Who Shot Lenin?

Fania Kaplan, the SR Underground, and the August 1918 Assassination Attempt on Lenin Author(s): Scott B. Smith Source: Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, Neue Folge, Bd. 46, H. 1 (1998), pp. 100-119 Published by: Franz Steiner Verlag Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/41050066 . Accessed: 15/10/2013 09:12
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Scott B. Smith, OR Portland,

Who ShotLenin? Fania Kaplan, theSR Underground, on Lenin and theAugust1918Assassination Attempt
In thecatalogue intheRussian ofperplexing theattempt on Lenin's Revolution, episodes lifeoutside inMoscowontheevening theMikhel'son ofAugust 30, 1918 occupies Factory a prominent theKremlin commandant P. D. Mal'kov and a dayslater place.1Whenfour ofLatvian Communists executed thealleged a former anarchist named Fania attacker, group authorities knewnextto nothing abouttheattack. Kaplan,theBolshevik Kaplanhad been arrested atthesceneandsubsequently confessed to theshooting, butherinterrogators were ofa larger terrorist unable toestablish whether shehadaccomplices or actedas part group, to the whether shehadtiesto anypolitical orwhether herattack had anyconnection party, on Chekachief M. S. Uritskii on thesamedayas theattack assassination ofthePetrograd within la. M. Sverdlov LenininMoscow.Nonetheless, anhouroftheassassination attempt theparty ofrevolutionattributed ittotheSocialists-Revolutionaries, parexcellence publicly herself an SR, G. I. Whenthe Cheka learnedthatKaplan considered ary terrorism.2 all local Sovietsto arrest of Internal ordered thePeople's Commissar Affairs, Petrovskii, in the Red Terror of the of the PSR the to the devastation that SRs, an order opened way autumn of 1918.3 in thedarkaboutthe at largeremained In fact, theChekano less thanthepopulation trial of the until for the show of the attack Socialist-Revolutionary preparations origins an exAs part ofthesepreparations, members Central Committee beganattheendof 1921.4 i "Voennaia boevaia rabota a thin entitled Semenov SR named pamphlet Grigorii published thefirst for za 1917-1918gg."5Semenov'sbombshell Partiisotsialistov-revoliutsionerov he had headed. This he ties to the terrorist timedetailed SR organization, group Kaplan's oftheSR withtheknowledge and support theAugust 30 attempt had organized asserted, in thesummer as the At theSR trial itself of 1922,Semenovstarred Central Committee. His remained a defendant. witness for the he pamphlet prosecution, though formally leading
1Research andExchanges theInternational Research for thisarticle was supported from bya grant for theUnitedStates Board(IREX), with funds Endowment theHumanities, bytheNational provided administers theRussian, and Information andtheU.S. Department ofState, which Eurasian, Agency, EastEuropean Richard research (Title8). I wouldliketothank Pipes andJonathan Daly for program their comments on a draft ofthisarticle. 2 Ia. Sverdlov Vsem sovetam i krasnoarmeiskikh krest'ianskikh vsem rabochikh, deputatov, in: Izvestiia vsem, VTsEK,31 August1918,p. 1. armiiam, vsem, vsem, in:Izvestiia Pnkazo zalozhnikakh, VTsIK,4 September 1918,p. 5; see also Arest eserov, pravykh in:Izvestiia be noted that while theBolsheviks arrested VTsIK,5 September 1918,p. 3. Itshould SRs, ofthebourgeoisie andtheofficer they designated onlyrepresentatives corpsas hostages. la. reters,Vice-Chairman ot theCheka at thetime,concededas much:see 1. Mikhel s 5-ia in: na t. Lenina:Vospominiia VChK Ia. Peters, byv.zam. Predsedatalia godovshchina pokusheniia account oftheassassination IzvestiiaVTsIK, 30 August1923,p. 1. The confused attempt byM. Ia. how little the fronte. Latsis Dva goda bor'byna vnutrennem Moskva 1920,pp. 23-24 also reveals tothepreparation ofthetrial. Chekaknewaboutitprior 5 Semenov'sreminiscences in thepro-Bolshevik first Berlinnewspaper 24 appeared Novyimir, cameoutas a separate inBerlin, andwerefinally 1922,subsequently February pamphlet republished inMoscowlater in 1922.All references aretotheMoscowedition. byGosizdat
Jahrbücher fur Geschichte 46 ( 1998) H. 1 o FranzSteiner Wiesbaden Osteuropas GmbH,SitzStuttgart/Germany Verlag

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in the two scholars at SR and sketched Semenov first trial. 306-324. notshoot Leninandthat. ofa setofdisilluandofthetestimony bothofhis owntestimony served as thefoundation to the PSR.Versii.pp.in: Istochnik response pp. to Semenov' credence reluctant to lendmuch Kaplan ofspeculation. This content downloaded from 146. Undertheimpact reand officially to have been conducted declaredthe 1918 investigation "superficially" 6 BORISOrlov Mif o Fanni Kaplan. ontheLifeofLenin: Lyandres The 1918Attempt pp. 148-155.8 to provide "assassination attempt" stagedtheentire of theRussianFederation of theProcurator theoffice ofthesecharges. 5-23. L. i do Eltsina:Tainy.98. BorisOrlovandSemion question Lyandres. prominent did that haveconcluded A. Idem Vozhdina mushke: terakty Minsk1996. Orlov in theeyewitness and to lay barethecontradictions descriptions asmore at while fire the shots that did not concluded Lenin. 153-163 and 3 (1976) A New Look attheEvidence.. 113-130.onLenin101 Assassination andthe 1918 the SR Underground.. Kostin's from oflengthy butis useful for itspublication reiterates thestandard Sovietinterpretation. Nilov Grammatika 155 arguesfora Stalin-Dzerzhinskii (in whichLenin subsequently acquiesced).Moskva 1995. L.pp. A. Lenin:Politicheskii knigakh. 148p.while conspiracy variant. whoasserts mayhavebeen"one s role. Danilov Pokushenie in: Nezavisimaia rovkoi. variously leadership Sverdlov. 1. 6. Nikolai Zen'kovich Pokusheniia terroni. attempt.. a matter andtheSRs haveremained theAugust 30 assassination to shroud has continued a fogofmystery In other respects of elaborated theversion historians and Soviet While for decades propagandists attempt. it couldnotbe established serted that he expressed seriousdoubtthatKaplan would have been physically capable of though the Lenin cultand of official With the dethronement out the assassination attempt. Fania Attempt August Kaplan. 28-45. 6. LitvinDelo 2162 i drugie delà. See also GrigoriiNilov [Aleksandr Kravtsov] Dzerzhinskii. 397.Oleg Vasil'ev Pokushenie Fanni Kaplan. 79-87.pp. v Lenina. Orlov's article 2 (1993) pp. 432-448. D.Lidiia Konopleva as Kto strelial has beenreprinted Orlov-Kostin exchange ili kto-to in: Rodina10 (1993) pp. Litvin V Lenina"strelial" A. na Leninabyloinstseniin:Neva 5-6 (1992) pp. 8Vasil'ev Pokushenie Leninizma na Leninabyloinstsenirovkoi pp. 1. E. A.Semion 2 (1993) in Istochnik has beenreprinted in: Slavic Review48 (1989) pp. n. 5.50.see comment on Sverdlov' Foran additional oftheBolsheviks' circumspect bigmystifications. p. The inhisSudnadterrorom. 59-77.Podopleka.Sud na terrorom [sic]." Lyandres The 1918Attempt p. VOLKOGONOV v dvukh Vol. Yet as the additional evidence SRs whoprovided sioned former linking Kaplan hadjoinedthe that Semenov notions ofjusticeandrevealed trial fellfar short ofelementary havebeen time historians some and become a Cheka in 1921 Communist earlier.pp.7 and to rivalries theassassination instead attributes literature Most of thisrecent attempt and Stalin within the Bolshevik Dzerzhinskii. Litvin andthelateD. L. cautiously Lyandres Kaplan who had shotLeninor whatgroupstoodbehindit. 57. developed by Kaplan's attempt account the received were the first to theWest. v Kremle:Ot Lenina in:Ogonek 35-36 (1993) pp. portret 42 (1991) p. hisviewsmore Kostin fully develops Kaplan'sChekafile. 8-26. 58-60 optsfor that theentire affair cautious is Volkogonov Leninvol.between s testimony.28 on Tue. 10-16. ili za chtokaznili 1 (1991) pp.E. of theshooting. Fanni London 1990. Volkogonov.in: Sobesednik in: Rodina7 (1995) pp. instsenirovki. excerpts Moskva 1990. Danilov Taina "vystrelov" Grammatika Leninizma. conspiracies . agent Party The ties. Moskva1994. 126-159. na vozhdia:signalk 29 August1992. 396-399. 15 Oct 2013 09:12:20 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .andoneintrepid Leninhimself that has asserted as themain investigator conspirator figure a pretext to launchtheRed Terror. 7D. to Orlov. E.p. Kaplanprobably totheassassination theSRs boreno relation at anyrate. N. 58-60.ifany. drugoi. in: Vremiai my 2 (1975) pp. More theSverdlov-Dzerzhinskii Litvin V Lenina"strelial" Dzerzhinskii pp.6 carrying and haverepeated andjournalists in Russia.a hostofhistorians ofthearchives theopening Cheka have examined historians who Two elaborated these Kaplan's arguments. file. v Lenina:FanniKaplan. 442. 63-74. gazeta. Danilov Trivystrela in:Zvezdavostoka Kaplan.

