effects including improving soil structure. It is supplied either from nitrogenous fertilisers or atmospheric nitrogen fixed by legumes. Cropping. the nitrate is at risk of draining . • Some alkaline soils have Calcium in the form of limestone that is not chemically available to plants. Build up of soil organic matter and the use of nitrogenous fertilisers are mostly secondary factors. potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate -. It is important to differentiate between a natural build up in organic matter and the build up that occurs by adding organic material from another site. In addition.• Soil acidity is reduced by volatilization and denitrification of nitrogen. such as in wool production. When there is more nitrate than the plant can use. Leaching of nitrogen in the nitrate form is a very important factor in soil acidity.or because the plants are not at a suitable stage of growth to use the available nitrogen. Table 4: Lime required to counteract acidity caused by fertilizers in acid soils Acidification (kg lime/kg of fertilizer) Fertiliser minimum maximum average Anhydrous ammonia 0 3. However most agricultural products are slightly alkaline so their removal from a paddock or farm leaves the soil slightly more acidic. its application stimulates growth of legumes and clovers which fix nitrogen. Nitrate is a major nutrient for plant growth. Much of the acidity in horticulture is localised around micro irrigation outlets. Product removal and nitrate leaching are usually the most significant factors in a cropping system. This is where nitrogen is applied via the watering system. the use of long fallow in crop rotations and heavy applications of nitrogen fertilisers are examples of practices that may increase the risk of nitrate leaching. Obviously the main aim of any agricultural production system is to produce saleable products. Over the last 50 years the regular use of fertiliser and improved pastures.8 Ammonium nitrate 0 3. Horticulture. Use of nitrogenous fertilisers and timing of application will be more important in intensive cropping systems with higher inputs of N fertiliser.8 Urea 0 3. Superphosphate has no direct affect on soil pH. Under flooded conditions. has increased the amount of organic matter in the soil. particularly subterranean clover.also increase the soil pH value. This leaves the soil more acidic. followed by diammonium phosphate (DAP).6 1. Excess use of nitrogen fertiliser.below the plants roots and into the ground water system. However. consequent nitrate leaching and product . Where organic matter build up occurs due to transported material the increased organic matter generally increases pH (less acid). Where little actual product is removed from the farm.8 Ammonium sulphate 3. ammonium nitrate and anhydrous ammonia.4 3. Grazing. Product removal in total is usually low and the use of nitrogen fertilisers not applicable. organic matter will not build up indefinitely.8 5. However. Pastures based on annual species.6 1. Soil acidification rates vary according to the agricultural production system in use. The amount of acid added to the soil by nitrogenous fertilizers varies according to the type of fertiliser. Shallow rooted plant systems also increase acidification compared with deep-rooted plants. This increases the amount of nitrate nitrogen in the soil increasing the potential for leaching and consequent soil acidification. Nitrate leaching and build up of soil organic matter are the major causes. the following nitrate fertilizers -. the system remains largely in balance. magnesium nitrate. Rate of Acidification: The rate at which a soil acidifies depends on:• Soil type: Light sandy soils with little clay or organic matter has lower buffering capacity and therefore acidity develops more quickly than on heavier soils.6 7.6 1. The degree of acidification will depend on how alkaline the product is and how many kilograms of product are removed. It should be noted that the leaching of nitrate is potentially much less under a perennial pasture than one based on annual species. The most acidifying forms of agricultural production are operations such as lucerne hay cutting.leaching .calcium nitrate.6 7. Leaching of nitrate can happen through inappropriate use of nitrogen fertilisers and is more common in intensive production like horticulture . The most acidifying are ammonium sulfate and monoammonium phosphate (MAP). In this case sulfuric acid or Sulfur may be added to reclaim the soil.2 5.4 DAP (18:20) 1. Fertilisers such as sodium and calcium nitrate are not acidifying. and when an equilibrium is reached the acidification process stops.4 Goldphos (0:18:0:10) 3 Superphosphate nil Muriate of potash nil Source: Agricultural Bureau of South Australia Leaching of nitrogen.2 5. Less acidifying are urea. the soil pH value increases. Removal of product. • Land use: Higher production increases the rate of acidification. Build-up of organic matter. The relative importance of nitrate leaching will depend on the specific pasture / crop rotation. the increasing amount of organic matter may make the soil more acid. Use of nitrogenous fertilisers.