light Kaplan notbeenexamined Themost arethetranscripts oftheSR suchmaterials seriously. topparty Among whoseleadership ofthemost N. Semenov of in the second menandwomen group defendants. historically produced that thecontempothe material andwerefurther hadno accesstothis hamstrung by emphasis ex-SRs andtheother of Semenov accounts ofthetrial rary gaveto thecharges newspaper acdistorted The Sovietpressprovided withtheprosecution. be what should where tothetwoaccounts. 1 1In atthe as witnesses SRs wereinterrogated a slewofother addition. and. unequivoincluding oftheCivilWargained them a (fleeting) ofthePSR inthelatter callypro-Soviet stages wing exemption from prosecution. twoprincipal refused to defendants the first of the other members of mittee.Smith theinvestigation into theshooting in 1992. April copies interrogations by intheState Archive oftheRussianFederation ofwhich arehoused (GARF).98. I.Vol. itis no is available. important in Marchtrial andofthepretrial carried out the GPU 1922. the evidence confessions Their detailed the main roles. 3. 1995. thefirst ofdefendants from Now that theevidence however. group A of the second. common differed. guilt.102 ScottB.ultimately. Whilethetrial value. purposes systematic versions ofthe one andtwoofthisarticle ofpresentation. pp. andpatchiness oftheevidence oddities. provided principal played Konopleva the The evidence SRs of the first thefar more by second provided group. Soviet but all subsequent attempt. .28 on Tue. forcefully they Yet elements of Stalinist mode. properly. g. and generally group They the PSR while never the At in the answer trial. trial in the Stalinist a show this was not practice high charges: ofdefendants ofa second reliance ontheconfessions intheprosecution's werepresent group thePSR.10 While thecontradictions. gathered bythecontemthe Bolshevik of the assassination have fueled that porary investigators argument attempt did not shoot voluminous SR sources that shed on the assassination have Lenin. V. thewitness wereseveral leaders. S. itor to of the assassination led recent have understandably attempt disregard investigators use itonlyselectively. what is to sure the inevitable its way grasp provides only repetitions. Life. Rakitnikov.theSR Central members who Committee defendants countsof thetestimony ofthetrue . andclarity separate present parts This of defendants. Burevoi. of the the Thefirst material must be divided into twocategories. andK.Bloomington. Robert Service Lenin:A Political Ind. and his close associateL.9 that Theemerging opened orthodoxy Kaplandid notshootLeninis now finding itswayintosecondary accounts. Vol'skii. of each the evidence on assassination group relying respectively attempt. despite approach. The IronRing." po vnov' otkryvshimsia proizvodstva Istochnik2(1993)p. Ofthetwelve anddenounced offered their whoadmitted abjectconfessions. V. of the evidence adduced any this The archival trialmaterial is now available.making to assess critically itvirtually to death weresubsequently condemned impossible at the trial. 88. 29-33. denying investigation. bytheGPU andappeared andother members former Central Committee trial. who cooperated onlybrief.50. K.11 prominent against the assassination version of not the of defendants undergirded only prosecution's group of thismaterial weaknesses The obvious accounts as well. the to or comparison rigorous necessary prudent disregard testimony longer to the a reliable offers instead ofdefendants thetwogroups from oftheevidence approach of For 30 assassination trial material andtotheAugust analysis attempt. This content downloaded from 146. accepted they 9 "Postanovlenie in: o vozbuzhdenii obstoiatel'stvam. anyquestions pretrial various toparry andsought themselves defended hadopposed Bolshevik rule. 10E. twentycomprises testimony Comweremembers oftheSR Central eleven ofwhom defendants atthetrial.To be evaluated however.Scholars itnonetheless evidence ofgenuine itself was a sham. 15 Oct 2013 09:12:20 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

he devoted service and exile. 2.described politics. work from particuPoorly revolutionary age underground all thewhilein absorbed from to party. inthePSR' s effort toorganize forces became a keyfigure After October Semenov military moved into the SR and thereafter forthedefense of theConstituent naturally Assembly the in and Saratov until his first arrest under worked He Moscow. exile.Moskva 1952. of L. testimony an Semenov of inwhat is nowtheEstonian official example presents outstanding city Tartu.he served Activein army Army politics seizure to overturn the Bolshevik effort to find in the futile troops Kerensky pro-government ofpower.This comparison three.andrenewed pattern to Russiathat andjoinedthePSR in 1915.op. Ninemonths newregime.escape. P. himas "obtuse andsuitable for intheunderground in 1918. 14GAilF f.18 March1922. for ofimprisonment andhismentality." Organization revolutionary and the active terrorist national Social-Democratic oneofseveral during after organizations and in itscommitment to terrorism detachments theSR combat of 1905.12 terrorist oftheRussian Except periods revolutionary to his timeexclusively theWorldWar. underground. (henceforth of Semenov. thewaras a noncommissioned he served into thearmy. 1005. Shklovskii. accounts. 1. larlyinterested career as a professional in 1921 . ofimprisonment seemtohavebroken Semenov.He returned with anarchism There he broke year officer. This content downloaded from 146. 69-71. 1993. inthefall of19 18. V. Semenov' s in enlisting in theRed Army.50. his the that Semenov had were SRs changed political circulating among By May reports In fact. Chernov Samozashchita predatelei. 144. andwas drafted throughout andlater assisted as Commissar ofthe9th in 1917.p. I. he drifted in socialist party theory.rivaled revolution and exile in 1907. Fania Attempt August Kaplan. 1A. For a briefcharacterization withSemenov whoworked Sec. Konopleva. sifting world and of the 30 assassination a full bothoftheAugust reconstruction shadowy attempt from which itissued." li See Anna GeifmanThouShaltKill: inRussia. d. biographical arkhiv Federatsii Rossiiskoi Semenov on 20 April1922. 15 Oct 2013 09:12:20 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Semenov After his first arrest actsof terror. inspired Kaplan's the first time of evidence for This of the various classes assassination permits attempt.Princeton Terrorism Revolutionary 1905-1907 godov v Latvii.He certainly a provocateur for theChekain exchange 12 of information is drawn from theinterrogation thefollowing Unlessotherwise noted. 1. Petrograd. her 1005. He beganhistortuous andended terrorism. There is reason of heart signed good change probably became for hisreleasein June 1919. returns to theeyewitness ofpart whichthen is thesubject as fact.see Viktor Shklovskii op. 347. SR organizations ofunderground I madeon the with thecase theprosecution evidence bestbegins An analysis ofthetrial ofdefendants.Gosudarstvennyi GARF) f.onLenin103 1918 Assassination andthe the SR Underground. d. terrorism until he emigrated ofarrest. 106-108 and Ia.30 March 1922). Moskva1990. pp. the recent studies ofthe and other evidence that have confession. of Latvian splinter group Russianrevolutionary thefamiliar his way through thenextseveralyearsas he worked to Francein 1912. ed. 1347. Semenov.28 on Tue. 187-194. Farandawaythemostimportant ofthesecondgroup basisofthetestimony of a Russianimperial Bornin 1891 intothefamily came from G. of the Latvian in the "Combat Social-Democracy. account is confirmed byV.14 and expressed an interest orientation on to believe that he as went further. IA.1894-1917.p. Krastyn' Revoliutsiia pp.13 brutal carried outmany ofan anarchist-communist under the his terrorist career resume returned to auspices illegally for remained an anarchist-communist Semenov Social-Democrats. 67 (interrogation in:GolosRossii.98. Sentimental 'noe puteshestvie. up a Communist Thisgroup.and forarmy during educated and not the of fourteen.

1A. wing with andwas riddled Chekaagents. Konopleva. 349. d. 349. GARF f. 1. LENIN ed. which toRussiaSemenov expelled quittheMinority Uponhisreturn went and once the Communist In 1921 he measure. false. Party again January joined good L. 1005. 16 GARFf. I. 3.94 (testimony "Golosa of Vol'skii). 1 See the Rossiiskn to LeninandTrotsky: sentbyDzerzhinskii Semenov'sreports from excerpts Istorii Noveishei Dokumentov Khraneniia Tsentr RTsKhlDNI)f. Savinkov from histalkswithSemenov. Third from it:see V.98 (testimony Komitet 8 (G. op. SmilgaandA.see TlSLENKO 20 inV. withSavinkovbuttraveled attheSovietmission. Semenov's BorisaSavinkova.76. oftheSR trial. 349. notto copyit.mayhavestemmed claim. againstSovietleaders. 1A.p.44.GARF f. 419. beganto handlemoredelicate Savinkov's Boris the war for use him to Poland Polish-Soviet against during dispatched in SR a coverforhimself Semenovsecured Warsaw-based RussianPoliticalCommittee. 18 RTsKhlDNIf.88-92 (testimony The andKaplan's attempt.op. hisroleinthepreparation screened toconceal carefully toNEP.op. 36. Leninordered allowed through andmisleading ofLenincontain editions to itinanyway. 1A. 1920that Committee SR Central declared thatimprisoned members. later after andreleased twomonths Polishauthorities in 1917. 84. GARFf. 1. Lenin D.98.d..op. A. 3.18 on émigré information time togather this apparently had in 1918. Abroadhe metup with SR circles.p. the the successor of in Poland from the circles an PSR.See also GARF f.17 Savinkov himfor ofthePSR.p. abroad. as doeshisdecision that hehadentered suspicion with the Sovietregime. Lenin'scollected valuable which sheds Thisletter. D. 29.in: GolosRossii. 1005. 3.17 March1922.pp. 1.Departing to assassinate to Semenov's Trotsky proposal he had to Russia as not return Semenov did and 100000 rubles agreed bySavinkov.vol. 396-400.1.The authorities all be considered wouldhenceforth ofWrangel's andofficers of Savinkov. 17. 1. Kurskii ofJustice ofFebruary See Lenin'sletter 20. 5 December 19 lzhip. 1.19 Lenin what of in the a cametoplay keypart Russiathey hopedwouldbe thefirst preparation The the Bolshevik of the aimed at of a seriesof modeltrials dictatorship. 1A.d. RKP(b). supplied on In Berlinhe give a detailedreport instead to Germany. theattempt credit for Savinkov claimed sameyear. to theNarod group. SemenovV Tsentral'nyi 1921). 1005.who likeSemenov theunderground V. 1922toPeople'sCommissar are works Fifth sochinenii.and thisseemsthemostlikely moment credence to the in SR circles deal. in hisBor'ba s bol'shevikami. Savinkov's See Delo toKaplanortheassassination tohisSoviet later denied attempt.p. Semenov). 1.d. his 1918terrorist about that he toldSavinkov Semenov related organization Warszawa1920.104 ScottB. 349. Minority bywrangling assignment was arrested Semenov thefront at theend of July. that stood reconciliation the of the for the closest party group. 94-104 (testimony (vypiska ofI.. A. attacks terrorist ofplansfor theuncovering announced ofNovember Sovietstatement 30.Previous hisname ortoconnect onlya brief Sochineniia.p. I.clearly p. 1A. 103 ofSemenov). anyconnection interrogators the stoodbehind to theChekasurely 1920reports Moscow1924. 1005.vol. 45. I.in: GolosRossii. army 30 November in: Pravda. followers hostages. 32. soobshchenie.28 on Tue. Moskva1964.15 His quickreemergence after his releaselendsfurther tojointheNarod theservices oftheCheka. see also S.op.50. excerpt This content downloaded from 146.op.his close associatefrom Whilestilloutside oftheCommunist becomean agentoftheChekaandmember Party. op. Semenov andfrom knew from theprerevolutionary penearmy politics emigration and Savinkov his services as a trated Savinkov's terrorist. Razoblachenie ForKonopleva'stiestotheCheka.to refer therecipients oftheletter thefilter. 1. See Pravitel'stvennoe 1920. Mazalov). 347.Semenov tasksfortheBolsheviks. 1005. Moskva1934. Razoblachenie lzhi. TlSLENKO member ofSemenov's Thiswas theviewofa former group. Maslov Proshloeprovokatora (pis'mo v redaktsiiu (testimony Rossii").d. 15 Oct 2013 09:12:20 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .20 opponents 15 whoknewhimwell:M. Polnoesobranie ed. d.23 March1922. ofSemenov). 1.6-10 (henceforth of iz dokladaSemenova). The Cheka In 1920.Smith a forhimto have struck a Cheka agentby 1920.16 by the Crossing whomhe theintervention ofSavinkov. d. agreed byoffering organization a passport Polandwith andLenin. 226. was one oftheonlydocuments thetransition andlegalviewsduring onLenin'spolitical light to itin print.

Politicheskogo 1922. LiGARF f.Semenov whom hadbeenrounded produced up in Soviet . 1005. members where I haveusedtestimony byother ¿DIn additionto see ÜAR1<t. GotsoftheCentral ofdefendants.p.According attitude Central Committee's the second member of at the trial as a also with her and in the appeared participated attempt totheplan Committee Rabinovich andA.onLenin105 andthe 1918 Assassination Fania the SRUnderground." Konopleva. (GotsandD. agreed group oftheBureau theconsent toMoscowtoobtain traveled inaddition. 1.TheHague 1982.24 theupcoming in Berlin.p. 346.69-86 (L. R. 1. V. published report portions ground covering of the four after The same 28. oftheCentral KonoplevaandEfimov to but returned their to shoot twoweeksreadying toMoscowandspent Lenin. 1. N. op.see Shklovskii Sentimental' This content downloaded from 146. Donskoi).21 On December Dzerzhinskii. D.27 the rolled through organization the as a way of facilitating on to theidea ofterrorism latched In thiscontext. of Efimov 12 and 3 1 March 1922). d.23 on fanfare Pravda days publication day. 24"Rabota"eserov: 28 February in: Pravda. Petrograd plan itout. Efimov. 346. after formally her own submitted In trial of SRs.25 brought in in terrorism involvement the the of recounted two former SRs the detail. Rabinovich inPetrograd. 1A. February by trial. Rabinovich. consisting 22Marc JansenA ShowTrialUnderLenin:The TrialoftheSocialistRevolutionaries. in: Pravda.She informed toassassinate Litovsk shedecided that she in Commission in the SR CentralCommittee Petrograd. LenininMarch1918.andthetiesoftheparty ontheSR underground leadership Committee on DecemCentral ittotheCommunist andsubmitted assassination Party attempt therevoluhis sinsbefore hisneedto expiate a letter ber5. d. Doklad o voennoi i boevoi rabotePSR). T. account synthesizes following I have citedit. 145-153. op.22 for a the report. went theBureau. planfor hispamphlet Russiabyearly 1921. He attached professing theCentral Committee from a report tion. KONOPLEVA Pokazaniia Lidii Konoplevoi.26 without carrying their withSemenov. Semenov he formed theremnants ofhis organization inPetrograd. p. op. mid-May hopes he had assembled. 27In additionto Semenov's noe puteshestviepp. From overthrow oftheBolsheviks theveteran SR terrorist ofhimself. as themain Semenov uent figure emerged Assembly. 1. history party's ofBrestoftheTreaty oftheratification that under theinfluence testified 1918.50. 1921.28 on Tue. 25The andthat ofKonopleva. Ot Gos. Military representative wishedto knowthe act. Attempt August Kaplan. ÎA.to Fania Kaplan's anditsties."She nevertheless as an "individual theattack wouldcharacterize who to KonoplevaandP. Moscow 1922. 1005. 17. 28 February1922. brochure. d. mostof Committee focused first on theSR Central showtrials Bolshevik members. ofthesecondgroup ofdefendants. January Konopleva major approved plan to much were of this as much the same Semenov.supported by thePetrograd whena wave ofarrests in a further blow suffered and Semenov's however. Military which concentrated intheCommission. detachments worker and on thesoldiers ofthePetrograd onorganizing loyal forming garrison inPetrograd hadbecomeextraordinarily thepolitical tothePSR. 21RTsKhlDNI f. Upravleniia.98. blockedanysuchpreparations. theGPU announced brochure Semenov's In great The charges by Semenovand Konoplevawereindeedsensational. whomshe knewfrom In Petrograd Konoplevasoonjoinedforces of the ConstitAfter the dissolution in the Commission intheparty work early year. his testimony.Konopleva the B. 8-9 (SEMENOV V Tsentral'nyiKomitet RKP). 23.Semenov advantage leadership began push party members inPetrograd Committee TheCentral ofthesituation andseizepower. 45. from With thego-ahead Committee. SR Committee. 28. 15 Oct 2013 09:12:20 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 99-100 (interrogations Konopleva' s testimony.when atmosphere in theindustrial suburb ofworkers andtheBolshevik tensedueto foodshortages shooting to take the to andKonopleva ofKolpino. Combat a "Central Detachment. By May. Semenov'sbrochure. 84. to herplan. 1.

K. room. 275-285. Thewould-be that an terrorists soondiscovered Volodarskii presented kill him a his easier Semenov decided to first and member of target. S. 284.) K istoriipokusheniia na Lenina (Neopublikovannye materialy).Semenov. by February prison to theprose1918. 282-284. See I. slightly injuring Though Mal'tsev in in the Akatui and Siberia of the Old the prisons Regime years passed remaining Whilein prison wereincarcerated.50. cution andthesecondgroup Kaplanshared by In Moscow she leaders. Thisgroup. one oftheleaders and Trotsky. Freedfrom Revolution. and Sergeev nity connection to the murder. the turned to Gots to Semenov have on the Red clarify party's Army. VOLKOVICHER SRs fromgiving her a first (ed.In Moscow thefifteen surveilestablished oftheorganization Themembers attacks onLeninandTrotsky.28 wheremostwomenpolitical Kaplan abanprisoners herself andbegantoconsider that shehadembraced as a teenager beliefs doned theanarchist soon moved to Moscow but she came the an SR. preparations final of the to Semenov. theactas an official inVolhynia Roitman BornFeigaKhaimovna thescene. FaniaKaplanentered Atthis stage to the who gravitated andterrorist was a former anarchist in 1887.98. denied Obukhov The SR Central Committee any factory.Smith E.Kaplan. Gots Semenov met Gotsandaskedhimfor plan. According that wait. appointed theworker to carry outtheattack. Gots's Semenov request attempt byciting murder theCentral Committee's denialofan SR tieto Volodarskii's outraged Although its toMoscow it intact and moved themembers oftheCombat Detachment. against attitude to terror. request an if to itself. here p. Sergeev. joineda terrorist organization Lenin of its own for unknown to Semenov.) K istoriipokusheniia pp.likeSemenov. 434-437 clearsup the confusionsurrounding Attempt which The basic facts are clear fromthe protocols of Kaplan's interrogation. A.in: Proletarskaiarevoliutsiia 6-7/18-19 (1923) pp.According approval will attributed this to a failure of and told askedSemenov towait. Dashevskii. terrorist his death becauseof theimpact a movefirst lance and beganto prepare Trotsky. however. 15 Oct 2013 09:12:20 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 29Volkovicher (ed. in their hotel for theKiev governor-general werepreparing several other terrorists exploded commuted and her sentence she had sentenced to her.28 on Tue.106 Scott B.29 toMoscowafter Shereturned south totheCrimea. Gots At a secondmeeting atthefirst LeninorTrotsky Semenov to killeither opportunity. group. death. would the Committee that Central with a solemn the recognize promise againapproved plan deedoftheparty.June 20. Accordingly. whocalledhimself a lawyer ledbyV. According February of 1918 the summer ofdefendants atthetrial. Ivanova.stayed operations at theend of theparty to seize powerin Petrograd after Semenov was unableto persuade for of Semenov'sgroupfocusedon preparations members June. working in touch and Semenov the ran across officers to theeastern transfer front. When hadbeencompleted. Such to ahead the shoot Volodarskii opportuopportunity presented Sergeev go notfarfrom the shothimdead on thestreet arosethenextday. might instructed and was now terrorism that to Gots appropriate agreed According Semenov. organization put 28Lyandres The 1918 Kaplan's name and pp. Rudzievskii. publicly of the renunciation Rabino viehjustified theCentral Committee's to Semenov. past partyaffiliation. attempts against began preparations to SR group oftheunderground I. on Bolshevik ofterrorist attacks inthenecessity Semenov'sbelief an SR. This content downloaded from 146. Semenov'sgroup beganpreparaof Zinov'ev and Volodarskii. andoverhalfa dozenPetrograd workers. tionsforthe assassination themostprominent Bolshevik leaders inPetrograd. her last name as Roid nor some émigré nevertheless preventedneitherthe Bolsheviks fromrendering name of Dora. in 1906 whena bombshe and She was arrested PSR in thelastyearsoftheOld Regime.