Irrespective of the production system the challenge is to manage the causes of acidity to either slow the acidification rate or neutralise the extra acid through the use of a liming material. Zn. limited iron. Aluminium Excess Toxic to plants if soil • Soil fertility reserves are high • Soil pH influences nutrient availability. Cu increase in the salinity of streams and zinc.5 9 surface as a result of reduced biological activity and organic matter not being nitrogen. Table 5: Effects of acidic soil on plant nutrients biological activity and plant productivity.5 10 . A lack of calcium can cause soil structural problems. Low levels of calcium and magnesium can also Source: Agricultural Bureau of South Australia cause stock health problems such as milk fever and grass tetany. Mn. • Persistence of acid-tolerant weeds (eg sorrel and geranium). • As a result of poor pastures. In Excess Ties up other strongly acid soils. Fe growth and shallow root depth. if present in the soil.5 7 7. • Poor nodulation of legumes. • Poor establishment and persistence of pasture species such as lucerne and phalaris where previously they grew well. B contribute to rising water tables and an copper. phosphorus.0 although this is unusual in most high rainfall SA soils Effects on Biological activity Soil acidity reduces and even stops the activity and survival of useful soil organisms such as: • nitrogen fixers Availability of nutrients at various pH values • decomposers • nutrient recyclers Neutral Alkali Acid • Organic mats often form on the soil 4 4. Acids attack soil minerals and increase net loss of nutrients from the soil eg. N broken down. recharge manganese. This will boron. 9. Greater reliance is placed on acid tolerant plants that are generally not as Phosphorus Deficiency byfixation Poor pasture growth Molybdenum productive. Cu. Mn under acid soils is greater than under productive perennial pastures. Aluminium is toxic to plants and severely restricts root growth. Mg structure and some irreversible damage sulfur. becomes available once pH(CaCl2) goes down to less than 5. • Stunted root growth. P • Soil Structure/Clay Degradation • The leaching of nutrients and increased potassium. Symptoms The following symptoms tend to indicate a soil acidity problem: • Reduced yields • Poor plant vigour • Uneven pasture and crop growth (especially acid sensitive plants).5 5 5. • In some soils Manganese toxicity will develop around pH (CaCl2) 5.removal are all major contributors to acidity in horticultural production.5 8 8. • Increased incidence diseases • Abnormal leaf colours Effects: • Soil acidity has a negative impact on fertility. calcium and Iron nutrients eg P magnesium are depleted due to leaching. S to the clay content of soil. • Aluminium.5 6 6. Nutrient Action Outcome • Plant tolerance and productivity Potassium Depleted by leaching health problems • Species and varieties with low tolerance to Depleted by leaching Poor soil structure acidity will decline in productivity and Calcium Magnesium Depleted by leaching Poor soil structure persistence. Ca and Fe can result in a decline in soil magnesium. Zn dryland salinity. potassium. K availability of clay minerals such as Al calcium.