theCentral Committee disclaimed for the To thedismay oftheterrorists. Semenov metwithDonskoi. members nevertheless decided to an on but several terrorists. member ofthegroup.d."31 In that all this fact.each of whomat one time SR sourcesshowsthat Gots. Gotsapproved of SRs.Leninspokeat theMikhel'sonFactory. M. Belgian briefly they engaged answer: "It is perfectly for thefirst ofdefendants. 1005. would be to the first of SRs they testimony hoped helpful group defendants émigré gathered V. M. 346.GARF f. that is notcolored to pleasetheBolshevik 30 attempt bya desire prosecutors.Donskoi inMoscowas part ofa MoscowBureauoftheCentral andE.Donskoi. Marusia tojoin hisgroup. Ratner. Sud nad sotsialistami-revoliutsionerami smertnikov: This content downloaded from 146. Timofeev . ofP.in: Dvenadtsat Quotedin V. Pelevin). Semenov andwas accompanied byanother in stairwell as he followed Lenin out stumbled the After themeeting Novikov intentionally for behind Leninandcreated an opportunity ofthefactory. Attempt August Kaplan.and E. N.p. 346.90 (testiIn addition to Semenov's brochure In his ofDashevskii).d.30 ofLenin. see: GARF f. responsibility that theneedto protect thePSR from attack. 1.How muchtruth Such werethecharges that oftheSR trial did layat theheart Emil the Social-Democrat as a defense contain? Vandervelde. Chernov. Kaplananda certain Kaplan. 1A.98. Thisdelayed thecrowd Kaplan fellinto from thefactory to his automobile. He developed a plan nowstepped for theassassination Semenov uppreparations this at Moscow factories. II in 1922.28 on Tue. remained however.Assassination onLenin 107 andthe 1918 Fania the SR Underground. organization the where as it for the south of Moscow held river. VoitinskiiSud nad sotsiahstami-revohutsionerami v Moskve. 35.who explained theCentral disassociation oftheparty from Bolshevik terror Committee's justified Kaplan's the renunciation of demoralized The Central Committee's thoroughly responsibility attempt. and published itin theBerlinSR newspaper "Golos Rossii. andSemenov invited with met. 15 Oct 2013 09:12:20 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ."Rabinovich.Berlin1922. wouldnot to Semenov. 146-148 (testimony mony whom he remembers misnames whom he callsPepeliaev. 30 andtestimony. brochure. DonskoimetKaplanandtoldhertheparty Committee. 1A.They than Rudzievskii's which was certainly moreformidable organization.Their served s linktotheCentral Committee as Semenov' testimony a wealth ofevidence on Semenov' s organization andthebackground to theAugust provides In addition. 1.50. andRudzievskii. v Moskve. According in the members of the renounce an attempt on Lenin.madeno suchclaim. 1005.Threeconsecutive Fridays August to On the third staked out factories where Lenin be might expected speak. escapedunnoticed. gather group nothing its and arrested Semenov and several other when the Cheka wind of activities got collapsed members. They organize attempt Trotsky. The ever funds. clear lawyer group gave an unequivocal was thought Semenov later with those who incited him. She carried suppliedby a worker named Novikov. Semenov Pelevin. M.op. Friday. to shootLeninat one ofhisweekly Friday By point appearances hadmoved south to Saratov to crossthefront forSamara most oftheSR Central Committee Committee ofMembers oftheConstituent andtheincipient Assembly (Komuch)." According of an "autonomous group butsoon carried out a series of robberies to came of it. as Gruzdievskii.op. up by together ofthefirst ofdefendants at thetrial and ofother close examination ofthetestimony group . to at theCentral Committee's refusal Tislenkoto Saratov to expressoutrage dispatched in the name to to assassinate attack and Trotsky request permission acknowledge Kaplan's theidea. responsibility region Kaplan a revolver turned out.but to Konopleva. to shootLeninas he stepped Kaplan quickly Bolshevik butNovikov hands.

than had realwas more secure that the Bolshevik hold on realization they power dawning Committee In midtheCentral their ized.^8 ofVedeniapin). GARFf. 368. 53-119.d. 1. 1A. 1A.28 on Tue. 140-142 (testimony ofRakitnikov).GARFf.d. Nicolaevsky (henceforth Razoblachenie under thetitle edited version lzhi. 3. theonlymember known to have as didM. to was concocted for which in question was that ofBukharin. of Bolshevik the commander Antonov-Ovseenko. 369.89. A. 9. S. to defendSemenovbecause of Semenov'sgreatservices istorii 2-3 (1992) pp.Smith issuedstateandV. 368. 1005. otTimoieev). 368.op. throughout percolated SRs remained andfor theOld Regime mainweaponagainst after all beentheparty's many well-known Ivan Kaliaev's recall One need of theonly method only struggle.The Central wouldrevolutionize Commitother Central and some Ivanov the Soviet ofterrorism Moreover.op.op. 1A. testimony pp. dispatched party to theBolshevik a masssocialist dictatorship. 1. regime. herepp. ofTimofeev). in conditions viewthat endorsed Chernov's themajority vetoed suchan attack. 1005. Attheendof 1917.1. folder HIA).in: GolosRossii.. 368.-R.op.108 Scott B.36 against 32 in March1922. to after the Civil War. M.50. 1. the Central in While forces Ukraine. returned to theissueattheinitiative Committee In February theCentral ment toterrorism. totheBerlinSR organization ofSemenov's submitted an account Tislenko group 19.Amsterdam 1989.. however. 1. Zenzinov.GARFf. TsK VKP(b) 1937g. of terrorist time. An Archives a copyis intheHoover Institution coll.op.d. A.1. 1005.ithad talkofterrorism Atall levelsoftheparty. Thetrial rolein inthe1930s. theCentral Committee it in thedirectives itsopposition toterrorism Committee embodied terrorism. 1005. each ofwhom hadbeenactiveintheparty underground.atwhich lawyers ofthe him.d. possibility focused itshopeson theupcoming terror.here p.Bukharin's a terrorist hadformed showthat Semenov andBukharin organization andthesecond for Semenov as oneofthedefense he served theshowtrial oftheSRs.90 (testimony (testimony in:NovaiaRossiia42-43 (1938) M. This content downloaded from 146. 1005. Ivanova). 1A.op.theCentral Committee against methnot to be Constituent and members goadedinto"conspiratorial Assembly urged party faced with the the But after the dissolution of ods" by Bolshevik Assembly.) Partiia perevorota posleOktiabr'skogo iz arkhiva P. Chernov supported Although against a ban on left intact itandthusin effect refused to consider theissue. GARF1. 10Ü5.Bukharin Communist Central Committee pleadedinvainthat Party fevral'skoSee Materialy to the party. political logical oftheSR attachthedepths a bombwas notan SR" to understand "an SR without remark. of Semenov'sorganization ments.32 Western emigrated Europe discussed the several times From these sources itis clearthat theSR Central Committee it Each decided attacks on Bolshevik leaders after October. 368. A. 33 ofIvanov). 162-163 (testimony (testimony f. 1. Committee commissar ofa Bolshevik themurder comea time when couldinprinciple ofCivilWarthere theuse therefore didnotforswear Committee themasses. N. JO ÜARF 1.box 8. The appeared ofdefendants tothefirst anddeleted references errors editors corrected (Donskoi.35 V. 1A.80-81 GARFf. Ivanovproposed to discuss Ivanov'sproposal methods theBolsheviks. GARF ofGots). 1A.65 (testimony See also V. consider theuse of terrorist that theCentral Committee member N.someSR leaders January begantorethink position.23 March1922. Tislenko.d. 368.33 TheCentral concentrate on SRs to in which instructed to building organizationsJanuary. of assassinating whichraisedthepossibility of the Khar'kovparty organization. goda:Dokumenty ^ Quotedin GeifmanThouShaltKill p. 1005. plenum group him hadtasked theparty in 1937. 44. provocation. in: Voprosy martovskogo plenuma 34 1917 sotsialistov-revoliutsionerov See Marc Jansen(ed. 26-28.98. ZenzinovProvokator Semenov (k predstoiashchem protsessam).d.In his letter totheFebruary-March thuscamebacktohaunt ofdefendants. 9-12.pp. ofGenderman).81 (testimony op. 1A. 15 Oct 2013 09:12:20 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .p.34 opposition 1918. Timofeev. 3^4.d. group grammatical andE.