3-6.5 and 7. One reason for including such pools is the plants capability of releasing organic acids which increase the total soil solution concentration of some cation nutrients that are important for the plant. • The amount of plant available nutrients is a much more difficult issue than soil solution concentrations.0 and becomes chemically immobile outside this range. surface area. Legumes. Mg and K are base cations.0.5 may control acidity without limiting production. • Mineral weathering increases pH by releasing Ca. When in balance (pH 7) the soil is said to be neutral. e. more acidic soils tend to be susceptible to souring and putrefaction. and manganese (Mn2+) are soluble and available for uptake by plants below pH 5. However. • Many nutrient cations such as zinc (Zn2+)..• Streams are also more likely to contain nutrients leached out of the soil due to the acidic conditions. pH. yellowing (chlorosis) or mottling of leaves. Mg and K concentrations whereas deposition of sea-salt increases Ca. . nitrate and to some extent ammonia decrease pH of soil solution essentially without affecting Ca. • There is a complex relation between soil solution concentration of Ca. Phosphorus (P) for example requires a pH between 6. It is however uncommon to find soils at either extreme of range. It is based on the measurement of pH. Nutrient availability in relation to soil pH The majority of food crops prefer a neutral or slightly acidic soil. Mg and K. consideration of the need for soil amelioration will depend on individual circumstances. Soil pH is an important consideration for several reasons. pH 5 soils are ten times more acidic than pH 6 soils. so liming to pH 5. iron (Fe2+). also prefer these near-neutral conditions.5: pH 6. concentration of base cations such as Ca. rather than undergoing the sweet decay processes associated with a healthy. Grasses tend to tolerate acidic soils better than legumes. In the short term acidification thus increases the concentration of potassium (K). need more calcium and perform best between pH 6. For most plants. Under many conditions soils tend to become more acid or alkaline over time if steps are not taken to maintain a balance. whose feeding and tunnelling activities aerate the soil and speed the decay of organic matter. copper (Cu2+). the ideal soil pH (water) test result is pH 6 . Mg and K.g.0 to 7. and symptoms of nutrient defficiency may result. concentration in soil solution can be quite low and is largely determined by the weathering rate.5. Soil life and pH A pH level of around 6. cobalt (Co2+).g. i. Mg and K as well as concentration of Aluminium. Therefore. however.g. the tolerance to extremes in pH varies between plant species and within species.0 is best for nutrient availability. Soil rich in easily weatherable minerals tends to have both a higher pH and higher soil solution concentration of Ca. potatoes.0 and 7. a ph difference of 1 is a difference of 10 times. soil moisture. Soil pH Soil pH is an indication of the alkalinity or acidity of soil. Some plants however prefer more acidic (e. immeasurably benefitting the soil. Soil pH affects the availability of soil constituents to plants and soil micro-organisms. and calcium (Ca) in soil solution. extraction with CaCl2. and that the pH can affect the availability of nutrients in the soil. although many will tolerate pH 5. The correct pH depends on the crop being produced. • During the acidification process the decrease in pH result in a release of positively charged ions (cations) from the cation exchange surfaces (organic matter and clay minerals). The pH scale covers a continuum ranging from 0 (very acidic) to 14 (very alkaline or basic). including thin plant stems. soil texture. • Deposition of sulphate. • Once the cation exchange surface has become depleted of these ions.7. etc. aluminium (Al3+). The weathering rate in turn is dependent on presence of easily weathered minerals.g. Mg and K concentrations without having much of an effect on soil solution pH. forming insoluble compounds with iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) in acid soils and with calcium (Ca) in calcareous soils. which is based in turn on the activity of hydrogen ions (H+) in a water or salt solution. • pH levels also affect the complex interactions among soil chemicals. • Soil solution can be extracted from the soil in many ways. through cation exchange. overhead shaking of soil sample with added water. that some diseases tend to thrive when the soil is alkaline or acidic. pH scale being logarithmic.e. centrifugation. cations of strong bases and strong bases are fully dissociated at the pH-ranges occurring in most natural waters.8 is also the optimum range preferred by most soil bacteria. magnesium (Mg). Earthworms. and slow or stunted growth. Mg and K and reasonable pH-values. Hence. molds.8. although their availability can be excessive and thus toxic in more acidic conditions. although fungi. living soil. zero-tension lysimeters.5.5 . and anaerobic bacteria have a broader tolerance and tends to multiply at lower pH values. by lysimeters. because Ca. The term plant available nutrients usually include pools other than soil solution but which are supposed to replenish soil solution pretty fast e. including the fact that many plants and soil life forms prefer either alkaline or acidic conditions. E. strawberries) or alkaline (brassicas) conditions. In more alkaline conditions they are less available.