. ofV. TheBureau herproposal.Samara. testified Narodgroup was notbrought May Kaplan leader. Sviatitskii. thearticle intheParisnewspaper La France 1919 andreprinted in V.d.32 (testimony ofIvanova). K. arrival Kaplansuggested inturn suchan attack to theCentral Committee Lenin.in: GolosRossii. Zenzinov and ground conspiratorial military the Central Commitand thereafter communicated teeoftheFomin-Kaplan proposal shortly on forSiberia. 41GARF f . butKaplan stayed to Fomin. Zenzinov was published Libre. 1005. informed the Central Commitwork in Moscow. 1.39 Fominsoondeparted tee'snegative response A.op.box 8. All ofthisestablishes as Lyandres asserts information. 1. Kostin Sud nadterrorom p.42 (interrogation This content downloaded from 146. in Moscow and remained in prison that he had seenKaplan in recalled later at thetrial.op.d. 1005. Chernov Iudin in:GolosRossii. 1.d.37 offers from SRs interested received assassinating many leadership themostimportant ofthese oftheAugust 30 assassination Fortheinvestigator attempt.on Lenin 109 andtheAugust1918Assassination FaniaKaplan. 1971.) K istorii pokusheniia p. 347. 369. Dedusenko 8 April1922).Nicolaevsky coll.38 Indeedother Leninalready decision to shoot N. andtohavetraveled toMoscowwith thenecessity ofterrorism from thetestimony herstory outofthin aircanbe established ThatKonopleva didnotinvent s assertion recollections confirm that ofRabino vichandTimofeev. 1A. GARF f. 2. 13-18. 194 (interrogations N. 1005.) Gosudarstvennyi perevorot in a letter in reParis 1919.25 Februto Semenov' s allegations. 1. K. 17-18 1922).28 on Tue." (The 1918Attempt "hearsay p. M. 143.d. Vol'skii. favored terrorist attacks on Sovietleaders: GARF f. 1A.ZenzinovProvokator Semenov pp. p.p. 346. 435).op. 39 in an article Zenzinov first on themurder other ofFominand several Kaplan'sproposal reported members oftheConstituent Assembly bya squadofCossacksin Omskin December1918. Rabinovich's Konopleva' Leninwithout the name of the PSR. 284. S. sponse quoted potselui. ofTimofeev). B. 1A. folder that ofKaplanwas basedon morethan Zenzinov'sknowledge 24. 2. Frankfurt/Main Moi vospominanna. V. 1005. w E. 1A. 1A. FaniaKaplan.1. 346.op. He amplified his reminiscences to Chernov dokumentov. GARFf. 152-153. 1005. 374.HLA. Fomin to the veteran Siberian SR inMoscow inthespring. 1005.op.d.1005. who stated that and of23 and30 March1922) andfrom Chernov.op. M. 1A.d. T. 9-10. 1.op. 191. 173 (interrogation of Semenov17 April1922). For rank-and-file intheparty. whoas a leader toassassinate andknew shewanted thespring twice in 1918 and that hehadmet totrial. 1. Vol'skii23 March1918). 1A.op. 172). 368. see also 1005. 1005.Omsk. Rabino vich sheproposed toassassinate sought invoking buttraveled to Moscowto ascertain theopinion oftheMoscow Bureauof to dissuadeher. butKonoplevanevertheless went theCentral Committee. 38 Volkovicher (ed. 1005. Attempt theBolsheviks.40 V. pp. M. Committee also recalledthe ary 1922. 1.After offers camefrom Kaplan that after her evidence confirms inFebruary. 10 (interrogation ofla. 1A. rejected 37Ivanovtestified attheSR Trialthat he supported terrorist acts:GARF f. 1. Rozenblium who stated (Firsov).1.6 June admiralKolchaka v Omske 18 noiabria 1918 goda: Sbornik (ed.4 (interroCommittee members onthis camefrom theformer Central Committee of7 April1922). see V. 347.d. ForZenzinov's Kaplan-Fomin proposal Bor'ba rossiiskoidemokratii s work in Moscow generally. 83. 347.Zenzinov. Rabinovich Kak èto bylo. 1A. Foradditional evidence ofgeneral terrorist sentiment see GARF (testimony f. OLITSKAIA Vol. and theparty terrorist methods ofstruggle tee members against supported in Lenin. testified that she had come to her herarrest.17 March1922.d.Less reliable testimony gation point that Chernov toldhimin May or June1918 that he member D. Fomin that assassinate proposed they all underhaddelegated to supervise whom theCentral Committee member V.Ufa.50.p. one of theSR firm in herterrorist convictions. 369. V. 346. Zenzinov.op. 1A.41 a topBolshevik to assassinate shetoldhimofherdesire also to havecometo believein thesametime that Thiswas roughly Konoplevaclaimed Efimov to assassinate Lenin. 15 Oct 2013 09:12:20 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Morozovof theMoscow Bureauof theCentral anddated ittoMarch(GARF f. 168 (interrogation SR offers to assassinate Lenin. inV. M. all supported terrorism: of 19 March Timofeev GARF f. ZENZINOV underground bol'shevikami v 1918 godu:Moskva.op. 3.pp. defendants ofthefirst group ofthe Lenin.d. V.d.98. in an interrogation by theGPU prior favored terrorist methods ofstruggle: GARFf.see GARF f. to thetrial. he said thata smallnumber of other Central 58. S. Liberov. V.theSR Underground. Gots.

According to Gots. 69-76 and d. 350. With tension oftheextraordinary political Petrograd Maypolitical theparty needed ofspontaneous worker disorders andthepossibility real. Sergeev no less he was claimed to shoot Semenov ofhis proximity takenadvantage him. 3. 354.46 Committee's abouttheCentral Gots'stestimony Tislenko's account opposition supports of Withthesupport activities. ofTimofeev). 371. ofGots). Bureau of the Moscow members of the four one of Timofeev. 1A. quite supercharged but Gots and as a terrorist an "armedfist.d. unit use as a partisan for tokeepthegroup Semenov's Timofeev together proposal approved 42RabinovichKak éto bylop. 1005. because tobuildan underground Semenov's efforts that military organization they supported the situation in in June.op. see also 1005."45 This "fist"was not intended detachment.d. 15 Oct 2013 09:12:20 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . d. 1A.74 (testimony 46GARF f. plan.47 murder and hadhappened onVolodarskii toldGotsthat Semenov After that assassination.d. 1-9 (testimony 44GARF f.48 spheres to E. representatives agreed According Tislenko.1. of Donskoi). each recalledthatSemenovdid notconcealhis desireto engagein terrorist Rabinovich before themurder askedshortly inthespring of 1918. 1A. than Gotsatwhat Delo naroda. wholargely confirmed thesupervision By Gotstestified forSemenov'sactivities May responsibility passedto GotsandRabinovich. of Semenov'sgroup andturned overmanagement forthefront Gots soon left the Central Committee.43 Efimov that likeKonopleva Evidence from thefirst ofdefendants also establishes Semenov. Committee inform the Central in common Volodarskii became murder of for the knowledge thehighest organization of the SR leadership. 1A.42 Timofeev's corroborates Rabinovich's accountof theBureau's testimony that he of he testified as well intercepted Konoplevaand rejection Konopleva'sproposal. surprised theparty's Gotspublished conversation On thebasisofthis hadhappened. 45GARF f. 350.p. the before for the Tislenko toactontheir others decided own.op.. 369. 355. 1. *' orTislenko). M.GARFf.76-79 (testimony 1. (testimony Gots).66-70. 1005. 43GARF f.op. in Moscow andsentthem backto Petrograd. into Semenov's further and provides to terrorism insight in one of the chief of staff served as Tislenko SemenovandtheSR Military Commission.178-183(testimony ofIvanova).box 8. d.though Volgashortly departed ofVolodarskii. GARFf. 64 of 1005. 1. 1A. 1A. 1. 1. 1005.50.op. group permission engage terrorism. divisions Petrograd and to use hisownaccess to documents to Semenov He proposed thearmy. members from a secondrequest Donskoirejected vetoed it. 350.Smith to Moscow. 1005. hadpenetrated for when it left of Commissars train the Council the of to blow Petrograd People's up passes this but to Semenov to MoscowinMarch.Semenov attacks had at and elsewhere of workers theBolshevik whether of Volodarskii Kolpino shooting that it had terrorism.When oftheCentral Committee and in to for ofSemenov's Semenov. F. HIA. This content downloaded from 146.28 on Tue.op.op.110 ScottB.d.GARF f. 1A. Nicolaevsky coll. Committee in theCentral theassassination for denialofresponsibility organ andsentIvanovato Moscowto acrossthefront Semenov'sgroup Gotsdecidedto transfer of Semenov's The responsibility of whathad happened. lolder19. leadership began push against intheMilitary inthewinter andearly of 1918 of 1918. group inthespring to for terrorist attacks the Bolshevik andKaplan.op.Semenov's work Commission spring Semenov'saccount ofit. SR who with thehelpofanother a posthehadsecured oftheRedArmy.d. 1 (statement 48 ofGots). 1.Rabinovich Kak ètobylop. 129 (testimony ofD.98. Rakov). Gots towards of the Central Committee the attitude replied changed not.44 fell under ofDonskoi. 1005. 3-25 (testimony Semenov Zenzinov Provokator p. 4. several Tislenko. 350. 9. 1.

of Donskoi).and Semenov July. in: Minuvshee: Istoricheskii almanakh2 (1986) pp. join activity. TISLENKORazoblachenie lzhi p. 1A. 1005. 3. toconfront Semenov claimed that theCentral Committee Though hadreneged on itspromise. insisted that terrorism Bolshevik however. 372. op. of Timofeev)..and explained that devoteitself he had been inspired to by Kaplan's example.2-4 (testimony 50GARF f. 166 (testimony This content downloaded from 146. When itwas notforthcoming. 1A. 373. only dayslater orders andmoveto theeastern front. 52GARF f.SR Underground. 1A. I gotthe impression thata strongdecision had maturedin her. 372.somehow exalted. She quotes him as saying: "She [Kaplan] indeed came to us. d. explained party not August Kaplanargued hard. as will be shown below.50. D. she would put herself outsidetheparty if she acted. halfblind. gathered leaders remained ism. August Attempt ontheeastern front. 15 Oct 2013 09:12:20 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ."Donskoi' s testimony in thetrialis morereliablethanthe much laterreminiscences of Babina and. There he metTislenkoand told him aboutthe circumstances the to resume terrorist attacks Central Committee's Volodarskii. BABINA 1005. attack. in Semenov's terrorist Its had demanded that members. butGotsreplied overto the In midleft for Saratov andhanded Semenov' s organization Timofeev August D. all except and Ivanova knew thereal Tislenko. andthe 1918 Assassination onLenin111 Fania the Kaplan.but unquestionablynot normal and with pretty various defects:deaf. and in particularto me personally. 1005. 372. and would but I thought thatmy indicationsin this regardwould be completelyauthoritative exertsome influence. 1005." The conversation became heated and group toreturn several tosayhe wouldsubmit to theparty's Semenov stormed out.a rather woman. to that had Semenov deceived them. Donskoi.with a proposal to send herto kill Lenin.His groupwouldhenceforth terrorism and actas an "autonomous of SRs.28 on Tue. however. 24-25. According to B.49 returned to Moscow from Gotsmeanwhile Penza. Donskoi that Semenov admitted he hadprovided herwith therevolver sheused.Timofeev. op. 7-80. Semenov went to Saratov to makepreparations for themoveacrossthe of the murder of front. 1.wishing to carryout a terrorist act.52 theassassination thedayafter Tislenko had arrived from Saratov to Meanwhile. convened a at the they meeting group'sconspiratorialdachaatTomilino him. acrossthefront soon. d. Like a holy fool! Least of all did it occur to me to take herwords seriously.having himandagainaskedwhether theCentral Committee attitude towards thefront. d. Theyagreed despite opposiHe metTimofeev returned to Moscow in midand argued that his tion. The execution of story) began suspect Kaplan only intensified their nonetheless to securea vote of confidence in anger." His testimony attacks andthat sheshould "think continues: nowcarrying outterrorist "I added also thatin her position.whichtheydid "veryshortly" that the for a terrorist but Donskoi was 30. of Donskoi).Semenovmanaged himself as leader. in there in the took which had to be left case terrorMoscow. I looked at herthen.. 1A. tember Semenov 6. of Gots).98. here pp. anda majority ofthegroup decidedto continue with terror iftheCentral 49GARF f. against unacceptwith theinternational socialist moveablesincetheBolsheviks hadnotdefinitively broken beenunableto getacross ment. him that the was lastofitsCentral Committee liaisons. organization Semenov thepromised Central Committee ofresponsibility for theattack produce acceptance on Lenin. Donskoi gave her a ratherdifferent account of this conversationwhile in prison beforethe trial. attempt. d. helps to make sense of Kaplan's testimonyto her interrogators.. 1. 164-165 (testimony FevraT 1922. A. ought party up group. op.50 terror had changed. organization telling later. 1."Donskoiaskedto meether. op."51 renunciation After theattempt onAugust 30 andtheSR Central Committee ofiton Sepmet andaskedhim ifhehadanyconnection toKaplan'sattempt.DonskoimetSemenov several Semenov to be transferred days himthat she had "definite terrorist informed Fania Kaplanhadjoinedhis groupand that before schemesand wishes. 122 (testimony 51GARF f. met Semenov ithadnot. (who Konopleva. 1.

Smith A minority of six. to but he related from cameultimately whatthe SRs knewabouttheshooting Semenov. S. 373. M. of The party intheir conceded dants ofthefirst leadership's appointment testimony." others werearrested. was a more Still. 3. including Semenovand Tislenko. 1005. to the Cheka. not toterror andwasthus knew about the Central Committee and upset himself) opposition Konopleva this detail. the and threatened group unspecified punishments this totheterrorists. Inhisstatement. Burevoi member Committee toldtheCentral Kaplan a act. from a severe suffered butthey on and decidedto target and a fewothers Trotsky. involvement Semenov's S.50. to travel acrossthe werehiding Committee other members oftheCentral out. stayed carried out their refused to finance because Donskoi of They operations. Volodarskii.all this outterrorist to carry permission as fact.1. subsequent press ofdefendants was agreed on bybothgroups acts.Tislenko informed front to Samara. and were soon but morale deteriorated several betrayed they "expropriations. 15 Oct 2013 09:12:20 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Morozov E. See alsoGARFf. Timofeev theparty name. Committee gave explicit approval.With replied Tislenko if did not cease its activity.theorganization's responsibility to for continued where Semenov transfer to its Moscow.Uponhis arrival ofAugust renunciation oftheattempt ofSemenov's hadbeensurprised bytheparty's group if did continued terrorist wouldviewtheir 30 andaskedhowtheparty activity they notuse this was outofthequestion that thesupport ofGots. omitted with GolosRossii Semenov.53 Semenov andseveral Ill ofdefenthis review oftheevidence Itshould be clearfrom bythetwogroups supplied to Committee of the SR Central the attitude of concerned that thecentral dants point dispute thedefenhowmuch ofSemenov'sstory notobscure Yet thisshould Semenov's activities. op.andin February Committee oftheCentral oftheMoscowBureau act indeout the had carried that K. 12-13 ofTimofeev).stillhoping themembers Timofeev that in Penza. Ratner and Donskoi told both secret. he before andofKaplan's attempt ofVolodarskii ofthemurder several SRs thehistory long thebasic factsto bothDonskoi and to theCheka. Semenov. of forthemurder tionsof Semenovand his associates. returned toMoscowandcommunicated Tislenko. it as to sanction refused members had Committee after the Central party pendently to write DonskoiaskedNovikov claimthat ofSemenov's there is no confirmation While up 53 to Ivanova stated that Tislenko lzhi Razoblachenie Tislenko (inaddition p.28 on Tue. be accepted atthetrial andshould from evidence ofdefendants andtheadditional ofthefirst The testimony émigré group assassination the 30 account of that Semenov's SRs also establishes attempt August clearly Of course after thefact as a concoction cannot be dismissed bya Chekaagent-provocateur. group inclinathe terrorist in to setup an underground Semenov military organization Petrograd. V. 1A. to Kaplan butSemenov'sconnection inthemurder ofVolodarskii. (testimony This content downloaded from 146. didnotgiveits if the Committee to ahead even Central proposal go supported Konopleva's selected Tislenko totravel toPenza.andseveral Timofeev. Thegroup Gots. Konopleva. IndeedSemenovrecounted defected he had he toldDonskoithat 30 assassination within Tislenko attempt: daysoftheAugust invited Tislenko to a and in the that she used the revolver attempt suppliedKaplan with do what to terrorists discussed at which the terrorist ofthe distraught organization meeting knewabout Committee Mostmembers oftheCentral in thewake of Kaplan's execution.112 ScottB. closely guarded 1919he aboutitin 1918.d. shortage funds.98.where sanction.

This content downloaded from 146. course.op. 30.1005.three years published interrogation. Chernov Samozashchita predatelei p.1. of whathas been established she confessed above.56 that Donskoi' s admonition to herto "think hard"and Kaplan'stestimony strongly suggests nottoinvolve theparty inheractions in her mind her figured prominently during interrogation. whichfitswell withthe testimony of In addition. 1A. Shewas quick to state that shewas a socialist andseveral times underlined thefact that shewas no longer an anarchist. on three occasions. was abundant evidence of Semenov'sorganization.on Lenin 113 andtheAugust1918Assassination FaniaKaplan. importantly. a member oftheir group in theattempt. 447. 1. linking Kaplan and their It is therefore of to themselves can be party. 1. 1A. 374. 346.d.50.54 thesamepurpose members no doubt that FaniaKaplanhad shotLenin The Central Committee expressed thatshe had.GARF f.Kaplan that she was an SR onlyafter severalinterrogations.theSR Underground. Attempt a picture ofKaplanfor for theparty MorozovaskedKonoplevafor hisexperiences archive. Kaplan's testimony andpostponed therealization wanted tokillLenin. 55 Lyandres The 1918Attempt p. 1. butrefused several to admit that she through interrogations was an SR or to revealherattitude to theSRs' Komuchgovernment in Samara. 1A.28 on Tue. inNovember 1918. 15 Oct 2013 09:12:20 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 374.op. evidence that she had actedon behalf tionand convinced of thefirst is thus since the defendants to the 30 August attempt quitestrong. tying that shewas ofthemembers ofthat theconviction on thepart leastofall with organization and had acted on its behalf.d. becausethere on behalf .163(interrogation ofBurevoi 16 March1922). before she told Donskoi Semenov to Donskoi thesameperiod.orto the the second of defendants recourse to of the Evenwithout testimony group having intentions and a picture ofKaplan's terrorist ofKaplanherselfemerged clearly testimony the first of defendants. her buttruthful. 3.thesewere standard SR motives foropposition had to Lenin in 1918 andhadever She testified that she decided assassinate regime. 1A. ofMorozov).At thesametime.moreover. GARF f. In evidence tobelieve There additional is.d.op. Ratner). More thefirst of Kaplan past place.d. members as several Central Committee witha weapon. becausehehadbetrayed socialism oftrue to theBolshevik socialismfordecades. 1005. 347.op. February since been preparing to carry out her intention.98.Tislenko inMoscowtofind themembers ofSemenov's arrived upset byKaplan'sexecuorganization The circumstantial oftheparty. 1005. group hardly suspected lying implicate andthat she might have "cometo the to believethat Kaplanwas notinvolved impossible as has Such a scenario that Mikhel'son Factory evening byaccident. 1005. brought Kaplan August andhe formed theimpression that herdetermination was quite that sheintended tokillLenin. from the evidence by group Kaplanproposed supplied unambiguously inthespring of 1918 a terrorist attack on Lenin totheSR Central Committee herservices for in at leasttwoother anddiscussed herdesire to shootLeninwith SRs. In light to theshooting. knew. M. 178 (testimony 72 (interrogation ofKonopleva 6 April1922). GARFf.55 evidence to Semenov's with theunambiguous cannotbe squared Kaplan organization. 199 (testimony ofE. It should be pointed outthat Zenzinov referred to Kaplan's Marchproposal to shoot Leninin his article ofJune before Proletarskaia revoliutsiia theprotocols ofKaplan's 1919. She stated that she to interrogators appearscautious. after 30 that he had Donskoi learned from Semenov shortly August provided Kaplan strong. whentheChekahad acknowledged established her affiliation some of her from already party byrounding up pastacquaintances 54GARF f." Lyandres suggested. Zenzinov and Morozov abouther Marchproposalto assassinateLenin. Kaplanwas involved had a terrorist and was arrested at the scene.