The acidity reacts with the carbonate (CO3) to form carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O).pH and plant diseases Many plant diseases are caused or exacerbated by extremes of pH. Being highly caustic. and temperature changes. • Observation of predominant flora. Altering soil pH The aim when attempting to adjust soil acidity is not so much to neutralise the pH as to replace lost cation nutrients.deep rooted. • It is essential to take into account the method by which pH has been measured. • Feed hay onto paddock in which it was cut where possible . reduce N leaching. monitor plant and soil levels. Methods of determining pH include: • Two common ways of measuring soil pH are in water and in calcium chloride. and use least acidifying N fertilisers. pH measured in calcium chloride are generally 0. and at microsites. The former is produced by burning rock limestone in kilns. varying according to soil crumb structure. If the soil is acid the paper turns red. The higher carbon dioxide pressure results in more carbonic acid and hence a lower pH.match plant requirements. if alkaline. it cannot be applied directly to the soil. Rather. more summer active. thus quicklime is spread around agricultural land in heaps to absorb rain and . The pH also exhibits vertical gradients. • Sow perennial pasture . The latter is preferred for acidic sols because results are generally more consistent. • Use of litmus paper. As lime dissolves in the soil. land use • Use acid-tolerant plants. • Use of a commercially available electronic pH meter. on the surface of colloids. wormcasts. particularly calcium. biological growth within the soil. such as occurrence of the plant diseases mentioned above or salinisation of alkaline soils. Therefore the pH should be measured regularly and at various points within the land in question. This is a short term option only as the soil continues to acidify with associated consequences. sometimes because this makes essential nutrients unavailable to crops or because the soil itself is unhealthy. especially Calcifuge plants (those that prefer an acidic soil). soil type. rocks. calcium (Ca) moves to the surface of soil particles. Observation of symptoms that might indicate acidic or alkaline conditions. Determining pH pH is not constant in soil or water.It is slow reacting. Quicklime reacts with water to produce slaked. • Rotate grazing paddocks. but varies on a seasonal or even daily basis due to factors such as rainfall. and vegetation type.000 g/m² . tending to be more acidic in surface mulches and alkaline where evaporation. a map of the pH level is a mosaic. The result is a soil that is less acidic (has a higher pH). • This is because the carbon dioxide pressure deep down in the soil might be 10–20 times higher than the ambient pressure due to decomposition of organic material. • Quicklime and slaked lime. • Reduce the rate of acidification to a minimum. • Use fertilisers wisely . replacing the acidity. A small sample of soil is mixed with distilled water. chlorosis of leaf vegetables and potato scab occur in overly alkaline conditions. and capillary action draw bases up to the soil surface.recycles nutrients and alkalinity. For example. Depending on whether or not the water has been equilibrated with ambient CO2 pressure or not the pH reported from the same site may be either high or low. Acidity Management • Apply liming material at a rate based on pH. or hydrated. Ground lime should be applied to clay and heavy soils at a rate of about 500 to 1. It also varys on a macro level depending on factors such as slope. and acidic soils can cause clubroot in brassicas. lime. This can be achieved by adding limestone to the soil. in which a rod is inserted into moistened soil and measures the concentration of hydrogen ions.5 to 1 pH unit lower than if it is measured in water. which is available in various forms: Liming • Agricultural lime (ground limestone or chalk). into which a strip of litmus paper is inserted. thus its effect on soil fertility and plant growth is steady and long lasting. blue.