01This is advanced in varyingdegrees by Orlov Mif o FarmiKaplan. l. 373. of Donskoi).59 of the at Tomilino with the members shortly Kaplan's organization meeting herirrefutably to Tomilino is a lastpieceofevidence ofa ticket tying Kaplan's possession to Semenov. 283. 59GARF f. op.50. person 1909. Ill thuserrswhen he assertsthatthe Central Commitof Davydov 6 May 1922). investigators suggested though in notblind:shehad losthersight was definitely unstable emotionally. 1005. there doubtthat can be no reasonable On thebasis of all thismaterial. 115-146. 282-285. 151 1005. VOLKOGONOV vol.theMoscow SR M. 3. 60Lyandres The 1918 Lenin. Attempt p. 1A. 1. Litvin Delo 2162 i drugie delà p. 57 Volkovicher (ed. Theargument mainly Kaplanwas notcapableofshooting deaf and too she was also have some hersupposed blindness. GARF f.p.though (Babina FevraT 1922 p. and Tislenko that he had rented Davydovtestified after execution.. 447. 1A. Kaplan was a thatshe wantedto kill Lenin. in: Katorga i ssylka59 (1929) pp. 445. Lyandres The 1918 Attempt p.thebullets in the eyewitness accountsof the scene outside at the scene. As toherinstability three orfour meters shot Leninstood awayfrom only in the in favor rather than her is an argument ness. removed that was used.114 ScottB. 285. op. and (1976) p.98. d. Tsybov Sledovatel' VerkhovnogoTribunala: Dokumentärnyi ocherk. 131. DonskoiandIvanovabothacknowledged ofdefendants it. None of Kaplan's friends theyrecalled with considerable emotionthe storyof her loss of vision.60 most of itssignificance. on therailroad to Kazan'. GARF f. Theoften-repeated Mikhel'son as part ofSemenov's plantoassassinate the of and to SRs that was linked to Semenov's claims onlyatthetime organization Kaplan be established intheSemenov cannot hermembership the1922trial andthat organization In view ofthis. 1. D. Threeclusters Kaplan's figure prominently aboutthegun a set of the terrorist to out attack. 5. 349. LYANDRES (interrogation tee membersdisputedthe existence of the dacha (The 1918 Attempt p. prison. Although regain andnervoushim. 123. op."57 one oftheitems found in Kaplan's possession herarrest was a train after ticket Finally. 397. None of thepeople who metKaplan in 1917-1918 asserted thatshe was blind. Nilov GrammatikaLeninizma p. 1005. d. p. theadditional evidence that has been advancedin are simply mistaken. Tislenko Razoblachenie lzhi p. Kaplan's past blindness is well-established. 5. theBolshevik leader.Tallin 1971. discussed at length his it fortheparty. 58Volkovicher (ed. lineleading denied butin a later concededitwas herswhenshe sucha ticket. and the contradictions on Leninhinges that Mikhel'son. 25).butitreturned 1913. A. d. 440. heract"personally" and"according toherconvictions. 62F.28 on Tue. 1A. 348.58 Theconspiratorial dachaoftheSemenov refused to state where organimembers as notonlySemenov butseveral ofthefirst zation was indeed atTomilino. 17 (testimony (testimonyof Ivanova). 41.but the only laterrecollectionof her conversationwithDonskoi reference to her deafness is Babina's half-century mentionher having a hearingproblem. herep. did not shoot Lenin loses of the that support argument Kaplan in the intheeyewitness accounts andsomeoddities There areindeed somecontradictions andfar more for thisthat aresimpler area variety ofexplanations butthere case as a whole.and thatshe was at member of Semenov' s organization. Orestova Mal'tsevskaia zhenskaia katorga 1907-191 1 gg.this given against participation terrorism. LlTVlNDelo 2162 i drugie delà p. the of in fashion theories than the investigators August currently among conspiracy probable inthese theories: most ofevidence 30 attempt. Kaplan initially to thestation of Tomilino. group testified. arguments inability carry allegedphysical found andthenumber ofcartridges from Lenin'sbody. Rudnev. 447). n. 82. L.however.) K istoriipokusheniia pp. 15 Oct 2013 09:12:20 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . S.61 Kaplan. having interrogation implicitly shehadacquired it. m: Vremia i my 3 argument p. Radzilovskaia. 1.Smith shenever claimed a sanction from theparty andinsisted that shehadcarried out Still. 46. 62 who normal the not in she did vision.) K istoriipokusheniia pp. This content downloaded from 146.

Gil'.Although theauthorities seemto havedecidedlater togivepriority toIvanov' s claim.p. Review38 (1979) pp. VTsIK. 1. 15 Oct 2013 09:12:20 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 80.67 in 1922differs from thecaliber removed thesecharges sinceneither scholar citeshis source. p. with andpsychological diffiofRussian terrorists emotional record well-documented grave culties. K. 58.69 attempt the chairman of the authorities accorded to three witnesses MikheFson Gil'. po deluFanniKaplanprodolzhaetsia. who turned therevolver that shehadused.and the was used. w See Lyandres The 1918Attempt na vozhdia especially pp. by that of the was fired from the of established one bullets BrownMinistry Security "probably" wereinconclusive. August Attempt Kaplan. factory priority committee N. 167-172. 398. 11-12. because he was chairman ofthefactory commitprobably 63See AmyKnight FemaleTerrorists in theRussianSocialistRevolutionary in: Russian Party. 1.Onlyafter however.vol. Theprotocols ofKaplan'sinterrogation makeno mention ofthisgunanditnever in figured theprosecution's case.onLenin115 the andthe 1918 Assassination Fania SR Underground. especially while it in briefcase. andLitvin Volkogonov that the bullet removed from Lenin's states confused matters.28 on Tue. N.63 intheassassination havealso pointed to quesofKaplan'sinvolvement attempt Skeptics removed laterfrom Lenin's body. 7.68 ofdiffering bullet of theassassination adducedin mostof therecent studies The last cluster of evidence in the of the focuses on the contradictions accounts The Soviet eyewitness shooting. appears might Kaplan's weapon theBrowning hitLeninandone hitPopova) andthat three werefired that shots (twobullets theChekafound four inbyKuznetsov hadthree ofitssixbullets turned remaining.66 havefurther assert that recent tests on theBrowning In addition. thedeputy commissar for thelocal Red military else outside thefactory division. 4.p. 437-442 andDanilov Pokushenie pp.64 Kuznetsovdeliver is evidence to indicate that since there some as tantalizing investigatorssuspicious. 4 March1994. The gunthought number ofcartridges several after the assassination to was recovered the Cheka only days attempt. The Ministry's makesno mention on thesecondbullet report ing. 66Volkogonov delà p. la. by Browning ofthebullet removed after Lenin'sdeathin 1924. 398 asserts briefcase.50. 152-154 andGeifman ThouShaltKill pp.thebullets tionsaboutthegunthat to havebeenused to shootLenin found atthescene. 3 September 1918. inwhich each IvanovandBatulin claimed tohaveplayed theleading role. 1. MaksimovaSledstvie in: Izvestiia. VOLKOGONOV without citation thata gunwas found in Kaplan's Lenin.65 have been found another Moreover. This content downloaded from 146.tests calibers orthepresence ofa secondweapon. But see thebrief on theinitial searchof Kaplan in KOSTIN Sud nad report terrorom p. to theCheka. The most contratestimony glaring diction lies in thedivergent accounts ofKaplan's arrest. Batulin. 5. butrecent Itis difficult to address fully serious doubt on their The the of cast testson thebullets Ministry Security validity. bodyin 1922 was Volkogonov the in Litvin that caliber ofthebullet notfired the turned charges byKuznetsov.p. appealdida local worker This story has struck recent therevolver. LitvinV Lenina"strelial" Dzerzhinskii Lenin. andS. LitvinDelo 2162 i drugie 67Volkogonov vol. 58 E. Lenin. a Browning. 64 in: Izvestiia Revol'ver. Ivanov. 398. thewoman shots atLeninandthen dropped gavechasetoher. Kaplan shooting on to behavior the On these the witnesses contradicted each Kaplan's prior shooting. found atthescene. cartridges after the several atthescenein itssearch days shooting. points other intheir at the time and in their later recollections. vol. According by to see a woman'sarmfire thesecondand third Lenin's chauffeur S.p.98. p. a public named Itwas not. None of thesemennoranyone had actually seen Army shoot their accounts focused on what occurred after the and Lenin.

p. here p. Lenin. D. Vtoroe izd.gazetnye materialy1918 g. critically. S.TSYBOV Sledovater Verkhovnogo Inbunala p.that was organized Lenin'sshooting havedrawn ofthesubject recent students byfigures . Kaplan'sinvolvement the Semenov Mikhel'son as of was at Since it is clearthat group'splanto part Kaplan that mostofthe the conclusion was tied to the and that Semenov assassinate PSR. party of his much as concedes as him..takeson theauraofthefantastic. Leninym: vospominaniia lichnogo shoferaVladimira Il'icha Lenina. witnesses. theory have must Semenov that for ittohaveanyweight. 157-161. 75-78 forphotographs Istochnik who was assistingin the investigaexecutionerof the Imperial family. placeto start.Smith Atthetime. offers a surer for evidence theother oftheassassination. This content downloaded from 146.) K istorii pokusheniiapp. pp.72 thecontradictions Morebroadly.) Pokusheniia na Lenina 30 avg.) K istorii pokusheniia p. K. 23. probablya reflection execution. D.vospominaniia ochevidtsev. Posvianskii (ed. 75Litvin V Lenina "strelial" Dzerzhinskii 59. 84. M.75 attempt investigators 70See Ivanov's 2 in Volkovicher (ed. Indeed accounts ofwhat varying on which therecent andconfusion than thepublished evenmorecontradictions testimony relied. Moskva 1959. obviously preferred.Ivanov Kaplan. 361. ine contradictions to the scene with Ivanov and Gil' to reenactthe shooting.) K istorii of September pokusheniiap. 1918 g. Gil'.70 that is and does not of one the straightforward provided onlydescription Kaplan's capture. 327-383. Mal'kov the mostdetailed accountsof Kaplan's executionprovidedby theKremlincommandant of whichis his Zapiski komendantaMoskovskogo Kremlia. pp. Subsequent of the authorieditionsofMal'kov' s memoirsupplyfewerdetailsofthe execution. perhaps leadership showing.See Tri pokusheniia na V.28 on Tue. woman confused instance. 277. Moskva 1969. were shot by la.particularly typical eyewitness that those it come as no should maticas an assassination present gave surprise attempt: contain theunpublished Chekainterrogations hadoccurred.73 30 have of the testimony might eyewitness Although August attempt investigators it too needsto be treated seemto be a good and unambiguous at first source. Moskva 1925. D.See who returned the Cheka investigators. theysimplyvary in theirdegree of detail. 37-38. returned the recently Iurovskii. Moskva 1947. interpreted in: V. Batulin infact didnotassert until later that he hadcaptured tee. Lenina. Mal'kov's about a sordid early-morning ties' reluctanceto divulge too much information accounts are not contradictory. talking Kaplan Popova. one.50. I. theonlyeviwithin theBolshevik Virtually leadership Lenin'srecuto V. Vtoroe izd.74 for without Leninandcouldfunction Litvin. 278 and his testimony account in Podrobnosti pokusheniia na tov. do were that onlythat probably making peration they on not that it did was dependcompletely surprisingly. pp. Gil' Shest' let s V.: Dokumenty.and laterefforts propaganda by tobuildan account on which foundation a decidedly Thismaterial shaky provides purposes. 72 Volkovicher (ed. Lenina. 15 Oct 2013 09:12:20 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in: P. p. when he admits is far-fetched a conspiracy of there is nota shred which of 1918. 4.for thespring theChekafrom with beencooperating have been led of the assassination other recent Litvin and evidence. protokolydoprosa Kaplana i dr. Gil'. to inflate their thedesireofwitnesses ofindividual because oftheunreliability witnesses. tion. Bonch-bruevich Vospominaniia o Lénine. for details add or embellish the authorities to own roles. Compare Ivanov Kak ranili Ilicha. 74This is how Bonch-Bruevich Sverdlov's remark. I. Much has also been made of the differing P. Bonch-Bruevich comment is Sverdlov's dencefor this during theory the meant Sverdlov without Lenin. 3 September 1918. it to be or other is contradict thetestimony ofIvanov. 13 clearlypuzzled KUDNEV. nekotoryedannye iz protsessa TsK Partii sotsialistov-revoliutsionerov.71 inthetestimony havemainly to do with contradictions Theremaining Kaplan's activities Someofthese havesimple at Mikhel'son to Lenin'sshooting.98. for explanations: prior Lenin at thetime a who was to with M. G. 2 (1993) pp. 279-280. p. in: Izvestiia VTsIK. .116 ScottB. in the in theattack. The photographs of thereenactment. 71Volkovicher (ed. of theshooting and was wounded one as draof a crime stem from the chaos accounts scene.

1005. grounds. attempt against Konopleva' the after the of 30 makes to invoke the name of PSR reluctance attempt August Kaplan's muchsense. anyconnection leadership Semenov'sgroup from his instructions to totheAugust 30 attempt.unambiguous in emigration defendants andtheir while theCentral Committee actions. from Moscowwith Efimov atthetime oftheir nor s return Lenin. 347.67 (interrogation 1005. 1. theparty's ofSemenov'sactivities was Moreover.65 (testimony ofKonopleva30 March1922). ofwho stoodbehind attempt clearis theattitude oftheSR Central to the The finalpointthat is notfully Committee Put acts of Semenov's Semenov and terrorist and organization. In the Committee remained an active SR 9 9 addition. KaplanshotLeninherself. ultimately sprang party in and leaders were contact with buildan anti-Bolshevik military organization. associated that does notmeanall aspectsoftheassassination Ifconspiracy theories aregroundless. therevolver clear. might eruption leaders leaves several terrorist attacks on Bolshevik Central Committee episodes supported iftheCentral their Committee To citetwoexamples: plans. supporters disputed claimofCentral it is to Semenov's On several thisvigorously. appointment theprestige as a terrorist that he continued to enjoyin the toheadthedetachment indicates ofthePSR. The confusion about and are (or revolvers) continuing attempt completely thepossibility ofa secondgunman found atthescenemeansthat thenumber ofcartridges certain that since Norcanonebe absolutely cannot be excluded. op. to saytheleast. (due mainly opposition stage withfearof a spontaneous to the Treatyof Brest-Litovsk) commingled popularanti. party regular him thesummer. theassertion that terrorism Bolshevik Moreover. simply.28 on Tue. Attempt for theSR trial is no more than that theevidence reliable produced bytheir assumption astray era a to see the relation trials of the Stalin for the that and.Theimplicit andtheGreat theKirovmurder analogy Kaplan's WhiletheBolsheviks madeeffective use of is misleading. by tendency generally.d. 1. they hardly required pretext attempt Kaplan's introduced most of the thewaythat Stalin didinthe1930sandhadindeed already practices with theRed Terror.theSR Underground. in the and at the trial. 1.76 topcircles are the SR leadership and Semenov'sorganization The ambiguous relations between the E.although Whatis certain is that Semenov'sgroup to support a rivalscenario.op. impossible accept Itdoesnotfit wellwith theCentral Committee's at this Committee general posture approval. Central Konopleva throughout turned to Semenov inAugust 1919whenitdecided to senda terrorist detachment to Siberia came this toassassinate Admiral Kolchak. buttheparty organization expelled welcomedSemenov himself back intothefoldafter his releasefrom prisonin 1919 and 1 1 8-1 1 9. produced LeninandtheRed Terror as akinto that between theassassination between against attempt between Terror ofthe1930s.98. orgaallyno evidence andthat was involved in it andsurely thequestion nizedandcarried outtheattempt Kaplan theassassination is thekeyone.50.d.neither approved perplexing. for theparty's to deny Yet itwas disingenuous. cautious to the Bolsheviks which was one of of the Civil War. zasedaniiaTsK PSR. 15 (protokol ofTimofeev). throughout disapproval as as the members of the first of defendants maintained at the trial. 1A.1. This content downloaded from 146. 373. theevidence is overwhelming that she didandthere is virtuno onesaw herdo it.which the havehastened. 7. and theKirovmurder attempt in the Red a to unleash assassination Terror. not clearly group strong Notonly wereno members ofSemenov's from theparty.andtheAugust1918Assassination on Lenin 117 FaniaKaplan. of Semenov's Though nothing plan. GARFf.op. further role of Ivanova both by organization suggested 76RTsKhlDNI f. 14 August1919). A. 1A. Konopleva plans fortheorganization's sanction from theCentral Committee claimedclear. 274. d. 15 Oct 2013 09:12:20 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . GARF f.

organization completely the And no less thanbefore at thedachain Tomilino. conformed is likelythattheSemenovorganization pattern to of terrorist recurrent the terrorism SR organizations escape tendency prerevolutionary the outactsofterror andtocarry oftheparty thecontrol autonomously.132(testimony 79 Thou Kill seeGeifman Shalt andfor false Central Committee denials ofresponsibility.98. rushing capture andthepopular heirs and of Lenin's the on for the tendency guardians. violating leadership to these close resemblance bore a Semenov's the orders of party organization leadership. Ivanovawas indisputably Nonetheless. d. 58-62 and A.50. actsprior for terrorist denialsofresponsibility Committee Central Still.KlapinaPamiati inKarl's detachment involvement For Ivanova's Partiia sotsialistov2-3 (1922) pp. denials. attitude Committee's them abouttheCentral misleading theSemenov for was ampleprerevolutionary there In other organizawords. towards attitude andtheparty's and Semenov's the SR leadership therelations between of untangling The difficulty offalse instances several documented that there are the fact is underscored by organization to therevolution.65-69. 15 Oct 2013 09:12:20 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .347. Trauberga. first of defendants at the her as a member of the members Central Committee group accepted rather in 1918was probably In fact.79 ofthe SR terrorists.andmostimportantly. N. surprise memoirists. op. This content downloaded from 146. 350. Flying having prerevolutionary in 1906-1907 earned it This detachment's attacks ofAlbert Detachment ("Karl"). surrounding theMikhel'son outside ofwhat somedetails ofwhether 1918.Smith member N. surprising Kaplan. GARF 1922).28 on Tue. Ivanov and a of the CentralCommittee Ivanova was the step-sister the Northern of been a member of Combat terrorist note. and Soviet Bolshevik that no clear.1005.118 ScottB.78 would-be herandherfellow haveemboldened wouldcertainly have doubts well as an SR terrorist andhercredentials tiestotheleadership may quelledany oftheir as to thelegitimacy members oftheorganization therank-and-file enterprise among it. Through organization.Regardless Factory happened . op. revoliutsionerov 1916. her terrorists. party's the civilian bodies from isolated were the of themembers revolution. own ties to the she had her but to Committee's knowof theCentral opposition terrorism.77 Despite reputation the a member of Semenov'sorganization. Trauberg her the fearsome SR terrorist as one of most a deserved organizations. versions issuedmythologized historians replete of the that it be Nor should to incongruitiesthe1922trial. organization only Konopleva. f.4 (interrogation ofIvanova d. Petrograd p. Forthis pp.It shouldcomeas propagandists.1. 7 April GARF 1. party of the assassination final reasonto putto restthemyths attempt August30. details suchas children with oftheattack. and livedin seclusion of theparty the memacts welded for terrorist and of isolation of theexperience revolution preparation Thishelpsexplain toitsleader. Spiridovich biulleten' revoliutsionnyi i ee predshestvenniki. impororganization the to members of and she were the Semenov tant. precedent Thisshould be a the to relation itsambiguous andfor tion'sdevelopment leadership. theattack who stoodbehind thebasic picture remain murky. Ivanova'splacein Semenov's trial. ofIvanov). a devotion andcultivated bersofthegroup whythe together Semenov of to the members even as hold to began suspect together groupcould continue to terrorism.1A.is . 363. part proclivity secrecy 77 in:IstorikoA. I. on Bolshevik leaders attacks ofterrorist He was a supporter herbrother. joining which favored Committee oftheCentral a minority knewthat Ivanovaprobably terrorism. Likeprerevolutionary SR terrorist many organizations.1005. through leadership Semenov's considered and in June1918 evenbriefly him. Tislenko. 1A.it of morecommon to another. prerevolutionary mind the much to did not and anarchist ties to had ofthegroup past members pay groups before the the As had been the that absorbed matters ofdoctrine practice leadership. 78 f. In addition. seeZ.

andtheAugust 1918Assassination on Lenin 119 FaniaKaplan. somestrange conspiracies. Yet these are no less Soviet featured assassination history myths mythical attempt. Attempt on a matter havegivenriseto to suspect theofficial version ofevents ofLenin'sbiography.theSR Underground. This content downloaded from 146. andtheresponsibility of Sverdlov for the a myriad aboutFaniaKaplan's survival ofmyths for that.50.98. buttheAugust 30 attempt on Lenin'slifewas notone ofthem. 15 Oct 2013 09:12:20 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .28 on Tue.

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