9 6.7 6. Table 6: ECCE* Lime required ammonium sulfate and monopotassium phosphate also lower soil pH. iron sulfate or aluminum sulfate. mixing lime with soil increases the efficiency of acidity neutralization. Pay attention to the buffer index or pH on the soil test because it is an indirect estimate of the soil reservoir's size. Economics: Research data shows that responses to lime can be profitable.2 4. In time. Cut Buffering The most important source of buffering in an acidic soil is the exchange of the limelike elements–mostly calcium–attached to the surface of soil particles. the higher the ECCE.5t/ha. A lime requirement test will incorporate these affects when used to determine the amount of lime needed to raise soil pH.4 none none 0. • A well balanced soil pH is important for: soil fertility and nutrient availability plant species that can be grown biological activity of the soil • Pasture vigour and productivity • Lime application increases pasture productivity.2 3.7 1. urea phosphate.4 1.0 6. Because the lab test involves adding basic material to soils with a pH less than 6. hydrated lime at 250 to 500 g/m².4 6. so lime works slowly in dry soil. known as gypsum can be used to amend soil acidity and is also useful for lightning the structure of heavy clays. which is sufficient to increase subsoil pH. Since neutralization involves a reaction between soil and lime particles. Also. • Annual pasture: annual ryegrass/subclover.5 6.9 1.5 2. which is established on the basis of two components: the purity of the lime. which is then spread on the soil.1 7. • Coarse textured soils (eg.7 none 1. Benefits of liming • Raises soil pH. low organic matter soils need less lime than peaty soils. clay soils have a larger reservoir than sandy ones. The more calcium carbonate and the finer the material size. • Lime requirements are expressed in terms of ECCE. Test soil periodically when growing high-yielding perennial forages to identify lime deficiency early enough to change the pH with unincorporated broadcast applications.5 none 0. although these tend to be expensive. Most economic rate is 3. consider the size of the reservoir or buffering capacity. attached elements move from the soil particles to replenish the solution. Most economic advantage is achieved by liming highly productive or perennial pastures. and the fineness of the lime material. determined chemically by the calcium carbonate content in the lime material. The pH of an alkaline soil is also lowered by adding sulfur. Routine soil testing reveals soil pH levels and provides liming recommendations. • Livestock health • Increased calcium and magnesium levels in the plant helps to overcome problems such as grass tetany in cattle. If . the amount of material required to provide that percentage must be calculated: ECCE lime required x 100 = lime required ECCE % • It takes water to activate the lime reaction.3 6. Most economic rate is 1. Trials throughout the Mt Lofty Ranges showed increases in productivity up to 35%. producers lose forage production by ignoring lime deficiency in soils with acidity problems. and the effects short term. determined by how much it is ground. Quicklime should be applied to heavy clays at a rate of about 400 to 500 g/m².6 6. Because the ECCE of lime is not always 100 percent.8 pH 6. • Perennial pasture: phalaris/subclover.8 6.2 pH 6. but is insufficient to improve subsoil acidity. Typically.2 1. the buffer pH is larger when the reservoir is small (table 1). When you apply lime. Even with adequate soil moisture. ammonium phosphates.1 2. it may take a year or more for a measurable change in pH. (tones) Buffer index >7.7 2. application method and economics. All too often.atmospheric moisture and form slaked lime. ammonium nitrate.5 and then remeasuring pH.0 none 1. Other factors needed to determine an appropriate lime rate include target pH of the specific plant. sands) need less lime than finer textured soils. lime quality.5t/ha. which means that they require more lime to achieve a favorable pH. reserve elements are depleted enough to cause acidity.7 3.1 7. Urea.2 0. • Maintaining a favorable pH is extremely important in a soil fertility management plan. Calcium sulfate. As the crop removes these elements from the soil solution.7 As acidity is a slow process and the correction of acidity by liming is also slow where possible soils need to be limed before acidity is having an effect.2 3.7 3.

and flooding of the field also creates favourable condition (increase in pH and availability of P. .4 15. The cropping system under rainfed conditions depends upon rainfall distribution. mixed red and yellow soils. States West Bengal Bihar & Jharkhand Orissa Madhya Pradesh & Chhatisgarh Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu Karnataka Kerala Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Total Area* 25. Brown forest soils are mildly acidic (pH 6. groundnut. red soils.2 to 6. The acid sensitive crops like cotton. followed by medium response crops like maize and wheat in the subsequent seasons.9 5.0 3.8.2 tons of effective calcium carbonate equivalents (ECCE) of lime to raise the pH to 6. pigeon pea etc. In India.9 5. Si and K) for growth of rice.5 5. Liming is desirable for raising the productivity of several crops. Soil erosion and shifting cultivation are major problems in hilly-tracts of ASR.7 and that of red soils from 4.0 19.2).8 29.6 44.5). mixed red and black soils and brown forest soils are generally acidic in reaction. The pH of lateritic soils from various regions of Orissa ranged from 4.7 13. soybean. Soil Acidity in India: Acid soils are estimated at more than 800 million hectares world wide. Crops are classified according to their relative response to liming.2 3.5 2. barley.9 30.6 3. double cropping can be taken up.5 8. pigeon pea etc.7 to 5. Medium land & low land).4.0 15. french bean.4 5. This information can be utilised in fixing suitable cropping sequence. farmers of Acid Soil Regions (ASR) have been growing rice irrespective of the type of land (Upland. are better adaptable to acid soils with proper liming. There is a wide variation in pH are seen within the same groups of acid soils. The upland soils of sedimentary nature are also acidic because of the presence of excess soluble sulphates and chlorides. soybean. may be grown in the first year of liming.5. Acid soils are more concentrated in the inland districts rather than the coastal plains.6 22.2 Area under acid soil* 20.E. linsed etc. rice. may be grown when the effect of liming has been further reduced. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Name of the State Assam & N.3 27. State wise area of Acid Soil Regions (ASR) is given in table below.5 to 6. Agri-horticultural and agro forestry systems need to be introduced in such tracts. the laterites and lateritic soils. Under rainfed conditions.6 9. The mixed red and black soils of Nayagarh are relatively more acidic (pH 4. then it will take 1. Among the 8 broad soil groups in Orissa.1 2. highly responsive crops like cotton.5 Percentage of Total Area % 80 40 33 80 20 20 20 50 90 10 10 90 70 Cropping Systems for Acid Soil Region : Traditionally.8 17.3 to 6. More than 80% of the cultivable lands in the ASR are rainfed and there is wide variation in the total annual rainfall and its distribution in different agroclimatic zones.the buffer pH is 6. regions receiving more than 900 mm rainfall and with a moisture storage capacity of 200 mm in the root zone. Table 7: Acid Soil Regions (ASR) in India (*Area in million hectares) Sl. The low responsive crops like millets. the total rainfall and the moistures storage capacity of the soil.5 3.0 8. In general. Rice has certain amount of tolerance to soil acidity.7 ton to increase it to 6.8 and 0. it is about 100 million hectares of the total geoghraphical area.2 12. No.

5 ton 5000 6600 11300 15000 Clay & loamy clay 20000 26600 2 5.5 (Pure CaCo3) Equivalent quantity of paper mill sludge 2500 3300 4250 5600 Average 3 5. Pigeonpea. Maize Horsegram. Maize. Finger millet.1 to 5. Rice-Rapeseed Table 8: Lime Required to raise pH to 6.Cropping pattern (a) Rainfed Areas Type of land Higher elevation Medium land Low (b) Irrigated Area Kharif Rice Medium land (BBSR) Green pea Rice Rice Rice Chiplima (Medium land) Rice Green pea Rabi Cabbage Rice Tomato Potato Groundnut Green pea Rice Summer Lady's finger Rice Cowpea Lady's finger Rice Rice Crops Mesta. 1 pH Range Sandy 4.6 to 6.5 to 5.5 (kg/ha) Sl. Silt loam 15000 20000 15 ton 8500 11300 8. No. Groundnut Finger millet.0 (For pure CaCo3) Equivalent quantity of paper mill sludge 4250 5600 Sandy loam 7250 9600 Average Soil Type Loam 10750 14300 15220 6250 8300 8700 2500 3300 3620 Kg.0 (pure CaCo3) Equivalent quantity of paper mill sludge 1000 1300 1750 2300 Average . Rice (Short duration) Rice Inter cropping / sequence cropping Inter cropping of pigeonpea + Groundnut Rice. Cowpea Rice-Pulse.5 ton 3500 4600 3.

wikipedia. www.com. Report for South Australia.gov. Victoria. www. www.org State of the Environment.donnan.sa.dpi.au Stephan Hunger. Australia. www.noble.dwlbc.Bibliography: • • • • • • • • • • Indian Agricultural Research Institute.iari.au www.com Department of Primary Industries.au Noble Foundation. Soil Acidity & Leaching. ebook NSW Government Leaflet. Acid soil action initiative .vic.org Indian Council of Agricultural Research publications Agricultural Bureau of South Australia.com www.bettersoils.gov. www.